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2nd Quarter 2016 www.passengership.info

Holland America Line reaches new heights with Pinnacle prototype

Koningsdam

UK fast ferry construction is back with Red Jet 6 Cruise: LNG has arrived “Increase utilisation of our current fleet by optimal deployment, extend the fleet of roro vessels in dock in Germany...initiate newbuilding projects.” Peder Gellert Pedersen, executive VP, DFDS shipping division, on the operator’s main strategies, see page 24


contents 2nd Quarter 2016 volume 9 issue 2

12 20

Regulars 5 COMMENT 6 BEST OF THE WEB 60 LAST WORD

Seatrade Cruise Global 9 The low down on the topics discussed and new products unveiled at the Florida-based conference and exhibition

Cruise ship profile

24

12 Holland America Line’s prototype Koningsdam is delivered – the first in the Pinnacle class

Ferry Shipping Conference 18 The outlook for ferries was positive at Shippax’ Ferry Shipping Conference: more newbuilds, standardisation of fleets and the opening up of Cuba were all discussed

Ferry profile 20 PST had an exclusive visit to the Isle of Wight shipyard Shemara Refit to see the groundbreaking Red Jet 6 being built

Operator profiles

54

24 After boosting its fleet with two ferries from MyFerryLink, DFDS is in discussions about adding newbuilds, and has an extensive repair programme 26 SunStone Ships is set to expand in the expedition sector with newbuilds

Yard profile 31 STX France has built Harmony of the Seas, the largest cruise ship in the world

River cruise market 4 These are boom times for river cruise businesses. We examine the orderbook 3 36 Shipyard de Hoop has developed a range of innovations in its work for the river cruise sector

For more articles visit www.passengership.info

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016


contents Fire prevention & control 39 While fire-mitigating technology is advancing on all fronts, IMO is getting tougher on inspection and maintenance

Passenger flow

2nd Quarter 2016 volume 9 issue 2 Editor: Rebecca Moore t: +44 20 8370 7797 e: rebecca.moore@rivieramm.com

42 Elevators have become such an integral aspect of the cruise experience that there is a lot of focus on their design

Sales Manager: Indrit Kruja t: +44 20 8370 7792 e: indrit.kruja@rivieramm.com

Propulsion

Head of Sales – Asia: Kym Tan t: +65 6809 3098 e: kym.tan@rivieramm.com

44 Smaller cruise ships benefit from high-tech propulsion packages

Flooring & decking

Group Production Manager: Mark Lukmanji t: +44 20 8370 7019 e: mark.lukmanji@rivieramm.com

48 Decking maintenance plus the acoustic part of flooring are some of the growing trends within this sector

Subscriptions: Sally Church t: +44 20 8370 7018 e: sally.church@rivieramm.com

HVAC

Chairman: John Labdon Managing Director: Steve Labdon Finance Director: Cathy Labdon Operations Director: Graham Harman Editorial Director: Steve Matthews Executive Editor: Paul Gunton Head of Production: Hamish Dickie Portfolio Manager – Media & Event Sales: Bill Cochrane

50 To make the most of HVAC savings data management is key, say major suppliers to cruise ships and ferries

Alternative fuels 54 LNG has entered the cruise sector. Industry insiders talk about the main considerations and challenges

Wastewater 59 Suppliers step up to meet the waste treatment challenge

Published by: Riviera Maritime Media Ltd Mitre House 66 Abbey Road Enfield EN1 2QN UK

Next issue Main features include: gallies & pantries; safety equipment & maintenance; simulation & training; electric drives; emissions abatement technology; noise & vibrations; bunkering fuels & lubes

www.rivieramm.com ISSN 1758-7255 (Print) ISSN 2051-0608 (Online) ©2016 Riviera Maritime Media Ltd

Front cover photo credit: Holland America Line.

A member of: Total average net circulation: 4,000 Period: January-December 2015

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Disclaimer: Although every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this publication is correct, the Author and Publisher accept no liability to any party for any inaccuracies that may occur. Any third party material included with the publication is supplied in good faith and the Publisher accepts no liability in respect of content. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, reprinted or stored in any electronic medium or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016

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COMMENT | 5

RED FUNNEL

NEWBUILD SIGNALS FAST FERRY COMEBACK

T Rebecca Moore, Editor

he fast ferry industry has undergone a remarkable turnaround after years of flat growth - and nowhere is this more apparent than with UK ship owner Red Funnel’s catamaran newbuild Red Jet 6. The ferry operator’s new high speed catamaran is being built by Isle of Wight-based shipbuilder Shemara Refit LLP and is due for delivery this summer. It is the first fast ferry to be built in the UK for 15 years – one of many reasons to be optimistic about a strong return for high-speed crafts. As a result, Shemara is now confident that it will be able to win more orders for similar vessels. Indeed, Kevin George, Red Funnel’s CEO, commented: “From the outset Shemara Refit shared our vision to bring fast ferry construction back to the UK.” After a lively start in the 1990s, fast ferry newbuild construction slumped and the industry suffered a number of setbacks, such as the closure of Stena Line’s fast ferry HSS Explorer service between Holyhead and Ireland at the start of last year, due to escalating fuel costs. But the fast ferry industry is fighting back, with Red Funnel not the only operator to order more high speed tonnage. Condor Ferries’ £50 million (US$77.4 million) Condor Liberation was delivered last year – and the 102m trimaran is the first of its kind in Northern Europe. The fact that it is a trimaran makes it unique and offers a range of advantages. And MBNA Thames Clippers also took delivery of two new 35m high speed catamarans for operation on the River Thames in London last year. Interest in fast ferries is also growing in other parts of the world, such as Japan. Last April Australian shipbuilder Incat Tasmania delivered Akane, a high speed wave piercing catamaran to Japanese ferry operator Sado

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Kisen. It is the ferry operator’s first high speed passenger/car carrier. Incat Chairman Robert Clifford at the time noted the increased interest in high speed ferries as he said: “…we are pleased to see the increasing interest in high speed vessels from this part of the world.” And the fast ferry industry is not only rebounding in terms of new tonnage and orders, but also in terms of innovative technology. Red Funnel’s Red Jet 6 uses a range of innovative and energy efficiency technology, such as being fitted with four main engines rather than two (the other Red Jets have two), a configuration that will help to reduce fuel consumption by 11 per cent versus Red Jet 4 and 30 per cent versus Red Jet 5. Other innovations include the use of vinyl instead of paint to recue weight and so fuel consumption. Furthermore, LNG has entered the industry in the form of ferries such as Buquebus’ Francisco, which operates on duel fuel. And there are more interesting plans for the future in terms of alternative sources of power: for example naval architect LMG Marin is in the starting phase of doing a study for Norwegian Counties that is looking at environmentally friendly technologies for fast ferries, including battery hybrid solutions. In terms of technology innovation and newbuild construction, the fast ferry industry is back. PST

“The fast ferry industry is not only rebounding in terms of new tonnage and orders, but also in terms of innovative technology”

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016


6 | BEST OF THE WEB

BEST OF THE WEB Passenger Ship Technology’s website covers the latest technology developments within the cruise ship and ferry sectors. Our news coverage is now exclusively online and free to read. Here are some of the most popular stories covered over the last few months

Shemara Refit scoops MBNA Thames Clippers major refit contract UK shipbuilder Shemara Refit, based on the Isle of Wight, has boosted its high speed ferry work after clinching a major contract with London’s MBNA Thames Clippers to refit three of its fleet of river ferries. This comes on the back of Shemara’s entry into the fast ferry market with the building of catamaran Red Jet 6 for ferry operator Red Funnel, due for delivery in July. “MBNA Thames Clippers is a major operator of high speed ferries and this is a market in which we plan to be a major player,” said Shemara Refit chief executive Peter Morton. “With these refits we hope to build a strategic partnership with MBNA Thames Clippers that involves both refits and newbuilds over the coming years.” The first of MBNA Thames Clippers’ three vessels, Storm Clipper, arrived at the East Cowes yard on 25 February. Over the coming year the remaining two ferries will make the journey from the Thames to the yard. http://bit.ly/1Qrfgh1

Crystal’s new megayacht to set ‘new bar for expedition luxury travel’ Crystal Cruises president and chief executive Edi Rodriguez has announced that the operator is building the world’s first purposebuilt Polar class megayacht. Measuring

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183m long, the 25,000gt newbuild with 100 guest suites will be the largest megayacht afloat, the cruise operator said. During a press event at the Seatrade Cruise Global convention in Florida, USA Ms Rodriguez said that the line’s first-ever expedition megayacht, Crystal Endeavor, will make its debut in August 2018. The vessel will be designed for global expeditions in Arctic, Antarctic and tropical regions. Crystal said the megayacht will be the first purpose-built Polar Codecompliant yacht in the world with a PC6 Polar class designation. “Crystal Endeavor will set a new bar for expedition luxury travel,” said Ms Rodriguez. Crystal Endeavor will be built by Lloyd Werft. Steel cutting for the ship will begin in May 2016 and Crystal will take delivery of the vessel in August 2018. http://bit.ly/1SsFAux

Vard to build cruise ships A subsidiary company of Italy’s Fincantieri has signed a letter of intent to build four cruise ships for French shipowner Ponant. The announcement was made on the first day of the Seatrade Cruise Global convention in Florida, USA. The letter – which is subject to several conditions, including satisfactory shipowner financing – marks the entry into the cruise market of Norwegian designer and shipbuilder Vard Holdings, which is active in the offshore and specialised vessel sector. The four luxurious exploration cruise vessels, to be built by Vard Group’s production network, will be 128m long and 18m wide, and will be approximately 10,000gt. The newbuilds will have a cruise speed of 15 knots and will accommodate 180 passengers in 92 cabins, with a crew of 110. According to a spokesman for Vard, the hulls will be built in Romania and the ships outfitted and completed at Vard’s Norwegian facilities. The vessels are expected to be delivered in 2018 and 2019. http://bit.ly/1XIdNYl

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016

Stena signs contract for four gas-ready ropax ferries Stena has signed a contract for four new gas-ready ropax ferries, with an option for another four that it says will be the “most fuel-efficient ferries in the world”. The contract is subject to board approval, which was expected to be given by the end of April. The four vessels will be built by AVIC Shipyard in China, with delivery planned for 2019 and 2020. The intention is that these first four vessels will be used within Stena Line’s route network in northern Europe. “During the course of the past 24 months our engineering staff have managed to develop a design that is not only 50 per cent larger than today’s standard ropax vessels but also, more importantly, incorporates the emissions reduction and efficiency initiatives that have been developed throughout the Stena Group during the past years,” said Stena Line managing director Carl-Johan Hagman. The vessels will have a capacity of more than 3,000 lane metres in a drive-through configuration and will accommodate about 1,000 passengers. The main engines will be gas-ready, prepared to be fuelled by either methanol or liquefied natural gas (LNG). http://bit.ly/23JqRUp

Finland’s first battery ferry to use Siemens solution Siemens has been commissioned to provide the complete electro-technical solution for Finland’s first battery-powered car ferry. The Finnish shipping company FinFerries has ordered the newbuilding from Polish shipyard CRIST. The ferry will serve the route between Nauvo and Parainen in the Turku Archipelago. It will be approximately 90m long by 16m wide with capacity for 90 cars. Operation on the route will begin in summer 2017. The ferry will be equipped with Siemens’ BlueDrive PlusC electric propulsion system. http://bit.ly/1Ue8bVI

For more articles visit www.passengership.info


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SEATRADE CRUISE GLOBAL | 9

INNOVATION AND SHIPYARD CAPACITY CONSTRAINTS TOP THEMES FOR SEATRADE PANELLISTS

Innovation, China and the lack of capacity of global shipyards for newbuilds were some of the major themes of Seatrade Cruise Global’s opening State of the Global Cruise Industry panel session. Seatrade Cruise Global took place in Florida, USA, in March. Arnold Donald, president and chief executive of Carnival Corp, said: “Innovation is thinking outside the box. Everything we do is about innovation, from people processes to ship design.” Pierfrancesco Vago, executive chairman of MSC Cruises, explained that innovation was important for his company as it wants to enter new markets. “We have to reinvent ourselves as we become

more global. We want to get into the US market.” He singled out MSC Seaside and MSC Meraviglia, which are currently being constructed, as examples of innovation. The importance of the current fleet in driving yield, particularly as shipyard capacity is full, was another theme of the panel session. Frank Del Rio, Norwegian Cruise Line president and chief executive, said: “We have to have a more balanced approach. The shipyards are full, so there is more emphasis on maintaining the current fleet.” Mr Donald agreed, saying: “We have no choice. There are only so many shipyards.” In the second panel session Charles Robertson, chairman and chief executive

of American Cruise Lines and Pearl Seas Cruises, said that the biggest challenge is the need to build more ships to meet demand. “Capacity is a problem. There is a shortage of shipyards worldwide. The challenge for the industry is to build more ships to meet demand.” Shipyard capacity was affecting operators’ ability to meet the growth of the important Chinese market. Mr Donald pointed out that China has 135 million outbound tourists, the largest number in the world. Carnival currently has six ships aimed at the Chinese cruise market. “The issue is we can only grow so fast, because we can only build so many ships. There is a huge demand.”

Norwegian rolls out refit programme Norwegian Cruise Line announced at Seatrade Cruise Global that it is making a very significant investment in refurbishing the entire fleet so that guests feel that “they are walking onto a new ship.” The refurbishment is part of its Norwegian Edge US$400 million investment programme. Norwegian’s president and chief operating officer Andy Stuart said: “This is a very significant investment beyond any regulatory requirement [for drydock]. We want to make sure that when a guest walks onto one of our vessels, they feel like they are walking onto a new ship.” The timescale is tight. The company has begun with the refit of Pride of America, which has just come out of drydock in San Francisco in the USA. The rest of the fleet will undergo the same process this year and next, with the last ship being finished in the first half of 2018. Mr Stuart said of the Pride of America refurbishment: “We worked on the entire ship. We did a thorough top to bottom refurbishment of all the venues and added some new areas too.” He summed up: “This is a deep investment in the major refurbishment of the fleet. It is not just about putting up new curtains.”

For more articles visit www.passengership.info

Pride of America has undergone a comprehensive refurbishment

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016


10 | SEATRADE CRUISE GLOBAL

ABB’s DAC boosts fuel savings for large cruise ships

Peace Boat signs finance agreement

ABB launched its Dynamic AC (DAC) concept at Seatrade - it optimises generating set speed and can reduce annual fuel consumption by up to six per cent for a large cruise ship. Jukka Varis, VP, technology and business development, ABB, explained that DAC is based on variable speed power generation, with energy efficiency being gained by adjusting the speed of the generating sets. This means that the cruise ship or ferry is not limited by constant engine speeds, because the optimum fuel consumption can be achieved by adjusting the speed of the generating set within a specific frequency range at each loading. The system is easy to install, as it consists of a main switchboard and propulsion system like a normal electric propulsion system, the only difference is that island converters are used to control the speed in a range of frequencies. Mr Varis explained that the system can adapt to changing conditions because generator speeds adjust rather than having to be engaged or disengaged as power demands change. Even if the ship is moved onto another route, there is no need to retune the engine, as it will adapt itself to run at the best speed. DAC will sit alongside the Onboard DC Grid in ABB’s portfolio. It is aimed at larger ships with power of 20MW or more.

Peace Boat’s Ecoship concept has moved closer to becoming a reality after it was announced at Seatrade Cruise Global that the Japanese operator has signed a memorandum of understanding with Singapore-based Six Capital to raise US$100 million for the construction of the ship through a crowd-sourced funding scheme. And the operator has now announced a timeline for building the vessel. Peace Boat plans to select a shipyard in October or November this year and the contract will come into force in April next year. The building will take place between April 2017 and February 2020 and the ship will be launched in April 2020. Patrick Teng, founder, chief dealer and executive chairman of Six Capital, said: “We are particularly excited to be part of this movement, as it is about what the ship can create – a global movement for people to understand about climate change.” Yoshioka Tatsuya, the co-founder and director of Peace Boat, hailed the financing as a “realistic step to build the ship.” And Peace Boat’s ambitions do not stop there. He told the press conference at Seatrade Cruise Global that the company wanted to build more ships along the same lines as Peace Boat, or encourage other cruise ship operators to build such ships.


SEATRADE CRUISE GLOBAL | 11

Harmony of the Seas to use onboard chlorine generation The USA’s Howell Laboratories has broken into the cruise market after its onboard chlorine generation solution was chosen for Royal Caribbean International’s Harmony of the Seas. The disinfectant technology was developed by Howell Laboratories for naval maritime customers, and has now been transferred to the cruise sector. When Harmony of the Seas sets sail in May, it will be treating its swimming pool and drinking water using this solution. Howell’s disinfectant technology generates a mixed oxidant solution on board that replaces bottled chlorine and other disinfection chemicals. The solution uses a mixed oxidant chlorine generation system patented by Miox Corp, along with Howell’s expertise in integrating shipboard technologies. Adam Jones, Howell’s director of business development for commercial products, was at Seatrade Cruise Global to showcase the new cruise solution. He told Passenger Ship Technology: “The enhanced chlorine system is really good at addressing a lot of common issues. For example, it controls biofilm. Legionella bacteria can be easily killed with chlorine but can grow beneath the biofilm layer in pipes. This system eliminates biofilm, which was definitely an attraction to customers. Other benefits are crew safety, energy savings and green components.” He explained that the environmental, energy and cost savings come about because cruise ships usually use containers of chlorine – the contents of which are 90 per cent water – and so incorporate all the carrying, delivery and transportation costs. Howell’s system converts salt to chlorine on demand so there is no need to buy bottles of water – just the salt. Mr Jones added: “When you generate chlorine on site it works better. The technology allows the pool filter to work better.” From a passenger standpoint, benefits include a reduction in the taste of chlorine in drinking water, as well as the virtual elimination of odour and stinging eyes that are associated with chlorinated pool and spa water. Mr Jones explained: “This is mainly driven by the better efficacy of the fresh chlorine. Because the solution

eliminates biofilm, a consumer of chlorine in traditional systems, total consumption when using our system will go down. When you use less chlorine, the negative side effects, such as odour and a bad taste, go down.” Howell Laboratories has integrated the system into the ship, making it easier

for crew to access the chlorine through the plumbing system. Mr Jones summed up: “We want to break into the cruise market. The technology has matured outside the cruise sector first so there is no risk it will not work. It has been around for 20 years.” PST

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12 | CRUISE PROFILE

Holland America Line reaches pinnacle Koningsdam may be the first in the Pinnacle class but there is a good chance there will be more prototypes to come for Holland America Line, a brand with 143 years of history by Susan Parker

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016

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CRUISE PROFILE | 13

Koningsdam has 20 per cent less power installed than Nieuw Amsterdam

TOP: The handover ceremony: (l to r) Micky Arison, chairman of Carnival Corp, Giuseppe Bono, chief executive of Fincantieri, Graziano Delrio, Italy’s minister of infrastructure and transport, and Arnold Donald, chief executive and president of Carnival Corp BOTTOM: The Dining Room on Koningsdam, designed by Adam D Tihany

H

olland America Line took delivery of its prototype Pinnacle class vessel, 99,500gt Koningsdam, on 31 March at Fincantieri’s Marghera shipyard in Italy. After following a number of Mediterranean itineraries it will be christened in Rotterdam, The Netherlands on 20 May. About 350 of the 1,036 crew arrived at the yard prior to the vessel’s delivery, to prepare Koningsdam for sailing. Tasks included loading supplies, cabin inspections, washing linen and getting fitted for uniforms. Orlando Ashford, president of Holland America Line, commented: “The officers and crew are the heart of our ships, and we would not be able to fully prepare for Koningsdam’s delivery without their

support and dedication.” Holland America Line’s vice president of newbuild services Cyril Tatar was involved with the planning of the ship. He commented: “Today most of the ships are prototypes and they have to stand the test in a marketplace that is becoming more and more differentiated. In an extremely competitive environment every cruise line has to come up with new ideas. The design becomes more and more innovative and the technical concepts more and more sophisticated. And the requirements with regard to safety and the environmental aspects grow continuously.” It can take between 18 and 24 months before an agreement with a shipyard is ready to be signed and another 16 to 18

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months to finalise the plans for design and construction. All of this prior planning leads to a relatively short building time of 18 to 24 months. Originally Koningsdam was to be a sistership to Signature class Nieuw Amsterdam, but the design and the concept were three years old and Safe Return to Port regulations had been put in place since Nieuw Amsterdam was built. Furthermore, Holland America Line had new ideas – for the cabins, for example. The Seattle, USA based operator therefore decided to develop a new prototype. Mr Tatar is no stranger to newbuildings, coming as he does from a shipbuilding family closely connected to Chantiers de l’Atlantique, now part of STX France. To

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016


14 | CRUISE PROFILE

him the greatest challenge when building a new ship is managing and co-ordinating the various departments and their specific requirements. “This has to be done in such a way that, in the end, everything comes together and we get a safe and fully integrated ship, on time.” With 10 to 12 specialised departments involved, each with up to 400 staff, communication is vital. “It is not enough to have a project manager walk around with a notepad. We need to rely on special process and project management software to meet a very demanding time line.” Among the key considerations for Koningsdam were the vessel’s power and speed. “As a rule we need 40 per cent power for the hotel operations and 60 per cent for propulsion.” There are four MaK M43C 12-cylinder V main engines from Caterpillar with a total output of 50.4MW giving a service speed of 18 knots. Much attention has been paid to the latter. In the past ships were designed for maximum speed, but Mr Tatar has questioned this approach. “Why design for maximum speed when a ship only spends 10 per cent of the time there?” Koningsdam was designed for a maximum speed of 22.3 knots, but a second reference point of 18 knots was added when it came to optimising the hullform. “Now, based on the itinerary of the brand, we know what the optimal service speed is.” The hull has been extended to improve

Cyril Tatar, vice president of newbuilding services (left) with Keith Taylor, executive vice president of fleet operations, Holland America Line

efficiency. The extra length improves glide in the water and so reduces resistance. The bulbous bow design was optimised based on the service speed. For this vessel the two ABB Azipod XO units have a power of 14MW each, compared with 17MW on Nieuw Amsterdam. The Netherlands maritime research institute, Marin, evaluated options for either four or five propellers, also from ABB, and five were chosen. This was due to the good low level of noise and vibration as well as efficiency at lower speed, according to Mr Tatar.

270 degree LED projection at Koningsdam’s World Stage theatre

Following sea trials in January, Koningsdam’s captain Emiel de Vries commented: “It was a thrill to take the ship to sea and give it a test run. The manoeuvring trials were particularly exciting for me, and the ship behaved very well.” Both heavy fuel oil and marine gas oil will be burned but two open loop exhaust gas cleaning systems (scrubbers), supplied by Ecospray Technologies of Italy, have also been installed. “We will be able to achieve about 16 knots with two engines but at maximum loads we can probably reach 18 knots,” explained Mr Tatar. “It is uncharted territory for engineers. It is still being tested, with good results. We are finalising details about the wash water and the sampling of water, and the regulations that go with it with which we need to comply.” Holland America Line has changed from centralised air conditioning to fan coil units on Koningsdam. From about 20 per cent to 25 per cent of the air is now treated in the spaces themselves, such as the public rooms, rather than circulating it back to the air conditioning station. “When you have local treatment it is not only more efficient but a better type of comfort,” said Mr Tatar. Energy has also been saved when it comes to galley equipment. For example, more ceramic hot plates are being used than those with a traditional heating element. All of these improvements have


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16 | CRUISE PROFILE

resulted in Koningsdam having 20 per cent less power installed than Nieuw Amsterdam, while carrying 20 per cent more passengers. Mr Tatar described this as being significantly more efficient in terms of carbon footprint per passenger. For fresh water, Holland America Line has developed a reverse osmosis plant in co-operation with Case Marine & Industrial in Seattle. There are two on board with a capacity of 400m3 per hour. The advanced wastewater plant from Hamworthy has been modified to meet Marpol MEPC 227 requirements. Depending on how the plant is configured, black and grey water can be treated or, when in an area of strict regulation such as the Baltic sea, just grey water, leaving the black water to be discharged shoreside. In order to reduce refuse disposal, packaging is assessed throughout the supply chain. “When ordering we are looking at packaging,” said Mr Tatar. The majority of refuse is offloaded, with materials recycled where possible. Holland America Line has opted for

a ballast water system from Headway Technology Co. “We think it is the best system for us today. It is simple and easy to use and once there is agreement on regulation I think we will be able to meet it.” There are 16 150-person Hatecke lifeboats and six tenders on board with an electronic mustering system provided by Fidelio Cruise Software. For the first time Holland America Line has muster stations inside, on Koningsdam. More and more ships now have a separate safety centre on the bridge and on this vessel Holland America Line has opted for this configuration. “This is a big difference for us. We have moved some of the equipment and the video screen tables, where we monitor the safety systems, which used to be on the bridge itself. So now the wheelhouse is really for focus on navigation. This is the first ship with this type of arrangement for Holland America Line.” Speedpilot is one of the pieces of equipment that is being deployed. This computes the optimum average speed and maintains it automatically, adjusting

the propulsion if the current or wind conditions change. The infrastructure and systems of the IT on board have been designed and integrated by Lufthansa Systems. These will carry all the phone, TV, video conferencing, wireless and interactive TV services, the WiFi coverage, and so on. “This is a very big difference from before,” commented Mr Tatar. “The onboard content and communications will not be comparable to previous ships.” Holland America Line plans to roll out this set-up to the rest of the fleet now that it is installed on Koningsdam. Lighting is another feature on which much attention is focused these days. Light emitting diode (LED) lighting has been used in all accommodation spaces. Mr Tatar explained: “We are trying to get standard replaceable LED lights. We have been working with the shipyard to get a good system and using central software to control time and the schedule of light on board. We are also extending the idea to the technical spaces.” With 24 hours a day operation,

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CRUISE PROFILE | 17

reliability is vital. Mr Tatar said: “There is a lot of technology on the market which looks brilliant but is not reliable or fully tested. On the ship it is good to have a mix, so that the platform is reliable. That is a wise way of incorporating new technology on a new ship.” When it comes to the interiors Holland America Line’s Mr Ashford commented: “In addition to our hallmark restaurants, we are introducing several new concepts on Koningsdam.” Adam D Tihany of US-based Tihany Design has created a modern and unique environment in a number of the ship’s food outlets including The Dining Room, which spans two floors, and the Culinary Arts Center which features a show

Koningsdam Principal particulars Shipyard: Fincantieri Marghera Gross tonnage: 99,853gt Passenger capacity: 2,650 Crew: 1,036 Length oa: 299.65m Moulded beam: 35m Draught: 7.95m Class society: Lloyd’s Register Service speed: 18 knots Main engines: 4 x MAK M43C 12-cylinder V from Caterpillar, total output 50.4MW Scrubbers: 2 x Ecospray Technologies Exhaust gas boilers: Aalborg from Alfa Laval Pods: 2 x ABB Azipod XO at 14MW each Fin stabilisers: Fincantieri Integrated navigation: APSS L3 Sam LAN network: Lufthansa Systems Coatings: Hempel Potable water: 2 x Case Marine reverse osmosis at 400m3/hour HVAC electric plant: Schneider Electric Fan coils: Rhoss Waste water plant: Hamworthy Refuse: Deerberg-Systems Laundry: Tech Marine Lifeboats: 16 x 150-person Hateke Fire-fighting: Hi-Fog from Marioff Tenders: 6 x Hatecke Electronic mustering: Fidelio Cruise Software Master key system: VingCard Ballast water system: Headway Technology Co Elevators: Schindler Magrodome: Navalimpianti

kitchen and individual cooking stations for demonstrations and classes. Mr Ashford added: “Adam’s designs beautifully convey ‘classic with a modern twist’ so that every room looks sensational and has its own personality.” Onboard entertainment will be taken to a new level for the brand. The Music Walk area has three stages presenting a variety of live music every night, from chamber music and recitals to chart topping hits,

while the World Stage theatre has a 270 degree, two-storey LED projection screen that surrounds the audience in panoramic visual and sound effects. With Koningsdam now in service, attention has turned to her sistership. Mr Ashford said at the delivery: “Thank you to Fincantieri for being an exceptional partner. We look forward to beginning work soon on our second Pinnacle class ship scheduled for delivery in late 2018.” PST

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18 | FERRY SHIPPING CONFERENCE

Major European ferry owners aim to build new ships Constructing newbuilds and standardising fleets are among the main strategies of ferry operators, this year’s Ferry Shipping Conference revealed. Rebecca Moore reports from the event

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ajor European ferry operators are looking to build new vessels – but there were warnings about not flooding the market with newbuilds as older tonnage may not be taken out of service, it was revealed at the Ferry Shipping Conference. This year’s event, organised by Shippax, took place on board Tallink group’s Silja Symphony. At the panel session of major European ferry operators Niclas Mårtensson, Stena Line Group chief operating officer, spoke about the recent announcement that Stena has signed a contract for four new gas ready ropax ferries, with an option for another four, at AVIC Shipyard in China. He said: “It was obvious that we needed more tonnage. This was a combination between Stena Line and Stena RoRo where we see a need for tonnage and we also need to meet new rules and regulations and satisfy market demand. We are in a situation where it is the right time.” Spiros Paschalis, chief executive of Attica Holdings, said: “We have been looking for newbuildings for the last year and a half. We want these on a replacement basis as we are looking to replace a couple of old vessels in the fleet.” But he warned: “The market should not be flooded with newbuildings. I am sure that old tonnage will not be taken out of the market, so we could arrive at a situation of oversupply of vessels. We need to avoid this.” Grimaldi Group commercial director Guido Grimaldi, too, emphasised the challenges that were being created by older tonnage in the market, saying that this was a problem not just in the Mediterranean, but also in the Baltic. “The problem we have is that there is a lot of old tonnage in the Baltic. We see a lot of lines with vessels that are 40 years old, and this is not helping the market. Before building new vessels, we must see and understand the tonnage situation.” Viking Line chief executive Jan Hanses also laid out plans for adding to the fleet through newbuilding, explaining that this need was driven by a competitor who had been ordering newbuilds at a fast pace over the last 10 years. Furthermore, the ferry operator’s

Martin Dorchester (David MacBrayne): “Having homogenous vessels...allows us to operate a consistent fleet."

experience with its last newbuilding, liquefied natural gas (LNG) dual-fuelled Viking Grace, had been very encouraging. He added: “We tend to be conservative when it comes to the balance sheet and we need to build in an orderly way. For this reason, we also try to maintain a good standard with our present fleet.”

Standardised fleet Aiming for a standardised fleet is a growing trend among ferry operators, the conference revealed. This is something that Stena Group is looking at. Stena RoRo executives say that they are considering this, as by standardising the fleet across Stena RoRo and Stena Line it is easier to move crew. There are advantages in the form of cost saving and flexibility, making life easier for everyone. A standardised fleet is the aim of Scottish ferry operator David MacBrayne, too. The company is about to take delivery of its third diesel-electric hybrid ferry and it has two other newbuilds on order at Scottish shipyard Ferguson Marine that will run on dual-fuel


Ferry operators are aiming to swell fleets with newbuilds, it was revealed at the Ferry Shipping Conference onboard an AS Tallink Grupp ferry (Credit: AS Tallink Grupp)

LNG. Despite this difference, they will match two existing ships in the fleet in all other respects. “We are doing this because with fixed routes and timetables, having homogenous vessels allows you to manage crew better. They also save money, as you do not have to carry as many spare parts. You do not have to wait for suppliers around the world. It allows us to operate a consistent fleet,” said chief executive Martin Dorchester. He explained that ports were an important factor when it came to having a standardised fleet. “We still have challenges. The west coast of Scotland has some very aged infrastructure. We are looking at developing this to support the entry of homogenous ferries, so we do not need to worry about a ferry of a certain size serving a certain port. The idea is that they can go anywhere.” Meanwhile, German operator Wyker Dampfschiffs-Reederei has embarked on a newbuilding programme with the same aim: a homogenous fleet. The company started this strategy in 2004. Chief executive Axel Meynköhn explained: “In 2004 the situation was not favourable for us. We had ships over 20 years old, under different management, and the ships were too small for customer demand. Our objective is to have a homogenous fleet that is sustainable for at least 25-30 years, if not longer.” The main considerations for a newbuild programme included being able to overcome the challenge of very shallow waters. There had to be strict weight management for the newbuilds and improved manoeuvrability was important because of frequent storms in the region that is covered by the operator’s services. Mr Meynköhn said: “We provided our own design in order to be free and flexible in placing newbuilding orders.” The programme consists of three new sisterships in seven years, the last being delivered in 2018. They are double ended ferries propelled by two Schneider units. “This provides very strong propulsion and brings a lot of advantages,” noted Mr Meynköhn. He added: “We are running with diesel propulsion. We carefully checked LNG and battery and hybrid options with experts at universities, but our decision was clear. Continuing with diesel mechanical propulsion felt like the right decision.”

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The new ships hold a range of advantages for the ferry operator. “As far as economy of scale is concerned, we have reduced the number of ships from five to four, increased capacity, and reduced the number of machine hours by 11 per cent followed by a reduction in bunker consumption. This is really good for economy of scale and also for the environment,” said Mr Meynköhn. The company has reduced its vessels’ draught from 1.95m to 1.75m and reduced time in port “drastically.” Summing up the differences between the fleet in 2009 compared with 2018, Mr Meynköhn said that in 2018, the fleet would be 90 per cent homogenous.

Cuba boost for ferries The restoration of the relationship between Cuba and the USA will generate great opportunities for ferries, said delegates. Bruce Nierenberg, president of United Caribbean Lines, urged ferry operators to think about establishing services there. There are currently no ferry services in the Caribbean, and new services would be a good solution for taking up the supply of older vessels. “You could take older generation vessels and put new textiles on them and they will be the pearls of the Caribbean. What a great place to take good ships that are well maintained and well run and give them new life for the next 5-10 years, while the next generation of ships are built,” he said. He urged: “What if your ferry could be the first to serve Cuba? Everyone agrees that this will be an exploding market.” Mr Nierenberg said that Cuba would be ready to authorise ferry services from the USA in 12-18 months. He expected Cuba to make a decision about allowing ferry services between the USA and Cuba by the end of the year, with the first service starting in 2017. Mr Grimaldi, too, emphasised the strong opportunities he saw in this market. “I firmly believe that there is great opportunity for our sector in Central America, and everybody is looking there. When Miami to Cuba is an available line, many lines can then be connected to Central America. That might be a great opportunity for the ferry sector, and to expand.” PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016


Red Jet 6 has brought fast ferry construction back to the UK


FERRY PROFILE | 21

Red Jet 6 relaunches fast ferry construction in the UK Passenger Ship Technology enjoyed an exclusive visit to Shemara Refit to see the groundbreaking catamaran being built and hear about its innovative and energy efficient features

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erry operator Red Funnel’s newbuild Red Jet 6, due to be delivered in June, stands out in a number of ways. It is bringing fast ferry construction back to the UK, as it is the first high speed ferry to be built there in 15 years. And it will be the largest, most innovative and greenest vessel in the operator’s fleet. Isle of Wight based Shemara Refit won the order for Red Jet 6 by offering a competitively priced vessel which met the design brief. It also met Red Funnel’s desire to have the vessel built in the UK and, specifically, on the Isle of Wight. Kevin George, Red Funnel chief executive, said: “From the outset, Shemara Refit shared our vision to bring fast ferry construction back to the UK and particularly to Cowes on the Isle of Wight, where the specialist aluminium fabrication skills and yard facilities still exist. The fact they could do this at a competitive price is a credit to the team at Shemara.” Aluminium fast ferries have been built on the Isle of Wight in the past, by FBM Marine in Cowes for Red Funnel as well as other operators. But the Cowes shipyard closed in 2000, marking the end of fast ferry construction in the UK until now. Shemara Refit had built and refitted yachts and work boats before the Red Funnel contract – but on the back of the

Red Jet 6 project it has won refit work from Thames Clippers (see page 6). Shemara Refit project manager Roy Whitewood explained that the preplanning work that took place before construction started was crucial, especially as the catamaran is fitted with four main engines rather than two. This is a new departure, as the other Red Jets in Red Funnel’s fleet have two engines. Mr Whitewood said: “There will be two engines in each hull, with one fore and one aft as the hulls are not wide enough to place the engines side by side. This is challenging, as you have to take into account the machinery space that is available in each engineroom. They have got to be accessible and containable, which is why a lot of pre planning was involved.” A 3D engineering model was part of the process as well as 2D construction drawings – all of which were developed with the team in house. “The four MTU 2000 series engines are lighter by about 5 tons compared to the MTU 4000s used on earlier vessels. The more kilos that are taken off, the better, as this creates more efficiency. The weight saving is slightly offset by the fact that there are more components in this vessel than in previous Red Jets, such as the bilge system, but it also creates redundancy as a service can be maintained on three engines.”

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Each MTU 10V 2000 M72 series diesel engine develops 900kW at 2,250 rpm and will power a separate Marine Jet Power MJP 500 waterjet unit via a ZF 3050D gearbox. This configuration will help reduce fuel consumption by 11 per cent compared with Red Jet 4 and by 30 per cent compared with Red Jet 5. It will also ensure that emissions comply with IMO Tier II regulations. The vessel’s Red Jet sisters use waterjets rather than propellers, too. Red Funnel said that this was to aid manoeuvrability and provide the best possible stopping power, while keeping wash to a minimum. Two Perkins Sabre 63kW 415V three phase 50Hz generators are being used to provide electrical power. Other technical innovations to help reduce fuel consumption include the use of vinyl instead of paint on external surfaces above the waterline to reduce weight, and the application of the latest Teflon hull coatings to minimise drag through the water. Mr Whitewood commented: “As well as being lighter, vinyl wrapping means that we do not interrupt production. With paint, work has to stop for a week to spray the paint. Vinyl fits in next to the work being done, which leads to big efficiencies in production.” Another way in which this vessel differs from the other Red Jets is that high speed

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016


22 | FERRY PROFILE

vessels now being constructed must comply with IMO’s International Code of Safety for High-Speed Craft (HSC Code), which requires a double bottom. This is to give added protection from hitting submerged objects and rocks. “While not challenging, it takes time to design and add the components and wiring, and adds a level of complexity to the design,” Mr Whitewood explained. Other ways in which the vessel differs from the rest of the fleet is that it will have light emitting diode (LED) lighting throughout and a more advanced air conditioning system. “This adds climate control. The dehumidifier will minimise condensation on the windows, which boosts passenger comfort, and air will be recycled on the bridge,” said Mr Whitewood. The electrically-heated bridge windows will be forward facing, which sets them apart from Red Jet 4. “This improves visibility, as there is no reflection on the glass.” All windows in the passenger cabin are tinted, with blown air demisting. Passenger comfort has been a priority for Red Funnel, and other initiatives in this area include the fact that passenger accommodation will be insulated from the hulls with anti-vibration mountings, to reduce vibration and cabin noise. The aluminium hull, designed by Australian naval architects One2three, will be similar in design to Red Jet 4’s, but there are some slight advancements. “The hull shape has evolved. This hull is unique to

the design,” said Mr Whitewood, adding that it involved highly specialised welding, to a very high standard. The vessel will also be slightly longer than Red Jet 4, at 41.12m, to improve efficiency. Safety features include deployable interceptors to maintain the vessel’s lowwash characteristics, and digital screens with a safety video presentation, live camera stream, and real-time information for connecting rail, bus and coach services. CCTV will include remote engineroom monitoring, while there will be three open reversible lifecraft with capacity for 128 persons and one 65 person reversible lifecraft. There will be five Solas approved lifebuoys. Shemara has shown innovation in its use of machinery to build the vessel. It ordered a bespoke machine to create any compound curvature that is needed, such as round bilge hull plates. Apprentices at the shipyard have also been practising welding techniques on a work boat that is being built alongside Red Jet 6. The yard will fit the two-part structure (passenger cabin and twin hulls) together four weeks before the launch of the catamaran in late May, using cranes. Mr Whitewood summed up: “It has been a tight schedule but we have a great team of people and support from an excellent network of suppliers which has enabled us to bring high speed ferry work back to the Isle of Wight.” PST

Red Jet 6 Principal particulars Length: 41.12m Beam (moulded): 10.87m Draught (loaded): 1.30m Speed: 38 knots Passenger capacity: 275 seated and four wheelchairs OUTFIT/EQUIPMENT Main engines: MTU 10V 2000 Waterjets: MJP 500 DRB Generators: Perkins Sabre 63kW 415V three phase 50Hz Trim control: Humphree interceptors Gyro compass: Simrad Liferafts: Zodiac Air conditioning: Daikin Dehumidifiers: Dehutech DT-3000 Bridge equipment: Furuno Bilge pumps: Grundfos Sewage treatment: Ecomar Multimedia: Navaho MediaCat

“From the outset, Shemara Refit shared our vision to bring fast ferry construction back to the UK and particularly to Cowes, on the Isle of Wight” There will be two engines in each hull, with one fore and one aft

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016

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24 | FERRY OPERATOR

DFDS homes in on ferry acquisition, newbuildings and repair After boosting its fleet with two ferries from MyFerryLink, DFDS is also in discussions about adding newbuilds, and it has embarked on an extensive repair and rebranding programme

Peder Gellert Pedersen (DFDS): “We are in the decision process in regards to newbuildings”

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FDS is very clear about its strategy. Peder Gellert Pedersen, executive vice president of the operator’s shipping division, told Passenger Ship Technology: “Our strategy can be broken into three parts.” He summarised the three parts as: “Increase utilisation of our current fleet by optimal deployment, extend the fleet of roro vessels in dock in Germany – three have already been lengthened and possibly two more – and initiate newbuilding projects.” These initiatives follow recent investments in chartering, refitting and deploying DFDS ships in the English Channel. This has involved the transfer of two former MyFerryLink ships to DFDS by MyFerryLink owner Eurotunnel last year. The release of the Channel ferries Rodin and Berlioz was achieved with the assistance of France’s transport minister. As part of the agreement, DFDS has committed to employ 202 former SCOPSeafrance employees – the workers’ co-operative that ran MyFerryLink – in its French organisation. The sale of the MyFerryLink business comes after Eurotunnel failed to overturn a ruling by the UK’s Competition & Markets Authority, which concluded that the company should not

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016

own the business as its share of the cross-Channel market was too big. The addition of Rodin and Berlioz means that DFDS now operates three ferries on the Dover–Calais route, instead of two. Refitted and rebranded as Côte des Flandres and Côte des Dunes, the two ships joined Calais Seaways on the route earlier this year. Malo Seaways, which used to cover the route, has been deployed elsewhere on the DFDS network. With the addition of the two ferries, DFDS has increased its daily schedule of sailings between Dover and Calais to up to 30 per day. When combined with DFDS’s three ferries on the Dover– Dunkirk route, DFDS now operates six ships in total on the Dover Strait. Not only has this allowed daily departures from Dover to Calais to increase by 50 per cent, but the new ships have also enabled DFDS to increase capacity by 70 per cent for freight and tourist customers on the Channel route. Mr Pedersen commented: “The ships have been built specifically for the route, and they greatly increase capacity on the Channel. Côtes des Dunes and Côtes des Flandres have been completely renovated and offer very comfortable and stylish facilities, and with the

addition of two ships, we can now operate up to 54 daily sailings from Dover to Calais and Dunkirk.” He said that during their time in dock, the ships had been completely renovated and the engineroom and technical areas overhauled. “In addition, the ships have been rebranded with DFDS’s new livery to display the new logo and colour scheme, and fully modernised in the passenger areas. They are practically new ships”. The work on the ships was carried out by Damen Shiprepair Dunkerque. And the yard is also carrying out a major repair and rebranding programme for DFDS, with three of the operator’s D class ferries – Dover Seaways, Dunkerque Seaways and Delft Seaways – upgraded in three weeks earlier this year. These vessels operate on the Dover– Dunkirk route. As well as the routine drydocking tasks, Damen Shiprepair Dunkerque carried out extensive work and overhauled the propulsion, stern and bow thrusters, rudders and engines, and repainted the vessels in the company’s new livery – requiring 11,000m2 of paint per ferry. Dunkerque Seaways’ bow doors were also rehung and the Kongsberg Maritime power management and control system was upgraded with the latest

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FERRY OPERATOR | 25

Côte des Dunes being refitted

hardware and software. Nigel Cureton DFDS fleet group manager for the Channel, said: “We chose to go to Damen Shiprepair Dunkerque for this extensive refit programme because of its large drydock, which is very suitable given the amount of paintwork involved in this project and when there is a tight schedule. And because this shipyard is closest to the cross-Channel routes, this gives us flexibility should we encounter delays. However, there were no delays and all five vessels were delivered on time.” DFDS’s repair and maintenance programme also includes the lengthening of roro vessel Primula Seaways by 20 per cent. The company is in the process of carrying this out. Commenting on DFDS’s repair and maintenance strategy, Mr Pedersen said: “Our ships are all well maintained. All DFDS ships will get their annual maintenance and will also gradually be rebranded in the new style.” While the ferry operator has added to its fleet with second-hand vessels Côte

des Flandres and Côte des Dunes, this appears to be a one-off. The acquisition of second-hand vessels is not a major part of DFDS’s strategy. Mr Pedersen explained: “There are very few secondhand vessels available in the market, and therefore we plan to build ships.” Asked about the company’s newbuild strategy, he said: “We are in the decision process in regards to newbuildings.” DFDS has also been busy ensuring that its fleet meets the low sulphur regulations that came into force in January 2015. To this end, it has installed scrubbers on 18 ships in the fleet. For all other ships the company uses low sulphur fuel. “In general, the scrubbers work well, but the pay-back time has been extended slightly because of the reduced price difference between high and low sulphur oil,” Mr Pedersen said. Explaining why the company chose to use scrubbers rather than other measures to meet the new regulations, he said: “The scrubbers are a good solution

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in terms of cost. They are also better for the environment as, in addition to removing sulphur, scrubbers remove particles found in the exhaust gas.” As well as focusing on its fleet, DFDS has been upgrading its facilities landside. It has built a new Channel terminal at Dunkirk, which opened in March this year. The port renovations cost €14.88 million, comprising €12.88 million invested by the Port of Dunkirk and €2 million by DFDS. The renovations included the construction of a new DFDS ticket office building at the site entrance, which also contains administrative offices and staff facilities, and the construction of six new passenger check-in booths and four freight check-in booths at the terminal entrance. They also included renovation of the ferry terminal after check-in for passengers waiting to board with their vehicles, including the installation of a giant screen displaying passenger information. The project had four aims. These were to increase the speed of ship loading and unloading times and improve

safety for the staff in charge of these operations; to make the check-in and border control process smoother and faster for customers while also improving safety and security, and streamlining customer transit between the port entrance and the ferries; to improve access to the terminal from the motorway; and to increase the capacity of the pre-boarding parking area after check-in. The redeveloped terminal now covers more than 17ha compared to the 10ha of the earlier lay-out. DFDS said that signage from the motorway has been improved and access to the terminal for heavy goods vehicles and passenger vehicles has been separated, providing a faster and more secure entry to the ferry port for these two categories of users. Mr Pedersen commented: “Our investment into Dunkirk port represents our commitment to offering DFDS passengers efficient Channel crossings. The new passenger terminal offers better facilities, safety has been improved and there is a better flow of traffic.” PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016


26 | CRUISE SHIP OWNER

SunStone Ships to expand in expedition sector with newbuilds

SunStone Ships is the largest cruise tonnage owner in the expedition sector and is set to swell its fleet further with a five-year newbuild plan

Ocean Diamond will be drydocked this year to replace one of the cabin decks

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unStone Ships is unique in the cruise ship industry. Usually operators own their ships, but SunStone is purely a tonnage provider and charters out its vessels. It is also the largest tonnage provider of small cruise ships in the world. Its niche is firmly in the expedition sector, with the company’s ships covering some of the most remote areas in the world, such as the Antarctic, Arctic Canada, Alaska and Greenland, and warm water areas such as South America and the South Pacific. In 1990, Niels-Erik Lund, SunStone president and CEO, founded a passenger ship management company, International Shipping Partners Inc. (ISP). In 2004 this company changed strategy to concentrate on the expedition cruise market with two ships, Island Sun and Island Sky, then gradually built up the fleet. In 2012 ISP was sold to a German private equity firm, and Mr Lund formed SunStone Ships as a company representing vessel owners with the responsibility of commercial management of the vessels. It currently has ten vessels,

consisting of nine cruise ships and one ropax ferry. It has the largest fleet of cruise ships in the exploration sector, which are on a mix of charter contracts. Many are long term – five years – some are for two or three years, and others are placed on seasonal contracts. Explaining the company’s strategy, Mr Lund told Passenger Ship Technology: “The small expedition ship market has always been very fragmented. There are no big owners. Rather, there are small operators of just one or two ships. So we feel that we make a difference for ourselves and these companies by owning and managing a fleet for different operators. The operating costs are lower and more efficient as we gain economies of scale through operating a fleet and we can go in and get better insurance and better crew, and train the crew better and better purchasing power for spare parts and consumables. Companies that charter just one or two of these ships get all the benefits that are achieved by being part of a fleet.” While remaining firmly in its

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016

exploration cruise ship niche, SunStone is making some changes to its strategy. One major change is that having always bought second-hand ships, the company is now planning to build two cruise ships in the near future, and to make newbuilding the main way in which it grows its fleet. Called Project Unlimited, the plan has been in the pipeline for a few years, and Sunstone has now also developed a specific Polar newbuilding project. The company expects to place the order with a shipyard within the next three to four months, and expects the vessels to be completed within two years. The reason for the move to newbuilding is simple: the exploration cruise sector has run out of options. Mr Lund said that when ISP entered the expedition cruise market in 2004, there were 46 ships in this niche, defined as having capacity for 50-250 passengers, and being fully ocean-going cruise standard expedition ships. That number has now dropped to 34. Mr Lund said: “The market has fallen as ships are getting older and being

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THERE WERE 46 SHIPS (FULLY OCEAN-GOING CRUISE STANDARD EXPEDITION SHIPS WITH 50-250 PASSENGER CAPACITY) IN 2004

scrapped. The average age of the global fleet is more than 28 years old. So we see a huge potential for bringing in newbuildings. Furthermore, there are no second-hand vessels that we can buy. There are a few very old ships that we are not interested in at all. So I do not see us expanding with second-hand ships. We will expand our fleet with newbuilds.” The last ship that SunStone bought was Ocean Endeavour in 2014. The need to expand the fleet is urgent because the exploration market is strong and growing quickly. Mr Lund explained: “We believe the market is growing because of demographics – more people have money and time, and they cannot see the parts of the world that we cover unless they take a cruise ship. I also do believe that the cruise industry is creating the passengers for us, because if you have been on big ships in the Baltic and the Mediterranean, for instance, and the children have now left home, you have time and money and you want to see other parts of the world on smaller ships.” He also singled out China as a major

THAT NUMBER HAS NOW DROPPED TO 34

THE AVERAGE AGE OF THE GLOBAL EXPEDITION CRUISE FLEET IS MORE THAN 28 YEARS OLD

force on the market. “China is huge in this cruise sector. Our charterers sometimes have ships that are full of purely Chinese passengers. This is something that was not seen five years ago.” The first two ships that Mr Lund said he hoped to order soon are just the tip of the iceberg. The plan is to build two ships a year for the next five years. Mr Lund was not able to release many details about the new ships, as the orders have not yet been placed, but he alluded to the fact that they would have lots of new features, and be energy efficient and “as green as can be.” He also said that they would be built to Safe Return to Port standards, even though this is not required for ships of this size. “We go to the most remote parts of the world and so I find it surprising that ships in these areas do not have to meet this requirement,” he commented. “We want to build to this standard because we want to be as safe as possible.” The newbuilds will be built to the highest Ice class (1A Ice class) and will run on marine gas oil (MGO), as do all of

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SUNSTONE PLANS TO BUILD 2 SHIPS A YEAR FOR THIS SECTOR FOR THE NEXT FIVE YEARS

“I do not see us expanding with secondhand ships. We will expand our fleet with newbuilds.” Niels-Erik Lund, SunStone Ships CEO

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016


28 | CRUISE SHIP OWNER

SunStone’s ships. They will also be built to meet the requirements of the new International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code), which is expected to enter into force next year. When the new ships are built SunStone intends to charter them out, as it does the rest of its fleet. Mr Lund said that the company was already close to agreeing long-term charters for them. Once the newbuilds join the fleet, SunStone will scrap some of its older ships. Its oldest is Sea Adventurer, which was built in 1975. It was completely refitted in 2001 including new lounges, cabins and public spaces. But Sea Adventurer can be viewed as not too old for this sector of the cruise market – as Mr Lund remarked, some ships date back to the 1950s and 1960s. The age of the fleet means that an active refit and refurbishment programme is essential. “We are constantly refitting. We do this between seasons. For example, we have 60 days to drydock before we start on the Artic itinerary. We always choose European shipyards – in Spain, Germany, Poland, Sweden or Norway – as this fits with the ships’ relocation journeys, going from south to

north,” Mr Lund explained. SunStone is taking Sea Spirit out this spring in order to fit a new restaurant and a new lecturer lounge and Ocean Diamond will also be drydocked in order to replace one of the cabin decks. Sea Adventurer is undergoing a major refit next year as it will have its main and auxiliary engines replaced. As well as providing tonnage to charterers, SunStone through its associated companies Cruise Management International and CMI Leisure also provides technical and hotel management services. “Small operators in this niche do not have the correct crew. For example, they do not have the right ice masters, and do not have the technical knowledge. We can provide all this.” A specialised crew is crucial when it comes to manning cruise ships in the exploration sector. Singling out an example, Mr Lund said: “The challenge is that we cover very remote areas. We often do not see a port for 21 days. From a technical point of view, we have to be able to fix everything ourselves, for the entire season. Even in port, the areas are still very remote and you cannot buy anything. This also means that you need the right

SunStone provides technical and hotel management services through its associated companies Cruise Management International and CMI Leisure

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016

people on board – engineers, plumbers and electricians.” SunStone has undergone some changes in this respect. Until the end of last year, its technical and commercial operations had been managed by FleetPro Ocean and FleetPro Leisure. In October 2015, four of the owners of the SunStone fleet, including Mr Lund, bought out FleetPro Leisure, the cruise ship hotel management company, and renamed it CMI Leisure. The same owners also formed a new technical company, Cruise Management International. This company took over all the contracts for SunStone’s fleet from FleetPro. In addition to the daily operation of these vessels, Cruise Management International will be busy with major upgrading work that is being carried out as part of a planned fleet-wide upgrade programme. With the International Safety Management Code (ISM Code), the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code) and the Maritime Labour Convention (MLC) certifications in place, the quality department will focus on having the ISO 9000 quality management and ISO 14000 environmental management systems in place within the second quarter of this year. Cruise Management International will also use key performance indicators, including reducing off-time hire, keeping insurance claims below 60 per cent of annual premiums and reducing port and flag state deficiencies, in order to check and validate performance with goals. The launch of the two companies marks the end of a turbulent time for SunStone with regard to FleetPro, which is being wound down and closed. Mr Lund explained: “For most of 2015 the FleetPro organisation did not live up to our expectations on how our fleet should be managed.” However, SunStone has put this behind it and has started 2016 on a strong footing with Cruise Management International and CMI Leisure Ltd. SunStone Ships certainly has big plans and developments underway in a sector that is growing strongly. Asked if the company was keen to expand into other sectors, Mr Lund commented: “We will stick to this niche. It is growing, and we are the biggest in the world in it.” Indeed, with so many developments afoot in a growing and dynamic market, there are more than enough opportunities for SunStone to expand further. PST

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SHIPYARD PROFILE | 31

STX FRANCE TO DELIVER LARGEST CRUISE SHIP IN THE WORLD STX France has built Harmony of the Seas, the largest cruise ship in the world. Rebecca Moore hears what this involved and learns about the rest of the shipyard’s cruise ship orderbook

S Harmony of the Seas is technically quite different to the other Oasis class ships

For more articles visit www.passengership.info

TX France is juggling a number of innovative cruise ships on its orderbook, spanning Royal Caribbean International’s Harmony of the Seas, MSC Cruises’ MSC Meraviglia and Celebrity Cruises’ Project Edge newbuilds. Harmony of the Seas is due to be delivered in May. The 227,000gt ship is the largest cruise ship in the world and is important for STX France for a number of reasons. The vessel’s first two sisterships were built by STX Finland in Turku, before the shipyard was bought by Meyer Werft and became Meyer Turku. Stéphane Cordier, vice president of projects and ship performance, STX France, told PST: “There was a decision by the owner to trust us with the construction of the ship, which was a great opportunity for us to renew our relationship with RCCL. We have built quite a few ships for them in the past, but that relationship had

ceased for a while and so we were eager to work again with RCCL which has an innovative approach to design that is very unique in the industry.” While Harmony of the Seas is part of the Oasis class of ships, along with Allure of the Seas and Oasis of the Seas, in many ways it is technically quite different to the other ships. As Mr Cordier said: “The superstructure is a little bit wider and the hull form was changed for energy efficiency, therefore the whole structure had to be redesigned - all in all it is quite a different ship when looking at the details.” One of the ways in which it differs is that it is built to the Safe Return to Port notation, unlike its predecessors. Mr Cordier commented: “This was quite a challenge. The previous ships had been built with some of the thinking of the time, but before the regulation was enforced and details clarified. Implementing the changes in the ship was not straightforward, given its

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016


32 | SHIPYARD PROFILE

size and complexity.” The ship is even more energy efficient than the other Oasis class vessels – it has reduced fuel consumption by 20 per cent compared to its predecessors. This has been achieved through a variety of means, including changes to the hullform. “The whole hullform is very different. It has improved resistance,” said Mr Cordier. Furthermore, the vessel has been fitted with an air lubrication system. This technology was first used in the cruise industry on Quantum of the Seas. It generates a stream of air bubbles which are driven beneath the hull, creating a layer of air that allows the ship to glide more easily through the water, thus improving energy efficiency. The air layer also reduces excitation from the propellers, which cuts noise and vibration levels in the aft part of the ship. Harmony of the Seas also stands out as it has had scrubbers inserted to meet the new emission regulations for SOx. Mr Cordier said: “That is not a small item because there are many equipment to be fitted in the casing; a

large volume is involved, and this puts constraints on the upper decks, with the various machines associated with it. For example, the power of the pumps for seawater circulation is above 1 megawatt, so that in itself is a big system in the machinery space.” While the ship is bigger than the other Oasis class vessels with more systems on board, its weight is very close to theirs, which was achieved through a weight saving programme. “We looked at everything, from the structure to choice of materials and to many minor things; each trade had targets to meet. It was challenging as it was a very short time frame, and we had to work on many different aspects to achieve this gain,” Mr Cordier said. STX France has also clinched the contract to construct the next generation cruise ships for RCCL subsidiary Celebrity Cruises. Known as Project Edge, the two 117,000gt ships will have capacity for 2,900 guests and at 984 feet long, 123 feet wide and 190 feet high, Celebrity Cruises said that Project Edge will deliver

Steel was cut for MSC Meraviglia last April

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016

“Harmony of the Seas was a great opportunity for us to renew our relationship with RCCL”. Stéphane Cordier (STX France)

small ship itineraries with large ship amenities. The project certainly promises to be extremely innovative. Mr Cordier - who has been involved in the project for over a year - said: “The ambition is very high in terms of technical and design innovations and everybody is very excited about the ships.” The project is now in the detailed design phase; next year the yard will cut steel for the first ship, with delivery slated for autumn 2018. The second vessel will be delivered in early 2020. Also on the STX France orderbook is MSC Cruises’ four next generation Vista class cruise ships. Steel was cut for MSC Meraviglia last April, with delivery planned for May 2017. MSC Cruises labelled it the "biggest and most innovative cruise ship ever built by a global Europebased cruise line". The second ship will enter service in 2019. Mr Cordier updated PST on where the construction was at (as of March): The central section up to the lifeboat deck has been completed with the whole programme progressing “very smoothly”. He explained that MSC Meraviglia benefitted from STX France’s Ecorizon programme (part of the Horizon 2015 development plan) to create cleaner and more efficient ships. Indeed, MSC Meraviglia will be water emission free, and its hull and propulsion system is being optimised for energy efficiency. Scrubber technology is also being used. And its relationship with MSC has been ramped up to another level following the announcement that MSC Cruises has inked a letter of intent with STX France for two orders and two further options for four new LNGpowered mega-sized cruise ships that will exceed more than 200,000gt. The new series of ships

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STX France has launched its Smart Yard programme to help add value to shipowners

form part of a new ‘world class’ and are due to be delivered in 2022, 2024, 2025 and 2026. Representing a USD$4.1 billion deal, these ships could be the largest cruise vessels in the world. Pier Francesco Varo, MSC Cruises executive chairman said that the new MSC Cruises’ World Class prototype will feature – amongst other highly innovative elements – “a record-breaking, futuristically-conceived design that will make the ship a truly unique place to be at sea, whilst maximixing the open air space available to guests”. STX France has now launched a new programme this year to replace Horizon 2105, called Smart Yard. This will run through until 2020. Explaining the differences between the two programmes, Mr Cordier said: “Horizon 2015 focused on our yard performance, but Smart Yard is looking beyond that to items that can be built into the ship that represent added value to the owner. These address topics in many different directions from energy and the environment to safety. It also looks at operational efficiency; for example, how to design a ship where life is easier for the crew, or where less crew is needed. All these things have an impact on the ship from the owners’ point of view.” He summed up: “The idea is to provide better products and hope that

owners recognise their value. In some instances this can involve collaborative development efforts with owners as they know best about what they need.” Smart Yard has been put in place for future cruise ship prototypes. STX France is known for building large cruise ships, but it has put a strategy in place that has developed its interest in a smaller tonnage sector: the expedition arena. The 145m, 200 passenger capacity Ulysseas expedition cruise ship concept, which was launched by STX France in March 2015, is part of the shipyard’s strategy to launch a new passenger or military ship concept every year. In an interview with PST last year, STX France executives explained that the design is innovative on various levels: the side of the structure allows for very open and outwards facing cabins, it has an energy efficient hull that has been designed with a straight bow with the bulb embedded in it. It also includes the latest development in terms of pods, with two pods each of 2.5MW and is fitted with a scrubber. The ship is innovative in its people transfer system for excursions: It is equipped with four or five RIBs (Rigid Inflatable Boats) that come from inside the ship. This means that they can be moved from inside to

For more articles visit www.passengership.info

outside, which adds efficiency and safety and also can be used in rougher seas. The concept also fits with STX France’s Safesea research and development programme. To maximise safety, the shipyard had designed a certain architecture for safe return to port. The expedition market is an area that the shipyard is keen to develop further, having been involved in it for 15 years. Mr Cordier said: “We recognised a few years ago that the cruise expedition market was strong so we developed this concept. This is a different area for us as we usually build large cruise ships, but we cannot neglect any aspect of the market and see this as a growing market. “It is a niche where capacity is smaller, with about 100 rather than 3,000 cabins. While it is not exactly the same, none the less, technically there are a lot of similarities in system designs and architecture - they might be smaller but this is part of our expertise,” Mr Cordier said. Deploying concept designs for different types of ships is something that STX France is keen to expand. The strategy was launched a few years ago, when the shipyard worked on a versatile and compact military ship design concept called Defendseas. It has also worked on a concept for a large cruise ship, although Mr Cordier was

not able to give any further details on this project. “The advantage we see is that it gives the opportunity to start discussions with customers; we are not talking from a blank piece of paper, but have a starting point.” Mr Cordier explained that the concepts were flexible and could be changed and adapted to meet customer needs. STX France has so much work these days, including construction of the largest cruise vessels, that increasing the space and services in the yard is a priority. “We are engaged in continued investment and are focused on optimising our shipyard for bigger ships, as we have a lot of tonnage to deliver,” said Mr Cordier. The upgrades include improving inter-yard transportation and adding more storage areas. While the cruise ship sector is the major focus for STX France, it has also recently embarked on another business unit, and entered the renewable energy market after it recently won some orders for electrical substations. Mr Cordier said: “The cruise ship sector is close to 90 per cent of our business, but the renewable energy business is ramping up. France is lagging a bit in this area compared to UK, Holland and Germany, but it has big plans in this sector that are slowly kicking in, and we are hoping to be a big player in this market.” PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016


34 | RIVER CRUISE MARKET

Record orders for river cruise T

hese are boom times for river cruise business. Following record orders for ocean cruise liners, investment shows no sign of abatement in real terms in the expansion of the river cruising market. In addition to the established market operators, ocean liner companies are now diversifying their fleets and ordering river vessels. Passenger bookings continue to increase, new destinations are added, and luxury knows no bounds. Today, as competition intensifies among owners, some river cruisers are described as luxury yacht class. In a major investment programme Genting Hong Kong took over ownership of Lloyd Werft Bremerhaven in September last year for €17.5 million. Orders for an initial two allsuite luxury river yachts supported the purchase of the German builder. This has since doubled to four units. The quartet will enter service in June and August 2017. The Genting group’s river fleet now operates under two brands, Crystal Yacht Cruises and Crystal River Cruises. The group is currently operating a ten year investment plan, deeming it “the most significant brand expansion in the history of luxury travel and hospitality.” For the customer this equates to hotels on the river of the highest standard. Two of the new Crystal River yachts will serve destinations on the Rhine, Main and Danube rivers, accommodating 110 guests. The other two vessels will each accommodate 84 guests and cruise on the Seine, Garonne and Dordogne rivers plus the Gironde estuary. Genting will not stop here. It has purchased one of Europe’s largest river cruisers, Mozart, which is currently undergoing extensive rebuilding to upgrade it to Crystal luxury class. It will be recommissioned in July this year, cruising the Danube as Crystal Mozart for its new owners. In its latest move Genting has purchased the bankrupt shipyards of Nordic Yards in Wismar, Rostock-Warnemünde and Stralsund, and

Investment in river cruise newbuildings is booming as ocean cruise companies diversify into this market, intensifying competition. Barry Luthwaite examines the orderbook

all the newly acquired builders will come under the management of Lloyd Werft. There will be a planned mix of river and deepsea passenger vessel construction with at least one luxury river yacht a year under consideration. As well as newbuilding there is currently a thriving industry in Europe for the refurbishment of river cruisers. Viking River Cruises has not only taken delivery of a large number of new vessels built in Germany, but has also signed a contract with Damen Shiprepair Amsterdam for the refurbishment and modification of six of its vessels – Viking Idi, Viking Idun, Viking Kvasir, Viking Kara, Viking Hlin and Viking Gullveig. In addition to the refurbishment of passenger facilities, the modifications include stern frame upgrades to shield propellers from damage while navigating waterways and narrow canals. A US based owner, Tauck, which operates a sizeable Europe-based river fleet, plans to modernise half of this complement in the next two years in order to meet competition head on. The current fleet includes five Jewel class luxury vessels. All will undergo a reduction

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016

in capacity from 118 to 98 passengers in order to fit larger cabins and expand luxury comfort. A new restaurant will also be incorporated. Two of the vessels will be withdrawn at the end of this year and three the following year with recommissioning in the 2017 and 2018 cruise seasons on French rivers. The refurbishments will bring the quintet more in line with two recently introduced newbuildings and two more to come for the owner. European sanctions are affecting Russia’s economy but there is still a vibrant interest in river cruising on the Volga. The Ministry of Industry and Trade will provide new financial aid for the construction of river cruisers in Russian yards. Low loan interest rates and tax breaks will be made available covering around 10 per cent of vessel cost and financial help will be available for vessel leasing. On the drawing board is a design project, PV300VD. The 140m long vessel would accommodate 306 passengers. Interested builders are Krasnoye Sormovo, Lotos and Zaliv. With Asian cruises opening up, some builders are competing for orders which might otherwise have been placed in Europe. Price is often a factor as river cruisers are expensive to build, especially those in the luxury market and offering suite accommodation. The collapse of the offshore market has forced many smaller yards engaged in this business to look for new vessel types. Triyards Holdings in Singapore booked business from CroisiEurope for one 65m long cruiser which will ply the Mekong River between Vietnam and Cambodia. Thirty cabins will be fitted complete with balconies, with a swimming pool on the sun deck. Delivery is set for 2017 and will expand CroisiEurope’s operations away from Europe into popular Vietnam. The contracting owner is Compagnie Fluviale du Mekong, established in Vietnam by CroisiEurope which will manage and operate the vessel. PST

For more articles visit www.passengership.info


RIVER CRUISE MARKET | 35

RIVER CRUISE VESSELS ON ORDER - APRIL 2016 CRUISE LINE

SHIP NAME

YARD

YEAR

AMA Waterways

AmaDessa

Gendt

2016

AMA Waterways

AmaKristina

Vahali

2017

AMA Waterways

AmaViola

Vahali

2017

American Cruise Lines

America

Chesapeake Sb.

2016

American Cruise Lines

Queen of the Mississippi

Chesapeake Sb.

2017

APT Travelmarvel and Maing Fong Co.

Samatha

Yangong

2016

Irrawaddy River, Burma

APT Travelmarvel and Maing Fong Co.

Princess Panhwar

Yangong

2016

Irrawaddy River, Burma Irrawaddy River, Burma

Avalon Waterways

Avalon Myanmar

2016

Avalon Waterways

Avalon Imagery II

2016

Avalon Waterways

Avalon Passion

CroisiEurope

Indochine II

CroisiEurope

Symphonie II

CroisiEurope

Douce France II

CroisiEurope

DEPLOYMENT

2016 Triyards Singapore

2017

Mekong River

2017 2017 Sambre & Meuse

2017

Douro River

Elbe Princess

Saint Naziare

2016

Elbe/Moldau

Crystal River Cruises

Crystal Bach

Lloyd Werft

2017

Rhine, Main and Danube Rivers

Crystal River Cruises

Crystal Mahler

Lloyd Werft

2017

Rhine, Main and Danube Rivers

Crystal River Cruises

Crystal Ravel

Llloyd Werft

2017

Seine,Garonne and Dodogne Rivers

Crystal River Cruises

Crystal Debussy

Lloyd Werft

2017

Seine,Garonne and Dodogne Rivers

Crystal Mozart

Lloyd Werft

2017

Danube River

Emerald Waterways

Den Breejen Shipyard

2017

Rhine, Main and Danube Rivers

Emerald Waterways

Den Breejen Shipyard

2017

Rhine, Main and Danube Rivers

Emerald Waterways

Den Breejen Shipyard

2017

Rhine, Main and Danube Rivers

Den Breejen Shipyard

2016

Rhine, Main and Danube Rivers Rhone and Saone Rivers

CroisiEurope

Crystal River Cruises (Rebuild)

Emerald Waterways

Emerald Belle

Emerald Waterways

Emerald Liberte

2017

Emerald Waterways

Emerald Radiance

2017

Douro River

Lueftner/Amras/Amadeus Cruises

Amadeus Silver III

2016

Rhine, Main and Danube Rivers

Pandaw River Cruise

Kha Byoo Pandaw

2016

Irrawaddy River, Burma

Pandaw River Cruise

Kaladan Pandaw

2016

Irrawaddy River, Burma

2016

Rhine. Main and Danube Rivers

De Hoop

Scenic Cruises

Scenic Amber

Scenic Cruises

Scenic Azure

2016

Douro River

Scenic Cruises

Scenic Aura

2016

Irrawaddy River, Burma

Scenic Cruises

Scenic Spirit

2016

Mekong River

Grace

2016

Rhine, Main and Danube Rivers Rhine, Main and Danube Rivers

Tauk River Cruising-Scylla AG Tauk River Cruising-Scylla AG

Den Breejen Shipyard

Joy

2016

Uniworld River Cruises

Joie de Vivre

2017

Seine River

Uniworld River Cruises

Ganges Voyager II

2016

Ganges River

Victoria Cruises

Victoria Emperor

Planning stage

2019

China

Viking Cruises

Viking Vilhjalm

Neptun Reparaturwerft

2016

Rhein, Main, Danube, Elbe, Irawaddy Rivers

Viking Cruises

Viking Osfrid

Neptun Reparaturwerft

2016

Rhein, Main, Danube, Elbe, Irawaddy Rivers

Viking Cruises

Viking Tialfri

Neptun Reparaturwerft

2016

Rhein, Main, Danube, Elbe, Irawaddy Rivers

Viking Cruises

Viking Rolf

Neptun Reparaturwerft

2016

Rhein, Main, Danube, Elbe, Irawaddy Rivers

Viking Cruises

Viking Kadlin

Neptun Reparaturwerft

2016

Rhein, Main, Danube, Elbe, Irawaddy Rivers

Viking Cruises

Viking Egil

Neptun Reparaturwerft

2016

Rhein, Main, Danube, Elbe, Irawaddy Rivers

Viking Cruises

Viking Airuna

Neptun Reparaturwerft

2016

Rhein, Main, Danube, Elbe, Irawaddy Rivers

Viking Cruises

Viking Herja

Neptun Reparaturwerft

2017

Rhein, Main, Danube, Elbe, Irawaddy Rivers

Viking Cruises

Viking Hild

Neptun Reparaturwerft

2017

Rhein, Main, Danube, Elbe, Irawaddy Rivers

Neptun Reparaturwerft

2017

Rhein, Main, Danube, Elbe, Irawaddy Rivers

Viking Cruises SOURCE: BRL ASSOCIATES

For more articles visit www.passengership.info

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016


36 | RIVER CRUISE

Shipyard De Hoop to build first river cruiser with three-tier aft deck Shipyard De Hoop’s Patrick Janssens tells Passenger Ship Technology about the innovations developed by the shipyard for the successful Amadeus series of river cruise vessels

S

hipyard De Hoop is one of the leaders when it comes to the river cruise sector. It has just won a contract to build the first river cruise vessel in the world that has a three-tier aft deck. And it has recently delivered the 11th Amadeus vessel, Amadeus Silver III, to Austria’s Lüftner Cruises. This 135m vessel will operate across all of Europe’s waterways and has been designed to the innovative ‘Amadeus concept’ that the Dutch shipyard has developed with the owner. Shipyard De Hoop’s chief executive Patrick Janssens explained the Amadeus concept. “It is a concept that has been developed between Lüftner Cruises and Shipyard De Hoop. There are some special features on these river cruise ships, both exterior and interior. The concept focuses on a high level of comfort in the cabins, with very low noise and vibrations. We spend a lot of time and effort on this.” Homing in on the noise and vibration aspect, he said: “It starts with a thorough analysis of the sources of noise and vibration. The first step is to tackle these sources.” He gave an example: “We made a flexible mounted section in the aft of the ship. The engine units were installed on top of this. They

are below the water line but not connected to the steel of the hull because of an insert. This is mounted on rubber to disconnect this particular source of noise and vibration.” The Amadeus Club (a barcafé which has to be quiet) sits on top of the engineroom in the vessels. “Passengers who sit there do not know that they are only 0.5m away from Caterpillar engines making a lot of noise,” commented Mr Janssens. He explained how this had been achieved. “The bar is a whole separate section mounted on rubber devices which keep the section floating. This is done throughout the ship. When we fit the interiors, they are based on floating floors.” These are created by fitting rubber on top of the concrete floor. The hydrodynamics of the Amadeus hulls are also optimised so that they can cut through the water at high speed, using less power. Mr Janssens added: “Every ship has a shallow draught. There are two advantages to this. When the ship has less draught, there is less resistance. And a low draught means that that they can continue to sail in a dry season. They can operate in low waters, at a time when many of their competitors stop.”

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016

Shipyard De Hoop has just signed a contract for the 12th Amadeus ship. This is a river cruise vessel with a difference, as it is the only river cruise vessel in the world to have a three-tier aft section. It will be built to the same concept as the other ships – but with some notable changes. “The concept has evolved since the beginning. We have taken a big step forward in engineering this ship. It is not 135m like the previous versions but 110m. The biggest feature is the large outside swimming pool area. This is a big development as there are size limitations on rivers –

not just in terms of rules and regulations, but also through locks and bridges which restrict size in all dimensions.” Usually the end of the ships, where the engineroom is placed, has a two-tier structure. “This time we will deploy smaller engines because we have optimised the hull so that it can go at high speeds at lower power. Smaller engines mean more room in the engineroom, which makes a lower ceiling possible. This enables three tiers in the aft section,” said Mr Janssens. The three tiers create 10-15 per cent more deck space in the ship, which means more turnover for the shipowner. PST

Shipyard De Hoop has just delivered Amadeus Silver III

For more articles visit www.passengership.info


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FIRE PREVENTION & CONTROL | 39

Prevention and prediction drive new solutions IN SHIPBOARD FIRES PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE. WHILE FIRE-MITIGATING TECHNOLOGY IS ADVANCING ON ALL FRONTS, IMO IS GETTING TOUGHER ON INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE BY SELWYN PARKER

There have been a number of significant fire incidents on roro passenger vehicle decks since 1994 and there is no sign of these diminishing.

For more articles visit www.passengership.info

T

here are still too many shipboard fires, says IMO. Fires on board passenger ships, and especially on roro ferries, occur far too frequently, according to a series of studies by IMO safety experts. They cite a total of 73 fires on roro passenger ships between 1994 and 2011. And, of course, others have happened since then. One of the most recent was a ferry, PeeJay V, which caught fire just off the New Zealand coast in January 2016 and burned down to the waterline. Fortunately, none of the 57 people on board died. IMO concludes: “There have been a number of significant fire incidents on roro passenger vehicle decks since 1994 and there is no sign of these diminishing. Since 2002 there has been a very serious incident every other year, resulting in six constructive total losses.” According to IMO’s investigations, these fires were triggered by a variety of causes ranging from electrical problems in parked vehicles to engineroom events. The blaze on PeeJay V is thought to have started in the galley. But, disturbingly, follow-up analysis revealed that failures in the maintenance and inspection of firefighting tools such as sprinklers contributed significantly to the frequency of fires. Once they had started, the fires were not contained as rapidly as they should have been. Although IMO’s overriding consideration is human life, there is also a commercial imperative involved in fire prevention. The cost of an onboard fire is put at around US$200,000 a minute. As a result of its findings IMO is cracking down on operators and demanding more frequent inspections and documented evidence of routine maintenance. The safety authorities are particularly concerned about older ships. “Consideration should be given to identifying improvements that can be made to the fireprotection standards applied to roro passenger ships constructed before 1 July 2010 to enhance their survivability and safe return

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016


40 | FIRE PREVENTION & CONTROL

to port in the event of a vehicle deck fire,” a 2014 report noted, pointing out that such vessels could remain in service for the next 20 years or more. A test on Bahamas-registered vessels supported IMO’s concerns. It revealed an alarmingly high failure rate of automatic sprinklers on passenger ships – in some cases more than 50 per cent. The importance of the reliability of sprinklers is obvious. A typical passenger ship will have as many as 6,000 sprinklers in accommodation and service areas. The resulting warnings highlighted the value of disciplined inspection and maintenance. As one report noted, interim fire-safety measures must immediately be put in place when thorough testing reveals high failure rates. “These [measures] comprise increased fire patrolling activities and procedures where, in the event of a confirmed fire, the automatic sprinkler system may be started remotely from the bridge and operated at maximum operating pressure,” the authors said. The contradiction is that while failures in routine maintenance lie behind many fires, the fire-prevention industry is devising increasingly clever solutions to prevent events – or at least reduce the damage from them. Water mists, for example, are

Thermal characteristics of PROMAGUARD®, thickness of 10mm MEAN TEMPERATURE (F) 30

230

430

630

830

1,030

1,230

1,430

25 1.6

BIO SOLUBLE FIRES Density of 128kg/m3 CALCIUM SILICATE BOARD ASTM C533

PROMAGUARD Density of 240kg/m3

1.2

15

1

0.8 10 0.6

0.4 5 0.2

0

0 0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

MEAN TEMPERATURE (C) Third-party tests show how layers of Promaguard suppress thermal conductivity and delay the onset of a fire

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY (Btu/Ft2hrF)

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY (W/mK)

1.4

STONEWOOL SLAB ASTM C612

20

becoming more powerful and faster-acting, as in the case of Finland-based Marioff Corp’s latest HI-FOG 3000 system launched in early 2015. As soon as the ambient temperatures hit a pre-designated threshold, the bulb breaks and a continuous spray of water is distributed through concealed pipes, over a wider area than previous models. And because the system uses pure water, it can be activated without any risk to human life. As Marioff points out, the firefighting can start without the space having to be evacuated first. As well as being more powerful, the latest sprinkler systems are more compact. Among other advantages this means they can be easily retrofitted without destroying the aesthetic integrity of cabin interiors. For instance, the HI-FOG 3000 has narrow tubing, and smaller pump units and water tanks. Similarly, the space-saving Minifog Marine XP sprinkler developed by German manufacturer Minimax uses up to 90 per cent less water. Despite this, one unit can protect an area of up to 32m2. At the same time, heavy science has gone into the development of passive protection that aims to contain as long as possible the spread of a fire or explosion, but without the need for intervention in the form of sprinklers and other active deterrents. For instance, Promaguard by Belgium-based group Promat is a microporous material that is based on nano-structured, sub-micron, synthetic amorphous silica (SAS). Combined with other environmentally safe synthetics, SAS particles are formed into long chains that work to block the invasion of solid heat – that is to say, flames. The spaces in the chain are so small that they are able to eliminate the conduction of most of the gaseous heat. Simultaneously, materials known as mineral oxide pacifiers inhibit infra-red radiation. SAS has proved spectacularly successful. Made into light and thin strips of cloth, Promaguard was quickly adopted by the aviation industry where it was applied in places of high fire risk such as the radome, engine and exhaust, and galley. And now it is being used on a wide scale in shipping. Aiming to beat the Solas A60 fire-rating standards for a ship’s safe return to port, Promat developed a year-long project for the marine industry that ended successfully in June 2014. By then a series of stringent, third-party monitored tests had established that 15mm thick layers of Promaguard were able to exceed A60 while Promaguard combined with Ultimate, an Isover insulation product, could keep a fire at bay for nearly four hours. Even better, these gains could be achieved without any time-consuming and costly fire-resistant alterations to the ship’s original design. Promat’s Giorgio Lauro, naval architect and marine segment manager, explained that they were able to prolong the period when a fire is prevented from spreading from 60 minutes to 240 minutes by adding only 15mm lengths of Promaguard on top of an existing standard insulation. The company says the layers can be applied with equal effectiveness on aluminium, steel and fibreglass decks and bulkheads. Promaguard is also finding favour in operational areas such as control rooms and offices where drench systems can ruin valuable electronic equipment and intellectual property. Meanwhile, the engineroom remains by far the most common source of a fire on every kind of vessel including passenger ships, accounting for between 50 and 70 per cent of all fires and explosions. Mohit Sanguri, an authority on fire prevention currently working with Dynacom Tankers Management, pointed out in a recent study: “The engineroom of a sea going ship is a highly fire-prone area.” Given that it usually contains tanks that are full of different kinds of hot oils and chemicals, some of which runs

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FIRE PREVENTION & CONTROL | 41

through kilometres of piping at pressures as high as 1,200 bar, this is hardly surprising. While conscientious maintenance of fire-prone areas in the engineroom remains the best prevention – this being the primary responsibility of the fire-safety officer – explosions can be triggered by a variety of less easily detected factors such as material fatigue and failures in automation. Most modern enginerooms bristle with fire-detection systems such as heat, flame and smoke detectors that are monitored from the bridge on a master control panel. Secondary systems are installed in the engineroom. And most enginerooms are equipped with high powered sprinklers. But the ideal solution is clearly to predict the fire or explosion – that is, before it occurs – and thus head it off. This is the idea behind the US$100,000 LAS-10 system produced by Denmark manufacturer Daspos. Designed for the open enginerooms on big ships, the LAS-10 (leakage alarm system) continuously analyses the atmospheric air for any dangerous density in hazardous oil fumes and gases. If the system detects that densities have reached intolerable levels, it alerts the crew. Validated by the Danish Technological Institute, LAS-10 is being proven on passenger and other vessels. But if a fire does break out in the engineroom despite precautions, nobody has yet found an alternative to the classic fire extinguisher – albeit much modified. Fast-acting, they are highly effective for dousing localised blazes and explosions before they spread into full-scale conflagrations. Filled with carbon dioxide (CO2), dry chemical powder or foam, according to the requirement, extinguishers should be placed at specific points in the engineroom. And, more traditional again, the sand box remains an effective fire-fighting tool after all these years. First used on vessels that were powered by combustion engines, the sand box is placed near the boiler. If a minor fire breaks out, sand is thrown onto the flames. But when none of the above work, the last resort is the dedicated CO2 room where this gas is stored under high pressure. The oxygen-replacing CO2 is deployed only when the fire has taken hold. Mr Sanguri added: “The CO2 is released in the emergency situation of a fire out of control, after evacuation of the engineroom by the chief engineer on the order of the master of the ship.” It has not yet been established how to deal with ethanoltriggered fires, which are more likely given the growth in ethanolpowered fleets. “No one really knows what happens in the event of a cistern fire involving ethanol, or how best to extinguish it,” reported Björn Sundström, head of the department of fire technology at SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, in February. But his department is working on it. The laboratory is running a project called Etankfire (ethanol tank fire-fighting) that is studying the special characteristics of an ethanol-triggered blaze. It hopes to come up with some answers shortly. Finally, IMO’s reports highlight a common problem in firefighting on board ships—once a blaze starts, things start going wrong. In seven of the 14 cases studied of roro fires, drenchers were unsuccessful or partially successful. In the Lisco Gloria fire in October 2010 the system did not deliver any water at all. And when Vincenzo Florio went ablaze in July 2004, a power black-out delayed the activation of the foam fire-fighting system installed on the vehicle decks. As a result the blaze raged for ten days. If US$200,000 a minute is a reliable estimate of the damage a fire causes, it is not surprising that Vincenzo Florio required extensive repairs. PST

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73 FIRES

ON RORO PASSENGER SHIPS BETWEEN 1994 AND 2011

SINCE 2002 THERE HAS BEEN A VERY SERIOUS INCIDENT EVERY OTHER YEAR, RESULTING IN SIX CONSTRUCTIVE TOTAL LOSSES

THE COST OF AN ONBOARD FIRE IS PUT AT AROUND

US$200,000 A MINUTE A TEST ON BAHAMAS-REGISTERED VESSELS REVEALED A HIGH FAILURE RATE OF AUTOMATIC SPRINKLERS ON PASSENGER SHIPS – IN SOME CASES MORE THAN 50 PER CENT.

THE ENGINEROOM ACCOUNTS FOR BETWEEN 50 AND 70 PER CENT OF ALL FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS ON ALL TYPES OF VESSELS

IN SEVEN OF THE 14 RORO FIRE CASES STUDIED, DRENCHERS WERE UNSUCCESSFUL OR PARTIALLY SUCCESSFUL (IMO REPORT)

Promat’s project showed that it was able to prolong the period when a fire is prevented from spreading from 60 minutes to 240 minutes

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016


A moving experience

Lifts, or elevators, have become such an integral aspect of the cruise experience that passenger flows are now calculated into the ship’s design before even a rivet is banged in By Selwyn Parker

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here can be upwards of 6,000 passengers on board a cruise ship – roughly the population of a small town – and they only have so many days in which to enjoy the experience. So they want to get everywhere and see everything fast. And with the entertainment, the restaurants, the casinos, the gym, the pools, the ice-skating rinks and all the other activities spread over 16 decks, walking is not an option. Nor is waiting several minutes for a lift or escalator. That is the human logistical problem confronted by the designers of cruise ships – and elevators are their hardworking answer. Royal Caribbean International’s Oasis of the Seas, for example, contains a total of 46 elevators ranging from masterpieces of aesthetics soaring up and down the atrium to lifts for people with impaired mobility. “[A cruise ship] is probably the most testing context for elevators, with heavy traffic in all directions 24 hours a day,” explained Robert Segercrantz, director for Helsinki-based Kone Marine at the time of the launch of Oasis of the Seas. But passengers cannot be herded about a ship like cattle; they can only be encouraged to move in ways that, hopefully, create smooth flows of people. That is why, increasingly, analysis of human traffic is done before the ship is designed so that different situations can be taken into account in the vessel’s infrastructure. The main situations are embarkation and disembarkation, both of which can lead to bottle-necks, as well as everyday 24-hour operation at sea. The transport of goods and luggage, all of which involve elevators, are also part of the challenge. For this Kone deploys its own proprietary TrafCal software to analyse the results, which are Kone’s elevators on Allure of the Seas transport passengers up and down 18 decks


PASSENGER FLOW | 43

then incorporated into the ship’s vertical transportation systems. Once the number and location of elevators and escalators have been determined in advance, manufacturers then assemble them off site in their own shafts. When finished, they are transported to the shipyard and plugged into the skeleton of the vessel – a timesaving measure.

Theatre On cruise ships in particular, elevators serve a dual role. As well as moving people around, they are designed to contribute to the vessel’s ambience. Manufacturers such as Schindler routinely contract outside designers to add the glamour with gleaming metals, mirrors and other touches. In keeping with Cunard Line’s traditional décor, its most recent launches Queen Mary 2, Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth feature solid wood panelling, gilded accents and smoked mirrors. And on MSC Cruises’ MSC Meraviglia, a new-generation Vista class vessel taking shape at STX France’s Sainte-Nazaire yard, the lifts will include marble flooring. In short, “vertical transportation” is part of the theatre.

Practicality Important as the aesthetics are, practicality is probably of equal rank. In rough order of priority, say manufacturers, this comes down to reliability, maintenance and energy efficiency. The last of these is an important consideration, given the huge cost of power on cruise ships. To address this, The Netherlands-based Lift Emotion employs a technology known as optional frequency drive that claims to cut power consumption by up to half. An improvement on standard traction-driven motors, it is often used in domestic lifts for the disabled. In the marine environment the technology is seen as particularly effective for lowerrise elevators commonly used on smaller passenger vessels. In the last few years Lift Emotion has found a ready market in ferries and high speed catamarans in Norway, Japan and the USA. It currently has an orderbook that includes elevators for two mini-cruise vessels, three ferries in Europe and another in the USA. Kone’s contribution to energy efficiency is an elevator known as MonoSpace that does away entirely with the machine room, and is an energy-efficient alternative to hydraulic-powered elevators. A total of

19 of the smaller MiniSpace versions, that have reduced the size of the machine room but not quite eliminated it, are being installed on MSC Meraviglia. They include two scenic elevators. All are hoisted by an EcoDisc unit that is designed to run for a quarter of a century. To reduce maintenance costs, Lift Emotion uses off-the-shelf equipment rather than proprietary technology. Corporate affairs spokesman Mike Brandt explained: “We do not have closed control systems that are only accessible by the supplier. Local approved maintenance companies can service our lifts. But most of our elevators have little down-time and require just one maintenance visit per year.”

Reliability Shipboard elevators have a hard life and have to be more rugged than their landbased equivalents. They have to withstand constant tremors, as though in a light earthquake, created by the vibration of the ship and the movement of the sea. This resilience requires not only powerful motors but also vibration-free cabins that make the occupants feel as though they are on dry land. Despite this, the average economic life of a marine elevator could be as long as 25 years – although that would be pushing it to the limit. “An older elevator will probably still work, but a modernisation would reduce the cost of owning and operating it as well as increasing the up-time,” explains Schindler. This is especially true of elevators installed in cruise vessels and ferries. Routine modernisation is the key to keeping the elevator functioning. Thus the current trend is to replace the hardestworking parts before they fail. As Schindler explains, the more vulnerable components include the control panel, the trailing cable, the doors, ropes, traction machine and sheaves, the interior, the bearings and the door controllers. With careful attention, a regularly modernised elevator could double its working life. “Several factors affect the life span of an elevator,” explains a Kone spokesperson. “Usage, obviously, is the main one, but the care that is given to the maintenance and modernisation of equipment is also important. Generally speaking, after approximately 15 years elevators might need some broader modernisation. We reckon that, with our regular preventative maintenance and

critical modernisation, elevator equipment can operate for some 30 years.” Kone has come up with a system called E-Link that uses sensors to monitor usage and maintenance requirements and tells the operator when something needs to be done.

Escalators Since escalators were first installed some five years ago, they have become standard in the latest cruise ships as an important supplement to elevators. Kone’s escalators, for example, are found on Royal Caribbean’s Oasis class vessels as well as on Norwegian Cruise Line, Tui Cruises and Star Cruises vessels. Over the next two years it will install two escalators, and 32 elevators, in a Breakaway Plus class ship being built by Meyer Werft for Norwegian and due for launch in 2018. Like everything else in vertical transportation technology, escalators are undergoing constant refinement. As a labour-saving bonus, the Helsinki-based group has introduced a self-washing system on its latest versions. Not only does this innovation save on cleaning bills, it doubles the escalator’s usefulness because it can be used in galleys or wherever else food is transported. One thing that has not changed much is the speed of the elevator, especially the panoramic ones. That is mainly because, once passengers get into a lift, they like to take their time. PST

Lift Emotion’s lower rise elevators utilise optical drive technology to reduce energy costs


44 | PROPULSION SYSTEMS

Smaller cruise ships benefit from high-tech propulsion packages PROPULSION SYSTEM SUPPLIERS HAVE SECURED SOME INTERESTING CONTRACTS RECENTLY TO SUPPLY ADVANCED PROPULSION TECHNOLOGY TO CRUISE SHIPS AT THE SMALLER END OF THE SIZE SPECTRUM by Clive Woodbridge

Wärtsilä’s WTT-40 addresses market requirements for high power transverse thrusters for bow and stern applications

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016

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onsiderable investment is being made in delivering economy of scale to the cruise industry, and the market is now almost used to announcements of orders for ships with capacities of 5,000 passengers and more, without them causing much of a stir. However, there is also a sizeable orderbook for cruise ships at the smaller end of the size scale, with capacities around the 1,000 passenger mark, for cruise brands that specialise in niche, high end passenger experiences. These ships often have very specific propulsion requirements – for example, for polar cruise capability, or high levels of manoeuvrability. The ability to serve smaller, less accessible ports and regions, that are off the beaten track in cruise schedule terms, are generally high on such operators’ priority lists when specifying new tonnage. A number of recent projects have highlighted the leading propulsion systems suppliers’ ability to meet demanding specifications at the lower end of the cruise ship size spectrum, as well as for the behemoths of the sea at the other extreme. One of the most notable orders received by ABB, whose Azipod propulsion technology celebrated its

25th anniversary last year and claims about 90 per cent of the cruise propulsion market, has come from Crystal Cruises. The company has confirmed contracts to supply an extensive range of systems and technology to two of Crystal’s Exclusive class vessels, each of which will have around 1,000 passenger capacity, that are on order at Lloyd Werft in Germany. The two ships will, possibly for the first time, combine ABB’s extensive icegoing and passenger vessel technology expertise. Marcus Högblom, vice president for passenger vessel sales at ABB Marine, says: “This order is extremely interesting for us, as it brings together the two areas of technology we are perhaps best known for – cruise ship and ice-breaker propulsion. With the Crystal Cruises ships we will be combining both skills sets to deliver solutions that provide a high degree of speed and efficiency in open waters, as well as the ability to cope with demanding Ice class scenarios. It may sound easy, but it has required the development of a special propulsion product that is both very powerful and sensitive to ice conditions.” ABB will deliver two Azipod XO units for each of the newbuildings. Two of the

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PROPULSION SYSTEMS | 45

Azipods will be capable of up to 22MW of power, while two will be rated at 19MW. The latter are considered by ABB to represent the optimum propulsion arrangement for vessels requiring high levels of performance in both open water and ice. ABB’s Azipod XO technology will enable the cruise ship equipped with the 19MW azipods, that have been specifically designed for Ice class service and will be driving the largest and most powerful Ice class polar cruise ship afloat, to operate almost anywhere in the world. As well as the Azipod XO units, ABB has been contracted to supply a range of other technology for the Crystal Cruises vessels, including its 800xA automation system and the EMMA energy management advisory system. This technology will enable constant monitoring of the energy consumption of individual components, and remote diagnostics by the operator and ABB from shoreside. “We will be able to monitor Azipod performance, wherever the vessel is in the world, from a location on shore,” says Mr Högblom. “Given that these ships may have sailing schedules that take them to some of the most remote locations on the planet, this remote monitoring capability will help make them very safe ships.” ABB has also recently secured an important, groundbreaking order for an Azipod D unit – the smaller version of the Azipod XO which was launched last year – for Scenic Eclipse. This newbuilding is a small Ice class cruise ship that will have space for around 200 guests. On order at the Uljanik shipyard in Croatia, for 2018 delivery, Scenic Eclipse will be the first passenger vessel to feature an Azipod D unit. “We think that such smaller cruise ships and superyachts, and also river cruisers, could be an area of growth for Azipod propulsion as a result of the

Seabourn Encore features low noise diesel-electric propulsion units from Wärtsilä

Azipod D development,” says Mr Högblom. “The Azipod D has attracted a great deal of interest from many yards, including those new to the passenger shipping sector, since it was announced in 2015.” Wärtsilä of Finland has also been involved with a propulsion project for a pair of smaller 600 passenger capacity cruise ships, Seabourn Encore and Seabourn Ovation, which are due to enter the Seaborne Cruise Line fleet in 2016 and 2017 respectively. The scope of supply includes a complete Wärtsilä electrical propulsion system, with each vessel being equipped with four Wärtsilä 32 engines. Seabourn Encore and its sister will feature two 6MW low noise diesel-electric propulsion units with an innovative frequency converter design and a high degree of redundancy. The Finnish manufacturer is also supplying four thruster drives for the bow and stern, four diesel alternators and four AC motors for the thrusters. In addition, the Seabourn pair will be fitted with Wärtsilä switchboards for high voltage distribution

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and four transformers for low voltage supply, as well as the Wärtsilä Valmatic Platinum integrated automation system, which has additional capabilities to optimise vessel power management. Targeting the cruise market in particular, Wärtsilä has recently launched its new WTT-40 transverse thruster, the first units of which have been ordered and are scheduled for delivery during 2016. These feature a 4,000kW power level and a 3,400mm diameter controllable pitch propeller. While Wärtsilä has in the past designed and built large – up to 5,500kW – transverse thrusters as customised versions, the WTT-40 addresses customer needs for high power transverse thrusters for both bow and stern applications. As a result of its maximum power of 4,000kW, shipyards and cruise vessel designers will often be able to utilise three WTT-40 thrusters instead of four smaller ones. Wärtsilä claims that this creates a more efficient vessel design, with less space required for the transverse thrusters, and also

allows them to be located closer to the bow, where they are more effective. For the WTT-40 and other sizes of thruster in the WTT series, configurations with controllable pitch and fixed pitch propellers are available, Wärtsilä points out, while computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis can be used to enhance propulsion performance and efficiency, and minimise noise and vibration levels, on specific vessel designs. Compliant with the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Vessel General Permit (VGP) 2013 regulations, the new thruster also features integrated hydraulics to save machinery room space and reduce installation and commissioning time in the shipyard. According to Wärtsilä the integrated hydraulics on the WTT-40 provide owners with major benefits in terms of reliability and being maintenance friendly. Also having success in the smaller cruise segment is UK-based Rolls-Royce, which has been collaborating with Viking Cruises and shipbuilder Fincantieri on a project to build three 930 passenger capacity cruise vessels. Viking Star, delivered last year, was followed by Viking Sea, which was handed over in March this year, and the trio will be completed by Viking Sky, due for delivery in 2017. All three ships feature Rolls-Royce twin Promas systems, with six-bladed 4.5m diameter fixed pitch propellers, which are reported to have generated notable benefits in terms of speed, manoeuvrability and noise levels. In the medium-sized cruise sector, Rolls-Royce is supplying propellers for Mein Schiff 5 and Mein Schiff 6, on order for TUI Cruises at Meyer Werft’s Turku yard in Finland, having successfully delivered a fixed bolted propeller design to the earlier Mein Schiff 3 and Mein Schiff 4. Rolls-Royce’s research and

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016


Norwegian Epic has benefited from upgrades, including refits with Rolls-Royce permanent magnet thruster systems

development team is focusing heavily at present on harnessing permanent magnet technology to its tunnel technology and in the past year has gained its first experience with a cruise ship. Norwegian Cruise Line selected a Rolls-Royce permanent magnet tunnel thruster to upgrade the propulsion package on board 155,873gt Norwegian Epic, which can accommodate up to 4,100 guests, during a refit at Damen Shiprepair Brest last year. The company claims that permanent magnet tunnel thruster technology offers various advantages over traditional tunnel thrusters, including a significant reduction in noise and vibration and an increase in power output of around 25 per cent from the same size propeller. In addition, it is removable under water, eliminating the need for drydocking should any maintenance and repair be required. Other benefits of permanent magnet technology include the freeing up of space directly above the thruster where traditional tunnel thruster motors are located, and a symmetrical design that gives equal thrust to port or starboard. Also involved with the Norwegian Epic propulsion system upgrade was the German company Becker, which fitted its energy-saving Becker Flap Twisted Leading Edge Rudders, including a rudder bulb and custom-made propeller end fairing caps, to the cruise ship.

According to Becker, initial CFD calculations were very promising and indicated a notable improvement in manoeuvring and “remarkable” energy savings thanks to the flow-optimised Becker rudder profile. The CFD tests also highlighted the fact that the original rudder offset at the neutral position could be decreased from the original 4 degrees, to only 2 degrees, with the new Becker system. The main components of the original non-flap rudder system, including the trunk, rudder stock and steering gear, remained unaltered during the refit, in order to provide a very economic upgrade. The new rudder blades, including the linkage system of the rudder flap, were specially adapted to the existing ship configuration aft. After the ship’s return to service last winter, feedback from the crew of Norwegian Epic suggests that the change of rudders is generating energy

savings of 2.5-3 per cent in day-to-day operations. Other cruise ships to have benefited from propulsion system upgrades recently include the Carnival group’s Pacific Pearl, Pacific Dawn and Pacific Jewel. As a result of services delivered by GE Marine Solutions, the vessels’ propulsion systems will be more efficient and will have an extended lifetime. Within the scope of work, GE Marine Solutions provided hardware and spare parts project management, design engineering and shop tests on a real-time simulator. The company also upgraded the propulsion documentation and drawings and supervised the work from installation to sea trials. In the ferry sector, BC Ferries selected Schottel as supplier for three double ended ferries presently being built at Remontowa shipyard that will be capable of running either on diesel or LNG. The ferries will cater for 150 cars and up to 600 passengers and crew. The propulsion system of the 107 m long vessels consists of two Schottel twin propellers (azimuth thrusters) type STP 1515 (1750 kW each) per vessel. Schottel said: The propeller load will be distributed on two propellers leading to much reduced pressure pulses to hull and higher comfort on board. Due to the compactness of the drives, less space is

required for the engine room compared to vessels equipped with conventional propulsion. Hence, more space aboard will be of benefit of owners. Meanwhile, Schottel is launching the electric Eco Peller SRE for with power ratings between 1,000kW and 5,000kW in mid 2016. A Schottel spokesperson told PST: For ferries this thruster is especially interesting thanks to its optional CP version with full feathering mode. If a ferry is equipped with one drive in the bow and one in the stern it is possible to operate the vessel very fuel efficient only using the drive in the stern. The other drive will then be in full feathering position with very low resistance. A CP propeller allows operation always with optimum efficiency as propeller pitch and revolution can be controlled and adapted to the task at hand.“ The SRE is based on the design principle of a vertical electric motor integrated into the rudderpropeller. This eliminates the upper of the two angle gears as well as any necessary shaft lines. On board there is extremely low vibration and low noise levels. This design is a boost for vessels such as doubleended ferries, as it allows the hull to be designed as more streamlined – and therefore more efficient. PST

Crystal Cruises’ Exclusive class vessels will bring together ABB’s expertise in cruise ship propulsion and ice class navigation

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016

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21-23 September 2016

International Trade Fair and Congress Centre Santa Cruz, Tenerife

The Mediterranean’s

Premier Cruise Industry Event

Reserve your stand today

To book, please contact Victoria Philpot. Call +44 1206 201566 or Email victoria.philpot@ubm.com

Hosted by

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48 | FLOORING

CRUISE FLOORING TACKLES NOISE, UPKEEP AND EFFICIENCY CRUISE SHIP FLOORING PROVIDERS HAVE UPPED THE ANTE WHEN IT COMES TO MAINTENANCE, STRUCTURAL AND AIRBORNE NOISE FACTORS, AND EFFICIENCY OF SUPPLY IN THEIR SOLUTIONS. WE SPEAK TO SOME MAJOR SUPPLIERS

Bolidt has undertaken a maintenance programme for the decking it has provided for Viking River Cruises’ ships

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016

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olidt has been working on a wide range of cruise ship decking this year, from river craft to ocean cruise vessels. As well as providing the decking for cruise ships, an important theme for The Netherlands-headquartered company has been the maintenance and after care of its products. This can be seen in Bolidt’s recent dealings with long-standing customer Viking River Cruises. Over the past two years, the flooring specialist has carried out a substantial winterisation programme which includes performing annual maintenance and cleaning across Viking’s fleet of river vessels, for up to 30 ships a year. Jacco van Overbeek, director of Bolidt’s maritime division, explained: “We have completed sanding treatment and cleaning, carried out repairs, and explained to crew how to clean the decks. We have made them look like new.” Bolidt will shortly be supplying Viking’s river cruise vessels with space-saving cleaning equipment so that the maintenance requirement will be reduced. The equipment was only developed recently, with Viking keen to have such solutions on board. Mr van Overbeek said: “Operators need to clean the decks weekly. If they do not, then dirt will build up. Proper cleaning methods need to be put in place.” As well as maintenance, Bolidt is working on projects for new river cruise vessels for both Viking and Scenic, another longstanding customer. Indeed, the river cruise market is a growing one for the company. Crystal Cruises is building four river cruise vessels, which will all use Bolidt’s Bolideck Future Teak, and this owner is also involved in a major refurbishment project on Crystal Mozart (formerly Mozart), the largest and most luxurious river cruise ship in Europe. Here, Bolidt is supplying all outdoor decking in Future Teak as well as prefabricated work on steps and other areas. The company has on average been providing 12-14 river cruise vessels a year with its decking products, over the last few years. In the ocean-going cruise sector, Bolidt is supplying newbuilding Viking Sea, described on one website as one of cruising’s most beautiful small ships, and Crystal Esprit, the luxury ocean-going vessel, with its deck solutions. Another major project has been with Royal Caribbean International’s Harmony of the Seas. Bolidt provided the decking on the previous two Oasis class ships. The 227,000gt, 364m long vessel will feature a number of different Bolidt decking materials, including Bolideck Future Teak, Bolideck Select Soft Teak Effect, Bolideck Select Soft and Bolideck Select Hard. On Ovation of the Seas, in addition to supplying all outdoor decking Bolidt has supplied all balconies – some of them with its recentlylaunched Smart Balcony product. The company has also provided all outside decks and balconies

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FLOORING | 49

The Sikafloor Marine range has strong acoustic reduction qualities

for TUI Cruises’ Mein Schiff 5 – and has again been appointed to work with a local artist in producing an area of floor and wall artwork in one of the public areas of the vessel. This involves live pouring of the liquid flooring on board to create an image; a unique concept which was appreciated by the owner and passengers alike in a similar project commissioned for earlier vessel Mein Schiff 3. Mr van Overbeek explained that Mein Schiff 5 differs from its sisterships as it uses more coloured Future Teak and Select Soft decking. Bolidt increased the number of its Future Teak colour options from two to nine last year. “Cruise operators have picked up on these different colours. The decking looks more lively using a few colours rather than just one shade. The use of the extra colours will make Mein Schiff 6 look different from Mein Schiff 5. Holland America Line and Seabourn Cruise Line have also used different colours recently. We can also make any colour. If an owner wants a new colour, we can do it.” The arrival of China in the cruise ship sector has had a big impact for cruise ship suppliers, including Bolidt. “More and more cruise ships will sail out of China and more will carry out drydocking and servicing in this country, so we definitely have a presence there. It will be a big market for us,” commented Mr van Overbeek. Other new developments for Bolidt include an advance in prefabrication work to be used on the balconies of cabins. Mr van Overbeek was not able to provide any details, as the project had not yet been made public. He pinpointed a new trend when it comes to providing the decking for newbuilds and refits – working on blocks that are sheltered by tents. For example, Bolidt is installing balcony decks in block stages as part of its contract to supply MSC Cruises’ newbuild MSC Meraviglia. Mr van Overbeek observed: “This approach saves a lot of time and money for the yard. If we install in block stages, the blocks are already inside the big tents which are required to protect them. As a result, there is no need to provide any additional weather protection to install the balconies once the blocks have been put together for the complete vessel. What is important, and is appreciated by the yard, is that we are flexible enough to be able to accommodate this way of working.” The biggest vessel in the MSC Cruises fleet, MSC Meraviglia, will have space for 4,500 passengers in 2,250 cabins. Earlier this year the cruise line agreed contracts with STX France for two further vessels for delivery in late 2019 and mid 2020. These will be even larger, at 331m in length, and will have around 200 additional cabins. It has been confirmed that Bolidt will be supplying a comprehensive range of decking and flooring materials to these two vessels, in addition to MSC Meraviglia and its sistership that is due for delivery in early 2019. The range will include its Bolideck Future Teak, as well as Bolideck Select Soft Teak Effect, Bolideck Select Soft and Bolideck Select Hard.

Upping the ante on noise

Another growing trend in the design and development of passenger vessels is increased attention to structural and airborne noise. Switzerland-headquartered Sika is a marine acoustic flooring solution specialist. Its UK marine account manager Tony Jenkins told Passenger Ship Technology: “The floor zone specification for newbuilds and refurbishments is critical in passenger vessels today. Ever-higher standards set by regulatory authorities, so that shipowners improve onboard comfort for their passengers and crew, are pushing the evolution of new flooring systems from manufacturers.”

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He added: “In most modern passenger vessels, one of the main issues for shipbuilders is reducing the level of structural and airborne noise to modern acceptable standards. Simple absorber and mass systems are not enough to deal with low frequency structure borne noise. Combination floors using low frequency absorbing elements are required to reduce structure and airborne noise.” Sika is continually developing its range of acoustic and A60 fire rated marine flooring systems, supplying the marine industry globally. The Sikafloor Marine range has been developed with strong acoustic reduction qualities, along with fast installation times, low weight factors and full FTCP A60 compliance. A recent contract for Sika has been Mein Schiff 5, which is being completed at Meyer Turku in Finland. TUI Cruises’ vessel has been extensively outfitted with the Sikafloor Marine range from primary deck coverings in cabins and walkways to composite acoustic flooring systems throughout the high noise areas such as restaurants. Mr Jenkins summed up: “The passenger shipping sector is a rapidly growing market for Sika and we are producing some really innovative products to meet the requirements of shipyards and regulatory authorities that are being very well received.” PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016


50 | HVAC

Big data byword for HVAC To make the most of HVAC savings data management is key, say major suppliers to cruise ships and ferries

T

he focus on energy conservation within the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) field continues, despite the drop in oil prices. Crucial to this is management of big data – extremely large data sets that can be analysed to reveal patterns, trends, and associations, especially relating to human behaviour and interactions. The drop in oil prices has not deterred passenger ship operators from focusing on energy savings through HVAC solutions. Philip Bannerman, vice president of innovation, strategy and communication for Sweden-headquartered Callenberg Technology Group, told Passenger Ship Technology: “Oil prices have been dropping dramatically and at first we were concerned that this might reduce spend on energy conservation projects. But this is not the case. Our solutions save even more energy today and it is very refreshing to see cruise lines taking a long-term view and continuing to invest in HVAC energy optimisation.” Magnus Hansson, Callenberg director

of energy management technology, added that regulatory considerations were still a big influence, regardless of the reduction in oil prices. “Cruise operators’ environmental focus has not changed and we create a big impact in reducing CO2 and other emissions. For every ton of fuel saved, there is a reduction of 3.2 tons of CO2. So HVAC energy efficiency is very important.” He explained that the use of big data – such as that generated by the automated monitoring system controlling HVAC solutions – is more and more key to this process. “Data management is becoming more important. When we automate passenger and crew cabins, we end up with more than 20 data points per cabin that need to be continuously controlled, monitored and stored. This generates millions of data elements which are available for analysis.” Callenberg continuously develops its HVAC and automation solutions and has honed these so that the cruise operator has access to exactly what they need to

AirD makes air vents that are part of the interior design of a cruise ship

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016

For more articles visit www.passengership.info


HVAC | 51

know. Mr Hansson explained: “The key is to be intuitive and only present information that the operator needs. If they want to drill down they can go all the way down to a specific control object. Having the information about every energy consumer and what is going on in each area in realtime is key to saving energy.” Callenberg has developed its HVAC solutions over the course of many projects and with valuable input from cruise ship operators. Its automated cabin solution was deployed in 2012 on Carnival Cruise Line’s Carnival Sunshine (when it was Carnival Destiny) and since then it has been further developed. The cabin units and air handling units have been optimised in co-operation with the ship wide monitoring system, leading to large savings in energy. Indeed, Mr Hansson reckoned that when the system was used on an average sized cruise ship, it could save 5-10 kWh million per year. Alongside data management, Mr Hansson said that an important factor for success was to view HVAC holistically. He explained: “A holistic view of the whole HVAC system needs to be taken. If only part of the system is considered there is certainly pay-back, but to get bigger savings an operator needs to take in the wider picture. We know the exact air conditioning demand in each specific area.

With this knowledge we can integrate all of the subsystems and achieve maximum savings by applying our True Demand control strategies.” He added that HVAC also ties in with lighting. “If a cruise operator converts to LED [light emitting diode] lighting technology, it is using less energy and producing less heat, so the demand on the HVAC system is less.” Callenberg can provide lighting as well as HVAC solutions. Mr Hansson said that energy saving projects in the retrofit market have driven advances on new ships. “Operators see immediate savings from our retrofit projects and by accurately measuring return on investment, this makes it easier for them to deploy the same technology in newbuilding specifications.” Finland’s Koja Marine is very busy at the moment when it comes to HVAC projects. It is currently working on Royal Caribbean International’s Ovation of the Seas and Harmony of the Seas and on TUI Cruises’ Mein Schiff 5. It is in the process of finishing its commissions on the almost-completed Mein Schiff 5 and Harmony of the Seas. In addition, Koja’s orderbook includes the next, as yet un-named, Oasis class ship, which will follow after Harmony of the Seas is delivered. Mein Schiff 5 is part of a long series for Koja Marine as it is the

Halton MobiChef to launch this summer One of Halton’s latest innovations is called Halton MobiChef. The system was launched for landside applications in 2014 and the marine version will be available later this year. The system frees cooking from any ventilation ductwork and is a completely autonomous mobile cooking station. It can be used with all electric cooking appliances, from light-duty table top equipment to traditional 700mm and 900mm deep modular equipment. Halton said that this was possible thanks to Halton Capture Jet technology, which ensures the “highest efficiency in capturing smoke and cooking odours.” A fully integrated and compact recycling unit makes MobiChef completely independent from any central ventilation system. To prevent spillage of smoke, heat and impurities, the Halton MobiChef cooking area is closed on the front and the sides

are effectively locked by Halton’s Capture Jet technology. The company said that Capture Jet creates an air curtain which captures smoke, heat and impurities released by the cooking appliances, and steers them through the high efficiency filters into an integrated recycling unit. Halton’s touch screen is based on the use of clear visuals that allow easy control of the main functions. The remaining lifetime of the filters is clearly displayed so that maintenance operations can be easily planned. “Halton MobiChef controls ensure that one is always working with the correct airflow, no more, no less. The speed of the fan is adjusted automatically to compensate for filter pressure losses as the filter becomes dirty. The exhaust airflow is then kept constant, ensuring that the capture efficiency remains at its maximum level whatever the state of the filters,” the company said.

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fourth ship of this class for which Koja has provided the HVAC solution. Furthermore, its orderbook includes Tallink’s liquefied natural gas (LNG) powered fast ferry, which is being built at Meyer Turku in Finland. Koja has provided the entire HVAC system – spanning all the fan coils, air handlers and automation systems for both public and cabin areas – for each of these ships. Koja has its own research and development department, and is also in the process of developing a number of new solutions. It is working on a new air conditioning system which includes a cabin automation system, fan coils and air handlers, and it is collaborating closely with several shipyards and ship operators on this. “It is much more energy efficient than before. It reacts when passengers leave their cabins, shutting down the air handlers and units. It is an internet based, IP compatible system which can be tailor made, and we are developing it with shipowners,” commented Esko Nousiainen, director of Koja Marine. “It is a complicated system but it really saves energy.” The company is also working on a new public air distribution system, and looking at the way it works with Koja’s fan coils. Mr Nousiainen was not able to give any more details, but he said that it was “something very new.” New company AirD, based in Finland, is also focusing on matching ventilation with real-time needs. The company, which was established a couple of years ago, stands out from others as it focuses on the aesthetic look of an air vent. Leena Salmi, AirD sales and marketing director, explained: “The business started with the notion that vent covers could look better than they currently do. At the moment they are square or round, and come in either black or white. But we can customise them according to the needs of the cruise ship. “We can make them in glass or metal or other materials, in different shapes and colours. They can be lit. They can be three dimensional, so they do not have to be flat. We like to think that we are the future of ventilation design, and that they can be part of the interior design of the ship.” The air vents use smart technology via sensors that detect different factors in the air, such as CO2, temperature and humidity. These sensors detect the realtime needs of the air conditioning, working when needed and closing the valves when not. AirD chief executive Artur Glad explained that, based on an independent study and on AirD’s own simulations, the

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016


52 | HVAC

system can achieve up to 52 per cent in HVAC energy savings on a cruise ship. The AirD control and monitoring system contains both real-time and historic data about the HVAC needs of a cruise ship. It allows the operator to see the energy savings that are achieved and customer satisfaction rates with regard to temperature and air changes in cabins. Mr Glad added: “It is very easy to use. Diagrams of the cruise ship outline in red where air conditioning needs to be adapted to the needs of the area. This can be done automatically or manually and blue areas means that the air quality is currently being improved. This means that an operator can see the HVAC situation at a glance.” The company is currently in discussions with some shipyards about the possible use of its HVAC solution. Elsewhere, HVAC is an important part of the ship projects on which Finnish naval architect Foreship works. It manages the HVAC element of a ship along with the supplier and the shipyard. Foreship’s repair and conversion references – many of these including HVAC refits – list over 1,000 projects, with its conversion workload in early 2016 including Azamara Club Cruises’ Azamara Journey and Azamura Quest,

Carnival’s Carnival Fantasy, and Norwegian Cruise Line’s Pride of America. Foreship’s many HVAC projects are varied – dealing with HVAC needs in the theatre of a newlybuilt cruise ship, focusing on the bridge environment as part of a tug conversion and many more. Teemu Tanninen, HVAC design manager, has been tasked with growing Foreship’s HVAC business, where he strikes a balance between investing in training for the core team and targeting promising new employees. He told Passenger Ship Technology about some of the challenges when it comes to refitting cruise ship HVAC systems. One recent project saw an in-service conversion of crew cabins on board a well-known, brand new cruise ship, where HVAC piping did not match requirements, and the planned pipework routing was impossible because of possible collisions with other systems. “We had to do the redesign on board, while the contractor was waiting for the decision about how to proceed”, said Mr Tanninen. Another recent high profile ship project at an unspecified yard proved intensely challenging simply because of difficulties in delivering the required quality of workmanship within the agreed project time. PST

HVAC

ACCORDING TO CALLENBERG TECHNOLOGY GROUP Despite low oil prices, cruise operators take a long-term view on HVAC and continue to invest

For every ton of fuel saved, there is a reduction of

3.2 tons of CO2 There are more than 20 HVAC data points per cabin. This generates millions of data elements which are available for analysis

Callenberg’s HVAC monitoring system can save

5-10 kWh million per year on an average-sized cruise ship

A holistic view is needed to get the most HVAC savings

HVAC retrofits are driving newbuild solutions

Halton MobiChef’s controls ensure that the airflow is always correct

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016

For more articles visit www.passengership.info


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54 | ALTERNATIVE FUELS

Cruise industry:

enter LNG LNG has arrived in the cruise industry, but will 80 per cent of cruise ships really be powered by this fuel within a decade?

A

hot topic of debate at Seatrade Cruise Global was the statement made by a cruise line chief executive, who said that 80 per cent of cruise ships will be powered by liquefied natural gas (LNG) by 2025. The statement comes on the back of Carnival Corp’s award of a contract to German shipyard Meyer Werft to build four LNG dual-fuel cruise ships, with the first to be delivered at the end of 2018, and the arrival of Aida Cruises’ Aida Prima, which had just been delivered at time of writing. This will be the first cruise ship to use LNG in port. Carnival senior vice president for maritime affairs Tom Strang highlighted some of the challenges the cruise sector is facing. “There are a lot of issues that keep coming up, including the recent fall in fuel prices and its impact, what will happen when the global sulphur cap drops to 0.5 per cent in 2020, the lack of LNG availability in ports, and the lack of first movers. Then there are some concerns about the application of rules on bunkering and simultaneous operations.” While there are challenges, there is no doubt that the prospects for using LNG on passenger vessels have gone up a gear. Aziz Bamik, general manager for Gaztransport & Technigaz (GTT) North America, commented: “There is more and more interest in using LNG as fuel in commercial vessels, and in cruise vessels in particular. We have started a revolution and the industry is ready. There are some challenges, such as the drop in oil prices, but LNG is a matter for the long run. We hear more and more about using LNG in cruise ships, with questions such as how we can ensure supply and develop solutions that are flexible, reliable and safe. Training is shifting from heavy fuel to LNG.” And the infrastructure is developing to support the growth of LNG in sectors such as cruise. Mr Bamik referred to the first bunker barge being launched in the USA to fuel

the new Tote container vessels. “This is something we can duplicate for cruise vessels,” he said. GTT is developing a training programme for ship staff to be able to operate a barge for LNG fuelling and to this end is planning to build a multipurpose barge simulator. Jason Smith, detachment chief for the United States Coast Guard’s Liquefied Gas Carrier National Center of Expertise, told the audience that he saw four roadblocks that stand in the way of what he described as an optimistic goal. “These roadblocks are infrastructure and the cost effectiveness of LNG as a marine fuel; ensuring that regulation and policy are stable and consistent, including international regulations; and sharing best practice.” The fourth roadblock is uncertainty about safety. “It is a relatively new industry and the LNG carrier model is very safe, but comes at a cost. These are among the best maintained vessels out there.” He said that this high safety bar needed to be maintained. “There is also a roadblock in the form of the environmental aspects of using LNG – the need to make sure there is little or no methane slip,” he said. John Grubic, Shell’s Americas team lead for LNG business development, suggested that the path will be made easier for cruise ships to use LNG. “The focus around LNG has dramatically increased. Our perspective is that this is a journey we want to help enable, building up infrastructure for sectors like cruise, building our network of bunkering options, and seeing the network development continue.” Paolo Moretti, general manager for RINA’s marine business line, pointed out that the International Code of Safety for Ships using Gases or other Low-flashpoint Fuels (IGF Code) – which is due to be published in January 2017, but which but flag authorities say can be used now – is very important for the use of LNG in cruise ships. “We have


ALTERNATIVE FUELS | 55

a really great safety record in this industry. On the ship side, we have a really robust set of international standards.” Fred Danska, cruise business director for Wärtsilä, said: “If you look at other commercial vessels, there were 40 LNG newbuilds last year. Two years from now there will be 270, so I think that the likelihood is that 80 per cent of cruise ships will use LNG.” Eric Linsner, LNG specialist and general manager of International Registries, highlighted what he thought was important to enable cruise ships to use LNG. “We believe the cruise industry needs to share best practice with the gas carrier industry to maintain the exemplary safety record that has been achieved over the past 50 years. This would provide a clear path for the cruise industry to adopt LNG as a marine fuel. “We have been engaged with CLIA [Cruise Lines International Association] and other industry members to share the best practices that we have obtained from our LNG ship fleets. The goal is to have consistency of LNG issues throughout the maritime sector. As a flag state we are extremely concerned that regional requirements will develop inconsistently and so create barriers to the free movement of gas fuelled ships between coastal states. Fortunately, there is an international regulatory framework in place already. “We see newbuildings as the most likely candidates for LNG.” Mr Linsner said that the importance of consistent implementation of international standards in port state, safety management and LNG bunkering procedures cannot be overstated. The groundwork is being developed for this, by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the Society for Gas as a Marine Fuel (SGMF). “Hopefully, coastal state acceptance of this will simplify the operational challenges facing the cruise industry,” he concluded. One of the drawbacks of using LNG is methane slip,

due to incomplete combustion of methane in the engine. Mr Strang raised this matter, saying: “One of the things Carnival has done, when we are talking to shipyards, engine manufacturers and LNG suppliers, is to discuss the whole well-to-wake issue.” Shell’s Mr Grubic stressed the importance of the well-towake approach, which looks at the use of LNG holistically, rather than just looking at LNG consumption. “This approach is supply chain dependent, so no single answer satisfies every question. For example, upstream emissions vary by region, and if you produce gas in one region and liquefy it there, then ship it somewhere else and market elsewhere, the well-to-wake issue looks different compared with markets where it is being produced. Even shipping by pipelines requires energy to move it around, so that needs to be factored into well-to-wake calculations.” Mr Grubic highlighted the risk of methane emissions. “Leaks in pipelines can lead to future methane emissions. The greenhouse gas impact of methane is over 30 times greater than CO2, so we take very seriously how the whole supply chain is managed.” He pointed out that this has an economic impact, as well. “If methane is being lost, then value is being lost. We look at how to minimise the methane slip in production and in transporting the LNG.” His message to cruise ship operators using LNG was that the methane slip problem can be solved by designing this factor into the infrastructure and supply chain. “There are many best practices in industry that can be used to preserve the environmental benefit of using LNG. But if focus on this is lost, then the methane slip can negate the benefits.” Engine manufacturers, too, have been doing their bit to reduce methane slip. Mr Danska said that Wärtsilä has reduced methane slip from 9g to 3g or 4g, and efforts are ongoing to keep reducing that volume. PST


56 | ALTERNATIVE FUELS

Carnival plumps for LNG RINA general manager for marine business Paolo Moretti described Carnival Corp’s liquefied natural gas (LNG) project as “something innovative for the cruise ship industry. These are the first very big ships to use dual fuel with LNG as fuel.” The four cruise ships are being built for Carnival by German yard Meyer Werft to RINA's Gas Fuelled class notation and the International Code of Safety for Ships using Gases or other Lowflashpoint Fuels (IGF Code). While the ships will be fitted with dual-fuel LNG and marine gas oil (MGO) engines, Mr Moretti said that the cruise operator was keen to operate on gas alone, using MGO only in the event of an emergency. Options for bunkering the cruise ships are to fuel them directly from the pier or via barges. “Using the pier involves a lot of infrastructure. The use of barges will be the most viable option,” Mr Moretti commented, alluding to the fact that Aida Cruises’ newbuilds

will be using barges for bunkering. “I think there will be shore based storage tanks in different ports where the cruise ships are calling, which will be able to supply the bunker tanks,” he added. Asked whether he thought that 80 per cent of the cruise ship industry will be using LNG by 2025, he said: “If we are talking about newbuildings, this is possible. But it is not possible with the old fleet, which cannot easily be retrofitted to use LNG.” Highlighting the importance of the Carnival project to achieving this level of take-up, he said: “This might happen if the project by Carnival is shown to be viable and provides all the structures that are needed, from a business case point of view. Wider infrastructure and growth in terms of logistics, as well as common rules for bunkering, will be needed too.” He said he thought that the trend would be to use LNG as part of a dual-fuel system, rather than pure LNG. “Having the option to use diesel oil will facilitate compliance with Safe Return to Port requirements. If not, the gas system would have to be built with considerable redundancy to satisfy this requirement, which would have a bigger impact on ship design.”

Emulsified fuel moves forward Singapore-headquartered Blue Ocean Solutions has moved forward with its emulsified fuel solution both commercially and technically. “We are now beyond proof of concept. We now have proven performance. Our efficiency improvement numbers have been validated by class societies, shipowners and engine manufacturers such as Wärtsilä,” said Jerry Ng, founder and chief executive of Blue Ocean Solutions. The system offers fuel savings of at least 2 per cent. Blue Ocean Solutions has retrofitted ships of three cruise operators with its solution and is currently in talks with an operator about using the product in newbuilds. Its flexibility to adapt to new solutions and regulations has been shown. Dr Ng said: “Ours is the only system in the world that is operating on marine gas oil [MGO] without using any additives. When the ship is using MGO in a sulphur emissions control area, the advantage we offer is that when it switches over from heavy fuel oil [HFO] to MGO, it does not need a chiller, which is usually recommended by engine manufacturers for a switch of this kind. This saves capital costs. Furthermore, emulsified MGO produced with our solution has higher viscosity closer to that required by fuel injectors for better atomisation. This means better fuel combustion and higher cost savings.” Blue Ocean Solutions’ product can also be used with a dualfuel engine using liquefied natural gas (LNG) and MGO, as the fuel emulsifier can also be applied when the vessel switches over to MGO from LNG. The solution is also beneficial as it substantially reduces particulate matter, according to Dr Ng. The better combustion and presence of steam in the emulsifier system softens the soot, resulting in a cleaner exhaust. “This is something that is especially important for cruise liners. It is very damaging to their image to have black and dirty smoke.” He believes that in the future there will be regulations restricting particulate emissions. There is a bigger drive in the industry to get rid of this polluting substance, with particularly strict rules in Alaska. The emulsifier system can also play a part in the reduction of

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016

NOx. It reduces NOx by about 20 per cent, and although this is not enough to meet the stricter Tier III emissions requirements of 80 per cent NOx reduction, it can complement selective catalytic reduction (SCR). “The maintenance costs of SCR are expensive. If you have reduced NOx by 20 per cent at source, there is less demand on the SCR, which means that the maintenance costs of the SCR are also reduced.” The solution also complements a scrubber. Dr Ng explained: “The small drop in fuel efficiency caused by back pressure loss of the scrubber is compensated by the improved efficiency of the emulsifier solution. Also, the scrubber only removes the SOx and not the NOx. We reduce particulate matter at source, which reduces the maintenance costs of the scrubber.” PST Blue Ocean Solutions’ efficiency improvement numbers have been validated by Wärtsilä

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WASTE MANAGEMENT | 59

Suppliers step up to meet the waste treatment challenge

A

number of recent and planned product developments demonstrate clearly that specialist technology suppliers are rising to the challenge of producing even more compact, efficient, costeffective waste management systems that can comply with the latest regulatory guidelines and keep pace with evolving operator requirements. Jan Tore Leikanger, chief executive of Finland’s Jets Vacuum, one of the leading marine sanitary system suppliers, points out: “Shipowners and operators are facing pressure to reduce emissions by cutting energy use, but at the same time ever larger cruise ships require more vacuum capacity to operate toilet systems on board. The fact that the available machinery space on board passenger ships remains limited, despite the fact that vessel sizes are increasing, adds to the challenge. So more compact, energy-efficient solutions are required.” The single most important product improvement relating to passenger vessels that Jets has made in the past year is the launch of its new 140MB Vacuumarator pump for vacuum toilet systems, which is claimed to be the company’s most energy efficient to date. Mr Leikanger says: “It offers tremendous vacuum capacity while retaining a very simple design and compact size. Its internal geometry has been optimised, greatly improving the hydrodynamic properties of pump components, and frequency control has been introduced to match the pump’s output more closely to the capacity requirements at any given time. For these reasons the 140MB offers more

Dealing with shipboard waste on passenger vessels is a demanding task, especially as ships increase in capacity and environmental rules get tougher

vacuum capacity per kW of power input than any of our previous pump models.” In 2014, Czech Republicbased ACO Marine introduced the ACO Maripur NF, which is claimed to be the first typeapproved wastewater treatment system designed specifically to meet IMO Resolution MEPC 227(64) guidelines. Suitable for passenger vessels with capacities up to 500 persons, ACO Maripur NF is a black and grey water treatment system that does not use any chemicals in the treatment process, employing filtration technology to treat waste water to below mandatory levels. ACO Marine reports that it is now close to finalising an upgraded version of the Maripur range that will include the patented ‘bio-sword’ filtration technology that already features in its smaller Clarimar MF range of units. Mark Beavis, chief executive, says: “This development completely negates the need for settling or chlorination tanks, thereby allowing for the development of a system with a much smaller footprint without impacting its high capacity or performance. The result is significant cost savings for the owner.” Following the acquisition of Deerberg-Systems of Germany by Finland’s Evac group in 2015, the merged company is now marketing a comprehensive range of waste management systems to the cruise industry. Deerberg’s

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well-known Multi Purpose Waste Management System (MPWMS) has recently been renamed and is being marketed as the Evac Complete Cleantech Solution. Evac notes that there has been a recent trend for shipowners to set clear targets designed to minimise the amount of waste created on board. Rebecca Gloeden, marketing manager at EvacTriton, adds: “This will mean that less waste will be available for incineration and more waste will be destined for storage on board, before landing ashore for recycling. As there will be less waste incinerated on the ship, we are now offering a single line system, with our advanced incinerator, as standard, but with higher burning capacity and greater levels of efficiency.” Evac has also developed a number of new items of recycling equipment which it is currently adding to its product portfolio, and has also designed a new briquetting unit for non-

recyclable waste. This will generate further space savings on board and will facilitate the process of landing waste on shore. Furthermore, the handling of packaged briquettes will be safer and more hygienic than handling conventional material, Evac points out. USA-based Headhunter is working on some interesting technology developments, which should be ready for launch in the foreseeable future. The company is currently undertaking type testing which involves an upgraded version of its proven Tidal Wave HMX sewage treatment plant. This will incorporate a number of optional features that will allow operators to comply with the MEPC 227(64) regulations, while maintaining the unit’s compact size and user-friendly operation for which Headhunter has become well known. Cruise ships represent a key target market for the company. Last year Headhunter supplied a completely new sanitation system to the 2002-built expedition cruise ship Mare Australis for the operator Etica Empresa Turística Internacional. The package that was supplied included new Royal Flush Aero toilets and a new Tidal Wave HMX sewage treatment plant. PST

Jets’ new 140MB Vacuumarator pump


60 | LAST WORD

SRtP a life-long process Dr Luis Guarin, partner and naval architect at Brookes Bell Safety at Sea, outlines the challenges and solutions to Safe Return to Port compliance

W

hile the Solas Safe Return to Port (SRtP) requirements are simple in essence, they have huge implications for the passenger ship industry, particularly during vessel operation. Although the regulations came into force almost six years ago, it is only more recently that many affected shipowners and operators have realised the full scale of the challenges SRtP poses during vessel operation. This is because adherence with SRtP to regulations is the responsibility of the shipbuilder up to the point of vessel delivery, at which point the shipowner or operator becomes responsible for compliance. To achieve compliance, shipbuilders typically carry out failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) for each essential system, culminating in an extensive FMEA report for each system approved by a class society on behalf of a vessel’s flag state. When a vessel is delivered, the crew must interpret the outcome of the FMEA studies for each essential system and use the information to develop procedures that ensure compliance in an emergency. For a single flood or fire scenario, the number of manual tasks the crew must complete to contain damage and recover essential systems varies significantly. It could involve a few individual actions, or hundreds, depending on the nature of the incident. To compound the issue, the crew must be able to contain damage and recover essential systems when impacted by all flood or fire scenarios defined in the SRtP regulations. The total number of individual damage scenarios varies depending on the size of the ship, but could be 100 or more. In one industry example, this meant that 100 different manual actions were required to contain damage and recover the operability of an essential ship system in a single scenario. For this vessel, a total of 200 possible scenarios required SRtP compliance. The crew therefore required training to implement a total of 20,000 manual steps to ensure compliance in emergency situations. It may sound insurmountable that a crew can prepare for, and instigate where necessary, such a vast number of manual actions. However, with the right preparation compliance processes between shipbuilders and shipowners, operators and crew can become more integrated, and the flow from vessel design to operation more fluent. Upon delivery of a new vessel, the design assumptions made in the FMEA studies must be validated to ensure that any discrepancies between compliance during vessel design and operation can be addressed. To achieve this, shipowners and operators need access and sufficient resources to review the information, which is extensive and at times difficult to interpret. Once crew procedures to recover the operability of essential ship systems are defined, continuous and systematic drills need

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2016

to be conducted to ensure that the crew tasked with carrying out manual actions are familiar and competent with the emergency control procedures, in line with the correct design intentions and for all SRtP scenarios. This strategy, while effective, comes with additional challenges. For example, planning of and conducting SRtP drills is likely to require extensive efforts due to the large number of scenarios and associated manual actions. Manual actions may involve sequential steps carried out at different locations throughout the ship, requiring, for example, specific access arrangements. This logistical information, not necessarily provided in the FMEA studies, needs to be defined and recorded in a systematic manner and made available to crew throughout the life of the ship, including all possible maintenance work and modifications. Ultimately, SRtP is a unique safety regulation. It cannot be finalised at vessel delivery and is instead a life-long process, which needs to be well planned and organised throughout the lifecycle of a vessel. It needs to live throughout all the upgrades and possible conversions, and support the crew during maintenance work. If clear and well-demonstrated processes can be introduced to achieve this, SRtP compliant vessels will become easier and more cost effective to operate and maintain. PST

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Passenger Ship Technology 2nd Quarter 2016  

Passenger Ship Technology is a leading market title dedicated to technical coverage of all aspects of passenger shipping, including ferries...

Passenger Ship Technology 2nd Quarter 2016  

Passenger Ship Technology is a leading market title dedicated to technical coverage of all aspects of passenger shipping, including ferries...