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This issue of Passenger Ship Technology Magazine is sponsored by

1st Quarter 2018

Carnival Horizon raises the Vista-class energy efficiency bar Glen Sannox: Enter the UK’s first LNG dual-fuelled ferry Behind the scenes of Finland’s first electric ferry

“We are looking at technology for the future and LNG future-proofs us” Carnival Corp senior vice president maritime affairs Tom Strang, page 21


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1st Quarter 2018 volume 11 issue 1

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Ferry profile 7 FinFerries and Siemens have opened up about Elektra – Finland’s first batterypowered ferry. PST travelled to Finland to see the ferry and find out more

Cruise ship profile 15 New cruise ship Carnival Horizon shares many of the same features as first-in-class Carnival Vista but it has two key elements that distinguish it from its sister. We speak to its builder Fincantieri


Operator profiles 21 A top Carnival executive unveils the group’s emissions strategy, including LNG, scrubbers and fuel cells 24 Scottish operator CalMac Ferries has big ambitions – and its strong relationship with Ferguson Marine Engineering shipyard is crucial to achieving these, its chief executive told PST

Shipyard profile 29 Meyer Turku has a record cruise ship orderbook that focuses on the use of new technologies including LNG. Meyer Turku’s deputy chief executive describes the shipyard’s strategy

Expedition cruise orderbook 24

33 The booming expedition cruise orderbook has allowed new shipyards to get a look-in. We look at the global orderbook and at the yards that have clinched contracts

High-speed ferry update 37 Austal shipyard has scooped a contract to build two trimaran ferries for Fred Olsen. The shipyard talks about the order and explains why a trimaran model is suited to the fast ferry sector

Interiors 41 The ferry and cruise ship refit market is booming, while marine interior specialists are taking advantage of local maritime clusters and building relationships with shipyards

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

contents Lifeboats & davits 45 Major lifeboat manufacturers reveal new lifeboat solutions, contracts and service developments that will be key in the cruise and ferry market this year

Communications systems 48 “Always on, always connected” was a major theme at Interferry’s annual conference in Croatia in October 2017 where the importance of offering strong wifi connections with good bandwidth was emphasised as being crucial for ferry operators

Manoeuvring & propulsion 51 Recent propulsion system upgrades and retrofits will enhance manoeuvrability, comfort and efficiency on passenger ships

Coatings 55 Coatings evolve on the back of the ISO 19030 standard while ferry and cruise ship operators have new solutions available to them

Ballast water management systems 56 The type-approvals required in the US and by IMO for ballast water management (BWMS) systems discourages innovation and improvement, says a leading BWMS manufacturer

Infotainment 58 Major advances have been made in boosting the integration and connectivity of cruise ship infotainment

Shipmanagement 61 Shipmanagement companies are focusing more than ever on the passenger ship sector, with the expedition cruise sector an especially lucrative area for them

1st Quarter 2018 volume 11 issue 1 Editor: Rebecca Moore t: +44 20 8370 7797 e: Brand Manager: Indrit Kruja t: +44 20 8370 7792 e: Head of Sales – Asia: Kym Tan t: +65 6809 3098 e: Production Manager: Richard Neighbour t: +44 20 8370 7013 e: Subscriptions: Sally Church t: +44 20 8370 7018 e: Chairman: John Labdon Managing Director: Steve Labdon Finance Director: Cathy Labdon Operations Director: Graham Harman Head of Content: Edwin Lampert Executive Editor: Paul Gunton Head of Production: Hamish Dickie Published by: Riviera Maritime Media Ltd Mitre House 66 Abbey Road Enfield EN1 2QN UK

Automation and control 65 Automation and remote control are emerging as key themes – and short haul ferries could well be among the pioneers

Next issue Main features include: flooring and decking; fire prevention and control; propulsors (including propellers, pods and waterjets); HVAC; passenger flow; alternative fuels: LNG and hybrid; waste water treatment and handling systems; cruise description: Royal Caribbean International: Symphony of the Seas; river cruise market update ISSN 1758-7255 (Print) ISSN 2051-0608 (Online) ©2018 Riviera Maritime Media Ltd Front page image credit: Fincantieri SpA All rights reserved

Total average net circulation: 4,000 Period: January-December 2018

Subscribe from just £199 Subscribe now and receive four issues of Passenger Ship Technology every year and get even more: • supplement: Ballast Water Treatment Technology • access the latest issue content via your digital device • access to and its searchable online archive. Subscribe online:

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

Disclaimer: Although every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this publication is correct, the Author and Publisher accept no liability to any party for any inaccuracies that may occur. Any third party material included with the publication is supplied in good faith and the Publisher accepts no liability in respect of content. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, reprinted or stored in any electronic medium or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission of the copyright owner.


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‘The future is electric’ A Rebecca Moore, Editor

s we enter 2018, what are going to be the main trends driving the ferry and cruise industries in terms of technology? I believe these will be, in a nutshell: battery and LNG power, a surge in bandwidth strength for improved communications and an ever-more prominent role for Chinese shipyards. Battery use among passenger ships has rapidly gained momentum, with one of the most famous examples being Hurtigruten’s battery-powered expedition cruise ship order. The first of these ships is due this year and it will be a world-first, as it is the first cruise ship to use battery power. This shows what batteries are capable of for passenger ships and, as it blazes a trail, others are likely to follow, especially fellow expedition cruise ships. As Hurtigruten chief executive Daniel Skjeldam declared last year, “the future is electric”. LNG has gained huge momentum within the passenger ship industry and I believe that its use will sharply grow this year. For example, this is the year that it reaches a UK ferry – Glen Sannox, due to be delivered this year to Caledonian Maritime Assets Ltd (CMAL) and Calmac Ferries. No doubt we will see other operators follow, especially as its operator will seek to boost the bunkering infrastructure. Carnival Corp is launching the first cruise ship to be fuelled by LNG at sea in 2019 so it, too, is concentrating on boosting LNG infrastructure. This will be ramped-up this year, as the time approaches for its LNG-fuelled

Costa Smeralda to be launched, due in 2019. Carnival Corp has signed a framework agreement with Shell to supply fuel to power the LNG-fuelled ships for AIDA Cruises and Costa Cruises. This will help solve the problem of availability of LNG in ports and I believe that we will then see more contracts for LNGfuelled ships. The move towards stronger bandwidth will snowball this year, especially in the ferry sector. “Always on, always connected” was a huge theme at Interferry’s annual conference in Croatia last year (see pages 48). Speedcast product director for cruise and ferries Steve Scraper said that, in the 2020s, bandwidth speed would reach 1 Gbps on a ship. The company carried out a trial on a cruise ship in 2017 where bandwidth reached 400 Mbps. Let the floodgates open for Chinese shipyard contracts. This is the year that we could see a contract signed in a purely Chinese shipyard for a large cruise ship. Currently the contracts we see there are for ferries, smaller expedition cruise ships or contracts as part of joint ventures with the West. For example, Fincantieri and China State Shipbuilding Corp have worked together in a joint venture to agree a US$1.5Bn deal with Carnival Corp to build two cruise ships for the fast-growing Chinese cruise market. These orders will pave the way for a large cruise ship to be built entirely by a Chinese yard with no European yard input.

“This is the year that we could see a contract signed in a purely Chinese shipyard for a large cruise ship”

The fact that Chinese yards can deal with complex projects, such as Viking Line’s LNG dual-fuelled newbuild, and that the large European shipyards are so booked up, plus the fact that it is cheaper and more competitive to build in China all mean that it is only a matter of time before Chinese yards take on orders for mega cruise ships without European input. PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018


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ferry PROFILE | 7

Elektra recharges during its brief stop at Parainen (credit: Riviera Maritime Media)


t is an unusual experience to stand in a ferry’s engineroom without needing earplugs and to be able to have a conversation without shouting. But this is Elektra, the latest vehicle ferry operated by FinFerries serving Finland’s extensive coastal road network, and its diesel engines are cold and quiet: an electric motor in an adjacent forward

space, together with another one aft, is driving the vessel forward at about 10 knots, their energy drawn from banks of batteries. It is a small ferry on a short route but it will have a big impact for a long time: it entered service in June 2017 and is Finland’s first electric ferry, marking a significant advance for battery-powered propulsion. Its concept and

A battery-powered vehicle ferry in Finland’s Turku archipelago is pioneering electrical technology and cutting emissions, reports Paul Gunton

design reflect many of the ideas pioneered in Norway, in particular on the vehicle ferry Ampere, which has served a short route across a fjord in western Norway since May 2015 for the operator Norled. That makes Elektra the second battery-powered ferry, but it is the first to recharge its batteries at each end of its run directly from

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

8 | PROFILE ferry

the domestic power grid; Ampere draws its power from banks of batteries at each terminal which are themselves refreshed from the local grid while the ferry is in transit. Its Finnish successor operates in south west Finland, between Parainen and Nauvo in the Turku archipelago, making four 10-minute crossings each hour, with five minutes at each end to load and unload its vehicle traffic and top up its batteries. This was made possible by development work on the local power grid. “We were lucky,” FinFerries chief executive Mats Rosin commented to Passenger Ship Technology during a visit to see the ferry in action in November.

Snapshot CV Mats Rosin Mats Rosin (59), has been chief executive of FinFerries since 2010. Before that he spent three years (2006-9) at the Finnish airport operator Finavia, where he started as an airport director, became an area director for seven airports and was then senior vice president for Finavia’s airport passenger services, restaurants, shops and parking.

That visit had been arranged by Siemens, which supplied much of the electrical equipment for Elektra, as it had also done for Ampere before it. Odd Moen is head of sales, marine and shipbuilding, at Siemens and he believes “the future is electric”. Although they were not running during PST’s visit, the three diesel generators on board – divided between two enginerooms, with space for a fourth unit – can each deliver 420 kWe when needed. These are called into action if the shore power should fail – as it did for a short period in October, Mr Moen told PST – or during operations in ice, when extra power is needed or the ship’s speed might be

Prior to that he joined Silja Line in 2004 as senior vice president of Silja, responsible for the Turku route with four passenger and ropax vessels carrying about 1.9M passengers and 80,000 freight units per year. Before that he worked at SeaWind Line, a subsidiary to Silja Line, joining in 1989 as an administrative manager before becoming first operational manager and then managing director. Mr Rosin had worked for other ferry companies before that, including two six-month spells in 1983 and 1984 with Sally Line, a UK subsidiary of Finland’s Rederi Ab Sally. Those coincided with his university education at Åbo Akademi University in Turku, where he graduated in 1987 with a BSc in IT, economics and physics. “I always worked and studied at the same time,” he commented to PST.

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

affected, reducing the time available to recharge. In these situations the generators would normally be used to charge the batteries and Kaj Jansson, FinFerries’ project manager for Elektra, told PST that the generators automatically start if there is insufficient battery power. They can also be switched to deliver power direct to the propulsion circuits. This gives three power modes: pure battery; dieselbattery hybrid and dieselelectric. All three modes can function at the same time, Mr Rosin said, which he pointed out gave Siemens a challenge, but “it was a demand we had” to optimise CO2 emissions, he said. Propulsion is delivered by a pair of Siemens electric motors, each driving one of two RollsRoyce azimuthing thrusters rated at 900 kW, positioned fore and aft on the double-ended ferry. Its total battery capacity is 1 MWh, which would be sufficient for about six crossings of the one-mile route. Mr Jansson explained that the batteries were sized so that they would not be overloaded either while being charged or when in use. “The heavier the load the shorter the [batteries’] lifetime,” he said. “So we were keen to keep the charging and discharging at a reasonable level.” Each trip uses about 15% of the batteries’ capacity, which must be replaced during each brief port call. This requires a quick connection to the shore power to be made, which is achieved by lowering a plug into a socket that opens out of the superstructure (see box). Elektra’s batteries were made by PBES, whose product development work is done in Vancouver, Canada, with production in Trondheim, Norway. There are two battery

banks, one in the forward and one in the aft machinery space, and the captain can see the level of charge in each of them on the bridge. An alarm will sound if there is not enough to complete the trip when the ship sets off and the diesel generators will start automatically. Both banks are charged simultaneously but each is dedicated to one of the thrusters. The hotel load is taken from just one battery bank and is switched from one to the other for each trip: it is always taken from whichever is the forward bank, the captain said. Further electrical power comes from banks of solar panels, supplied by Activesol of Poland, which provide enough power during summer months to run the air conditioning and other hotel loads, Mr Rosin said. At other times – such as the November day when PST was on board – an oil-fired boiler is used to heat the crew spaces and provide hot water; there is no waste heat available from the engines for these services, Mr Jansson pointed out. Compared with the existing conventional ship on the route, Sterna, Elektra carries 40% more vehicles but with 60% less emissions and the electricity cost is trivial: just €5 (US$6) of electricity per crossing, Mr Rosin estimated. Vehicle emissions are also reduced, since queuing at peak times has been reduced from three hours to 20 minutes. Much of the emission saving comes from taking account of the source of the electric power: mostly generated by nuclear and hydro-electric stations, Mr Rosin said. Design work on the ferries was done by Deltamarin of the Netherlands and StoGda Ship Design & Engineering, which is based in Poland where the ship was built at Crist Shipyard. Deltmarin’s brief was to

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ferry PROFILE | 11

prepare a draft design for the ship and an outline definition of its energy storage and shore supply requirements. Head of sales and marketing at Deltamarin, Kristian Knaapi, told PST that this included a wide range of topics, including studying the project’s feasibility and defining all the ship’s main values ready for the next stage of development. “If the concept phase is not performed properly, the vessel will not be feasible,” he said. StoGda was then responsible for delivering the vessel’s complete design, its website records, and for arranging model tank tests – which included manoeuvring tests and ice tank tests. Workshop documentation and as-built drawings were also prepared by StoGda. Deltamarin was also involved in designing the linkspans used for the ship’s terminals. Because it is wider than the existing vessel on the route, called Sterna, new berthing arrangements were needed and Mr Knaapi said that its design was critical because of the short turnaround time available. It had to be strong and practical to construct. “One very notable point,” he said, was that the linkspan can be made to match the vessel’s draught if necessary. It can be ballasted and de-ballasted to give it a draught range of 0.95 m, he said. It also incorporates a de-icing method to make it usable in the winter, he said. FinFerries operates 44 ferry routes around Finland, but the Parainen and Nauvo link is the busiest. So does the operator have plans for any more battery-powered ferries? Mr Rosin did not rule it out, but he wants to see how Elektra and its shore power system stand up to a Finnish winter and complete a year’s operation first. But there is a complication: FinFerries

operates services under tenders from the state and the Turku archipelago tender – covering four routes – is due for renewal in 2023. So no sister for Elektra will be considered until that renewal has been confirmed, he said. Because there are so many routes, competing for tenders is a regular task and he is considering smaller vessels for use elsewhere, but he is careful “not to promise too much” to yards and suppliers by being specific about his plans. Rather, he needs to know that a tender

is secure and that it can be confident there is a need for a ship. “Then we’ll go out with high integrity,” he said. On one thing, though, he is definite: “I believe strongly in this technology otherwise I would not have started this project,” he said.

TOP: Solar panels provide power during summer months (credit: Riviera Maritime Media) BOTTOM: One of Elektra’s battery banks, consisting of connected rechargeable modules (credit: Riviera Maritime Media)

• Watch a video, made by Siemens during PST’s visit, that shows Elektra’s shore connection and other features of its electrical engineering at

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

12 | PROFILE ferry

High power, quick recharge If Elektra is to stay on schedule, it has no more than 5 mins 30 seconds to replenish its batteries at each end of its short route so speed is vital: to moor the vessel, connect the power and deliver the electricity. Switzerland-based Cavotec plays a vital role in achieving these targets, having supplied its vacuum-powered MoorMaster automatic mooring equipment and its Automatic Plug-in System (APS) in an integrated arrangement for this project. Between them, they can moor the ship and connect the power in 30 seconds, Cavotec said in a project note. That note explained that the MoorMaster units signal to the APS when the ship is securely moored, before a laser sensor guides the connector into a socket that opens from the side of the vessel where it connects to the ship’s battery to begin charging. Electricity comes from the shore supply at 20 kV and is transformed down to 690 V for the ship connection, through which it passes at a maximum of around 1,800 A. This demand could affect the stability of the shoreside electricity supply, but “we have a solution for that,” said Siemens head of sales, marine and shipbuilding, Odd Moen. “We control the voltage and stability during charging.” Kaj Jansson, FinFerries’ project manager for Elektra, explained how this is achieved: once the connection has been made, the charging power is raised from 800 kW to almost 1,800 kW over 20 secs. PST



Frequency converters


Low voltage electrical system


Battery system


Energy management system


Automation system


Thruster controls






Generators Diesel engines

Stamford Scania DSI16V8


Crist shipyard, Poland


Deltamarin and StoGda






97.92 m


15.20 m


3.55 m

Ramp width

11.3 m

Vehicle lanes

450 m

Capacity Passenger and crew capacity Propeller units Classification

Battery capacity Shore power charging Diesel generators

Elektra’s electrical power is delivered through a plug that drops into a socket on the side of its superstructure (credit: Riviera Maritime Media)

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

90 cars 375 2 x 900 kW DNV GL +1A1 Car Ferry B Battery (Power) E0 Ice(1B) PET R3 1 MWh approximately 2,000 kVA 3 x 420 kWe


Deltamarin and StoGda





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cruise PROFILE | 15

Carnival Horizon’s hull shape was optimised around two design points: service speed and maximum speed. Credit: Fincantieri

Carnival Horizon surpasses first-in-class in energy efficiency From its hull shape and coating to the lifts, Carnival Horizon has been made as energy efficient as possible. Rebecca Moore spoke to its shipbuilder Fincantieri


ew cruise ship Carnival Horizon shares many of the same features as first-in-class Carnival Vista but it has two key elements that distinguish it from its sister. Carnival Cruise Lines’ 133,500 gt Vista-class ship, which is being built by Fincantieri, is due for delivery in March this year. The focus on energy efficiency found in sister ship Carnival Vista – delivered in 2016 – has

been even further boosted on Carnival Horizon. An example is how the passenger lifts, manufactured by Schindler, are managed. This is a key distinguishing element from the first-inclass ship, as software is used to decrease energy consumption and increase the lifts’ efficiency. Not only is the system new to the Vista class, but it is the first time that it has been used on a ship. This is significant, as

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

16 | PROFILE cruise

Fincantieri project manager for the ship, Marco Lunardi, told Passenger Ship Technology. “We paid a lot of attention to the efficiency and environmental aspects of the lifts,” he said. “Passengers will spend less time waiting for the lift and the traffic is managed in a more efficient way to reduce energy consumption of the lifts.” This has been achieved by collecting destination information from passengers before they enter the lifts via a touch screen. This advance information is processed by software created especially for the lifts that combines all the passenger selection information and optimise lift availability according to the requests. Mr Lunardi said that this gave an average reduction of 30% waiting time at peak times. The other main difference

between Carnival Horizon and Carnival Vista relates to hull coatings – the former uses Hempel’s silicone hull coating, which uses a combination of hydrogel and silicone technology to combat fouling. A hydro gel micro layer prevents fouling organisms firmly adhering while the silicone polymers facilitate self-cleaning. This allows a longer period between drydocking, Mr Lunardi said, because silicone paint can last more than five years. Carnival Vista uses a “traditional” Hempel selfpolishing antifouling tin-free coating. The principle on which the traditional self-polishing antifouling paint works is chemical, while the silicone one is mechanical, which means that it is a more environmentally friendly process.

A new hull

Apart from these aspects, Carnival Horizon shares technical innovations with Carnival Vista. One aspect that Mr Lunardi particularly drew attention to was the Vista-class hull. “It was very challenging to find the right hull lines,” he explained. The main reason for this was the hull had to optimised for two design points: its service speed of 18 knots and a maximum speed of 22.6 knots. Mr Lunardi continued “This was really challenging in terms of testing and finding the right shape of the bulb and involved an external consultancy to help with knowledge.” Extensive use of CFD calculations and in-tank model testing were deployed. “We fine-tuned the solution through several adjustments.


133,500 gt


323 m

Moulded Breadth:

37.20 m

Design draught:

8.25 m

Maximum air draught: Passenger cabins:

61.75 m 1,987

Crew cabins:


Class society:

Lloyd’s Register

cruise PROFILE | 17

This led to a “different” and “new” hull shape compared to the rest of Carnival Cruise Lines’ fleet. In order to optimise it to meet the speed range, the bulb is more narrow than usual, compared with the usual cruise ship bulb. An engine configuration was chosen that would benefit the hull optimisation on Carnival

Horizon and Carnival Vista. It consists of five MAN Diesel & Turbo engines, with two engines providing 16.8 MW of power each plus three smaller engines rated at 9.6 MW each. The two engines are type 14V48/60CR and the three are type 8L48/60CR. They are placed in the aft third of the vessel. “They are the right size to

Snapshot CV: Marco Lunardi

Boosting energy efficiency Energy efficiency is boosted by a steam turbine that

Picture © TUI Cruises ro

e nm

n t a l ly


ie n d ly


ke r




Fincantieri Merchant Ships Business Unit vice president project manager Marco Lunardi is currently managing the construction of Carnival Horizon and Carnival Panorama that are currently being built in Marghera shipyard. As project manager he also worked on the construction and delivery of Carnival Vista, flagship of Carnival Cruise Line, which was built in Monfalcone shipyard. Previously he has worked on Carnival Breeze and on Le Boreal and L’Austral, luxury ships for Ponant, a French cruise ship operator. He joined Fincantieri in 2000 and, previous to being appointed project manager, he worked as planner and financial controller and deputy project manager for the building of Carnival Group ships. Mr Lunardi holds a degree in management engineering from the University of Padova, Italy.

manage the vessel in different conditions and can be used separately or in combination,” said Mr Lunardi, adding that this arrangement adds redundancy and allows the operator to meet safe return to port requirements.

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We had to make sure that the hull lines met both service speed and maximum speed, so we needed to find the right compromise between different configurations.”

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recovers energy from the exhaust gas boilers, which would otherwise be lost. It is placed between the engines and generates 1.35 MW of power for use wherever needed, such as to boost hotel power. Fincantieri created and built the steam turbine, which has previously only been used on Vista-class ships within Carnival Cruise Lines’ fleet. Propulsion is dieselelectric and ABB’s Azipod units are used, each absorbing 16.5 MW, bypassing the need for a propeller shaft. “They make it much easier to manoeuvre in bad weather and in windy conditions because using pods means that there is more efficient control,” Mr Lunardi said. Another benefit is that there is more space inside the ship because the Azipods’ electric motors are not inside the ship. Three scrubbers are used, with two for the two big engines and one allocated to one of the three smaller engines. They were developed by Ecospray

Technologies and there were some challenges to overcome when it came to installing them, Mr Lunardi said. “The design of the scrubber was developed at the same time as the design of the vessel [and] the big challenge was to find a feasible co-ordination in a very narrow space,” he said. “The technical solution was fine-tuned but there were a lot of adjustments and we created a dedicated team especially to work with Carnival on the scrubber.” Particular attention was paid to the advanced wastewater treatment system (supplied by Scanship), which collects and treats grey and black water. Fancoils and LED lighting are used throughout Carnival Horizon to save energy. Like its sister ship, there is an emphasis on entertainment. To this end, features include an Imax 3D cinema and a brewery with onboard craft beer production. An impressive 63% of cabins are fitted with balconies. PST

MAIN EQUIPMENT SUPPLIERS Ship coatings Water fog system Lifeboats and technical boats Catering Lifts and escalators Window washing system Public areas – carpet turnkey subcontractor

Hempel Marioff Hatecke Oxin Schindler Navalimpianti – Cofri DESSO

Public areas – stairs turnkey subcontractor


Public areas – atrium and stores turnkey subcontractor


Public areas – theatre, Lanai deck turnkey subcontractor

Spencer Contract

Public areas – restaurants and spa turnkey subcontractor


Public areas – casinos turnkey subcontractor

Marine Interiors

Public areas – IMAX cinema turnkey subcontractor Cabins and corridors turnkey subcontractor Thrusters Fin stabilisers Main diesel engines

Tino Sana Marine Interiors Wärtsilä Fincantieri DSC MAN Diesel & Turbo

Emergency generator engine

Compagnia Generale Trattori (Caterpillar)

Reverse osmosis desalinator

Case Marine

Propulsion system pods


Storage batteries technical specification


Ship digital communication network


Automation system and TLV Radio systems Navigation systems

Wärtsilä APSS Telemar (equipment Sailor) Wärtsilä APSS

LEFT: The welding of a traditional box containing a coin during Carnival Horizon's launching ceremony (Credit: Fincantieri)

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018


DRYDOCK SPECIFICATIONS LENGTH: 293m (960 ft) WIDTH: 57m (186 ft) CAPACITY: 81,000 MT (80,000 LT)


cruise SHIP OPERATOR | 21

CARNIVAL CORP REVEALS LNG, FUEL CELL AND SCRUBBER STRATEGIES A top Carnival executive unveils the group’s emissions strategy, including LNG, scrubbers and fuel cells

C Snapshot CV: Tom Strang Carnival Corp senior vice president of maritime affairs Tom Strang leads Carnival’s LNG strategy. Previously he was senior vice president of marine operations at Costa Cruises for three years. Prior to this, he was responsible for developing policy in health, environment and safety areas of maritime operations for Carnival Corp. Before that he worked for Carnival Corporate Shipbuilding as principal safety manager and with Lloyd’s Register as a surveyor specialising in passenger ship safety.

arnival Corp has been leading the way within the cruise industry with the use of LNG as fuel for seven ships on its orderbook. It is also studying fuel cells, cold-ironing and efficient water use as further energy-saving technologies. An Immediasea event (a roundtable industry debate) in London in November gathered top industry executives to discuss whether the cruise ship industry is putting the environment at risk, during which Carnival senior vice president of maritime affairs Tom Strang unveiled the company’s emissions management strategy. “Sustainability is core for our business,” he told the audience. “We are committed to being responsible citizens as without clean destinations we do not have a product in the future.” Carnival Corp has set a range of 2020 sustainability goals and Mr Strang said that the two top items on the cruise operator’s emissions targets are reducing its carbon footprint and developing and deploying exhaust gas cleaning systems. Those goals sit alongside expanding its advanced wastewater purification

system across its fleet, reducing waste generated by its ships and increasing cold ironing coverage of its fleet (see infographic, page 20).

Future-proofing with LNG

LNG is a key part of reducing its carbon footprint. The keel-laying of Costa Smeralda, Carnival Corp’s first vessel to be LNG-fuelled at sea was performed at Meyer Turku shipyard in September 2017. The plan is for the ship to run 100% on LNG, despite having dual-fuel engines, with marine gas oil only used for ignition for the LNG and as a back-up for safe return to port. Only a tiny amount will be used for ignition, around 0.1 g/kWh. Costa Smeralda is to be followed by six more newbuilds, all to be dualfuelled in the same way. The company’s LNG strategy started in 2015, when AIDAsol was the first cruise ship in the world to be supplied with electricity from an LNG-fuelled hybrid barge when in port. In 2016 AIDAprima was introduced. Its dual-fuelled generator uses LNG to supply all the ship’s hotel load while alongside in northern Europe. AIDAperla

was introduced in 2017 and uses LNG in port in the western Mediterranean. Carnival has chosen to use LNG for myriad reasons. Mr Strang said “We are looking at technology for the future and LNG future-proofs us. It has the best emissions profile of any fossil fuel and meets and exceeds all current [regulatory] requirements and those in the foreseeable future.” It also offers – compared to heavy diesel oil – a 15% well-to-wake reduction in carbon emissions, 90% reduction in particulate matter, 75% reduction in nitrogen oxides and zero sulphur dioxide emissions. Mr Strang said “We are not saying it is a silver bullet but goes a long way with regards to emissions profile reductions.” It is also competitively priced, he added. Mr Strang highlighted how the announcement that container shipping company CMA CGM was going to use LNG for the first time on its nine 22,000 TEU newbuilds would be a “step change” in world shipping. Scrubbers are also an important part of Carnival Corp’s emissions reduction strategy, with 59% of its

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22 | SHIP OPERATOR cruise


10 %

5 %











5 %

Information source: Carnival Corp.

fleet currently fitted with scrubbers, equating to 161 exhaust scrubbers deployed across 64 ships. “We believe the technology delivers a very good product. It has taken us a long time for us to get to where we need to, but we are there,” Mr Strang said. He added that although a “lot of people say they don’t

“We are not saying it is a silver bullet but goes a long way with regards to emissions profile reductions” Tom Strang (Carnival Corp)

believe in scrubbers”, proof that they work comes from Carnival’s experience of using them, he said. He pointed out a range of environmental benefits, including that heavy fuel oil when used with scrubbers provides the same or better air emissions as 0.1% marine gas oil. Mr Strang added “We are working very closely with regulators to make sure that the [scrubbes'] wash water meets and exceeds all current regulatory requirements. We have had this independently verified.” He said “We are happy to discuss [shore power] with ports but it is a significant investment and doesn’t make sense if the electric power used to generate shore power isn’t clean.”

Fuels for the future

He revealed that Carnival believes fuel cells have a part to

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play and has invested in several research projects in this area. “The question is where fuel cells sit in [a] carbon-neutral future. We see them as helping us to reduce hotel load, which is quite significant.” Carnival’s sustainability goals drive the group’s investment in new technology and research and development programmes. Its R&D programmes are looking at high-efficiency chillers and advanced automation in its HVAC systems, waste heat recovery using exhaust gases and steam turbines, advanced turbochargers and air lubrication systems that use air bubble distribution on the hull surface to reduce friction. “We are on the pathway to zero emissions shipping; that is where we want to be and is our long-term vision,” Mr Strang summed up. PST

Shore power is another important area that the cruise operator is focusing on and Mr Strang highlighted some figures based on Carnival’s experience: ▶ Number of ships fitted and ready now for shore power: 36 ▶ Number of ships with partial installation: 8 ▶ Number of newbuilds on order with (partial) shore power installation: 16 ▶ Number of ports outfitted for shore power (cruise capable): 12 – Hamburg, Livorno, Long Beach, San Pedro/Los Angeles, Vancouver, Juneau, San Francisco, San Diego, Seattle, Shanghai, Halifax and Brooklyn.

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CalMac’s Glen Sannox, the first passenger ferry in the UK to run on dual-fuel LNG, is launched at Ferguson Marine Engineering shipyard

24 | SHIP OPERATOR ferry

Calmac targets standardisation and alternative fuel mix Scottish operator CalMac has big ambitions – and its strong relationship with Ferguson Marine Engineering shipyard is crucial to achieving these, reports Rebecca Moore


alMac Ferries is looking at full electrification, hydrogen and LNG options while standardising its fleet and has highlighted the importance of forming a strong partnership with a shipyard to achieve these goals. The Scottish ferry operator will lease two LNG dual-fuelled ferries under construction at Ferguson Marine Engineering shipyard in Port Glasgow as part of a £97M (US$128M) contract on behalf of the ferries’ owner Caledonian Maritime Assets Ltd (CMAL). It launched the first of its two LNG ferries in November 2017 at Ferguson Marine’s Port Glasgow shipyard. The 102 m, roro vehicle passenger ferry,

named Glen Sannox – which can operate on LNG and marine gas oil – is a big deal as it is the first UK passenger ferry to run on LNG. Glen Sannox is designed to carry 127 cars or 16 HGVs or a combination of both and up to 1,000 passengers. The vessel is due to be delivered in Q4 2018 or Q1 2019.

Building from scratch

Glen Sannox and its sister vessel represent a hugely important milestone for Ferguson Marine. Just over three years ago, in August 2014, the shipyard (then called Ferguson Shipbuilders) went into administration and was sold in September of that year to Scotland’s Clyde Blowers Capital. So it is a real feat

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that it is now building these significant LNG-fuelled ferries. Describing the ferries’ importance to the shipyard, Ferguson Marine chief naval architect Chris Dunn told PST “These are highly technical ships which were built from scratch while the yard and workforce were [also] being built up from scratch. There were logistic challenges and a lot of up-skilling involved when building a ship while building up a shipyard.” The fact that this is the first LNG ferry to be built and designed in the UK “pushes the bar higher”. Mr Dunn added “Our message is that nothing is impossible.” He said the yard’s catchphrase for the ships

describes them as “ferries with green credentials”, although the yard does not want to restrict itself to just one type of vessel. Glen Sannox and its sister vessel will each feature a 35 m long gas tank underneath the vehicle deck in the middle of the ship. Wärtsilä has provided two 6-cylinder 34DF main engines capable of operating on either LNG or conventional diesel fuels for each vessel. The manufacturer has also provided two auxiliary engines, gearboxes, shaft lines, seals and bearings, controllable pitch propeller systems, tunnel thrusters and its LNGPac storage and supply system. “This is a benefit for us,

“Much as I love building new ships, I am more interested in their ongoing maintenance [because] the relationship with Ferguson Marine and its engineering expertise can be used for drydock and renewal of the existing fleet” Martin Dorchester (CalMac)

as it is much easier dealing with just one company,” commented CalMac managing director Martin Dorchester. He expects the vessels to initially run on marine gas oil while the LNG bunkering infrastructure is developed in Scotland. Driving trucks on to the vessels to bunker them will be a “stepping stone” towards developing small-scale LNG infrastructure in Scotland, which he said will lead to “innovative” bunker barges and stations. He told Passenger Ship Technology that the new vessels would help CalMac bid for new ferry routes. “We are ambitious for more routes in Scotland and when we have these 100 m vessels we can bid for other contracts,

as it frees up other vessels in the fleet to be available for other routes.”

Batteries powering ahead

But CalMac is not just using LNG; it has been running hybrid-battery ferries since 2013 and has three in its fleet, all built by Ferguson Marine. Mr Dorchester told Passenger Ship Technology that he felt that the natural fit was for batteries for smaller ferries and LNG for larger ferries. The company is particularly interested in batteries as the technology “has moved on hugely” in the five years since CalMac’s battery-powered vessels were first built. Mr Dorchester said that, due to the advances in battery technology, the

operator would upgrade its current hybrid vessels once their batteries came to the end of their lives. “If your builder is just five minutes down the road [Ferguson shipyard is located close to CalMac] then it is not the big thing it was previously,” when CalMac used shipyards located much further away. Indeed, due to the strong advancements in battery technology, Mr Dorchester said that the company was also looking at using pure battery power in future. “The public think of battery power as clean and that is an important message for us, as a ferry operator, to put out,” he summed up. In another electric area, CalMac has also been working on a hydrogen ferry project

with the aim to build a ferry powered by this fuel. The company started the project in 2010 and has been working on it with partners including Ferguson Marine. CMAL director of vessels Jim Anderson told delegates at a panel discussion about electrification at Interferry’s annual conference in October “We are actively working on a hydrogen ferry project and have done a cost model capex [forecast] and it can be done.” He said the company was “very hopeful” that it can build a hydrogen vessel, as the economic model works due to the excess of renewable electrical power in Scotland, allowing the ferry operator to purchase it at a very

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26 | SHIP OPERATOR ferry

competitive tariff. Mr Anderson said the new technology needed for a hydrogenpowered ferry was challenging, in particular its fuel storage, which would “take up a lot of space on the vessel”. It would also have to bunker more often – on every second day – which the company would need to build into its timetable. Nevertheless “it is very possible and we are looking to do it”, Mr Anderson summed up.

Mixing it up

CalMac’s plans for its fleet show how far ferry operators have come when it comes to alternative energy. They are not just looking at one type of fuel, but a mix of different energy sources to best match vessel profiles and routes. CalMac is standardising its fleet – and Ferguson Marine will play a crucial role in not just standardising it but also applying different fuels. Its strategy is for its largest ships

to be 100 m long, the mediumsized vessels to be 80 m and the smallest 45 m. Mr Dunn said “The Holy Grail is that we can look at advanced requirements for [45 m and 80 m] newbuilds and say that the 45 m should be a batteryhybrid and the 80 m powered by hydrogen.” He said that the aim was to have three or four models that the shipyard could use across the fleet to make it easier to maintain, manage and control the ferries. But CalMac’s relationship with Ferguson Marine does not just span newbuilds – Mr Dorchester emphasised that it was just as important for maintaining its current fleet of 34 ferries. “Much as I love building new ships, I am more interested in their ongoing maintenance [because] the relationship with Ferguson Marine and its engineering expertise can be used for drydock and renewal of the existing fleet.” Mr Dorchester summed up

one of the highlights of the strong relationship that CalMac has built with Ferguson Marine, saying that they “are bringing engineering expertise back locally and allowing us to use local skills.” It was announced in November – after PST’s conversation with him – that Mr Dorchester would be leaving the company in March 2018 to take up a new role as chief executive of Includem, a specialist Scottish charity supporting some of the most vulnerable young people and their families across Scotland. He can certainly be confident that he has left Scotland’s largest ferry operator in a very strong shape and at the forefront of the use of alternative fuel in the ferry industry.

• A video of Glen Sannox’s construction and launch can be viewed via

Battery-hybrid There are three batteryhybrid ferries in the fleet

LNG Glen Sannox and its sister vessel will run on LNG and marine diesel oil

MIXING IT UP: spotlight on CalMac’s use of alternative fuels

Full battery power CalMac is looking at using full battery power in the future, due to the advances in marine batteries

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

Hydrogen CalMac is working on a hydrogen project and aims to build a ferry fuelled by hydrogen

Snapshot CV: Martin Dorchester Martin Dorchester is the chief executive of the David MacBrayne Group and operates as managing director of CalMac Ferries. In a career spanning 30 years, he has operated nationally and internationally with organisations covering logistics, technology and finance. As chief executive of the retailer Dixon’s B2B operation, he built up the largest Apple reseller business in the UK. Mr Dorchester was part of the team that brought five radio authorities together to create the UK’s communications regulator, Ofcom, and worked with the London Borough of Hackney on developing its infrastructure for the 2012 Olympics. Mr Dorchester is also a keen lecturer and academic and has written a number of papers covering areas including emotional intelligence in management development. He will leave the company in March 2018 to take up a new role as chief executive of Scottish charity Includem.



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MEYER TURKU BOOSTS CRUISE BUSINESS WITH NEW TECHNOLOGY DRIVE Meyer Turku has a record cruise ship orderbook that focuses on the use of new technologies including LNG. Meyer Turku’s deputy chief executive described the shipyard’s strategy to Rebecca Moore


eyer Turku is homing in on developing energy-efficient and sustainable technologies and is using this focus to strengthen its position in the cruise ship construction sector. It has eight cruise ships in an orderbook that stretches to 2024, contributing to a record orderbook for the Finnish shipyard, its deputy chief executive, Tapani Pulli told Passenger Ship Technology. “We have had multiple ship orders in the past but have never had an orderbook that has extended so far.” The cruise ships on the orderbook are TUI Cruises’ Mein Schiff 1 and 2, due for delivery in 2018 and 2019 respectively, and two cruise ships each for Carnival, Costa Cruises and Royal Caribbean. Apart from the TUI newbuildings, the remaining ships will all be LNG dual-fuelled, highlighting Meyer Turku’s strength and interest in this area. “We are very keen on developing new technologies and implementing technologies like LNG,” Mr Pulli said. He added that the yard would draw on its experience of using LNG technology in the passenger ferry sector. It built Viking Line’s Viking Grace, which was the largest ferry at the time to use LNG (2013), and LNG-fuelled Megastar, which Meyer Turku delivered to Tallink in Q1 this year. “These are good examples of how we have developed LNG technology,” explained Mr Pulli. “We stored the LNG tanks on deck on Viking Grace and in Megastar we built the tanks into the hull structure. These different experiences will help us with our future orderbook.” Meyer Turku’s deliveries to Royal Caribbean Cruises, scheduled for 2022 and 2024, particularly

stand out in terms of environmental technology as they will combine LNG power with fuel cells for power generation. Mr Pulli said that the shipyard was already involved in preparatory work and fuel cell development for those newbuilds. “We are focused on fuel cell technology and keen to put our efforts into developing it together with our customers. It is very interesting to look at how to develop this very old technology from a kilowatt range to a megawatt range.” He believes fuel cell technology will be one of the future trends in the cruise ship sector, as long the infrastructure is developed to allow ships to bunker appropriate fuel for the cells. Other examples of Meyer Turku’s energyefficiency focus can be seen when it comes to the series of Mein Schiff cruise ships (Mein Schiffs 3,4,5 and 6 were all built by the shipyard). Energy efficiency and sustainable solutions were important aspects in each one, as each successive ship was set an improvement target over its predecessor, which Meyer Turku met. The latest cruise ship in this class, Mein Schiff 6, was delivered in June and, as a result of that policy, its energy consumption “was exceptionally low”, noted Mr Pulli. He singled out one of the reasons behind the environmentally friendliness of the vessel: the ship uses the most advanced scrubber technology and the same scrubber solutions are being retrofitted to the previous sister vessels. “Together with the system supplier and our customer, we improved the technology by

Snapshot CV Tapani Pulli (Meyer Turku) Tapani Pulli’s experience in the maritime industry had spanned 30 years. He started his career as a design engineer at Hollming in 1986 and has since worked extensively within both the business and manufacturing sides of shipbuilding. From 2006 Mr Pulli has been a member of the management team at Turku shipyard under its various owners: first as Aker Yards before it became STX Finland and finally, from 2014, with its current owner, Meyer Turku. He has been deputy chief executive officer since 2015 and is responsible for the operational side of shipbuilding (design and production of ships), shipyard investments and quality.

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018


“Many shipyards build small cruise vessels, very few are able to build ones of this size” Tapani Pulli (Meyer Turku)

finding the best possible configuration of the equipment,” explained Mr Pulli. Another area that the shipyard focuses on to achieve the best energy efficiency performance is hydrodynamics, using CFD. “We build very advanced hull forms that use very little propulsion

EXCLUSIVE: Q&A WITH MEYER TURKU’S JAN MEYER Asian shipyards’ entry into the cruise ship market is “a bit of a challenge”, Meyer Turku chief executive Jan Meyer told Passenger Ship Technology. While Meyer shipyards were “ahead in technology and productivity”, Asia’s shipyards get a lot of government support, he said, so “there is not a level playing field.” He added “But we just really need to do our homework, we can’t sit still.” Speaking at the steel-cutting of Costa Cruises’ Costa Smeralda at Meyer Turku in September 2017, he told Passenger Ship Technology in an exclusive interview that one area of technology that the yard is investigating to help keep it in the lead centres on new fuels for cruise ships. Discussions have been held with ship operators and oil majors about the use of fuels other than LNG, including methanol. But he warned there were challenges to using these fuels: one is “the infrastructure and how to get the fuel to the ship” and another requires “having an awareness of the source of the fuel; how much energy it takes to refine, bring it to the ship and consume it”. In short, he said, these studies extend from well to wake; “we are taking a holistic view.”

power,” Mr Pulli said. Alongside Meyer Turku’s focus on energy efficiency, it is also concentrating on building the biggest cruise ships. Apart from Mein Schiff 1 and Mein Schiff 2, the ships on its orderbook are sized between 150,000-200,000 gt. Even Mein Schiff 1 and 2 will – at 110,000 gt – be 20 m longer than their sister vessels and see their capacity increase by 10%. Explaining the focus on mega cruise ships, Mr Pulli highlighted how it made the shipyard stand out. “Many shipyards build small cruise vessels, very few are able to build ones of this size,” he said. “We have been building larger cruise ships since 2000 so have developed our operations and network of suppliers,” he added. It also helps that, at 365 m long, the shipyard’s drydock is bigger than most and the yard has been ramping up its other facilities to deal with larger volumes of cruise ships. An investment plan of more than €100M (US$116M) has been launched since the yard was bought by Germany’s Meyer family in 2014. “This moves us from being a traditional manufacturing shipyard to an industrial shipyard where there is more automation,” said Mr Pulli. A new 1,200-tonne crane will be installed in Q3 this year and the yard is also updating and investing in equipment to improve its steel storage and treatment and prefabrication. This programme will be finished in 2020, allowing the yard to double its cruise ship production volumes from 150,000 gt to 300,000 gt per year. Mr Pulli said that the yard expects to reach this target in 2021 or 2022 and is focused on gradually growing its volume by 20% per year to reach that goal. There are two other cornerstones of its cruise ship strategy. First, it has a range of operators on its orderbook. “This is deliberate so that we do not depend on just one customer,” Mr Pulli explained. Second, it is “very important to build long-term relationships” with cruise ship operators. PST






Cruise ships on the orderbook

Length of the orderbook

To power six vessels

To be combined with LNG for RCC’s newbuilds

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€100M (US$116m)

Total yard investment plan

300,000 gt

The amount the yard expects its cruise production volumes to reach per year

CFD was used to achieve advanced hull forms across the Mein Schiff series





CRUISING INTO THE FUTURE Shipyard De Hoop concentrates on designing, engineering and building custom vessels, for both the inland and seagoing markets. The yard has all the core disciplines in house to provide clients with creative and innovative solutions, both in design and production. De Hoop is committed to a customer-oriented, goal-based approach in which quality and flexibility are paramount.

Shipyard de Hoop 11-2017 185x120 DEF.indd 1


24-11-17 10:03



ith the cruise industry enjoying unprecedented investment in recent times, the sector has taken on a new look with a surge in ordering of specialist expedition cruise ships. The desire of potential passengers to penetrate inaccessible areas by big cruise ships has now spawned a whole new sector. A large emphasis has been placed on the Polar region but tropical destinations also prove popular. Here we are differentiating cruise expedition ships from exploration vessels, as expedition ships are built with working trips in mind since they have access to remote areas of land deep in Antarctic, Arctic and tropical regions. Passengers also have more opportunity to go ashore, made possible by shallow-draught access designs. Indeed, some of the latest expedition ship orders also carry mini submarines for underwater exploration. Small they may be, but the competition is equal to the best the big cruise giants can offer. Europe dominates construction, with the boom giving a welcome lifeline to smaller builders previously experiencing a shortfall from the collapse of offshore construction. Norway in particular is a success story in itself but other European yards also take credit. Now more overseas yards outside Europe are gaining a foothold in construction but most are being built to European designs.

The booming expedition cruise orderbook has allowed new shipyards to get a look-in By Barry Luthwaite

Norwegian builders, owners and designers dominate the industry. So far, 25 expedition cruise ships are on order, most of which have been contracted in 2017, underlining the fact that the cruise-related industries see this as a niche area of business which has not been exploited to full potential. The ordering spree is unlikely to slacken its momentum. By the nature of their destinations, passenger capacity is limited on the vessels and therefore more vessels are needed to meet demand for unforgettable experiences in nature’s remote habitats.

Europe yards scoop orders

In a notable breakthrough for Netherlands shipbuilding, Miami-based Celebrity Cruises chose De Hoop against strong competition to build one plus optional one 5,700 gt, 100-pax expedition vessel(s) specially designed for operation in the Galapagos Islands. The newbuilding(s) will replace two ageing vessels. The firm vessel, to be named Celebrity Flora, will deliver in

May 2019 and a building slot has been allocated for the second ship which is most likely to be exercised in the next six months. Royal Caribbean Cruises as the parent owner is confident the Lobith shipyard will deliver a first-class ship, despite it never having tackled an oceangoing cruise ship before. In fact, this prestigious contract shows the increasing versatility of ship construction today in the Netherlands. Lindblad Expeditions, having built its most recent newbuild expedition vessel at Nichols Brothers, USA, turned to Europe for a prospective three more vessels. One has been firmed with Norwegian designer and builder Ulstein Design & Solutions with options for two more from its Ulsteinvik yard. Commissioning is planned for Q1 2020.

New shipyards muscle in

With long lead delivery times due to sophisticated designs intended for long lives, current and future technology is factored in during construction. Norwegian cruise owner Nordic Cruise Company has ordered in

principle four luxury expedition cruise ships from MetalShips & Docks in Vigo, Spain. The first will definitely be built but there may be delays with the other three as more finance needs to be procured. Deliveries are stemmed at 10-month intervals with the debutant due in May 2020. These vessels will be LNGready and able to sail for up to 30 hours on LNG while using diesel fuel for the rest of the time. Hydrogen fuel cells will also be fitted. The 220-pax vessels mark the latest orders in a resurgence of specialist shipbuilding in Spain and are among the first to be dual-fuel burning LNG. Another group successfully switching from offshore construction to new areas is Norway’s Vard Holdings. New customer Australia-based Coral Expeditions has ordered design and construction of one expedition cruise vessel from the yard and will receive a new design designated Vard 6 01. Kleven group, also of Norway, has received US$38M in new funding from a consortium of investors including German builder Lürssen and Norway’s coastal operator Hurtigruten. The builder has a strong orderbook and is concentrating on specialist construction particularly in the expedition cruise sector. Kleven is currently building two expedition cruise ships for Hurtigruten to be named Roald Amundsen and Fridtjof Nansen after Norwegian explorers. The investment by Lürssen is interesting as its

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018



De Hoop Delivery 2019

Quark Expeditions WORLD EXPLORER West Sea Delivery 2018

Crystal Cruises Inc. CRYSTAL ENDEAVOUR Werften Stralsund Delivery 2019

Iles du Ponant LE CHAMPLAIN Vard Tulcea Delivery 2019

Lindblad Expeditions (option 2) ULSTEIN VERFT Delivery 2020

Oceanwide HONDIUS Split Delivery 2019

Scenic Cruises SCENIC ECLIPSE Uljanik Delivery 2018 SunStone Ships China Merchants Industry Holdings Delivery (1)2019, (2)2020, (1)2021

LE LAPEROUSE Vard Tulcea Delivery 2019

Nordic Cruise Company Metalships & Docks Delivery (2) 2020 & (2) 2021

Lindblad Expeditions NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC VENTURE Nichols Brothers Delivery 2018

Tui Cruises HANSEATIC INSPIRATION Vard Langsten Delivery 2019 Iles du Ponant LE DUMONT-D’URVILLE Vard Soviknes Delivery 2019 LE BOUGAINVILLE Vard Soviknes Delivery 2019 Minke Shipping (Antarctica XXI) MAGELLAN EXPLORER Asenav Delivery 2019

speciality is luxury yachts. These are borderline examples of cruising yachts, as recent yacht designs have edged closer to expedition roles, but serving 12 passengers. The industry is already witnessing construction of luxury expedition megayachts. A second such vessel known as the SeaXplorer type was won by Damen Shipyards in collaboration with yacht builder AMELS. The owner was not revealed. The 2,500 gt vessel will deliver in the second half of 2020 accommodating 12 guests, 25 crew and complying with the IMO Polar Code for expeditions

HANSEATIC NATURE Vard Langsten Delivery 2019 Hurtigruten Group FRIDTJOF NANSEN Kleven Ulsteinvik Delivery 2019 ROALD AMUNDSEN Kleven Ulsteinvik Delivery 2018

to the Arctic and Antarctic. Scandinavian companies remain in demand because of their proven expertise in specialist construction. Sweden’s Bassoe Technology is the latest owner to court expedition cruise ships in a tie-up with China. The latter has been tapping Scandinavian expertise for a while now and looks to build its first expedition cruise ship. Bassoe Technology has entered into a co-operation agreement with Yantai CIMC Raffles Shipyard to offer a 240 pax vessel known as the Vega type. The vessel is classed for Polar Code 7 requirements and

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

Coral Expeditions VARD VUNG TAU Delivery 2019

Data source: BRL Consultants

due to deliver in 2019/2020. China Merchants Industry Holdings will also use Scandinavian expertise from Ulstein Design & Solutions for construction of four plus optional six expedition cruise ships for 80-95 passengers. They will be built to ice class 1A Polar Code PC6 class and the Norwegian owner will supply a complete design and equipment package. Deliveries for the firm four are set for 2019/2020 and will enter the fleet of newcomer SunStone Ships based in North America. Another builder new to this class of construction is West Sea,

formerly Portugal’s Viana do Castelo shipyard. The builder has been entrusted with delivery of a 176-pax ice-class 1B vessel that will operate ice region expeditions, powered by two Rolls-Royce diesel-electric engines giving a total output of 9,000 kW. It will be named World Explorer and will be delivered to Quark Expeditions, Germany which is a subsidiary of TUI Cruises – the cruise division of Hapag-Lloyd. TUI itself has committed two expedition vessels to Vard, Norway which will deliver the duo from Langsten in 2019 after hull building in Tulcea, Romania. PST

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Fred Olsen’s Benchijigua Express is to be joined by two more trimarans, to be built by Austal


he trimaran fast ferry passenger model has hit the headlines after Australian shipyard Austal’s announcement that it is building two more trimarans for Fred Olsen. The €126M (US$152M) contract, announced at Interferry 2017 in Split, Croatia represents Fred Olsen SA’s largest-ever ferry order. The two new ferries will add to the Fred Olsen Express fleet of six vessels that transport more than 2.8M passengers, 750,000 cars and more than 150,000 heavy vehicles over five routes in the Canary Islands each year. This order comes on the back of the 2005 launch of Benchijigua Express, a 127 m stabilised monohull (trimaran) vessel that Austal built for Fred Olsen.

Austal shipyard has scooped a contract to build two trimaran ferries for Fred Olsen. Its technical manager tells Rebecca Moore about this order and explains why a trimaran model is suited to the fast ferry sector Explaining why the trimaran model was chosen by Fred Olsen and which part of the fast ferry market that the solution is particularly aimed at, Austal technical manager James Bennett told Passenger Ship Technology that the trimaran hull had been developed specifically to offer passengers and ferry companies a highspeed platform that delivers improved seakeeping and more controlled vessel motion than a monohull when operated in sea areas with challenging conditions. He added that “high-speed

catamarans and monohulls, while effective vessels for short sea and more sheltered routes, have typically suffered from a poor reputation with regards to seakeeping and passenger comfort.”

Trimaran benefits

Unlike catamarans and monohulls, the trimaran gives the designer the ability to fine-tune or adjust the roll characteristic of the hullform. This adjustment is achieved by increasing or decreasing the volume of the side hulls, termed ‘amahs’. “More volume in the amahs will give the

trimaran a stiffer or faster roll characteristic closer to a catamaran; less volume [will give] a softer roll characteristic similar to a monohull,” Mr Bennett said. The characteristic of a catamaran is to have a fast roll period, due to its large metacentric height (termed GM). Mr Bennett said that in a typical 86 m to 120 m catamaran, the GM may be between 45 m to 60 m. This results in a roll period of around three-five seconds. The GM of a trimaran can be adjusted, however, so that a slower roll period is achieved

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018


and the GM on the Austal trimaran varies between 4.5 to 7.5 m, depending on its deadweight, giving a resulting roll period of 10-15 seconds. “The slower roll period means that when the vessel is operating in seas ranging from bow quartering through to beam and stern quartering, passengers experience a significantly lower level of acceleration, due to the slower roll period,” Mr Bennett explained. In seas forward of the beam, the length and volume distribution of the trimaran’s centre hull provides excellent soft-pitching motions, he added. Evidence of a trimaran’s seakeeping ability on rough seas can be seen on Benchijigua Express: Fred Olsen said that it had never cancelled a scheduled sailing due to bad weather or technical faults. Fred Olsen director Juan Ignacio Liaño confirmed that Benchijigua

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Express had never “missed a beat” in the company’s schedule, with no sailing cancellations due to technical faults over the past 12 years of operation. “The reliability of the vessel is outstanding and it is a testament to Austal’s hull design and quality construction that we have never had to cancel a scheduled service due to severe weather or technical issues,” Mr Liaño said. Austal’s proprietary Ride Control technology was used on Benchijigua Express and a newly-updated version will be used on the new vessels. Austal’s new generation Ride Control system consists of a bow-mounted T-Foil and roll control foils mounted on the amahs. Mr Bennett said that this helps reduce pitching motions while roll control is helped by using two large flaps located on the centre hull just forward of the waterjets. Austal has conducted an R&D programme to improve the control system since the earlier generation trimarans. “This work, along with advances in the vessels’ hull design, will offer passengers an improved level of comfort compared to the earlier trimaran vessels,” Mr Bennett said. The benefits of Ride Control are that passengers consistently report a smoother journey while the crew benefits from safer and more productive schedules where seasickness is minimal and passengers, vehicles and cargo are more secure. Mr Bennett also elaborated on the manoeuvrability of a trimaran, saying that it was similar to a high-speed catamaran or monohull using waterjets for steering. “In harbour and for lowspeed manoeuvres, the trimaran’s waterjet steering is augmented by dropdown bow thrusters that are designed to offer

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

safe manoeuvring in wind strengths up to 40 knots, which is very high,” he said. “It is just a matter of the operator specifying the capability that they require.”

New Ships

The two new ferries, to be designed and constructed by Austal in Australia, are both 117 m long, have a beam of 28.2 m and capacity for over 1,100 passengers and 276 cars each. Featuring a draught of 4.2 m and deadweight of 750 tonnes, the new vessels are light and fast with the practicality and manoeuvrability to operate in any port. Powered by four MTU diesel engines and propelled by four waterjets, the trimarans will achieve service speeds of 38 knots with a range of up to 711 nautical miles. Austal said that the close commercial relationship and effective collaboration with Fred Olsen over the life of the Benchijigua Express – from design through to delivery and operations – has formed the basis for the next generation of commercial trimarans. Construction of the vessels will commence in Henderson, Western Australia in 2018, and continue over 29 – 36 months.

Trimaran vs catamaran

Examining the case for a trimaran hull versus a catamaran, Mr Bennett said that a trimaran is an “excellent vessel for sea routes that are long or are rough, due to the superior passenger comfort compared to a catamaran.” But “Catamarans are still an excellent high-speed platform for short sea routes that do not experience rough seas,” so Austal would always recommend and advise customers on which hull form they believe is the most suitable, for the route(s) under consideration, he added. PST

Snapshot CV James Bennett, Austal James Bennett is technical manager (commercial) at Austal. As a founding team member and experienced naval architect, he has contributed to the company’s success since 1988 and will be celebrating 30 years’ service this year. During this time, Mr Bennett has held various roles covering design, project management and sales and marketing support. In these roles, Mr Bennett has been involved with the design and development of several key projects, including the 127 m trimaran vehicle passenger ferry Benchijigua Express for Fred Olsen SA and other major contracts including a 106 m catamaran for Virtu Ferries, a 113 m catamaran for Faergen and the 102 m trimaran Condor Liberation. Most recently, Mr Bennett has played a key role in the development and securing of contracts for the two new trimaran ferries for Fred Olsen. After qualifying with a Higher National Diploma in naval architecture from Southampton College of Technology, UK, Mr Bennett worked at companies including Allday Aluminium in the UK, Seaconstruct in Singapore and Precision Marine in Western Australia.

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Strong relationships are key to cruise and ferry interior contracts Cruise and ferry interior suppliers are boosting their businesses by forging strong links with shipyards and local maritime clusters – and the refit market is booming


he importance of building strong relationships with shipyards and local maritime clusters has never been more important when it comes to cruise and ferry ship interior turnkey companies. An example is in Finland, where turnkey suppliers are benefiting from Meyer Turku shipyard’s large orderbook and the strong maritime cluster in the country. Furniture designer Pedro’s most current cruise ship work is on TUI Cruises’ Mein Schiff range of ships being built by the yard. It is providing 1,500 seats and sofas for Mein Schiff 1, which will be delivered later this year. Its cruise ship reference list includes many ships built by Meyer Turku, highlighting the importance of the relationship between the shipyard and Pedro, which has been close since the manufacturer was established 28 years ago. “Meyer Turku has so many cruise ship orders and we get a lot of work from them,” Pedro managing director Juha Lehtonen told Passenger Ship Technology.

Pedro has provided the public area seats and sofas for the Mein Schiff series, as shown here in Mein Schiff 3

He also highlighted the importance of the Finnish maritime cluster. For Mein Schiff 1, for example, Pedro has not just been contracted by the shipyard but also by eight other Finnish subcontractors to the vessel – Merima, Orsap, Metalliasennus Huuhka, Shipbuilding Completion, R & M, Kaefer, Finn Brass and Naval Interior Team (NIT). “This is good for all parties and helps keep prices realistic,” Mr Lehtonen said. “The Finnish maritime cluster is very important, it is like a huge network loop.” Pedro also supplies furniture for ferries. Its latest contract was for Tallink’s Megastar, delivered in January. Pedro installed 1,500 sofas and chairs along with the children’s play area furniture. Producer of lighting and lampshades Valaisin Grönlund is also working across TUI Cruises’ Mein Schiff series. The company has provided lights for all crew cabins and junior suites, including LED floor and wall lamps, in each cruise ship and for some restaurants and public areas. Elsewhere, the company is planning to launch LED cabin bed lights for the cruise ship market. These will include a USB charger, allowing a mobile device to be charged from the power supply to the lamp. This will simplify cabin construction, because manufacturers will not need to install these sockets, and make it easier for passengers to charge their devices, Valaisin Grönlund managing director Miikka Grönlund commented. The importance of building strong, longterm relationships is especially important for SunStone Ships’ newbuilds at China Merchants Holdings International shipyard in China. The cruise tonnage owner was keen to use European and US companies within the building and design because it believes Chinese yards do not yet have sufficient experience in building cruise ships. Another important element was to choose companies that had already worked with SunStone’s

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018


ships in the past. To this end, Finland-headquartered Mäkinen scooped the contract to provide the whole turnkey package for the hotel parts of SunStone Ships’ new expedition cruise ships. Highlighting the importance of a longterms relationship, SunStone Ships chief executive Niels-Erik Lund told Passenger Ship Technology “Mäkinen’s work is of very good quality; we have used them for years.” Mäkinen has refurbished many of the previous ships in SunStone Ships’ fleet. Tomas Tillberg Design International is designing the ships’ interiors – again the importance of a long-term relationship is emphasised as the firm has had a successful relationship with SunStone Ships for the past 10 years.

Refit boom

Ferry and cruise ship interior refit markets are continuing to grow strongly. On the ferry side, Trimline ferry key account manager Neil Quinlan told Passenger Ship Technology “We have seen a noticeable upturn in investment within interior upgrades by our ferry customers. Public spaces are being updated and cabins improved on the longer-journey ferries.” He said that more than 2.6M units of freight passed through the Port of Dover in 2017, which was a large increase compared to 2016. “This has also increased the ferry market share in competition with the Channel Tunnel. This upturn has resulted in increased wear and tear on the vessels and a higher net spend on interior refurbishment.” As a consequence of this increased spending, Trimline is currently undertaking works across the entire DFDS Channel fleet,

including upgrades to all shops. Within the cruise ship sector, the now wellestablished trend to refurbish the existing fleet is still booming. Trimline has completed more than 20 cruise interior refurbishments over the last 12 months. Trimline cruise key account manager Simon Dawkins told Passenger Ship Technology “As a consequence of the new ships being launched each year, cruise lines are investing heavily in bringing the standard of the older ships in line with the new.” Mr Dawkins said that another area of refurbishment growth is within the fast-growing expedition cruise market. Trimline will be upgrading the interior of Hurtigruten’s Fram this year, which includes the conversion of a reception area into a science centre. Trimline’s team will carry out the refurbishment while the ship is in service. He commented “We have been finding that the scope of the work that we are doing while ships are in service has widened to include steel work and heavy-duty refits that would normally be done in drydock.” Elsewhere, Trimline is part of a consortium with composite specialist PE Composites Ltd (PEC) that showcased a Lightweight Composite Cabin prototype at SMM marine trade fair last year. The prototype has now secured further cofunding from UK Innovation Agency, Innovate UK, to produce and certify the lightweight cabin. During the next phase, PEC and Trimline will focus on reducing the cabin production costs and by the end of 2018 will develop a pilot production plant capable of making several hundred cabins per year. Mr Quinlan said “The lightweight composite panel will offer a substantial weight savings compared to traditional steel panel systems.” PST

Trimline’s Lightweight Composite Cabin prototype will offer weight savings compared to traditional steel cabin systems

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

Cabin production efficiency boost for Costa Smeralda Meyer Turku subsidiary Piikkio Works Cabin Technology has launched an automated cabin production process that boosts efficiency in cost and production and which ties in with its work on Costa Cruises’ LNG dualfuelled Costa Smeralda. The company is producing all the cabins of the 180,000 gt ship and will use what it described as a “totally new production process” for the project. The process will use an automated 120 m long belt that moves the cabin through the production process. Piikkio Works production manager Lauri Laakso described it as “a continuously moving flow line, which will bring the cabin model step by step to the next place and at end of the line will be a readymade cabin model.” The production belt has been installed in 12,000 m2 of new production facilities that have been built next to Piikkio’s current buildings. It means that Costa Cruises’ newbuild, to be delivered later this year, will be the first cruise ship to benefit from this. Eight weeks into production, it will be moved to the new process. Mr Laakso told Passenger Ship Technology “This automatically moving flowline takes out all the manual processes; previously it has been very manual. It gives us a very clear view of the project and helps us to take out bottlenecks within processes.” The new belt is related to Piikkio Works’ increased drive to standardise production and materials for each cabin produced. Mr Laakso said “It allows us to be more competitive and allows us to have exact building schedule timings.”

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NEW LIFEBOAT MODELS LAUNCH IN PASSENGER SHIP SECTOR Viking Life Saving Equipment's hybrid LifeCraft is set to launch in 2018


n incident on a cruise ship which saw five people injured in January (see box-out on page 46) underlines why lifeboat safety is still top of the industry’s agenda. It has brought into focus why 2018 will be characterised by new safety solutions for the passenger ship lifeboat market. The year kicked off with Norsafe’s January announcement that it has entered the ferry and cruise market with a new lifeboat, which has been ordered for Viking Line’s newbuild ferry. Minima 88 – a partially enclosed lifeboat – is a compact 8.8 m boat with a width of 4.25 m for 150 persons. Norsafe said in a statement “A spacious cockpit in the middle of the boat provides excellent visibility during embarkation, with a good view for the helmsman. The forward visibility is excellent and a roof hatch in the cockpit provides vertical visibility towards the davits during launching/retrieval.” It also highlighted the boat’s large side doors, which it said will aid “the fast and efficient embarkation of the crew.” Seats are

Major lifeboat manufacturers reveal new lifeboat solutions, contracts and service developments that will be key in the cruise and ferry market this year

arranged on two levels and a mechanical steering nozzle propulsion arrangement has been specified to make it more manoeuvrable and to give it increased bollard pull compared with other craft of its size. Norsafe has received an order from Xiamen Shipyard in China for six Minima-88 lifeboats with compatible LHD-200 davits to be fitted to a newbuilding ferry for Viking Line. This is due to come into service in 2021 on routes across the Baltic Sea between Turku, Finland and Stockholm, Sweden.

This is also a significant year for Viking Life Saving Equipment – its hybrid LifeCraft will be commercially available during the second half of 2018 and talks are underway with cruise liners to confirm potential orders. Viking’s senior vice president Benny Carlsen said a sea trial was conducted in March last year with waves reaching heights of around 3.5 m. The half-raft, half-lifeboat LifeCraft has four engines of 5.5 kW. The vessel can travel at a speed of 4 knots under its own power or it can be towed at 2 knots when fully loaded. LifeCraft requires little storage area on a ship’s deck, Mr Carlsen told Passenger Ship Technology; “Conventional lifeboats tend to take up too much space,” he said. LifeCraft is built to provide ventilation and enough space for comfort, he said. It is built from fire-resistant materials and is flexible so it follows the motion of the waves, making it better able to cope under distress evacuation situations, he added. A LifeCraft system consists of four LifeCraft units, each with a capacity of 200

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018


persons. Each of the self-propelled inflatable vessels can be placed either on deck or builtin, with a gangway for stretchers if required. Development work on LifeCraft started in 2009, with the aim to combine the advantages of modern lifeboats, such as self-propulsion, with the inflatable feature of liferafts.

Clinching contracts

Palfinger Marine will equip the world’s largest hybrid electric ferry – Color Line’s new plug-in hybrid ferry Color Hybrid – with lifeboats, fast rescue boats and accompanying davits after signing a contract with the Ulstein shipyard, the ship’s builder. It will carry up to 2,000 passengers and approximately 500 vehicles when it enters service between Sandefjord, Norway, and Strömstad, Sweden, during Q3 2019. It will have four MPC 32 lifeboats with accompanying davits, each able to hold 150 people, and two FRSQ 630 fast rescue boats with accompanying davits. The complete package includes commissioning the systems and will be delivered in November 2018. Palfinger Marine’s area sales manager (Norway), Robin Holmedal Pedersen, highlighted the importance of this contract, calling it a “big win”. Fewer contracts are being awarded now than in the past, he said, so there is “tough competition for every order”. He said “This is an exciting project for us to be part of, and shows our ability to combine top safety and excellent technical solutions with competitive pricing.” To accommodate Color Line’s request to keep the decks as clear as possible, allowing passengers more deck space, the lifeboats will be installed in a davit structure that frees up space below the lifesaving systems. The fast rescue boats represent a new generation of such craft, Mr Pedersen said. “This new vessel type is our first product combining the lifesaving systems expertise

of the company formerly known as Harding and the vessel expertise of Palfinger Marine’s professional boats division.” Norwegian lifesaving equipment supplier Harding was a leading supplier of lifesaving equipment and lifecycle services for maritime installations and ships when it was acquired by Palfinger Group in Q2 last year. Mr Pedersen singled out the importance of building long-term relationships between manufacturer and customers as he believes that the company’s long-lasting relationship with both Ulstein shipyard and Color Line as being a contributing factor in securing the deal. Over the years, Palfinger has delivered lifesaving systems to many of their newbuilds, and currently the company has an ongoing service agreement with Color Line. Elsewhere, safety solutions provider Survitec is transforming its lifeboat services operation into a fully global offering with the addition of 14 extra engineers across a range of sites worldwide. It will cover all lifeboat brands and types, simplifying customers’ service arrangements, the company believes. It previously sent engineers from the UK and Scandinavia round the world to conduct inspections, but it expects the enhanced service to be quicker and more cost-effective for customers, as well being able to be booked locally. Customers ordering lifeboat services – along with hardware such as life rafts – can now arrange their service contract locally and have the services delivered wherever they need globally. This overhaul means that Survitec will have engineers on the ground in five continents, supported by flying squads in the main global ports. They will be co-ordinated through one point of contact as opposed to multiple sites, reducing customers’ administrative loads.

Norsafe has entered the cruise and ferry market with a recentlydeveloped lifeboat

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

Palfinger Marine Color Hybrid supply scope: 4 4 2 2

x MPC32 lifeboats x VIP 24 FDES davits x FRSQ 630 fast rescue boats x NPDS 3500H FR fast rescue boat davits

RMT demands urgent action after cruise lifeboat incident UK’s National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers (RMT) is demanding urgent action over lifeboat safety after an incident on a Carnival cruise ship in early January. RMT said in a statement that five people were hurt, one seriously, during a routine training exercise involving a lifeboat on P&O Cruises’ Arcadia, while it was in the Azores. The union said this is the “latest in a catalogue of serious incidents involving lifeboats – an issue that the union has been campaigning for change and improvements on for a number of years.” RMT has written to safety regulators and the cruise ship industry body demanding urgent action over lifeboat safety following this incident. In a letter to the Maritime and Coastguard Agency, RMT demanded a tighter regulatory regime and improved maintenance to ensure both crew and passenger safety. The union has also written to both Carnival Cruises and Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA). RMT general secretary Mick Cash said “The incident on the Carnival cruise ship Arcadia in the Azores should serve as a wake-up call to the entire cruise industry that we need improvements and changes to the regulatory and maintenance regime and we need them now.” CLIA said in a statement “We extend our sympathy to those injured in this incident and would like to reassure the public that the cruise industry is vigilant in reviewing operational safety matters and has a history of putting the safety of passengers and crew first.” PST has attempted to contact P&O Cruises for a response. PST

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Good connections are vital for ferries How can ferries be ‘always on and always connected’? Service providers and a ferry operator tell PST aabout bandwidth developments and other challenges


lways on, always connected” was a major theme at Interferry’s annual conference in Croatia in October 2017 where the importance of offering strong wifi connections with good bandwidth was emphasised as being crucial for ferry operators. Global Eagle senior vice president Ole-Kristian Sivertsen said “Passengers have a fear of being disconnected, we should not let our passengers sail on our ships in anxiety and fear.” He explained how the trend had moved from downloading and surfing the web to uploading pictures and films. But he warned “It is not just about buying more VSAT capability to deal with this and choosing one technology or another, it is about changing the mindset and using a multitude of technologies.” Mr Sivertsen said that the winners were those that “integrated and dynamically managed” their chosen technologies. Meanwhile, looking to the future, Speedcast product director for cruise and ferries Steve Scraper said that in the 2020s, bandwidth speed would reach 1 Gbps on a ship, with between 5,000 – 10,000 satellites launched. The company carried out a trial on a cruise “

ship in 2017 where bandwidth reached 400 Mbps second. “There will be a new frequency, V-band, which will be higher than Ka-band and prices will really come down,” he predicted, warning that “every ferry operator should have it for ship operations, revenue growth and passenger satisfaction.” Mr Scraper summed up “A connected ship is a requirement now and in the future.”

BC Ferries faces wifi challenge

One ferry operator, Canada’s BC Ferries, told the conference that it is experiencing such significant challenges with wifi connectivity that it is halting its roll-out across its fleet until these obstacles are solved. Its chief executive Mark Collins explained to the Interferry audience that the problem was that technology is not living up to customers’ expectations. “People expect to be always ‘on’. Certainly, there is an expectation in western Canada that wifi should be free and this gives us interesting challenges.” BC Ferries has installed full wifi capabilities on nine vessels but it is “such a technical challenge to be ‘always on’ on the standard wifi service that extending it to

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

the rest of the fleet has been halted until a better system is found using a mix of high capacity radio cellular and satellite communication links. Currently, it offers wifi free of charge but it does not always meet expectations of connectivity. Managing those expectations and meeting them cost effectively through existing technology does not “really work for us now and the wifi roll-out is halted until the challenges are solved,” he said. There is the option to make the wifi more effective by monetising it – but there is a stumbling block here, Mr Collins said. “People do not want to pay for it [wifi] but they expect the service that they get in Starbucks. And that is a big challenge – the bandwidth is becoming very crowded.” The other issue that the ferry operator has is that, while there is good cellular coverage in some areas, there is no coverage while the ferries move up the northern coast of British Columbia. Mr Collins emphasised the importance of solving the wifi issue “It gives us negative customer ratings and until it is fixed [this] will drag us down.” As a result, the company is focused on finding a solution, with ‘connectivity’ the theme of its strategic plan.

BC FERRIES WIFI COUNTDOWN Installed on: Nine ferries Six terminals Four routes High speed radios connecting fleet: 198 Average wifi monthly data traffic: 5.94 TB Average monthly customer wifi sessions: 2.4M (Credit: BC Ferries)

A LOOK AT THE 2020s Faster speeds > 1 Gbps ship More connectivity options > 10,000 MEO and LEO satellites – Boeing, SpaceX, OneWeb, Telesat, Samsung New frequency – V-band Flat panel antennas Automated ships > Drone ships Video to and from ship Real time monitoring (Credit: Speedcast)


Intelsat targets cruise with more high-throughput maritime coverage Intelsat is set to extend Ku-band VSAT to southern hemisphere seas and increase its highthroughput capacity through new satellites By Martyn Wingrove


ntelsat is preparing to bring its next EpicNG satellite into operation, which will provide new broadband VSAT coverage in the southern Atlantic Ocean. This will include an extension of broadband to seas that are increasingly visited by expedition cruise ships. According to Intelsat director of mobility in Europe Andrew Faiola, its IS-37e satellite will be commissioned in Q1 2018 with Ku-band widebeam coverage augmented with spot beams in both C-band and Ku-band. Some of this coverage will be over the Falkland Islands where there will be offshore projects in the future. There will also be connectivity from Argentina and Chile to Antarctica, specifically for research vessels and cruise ships to use. “Expedition cruise shipping is a fast-growth sector and it is important to connect these vessels,” said Mr Faiola. “It is something we have been thinking about for some time.” Intelsat’s 37-e was successfully positioned in orbit on 29 September by Arianespace’s Ariane 5 launch vehicle. The Boeingbuilt satellite will support companies such as Omni-Access, which was acquired by Marlink in November, and Speedcast for satellite communications to maritime and offshore sectors. Intelsat then brought the IS-35e EpicNG satellite into operation in October after it was launched in July on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket. This was the first satellite to include a C-band spot beam payload, said Mr Faiola, predicting that operations with all types of maritime C-band “will see performance improvements,” he told Passenger Ship Technology.

of high throughput satellites. Another, IS-29e, provides spot beams of Ku-band over South America, North Atlantic and the Caribbean, IS-32e over the Atlantic and Caribbean and IS-33e gives coverage over Europe and the Indian Ocean. The final part of this constellation, Horizons 3e, is expected to be launched in Q4 2018 or Q1 2019 to provide spot beam coverage over the Pacific, East China Sea, South China Sea and Malacca Strait. In the meantime, Intelsat will continue to invest in non-EpicNG satellites to replace its ageing units. IS-38 is scheduled to be launched between April and June 2018 to provide Ku-band coverage over Europe and the Mediterranean, to be followed by IS-39, which is due to be launched in 2019 to provide more coverage over southern Asia and the Indian Ocean Mr Faiola said this extends VSAT coverage to the southern areas of the Indian Ocean for the first time. “This will cover shipping routes between South Africa and Singapore,” he explained, “and provide coverage for fishing vessels and yachts where there is increasing demand for connectivity.”

Future technologies

Intelsat is considering future satellite technologies, such as changing the shape of satellite beams or using laser instead of radio frequencies, said Mr Faiola. Intelsat is also a partner in OneWeb, which intends to deploy hundreds of mini-satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) over the next three years. “OneWeb will bring pole-to-pole high throughput coverage with lower latency and some applications will benefit from these LEO satellites,” said Mr Faiola, adding that the first 10 of these satellites, which are under construction in Toulouse, France, could be launched by the end of 2018 to test the technology. In November, OneWeb contracted Echostar subsidiary Hughes Network Services to manufacture the ground network to support a constellation of up to 900 mini satellites. Since 2016, OneWeb has raised around US$1.5Bn from its partners, which include Virgin Group, SoftBank, Bharti Group, Qualcomm and Airbus. It is building a satellite manufacturing factory in Florida that is scheduled to open in 2020. Intelsat plans to integrate OneWeb with its own constellation. “We are developing interoperable terminals for the LEO and our geostationary satellites,” said Mr Faiola and, if all these investments are successful, vessels will be able to use either LEO or geostationary satellites for Ku-band VSAT for the first time globally. PST

Intelsat-35e was brought into operation in October 2017 after it was launched in July on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket

C-band and cruise

“There are many legacy C-band systems and there is a lot of interest in C-band from cruise ships because of its high availability,” he explained. Satellite IS-35e also includes Ku-band widebeams with coverage over the Caribbean, Mediterranean, Europe and Africa. Speedcast, Marlink and Orange have gained access to some of the capacity on this satellite. These two are part of Intelsat’s growing EpicNG constellation

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

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EXPEDITION CRUISES, FERRIES AND ENERGY SAVING DRIVE MANOEUVRING SOLUTIONS Cruise and ferry operators are attaching increasing importance to good manoeuvrability and looking for energysaving systems

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trong manoeuvrability solutions are a must for both the cruise and ferry sectors, particularly in the fastgrowing expedition market. Propulsion pods are one growing trend within the expedition cruise market and their beneficial impact on vessel manoeuvring is useful in polar conditions. Finnish naval architect firm Deltamarin has been working on polar/ expedition cruise ship concepts recently and has highlighted propulsion choice as one area to focus on in a polar cruise vessel: whether to fit a traditional shaft system or pods. Pods have strong benefits for manoeuvring in icy conditions. As Deltamarin sales manager Nina Savijoki told Passenger Ship Technology “Pods are much better in ice as they can be

directed to flush and break the ice around the vessel.” They are not just selected for manoeuvring; they have hydrodynamic benefits, since there are no shaft lines, and Ms Savijoki added that if an operator wanted a polar vessel to be more heavy duty, they could consider a DAC (doubleacting cruiser) design. This would be similar to the established double-acting tanker concept, which first went into service in Arctic waters in 2002. In this arrangement, a vessel has its aft region shaped and strengthened in such a way that it can operate stern-first in ice conditions with the propeller flow helping to ease the hull through the ice. “The benefit of this is that you have a good fuel efficiency in open water operations but still have a reliable solution to operate in heavy ice-conditions as well,” Ms Savijoki said. This solution can only be applied in a vessel that has azimuthing thrusters, she explained, such as Azipods or similar propulsion systems. However, she said that a drawback is that a vessel would need a much more expensive wheelhouse as it must work “both ways”. In a cruise ship this would “most likely mean that there would have to be an additional smaller wheelhouse on the aft.”

Henning Steffen (Becker Marine Systems): We have had some projects with rudder refits where manoeuvrability was one of the main drivers to change something

Another growing trend for cruise and ferry manoeuvring solutions is to boost rudder efficiency. Becker Marine Systems vice president sales and projects Henning Steffen told PST “There is a very high demand for good manoeuvrability when operating in ice conditions.” Also, expedition cruise ships “sail to very small ports in remote areas and need a very good rudder to carry out safe harbour manoeuvring in all weather conditions,” he said. As a result, “we see a very high demand and a growing market here,” Mr Steffen emphasised. In the past two years Becker has clinched contracts with US shipyard Nichols Brothers for a Lindblad expedition cruise ship and for another for an expedition ship being built by Chilean yard Asenav for Antarctica XXI. Mr Steffen singled out Becker’s Flap Rudder as being especially appropriate for the expedition, cruise and ferry market. In contrast to a traditional rudder which

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018


consists of a single blade, a flap rudder consists of two parts: a main blade and a movable flap at its trailing edge to create a high turning force. It has also seen demand for its Flap Rudder add-ons: a twisted leading edge and rudder bulb. “They reduce losses from the propeller which increase the efficiency of the vessel,” said Mr Steffen. An example of this is a conversion on Norwegian Cruise Line vessel Norwegian Epic, for which Becker delivered new twisted flap rudders with bulbs. The cruise ship and ferry rudder conversion market are a steady one, according to Mr Steffen. “We have had some projects with rudder refits where manoeuvrability was one of the main drivers to change something on the rudder.” Mr Steffen also reported growing demand for state-of-the-art rudders in the ferry market. “Ferry operators went through a period of choosing traditional rudders,” he said, but they “now realise the importance of having a good rudder. It is a big issue as they have very tight sailing schedules, have to manoeuvre in small ports and this needs to be done in all weather conditions the whole year.” As a result, a high lift rudder is more or less a standard for new ferry designs, he said.

New contracts Indeed, the growing focus by ferries on manoeuvring can be seen in recent newbuild contracts, for example in November 2017, Voith revealed the most recent order for the latest generation of its Voith Schneider Propeller (VSP), the VSP36RV6 ECS/285-2. Two of these thruster units will be fitted to each of three newbuilds for New York’s Staten Island Ferries, which is replacing two of its older ferries as part of a modernisation programme. New York City Department of Transportation (NYC DoT), which owns the ferries, will decommission the two ferries and replace them with the three new ones, which will be built by Eastern Shipbuilding in Florida. Voith’s propellers will both power and control the ferries and the manufacturer said in a statement that their “excellent manoeuvrability is a primary reason why the NYC DoT decided to use the VSP, because, in the very busy New York harbour, the ferries must be able to react promptly to new traffic situations.” It also mentioned that the ferry service

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

Wärtsilä launches industry-first tilted steerable thruster

Manoeuvrability was a major factor in choosing Voith Schneider propellers for three New York City newbuild ferries

has to deal with difficult conditions such as strong currents, waves and ice conditions in winter, which it said was also a factor in why its VSP was selected. In addition, Voith will supply four fill-controlled VTC 1150 TPZSRL turbo couplings. When these are drained, the engine can rotate without load, to enable gentle warming up and soft starting of the propulsion system. When filled, these fluid couplings “eliminate torsional vibrations and provide the option of single engine operation mode when only one coupling is engaged,” Voith’s statement said. A single shaft then transmits the power to the VSP. Norwegian company Servogear also won a significant contract in November last year: ferry operator Norled ordered two 24 m battery hybrid catamarans from Norwegian shipyard GS Marine and chose to equip both vessels with a complete plug-in hybrid Servogear Ecoflow Propulsor solution. This contract is said to be unique as it represents the first controllable pitch propeller (CPP) integrated plug-in hybrid solution on the market, with its accompanying HDE220 hybrid gearbox being deployed for the first time. It is built on the technology of Servogear’s HD220 gearbox, combined with the electronic technology. It has a maximum input of 900 kW at 2,250 rpm, an integrated pitch actuation mechanism, an oil cooler and remote duplex filter unit PST

Wärtsilä has launched the Wärtsilä WST-24R, the industry’s first tilted steerable thruster with combined electric retraction and steering. In a statement to mark its official launch during the Marintec exhibition in China in December, Wärtsilä said that it enables “excellent auxiliary manoeuvring in stationkeeping or dynamic positioning (DP) operations.” It also believes that the new device will provide “high reliability, easy installation, integration and maintenance.” It particularly drew attention to the thruster’s gearbox, which has its propeller shaft tilted at 8°. This is said to significantly reduce thruster/hull interactional losses, producing up to 20% more effective thrust than conventional non-tilted thrusters and enabling lower fuel consumption. “This extra effective thrust directly contributes to the advanced DP capability of a vessel,” its statement said. The WST-24R thruster offers more than 10% more thrust than Wärtsilä’s existing LMT 1510, which it replaces, thanks to a larger propeller. This, combined with improved hydrodynamics and Wärtsilä’s own thruster nozzle design, reduces the environmental impact of the propulsion system, the manufacturer’s note said. It can also be delivered to comply with clean notations and can be made compatible with the US EPA’s VGP2013 stipulations. It also has fewer components than its predecessor, which Wärtsilä said improves its reliability. In addition, all its systems are easily accessible for maintenance, while the combined steering-retraction seals are designed to have no oil to water interface to reduce environmental risk. Its steering is electric, rather than hydraulic and its retraction system is to a new lightweight design that has selflocking electric actuation, boosting its safety, the company said.

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Coatings evolve on back of a new standard New products and ISO 19030 are shaking up the coatings industry


ustainability “is a game changer for the industry,” Jotun HPS sales director Petter Korslund told a cruise ship roundtable event in London in November. The Immediasea event gathered top industry executives to discuss whether the cruise ship industry is putting sensitive environments at risk and Mr Korslund told them that hull performance is a “ship efficiency killer”. Deterioration in hull and propeller performance between drydockings currently accounts for around 10% of world-fleet fuel costs and greenhouse gas emissions, he said. This means that annual additional fuel costs are estimated at US$20Bn to US$30Bn and there is a 0.3% increase in man-made carbon emissions. Jotun developed and launched its own measurement method in 2011 – the Jotun Hull Performance Measurement Method ( JHPMM), which was developed specifically to enable performance-based contracts as part of Jotun Hull Performance Solutions. JHPMM is transparent by design and has been placed in the public domain. It formed a starting point for ISO 19030, which was published in November 2016 to provide a standard for measuring changes in ship-specific hull and propeller performance. Mr Korslund explained “We became convinced of the benefits of and need for a commonly-agreed upon measurement.” He said that Jotun’s own data collected from around 180 drydocking intervals showed that

paint efficiency dropped between drydockings by an average of 18% in hull and propeller performance. The company also gave an estimate of nearly 6% in speed loss between coatings. ISO 19030 means that performance can be measured between drydockings, thus allowing for a deterioration in performance to be identified through data and making it possible to factor in coating upgrades when they are needed. Jotun said that the move has the potential to reduce the industry’s greenhouse gas emissions by 10%, while saving operators up to US$30Bn in annual energy costs. A new analysis and monitoring service based upon ISO 19030 was launched by Hempel in January this year. Systems for Hull and Propeller Efficiency (SHAPE), used in combination with Hempel’s hull coatings, provides documented fuel savings and a programme of improvement. SHAPE’s users can analyse the impact on performance of hull and propeller solutions, dry dockings and in-service hull and propeller maintenance, allowing for data-driven decision making. Hempel group segment manager, marine, drydock, Andreas Glud said “Our new Hempel SHAPE system allows us to gather high quality data, provide expert analysis, deliver decisive advice…making ship operators more efficient and competitive. We are presenting our customers with something beyond performance monitoring, we are offering fuel efficiency intelligence.”

New versus old

There have been moves within the cruise ship coating market to embrace less traditional coatings. Subsea Industries’ Ecospeed coating is not a traditional antifouling paint, but a durable, hard-coating system that can be cleaned as often as required to maintain the efficiency of the hull. As a result, and “because you do not have any coating degradation during the lifecycle of the coating, the cruise owner can save a lot of fuel and therefore money,” Subsea Industries’ production executive Manuel Hof said. He explained that Ecospeed is impermeable to water because of the substantial coating thickness combined with a large concentration of glass platelets in the coating, thus protecting the hull from corrosion and damage. He said that this means that the coating does not need to be re-applied during every drydock period, as with the case of antifouling paints. Rather, it just needs to be cleaned when fouling starts to occur on the hull. The product comes with a 10-year guarantee but is expected to last up to 20 years or longer. The company has applied Ecospeed on four cruise ships, which it could not name because of confidentiality agreements. It has also been implemented on a Scottish passenger ferry and a Canadian ro-ro/passenger ship. Mr Hof told Passenger Ship Technology “It is a different approach to the traditional anti-fouling. Owners need to understand the concept and must be willing to look at it. We can provide owners with a total cost-of-ownership calculation

where they can see for themselves what they will save. Underwater cleaning is part of the concept, but this is nothing compared to the costs and reduced hull efficiency they normally face with traditional systems. If they are willing to implement it, they will save money.” While he said that the cruise sector was “a growing market”, the challenge is that “the market is quite conservative, so they can be reluctant to move to a different type of product”. PST

A key difference between Ecospeed and traditional coatings is that once it is applied, it does not need to be reapplied and is maintained through regular cleaning

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018


BWMS manufacturers battle challenges The ballast water management systems market is more competitive than ever, while the approval process required is stifling product development


ype-approvals required in the US and by IMO for ballast water management systems (BWMSs) discourage innovation and improvement, said a leading BWMS manufacturer. Hyde Marine executive director Chris Todd told Passenger Ship Technology “We have to go through painstaking testing work to get equipment type-approved and once it has been approved, a manufacturer cannot make modifications and improvements without another round of expensive testing, therefore this discourages innovation and improvement as the testing process is so long and expensive.” He said that on average the full test regime costs US$4M for the two-year process. “Innovation is discouraged because if you spend US$4M to get the solution approved, you do not want to spend that again.” Hyde Marine has been outspoken about this issue within the market, but Mr Todd said that there was not much manufacturers could do to make any changes to the process. But one thing that would lead to “positive change” is for shipowners, once they have installed a BWMS, to call for

Hyde Marine’s BWMS installed on a cruise ship

improvements further down the line. Hyde Marine is currently retesting its system to receive US Coast Guard (USCG) typeapproval after its request that its Most Probable Number (MPN) technique – used by a number of UV-based system manufacturers – was rejected by the USCG as an alternative test method. The

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

USCG requires organisms to be killed to confirm whether their systems comply but in December 2015 the USCG decided that MPN is not an acceptable testing method because it believes that it does not measure the efficacy of a BWMS to kill organisms. In order to reach compliance, Hyde Marine is increasing its system’s UV dose capability by

using larger UV lamps. Testing is expected to finish in Q3 this year and the technology will then be submitted for approval at the end of 2018. Mr Todd pointed out that a benefit of being later in the typeapproval process has meant that Hyde has been able to tweak its system and carry out improvements. An example is that it has added a flow-limiting valve that limits UV flow and ensures that it will not exceed type-approval requirements. Asked if the company would keep selling its older BWMS once it gained type-approval, he said that the company would “let the market decide”. He pointed out an obstacle to this: shipowners say that they want USCG type-approved systems but he believes some shipowners “do not understand the implications for UV technology; they need a higher UV dose to meet the typeapproval, which means higher power consumption.” Hyde has been trying to communicate this to the market “for a long time”, he said. Recent cruise and ferry contracts for Hyde include BWMS for two newbuild cruise ships and the retrofit of three ferries belonging to a UK-based ferry operator. A total of 52 cruise ships have its technology installed.


‘Game-changer’ guarantee

Meanwhile, as the various deadlines for compliance with IMO’s Ballast Water Management Convention get nearer, the market for BWMSs is becoming more and more competitive. This was dramatically demonstrated in September 2017, when Norwegian ballast water management system manufacturer OceanSaver filed for bankruptcy. Many believe it will not be the last to do so. In such an environment, what the industry needs is ‘a gamechanger’ according to BWMS manufacturer Optimarin chief executive officer Tore Andersen. He believes his company has now delivered it, in the form of the Norwegian company becoming the first manufacturer to offer a five-year parts and servicing guarantee. “We thought it was time to demonstrate our long-term faith in our system and absolute commitment to this segment,” Mr Andersen explained. “No other manufacturer offers a guarantee of this nature, but we can. So if a shipowner signs a framework agreement with Optimarin for installation on multiple vessels, we will provide them with a five-year contract that covers all parts and servicing, worldwide. This is our promise of reliable, safe and effective operations, and, with our total regulatory compliance, complete peace of mind.” The impetus for this move came from an ABS report that suggested that only 57% of systems currently installed on the vessels of operators surveyed were being operated and that the remaining systems were either deemed inoperable or considered problematic. “We found this an extremely sad rumour for our industry to have,” said Mr Andersen. “More to the point, it’s ammunition for everyone in the industry to delay uptake and, as a maker we obviously don’t like that. So with this

Mr Andersen (Optimarin): Optimarin's five-year parts and service guarantee for its BWMS offers 'peace of mind'

system that we know works, we’re seeking to take that burden of worry from the owner on to ourselves.” Mr Andersen hopes this move will force competitors into a situation where they have to do the same, because “that’s part of the game. I would expect to see the big makers follow suit. But those makers with limited experience won’t dare to do this,” he told Passenger Ship Technology. Mr Andersen was emphatic about the need to change shipowners’ attitudes towards ballast water management systems, which he appreciates are a grudge purchase about which there are still numerous suspicions. He said “What I want to ensure is that when a shipowner buys one of these systems from a maker, they’re sure it will work. Because we need to change the game. Up until now, shipowners have hardly used the systems. They don’t want to, because there’s been no impetus to do it. But now if you have a system on board, you have to use it.”

Ports move closer to compliance

Sovereign states and their port authorities are taking clear steps towards ensuring compliance with IMO regulations for ballast water. Although IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) decided last July to delay installation dates for ballast water management systems by another two years, compliance with the convention’s D-1 standard – achieved by carrying out ballast water exchange – was not affected. Because of this, Chelsea Technologies Group (CTG) managing director Brian Phillips warned “The floodgates are opening. Regardless of IMO’s delay, concerned parties, including port authorities, around the world are stating that it is a good thing to get on and test ballast water for compliance.” The UK-based company, which manufactures ballast water testing kits, has over 50 years’ experience monitoring

phytoplankton and the ocean and responded to a call from the US Coast Guard to develop a method for measuring very low concentrations of phytoplankton cells to test if ballast water management systems on board ships are working effectively. As a result, CTG’s FastBallast Compliance Monitor was developed and is able to determine the phytoplankton cell density of ballast water at the IMO D-2 discharge standard (10 to 50 µm range) that is defined for treatment systems. The kit can be used on board to test compliance and is said to have accuracy rivalling sample analysis in a shorebased laboratory. From August 2017 all ships calling at Saudi Aramco ports have been required to provide ballast water samples for test and it has selected some portable testing equipment to check those samples. Among them is FastBallast, which CTG has said is being used as the benchmark monitoring device and to conduct spot checks on indicative sampling undertaken by third-party sampling companies. Other countries, including China and the USA, are currently evaluating FastBallast for possible inclusion in future programmes of ballast water compliance testing. Dr Phillips added “There could be a huge impact for shipowners if many other countries follow Saudi Aramco’s lead and instigate a ballast water compliance testing programme.” He summed up “Sovereign states are taking a stance that even though IMO is granting extra time, they wish to know now that ballast water discharge in their regions is safe. Speaking as an environmentalist, this can only be a good thing. It’s a wake-up call for shipping globally.” PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018


Infotainment innovation saw huge forward strides within the cruise ship sector during 2017 – especially in interactive technology



ast year saw a breakthrough in interactive technology with the launch of Carnival Corp’s Ocean Medallion. The new guest experience platform made its debut on Princess Cruises’ Regal Princess in November 2017, followed by Royal Princess and Caribbean Princess in January. It will be rolled out across the Princess fleet over the next three years. The medallion itself is about 25 mm in diameter and is carried by each guest – as Carnival terms its passengers. It connects wirelessly to a newly-developed onboard network (called the ‘experience innovation operating system’, or xiOS) and gathers information about the wearer’s preferences. It is updated multiple times per second, which enables the infrastructure to present each guest with relevant options to make the best use of their time on holiday. As well as the xiOS and the medallion, there is a third key component to the technology: Ocean Compass. This enables the guest to access cruise planning and concierge information, either via their own personal device (tablet or mobile phone), from their cabin’s TV or through one of the interactive screens that are located throughout the cruise ship. Hot on the heels of Ocean Medallion came MSC for Me, launched in March 2017 and debuted on MSC Meraviglia and MSC Seaside. It connects to bluetooth transmitters around each ship to provide passengers with tailored services and suggestions through a bracelet or smartphone app. MSC Cruises worked with leading digital, technology and behavioural science experts, including Hewlett-Packard Enterprise Co, Bosch, Deloitte Digital and Samsung, to make MSC For Me possible.

Integration challenges Innovation in guest-facing interactive technology is driving infotainment system development. Provider of integrated interactive television, mobile application, and public digital signage solutions Allin Interactive is focusing on this area. Allin Interactive senior vice president business development John Troutwine told Passenger Ship Technology that there are two major challenges to delivering timely services and interactive content to guests in a way that can “actually move the revenue and guest satisfaction needles.” He said that the first challenge “is to generate guest impact while creating a direct feedback mechanism, whether it be guest comments, participation, purchasing or other forms of information gathering that justifies the time, effort, and, frankly, the imposition on the guest’s vacation,” he said. The second challenge is to integrate with various onboard and shoreside systems, both proprietary and commercial, to obtain information and content that will be displayed simultaneously on the interactive platforms. He added that the integration aspect of application development is “often underestimated” by cruise lines. “We see many, many mobile applications, interactive TV systems and public displays unable to go beyond delivering static, non-transactional information because of the difficulty integrating [them] with complicated and sometimes legacy back-end systems.” Therefore, he said, these barriers end up “creating disappointment for guests and frustration for executive

Allin Interactive’s DigiHD ITV live main menu for Paul Gauguin Cruises

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018


Source: Allin Interactive

Cruise ship guest demands: Integrating all platforms: Interactive television, mobile application, and public digital signage solutions.

Creating a direct feedback mechanism Integrating systems of different platforms

Expecting to access communications services, booking services, streaming entertainment and up-todate information no matter where they are, both on and off the ship. Loyalty programme rewards



management who want to deliver much higher levels of interactive services and a differentiated experience.” To get around such barriers, Allin has expanded the reach of its DigiMobile application to include pre- and post-stay messaging and bookings, along with loyalty programme sign-up, real-time status and promotional offers. “Interestingly, many of our development initiatives are being driven by large multi-property land-based casino resort brands, which have highly-developed customer relationship management systems,” Mr Troutwine said. “They are looking to established interactive partners to provide the vehicles by which customised offers, based on historical guest preferences and purchases, are delivered at the exact moment that can truly drive behaviour. In many cases that key moment is not when the guest is on property and their mobile application must have that extended reach.”


for activating in-room services and television functions, incorporating keyless entry into the DigiMobile application. It also allows a film subscription service to transfer information from mobile devices to in-room televisions. “It’s par for the course in today’s hospitality environment,” stated Mr Troutwine. “If you had told me five years ago that half of our employees in 2018 would be software developers I would have told you that is crazy! Yet here we are.” Mr Troutwine highlighted the ‘buy versus build’ trend in the cruise industry: In today’s competitive environment where speedto-market is critical to capturing a leadership position, “many clients believe the best approach is to take advantage of our annual investment of 25,000 development hours in baseline technologies that they can customise and integrate into their own digital strategies”, rather than attempting to develop and support their own platform from scratch.” PST

Boosting flexibility On the in-room interactive television side, Allin has introduced a new main menu that incorporates real-time data feeds (such as weather, upcoming onboard activities, messages) as well as a looping promotional panel on the first screen that guests see when they turn on their televisions. This gives onboard staff greater flexibility in displaying time-critical information and important promotions during key points of the voyage. “The systems of today must allow onboard staff and shoreside management to target ‘exclusive’ offers to guests at an individual or group level, which can be triggered by any number of actions including check-in, guest location identification, spa booking or participation in a shore excursion,” said Mr Troutwine. Allin introduced its DigiPublic signage software in 2017 and Mr Troutwine said that it “requires a whole new level of client considerations.” He explained that “some clients wanted complete creative control over the template and layout designs for public displays and others wanted absolutely nothing to do with template design,” he said. “So we had to package a set of pre-made templates with the base software while at the same time incorporating a fullblown template builder.” Other innovations introduced by Allin in 2017 and so far this year include integration with Amazon’s voice-controls

Global Eagle boosts crew infotainment Infotainment is not only targeting cruise ship guests – crew members are becoming increasingly important recipients, as evidenced by Global Eagle Entertainment’s announcement that it has launched OceanPrime TV, aimed at ship staff. OceanPrime TV provides 24-hour live access to sports, news and other channels using fully-encrypted technology on a compact antenna. The company claims that this new platform offers more coverage than any other provider in the commercial maritime market. Global Eagle senior vice president maritime Ole Sivertsen explained to Passenger Ship Technology that it was created to address crew retention and morale “with a very quick upgrade” for ships spending many days or weeks at sea. “By offering live TV programming at sea, experiences on maritime vessels will be enriched for the captain and crew,” he said. OceanPrime TV requires a one-day installation performed by qualified resellers who provide 24/7 customer service and support in connection with Global Eagle. Monthly rates are offered for different package options.

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

CMI will manage SunStone Ships' expedition cruise ship newbuilds (pictured is a rendering)

Expedition cruise boom creates gap for shipmanagement Shipmanagement companies are capitalising on the huge growth in the expedition cruise sector, while focusing on boosting their infrastructure and digital solutions


he booming expedition cruise ship sector has created more opportunities for shipmanagement companies, due to a combination of the requirement to meet new regulations and the arrival of both new and small operators within this area. V.Ships Leisure business development director Per Bjornsen told PST “Many new operators and smaller companies are joining this sector and, with the new regulations and the challenge of competing with larger cruise companies, we offer an attractive proposition with our experience and scale.” He explained it was not possible for small companies to make the huge investments required in resources and systems to compete with larger operators. Ship management companies can offer these smaller operators access to these resources and systems, unlocking the economies of scale they need. V.Ships Leisure provides a range of services to nine ships in the expedition sector, with its latest contract being for Scenic Cruises’ first ocean-going vessel, which is currently under construction at Uljanik Group’s yard in Croatia. Scenic Cruises is a successful river cruise ship operator and, for its expansion into the ocean sector, is employing V.Ships Leisure and its sister company Oceanic Catering to provide

technical and hotel services respectively on the new vessel. Cruise Management International (CMI) is another manager capitalising on the rapidlygrowing expedition sector. It manages 14 cruise vessels, most of which are within the expedition cruise segment. CMI and its sister company CMI Leisure, a hotel concessionaire, work closely with SunStone Ships, managing its vessels and, in the future, its newbuilding fleet. CMI’s president and chief executive Jim Barreiro de León started his position in May 2017 and told Passenger Ship Technology about his ambitions for the company. “For me, personally, we really want to go to the next level and focus on building upon the already established infrastructure of CMI so that we can take on more vessels, enhance our service offering and address the many challenges our industry faces.” The company claims to be the leading shipmanagement company within the small ship cruise ship sector, but Mr Barreiro de León told PST that its sights were aimed toward multi-segment growth, as it also currently has two small luxury cruise vessels and two larger vessels under management. These include Grand Celebration and Gemini. It also has several other prospects in the

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018


pipeline, which CMI will start managing this year. While CMI does not want to be recognised as purely providing services to the expedition sector, it acknowledged that this is the fastestgrowing market segment and offers many opportunities. Mr Barreiro de León explained that many operators only own one or two ships and could therefore benefit from using the focused expertise of a group like CMI. CMI is an authority in expedition cruising, the Polar Code and has the economies of scale to get beneficial rates, such as insurance premiums with “preferred conditions”, he said. Another benefit he suggested for expedition cruise operators using shipmanagement companies is that they can provide crew with experience of operating within remote Polar regions and who are familiar with all the regulatory requirements. “As more expedition vessels are built, the need for ice-experience crew and engineers is becoming more of an issue and we provide support at that level. It is also challenging for some operators to keep up with regulations,” he said.

Building infrastructure

A main part of building up its infrastructure has involved adopting the shipmanagement software, Infoship. This will integrate all of CMI’s services and its roll-out began at the start of this year. “It will make things more streamlined within ship-to-shore operations and allow our staff to manage services remotely and more efficiently including using apps” Mr Barreiro de León said. V.Ships Leisure is also focusing on its vessel management software ShipSure and has made a “significant investment” to develop an updated mobile version. The first new module is being rolled out in Q1 this year. V.Ships Leisure business development manager Alexander Iley described the updated version as “bringing the system into the 21stcentury” with an enhanced user interface and mobile optimisation, enabling access to operational data anytime, anywhere in the world. Seafarers will also see the benefits of the upgraded ShipSure. It provides them with all their joining information, such as certificates, training courses and travel details. “The new ShipSure delivers even more transparency for our customers,” added Mr Bjornsen. CMI has also implemented changes, such as creating ‘Centres of Expertise’ (CoE) within the organisation. The CoE structure will focus on specialisation in the respective areas of technical management for: • Deck, engine and hotel management. • Port itinerary and logistics planning. • Safety and quality management. • Recruitment and training. • Procurement and logistics. • Risk management. • Vessel finance management.

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

Mr Barreiro de León said that the CoEs’ objectives were to focus on efficiencies and improvements in safety, quality management and customer service through clearly defined areas of responsibilities and expertise, while growing profitability. “Cruise shipmanagement is competitive,” he said. “Anyone getting into this business must be prepared to take on the many challenging aspects of the shipmanagement industry. We offer clients a ‘one-stop shop’; from technical management through our 30-man technical team within CMI Ship Management, to hotel catering management through our expert culinary team at CMI Leisure and the actual vessels through our highly engaged and committed tonnage provider SunStone Ships.”

Going it alone

The growing role of shipmanagement companies within the cruise sector can be seen as several have set up new companies or subsidiaries to concentrate purely on this sector. In January 2015 Schoeller Holdings launched a new, standalone Columbia company focused solely on cruise: Columbia Cruise Services (CCS). In the three years since then it has benefited from having a strong sister company behind it (Cyprus-based Columbia Shipmanagement), which allows for economies of scale. At the end of last year CSS – which has grown from 10 to 60 plus people – became a German registered company, with its headquarters in Hamburg. CCS has three clients and was close to signing a contract with a fourth when this issue went to press in early February. “We have moved from being a small department in a larger company to a company of our own, covering everything in cruise shipmanagement,” CCS managing director Olaf Groeger told Passenger Ship Technology. The company clinched a major contract in December 2017 when Marella Cruises (formerly Thomson Cruises, operated by TUI UK) awarded CCS the technical management contract for its newest and largest ship Marella Explorer and its next ship (currently sailing as Mein Schiff 2). CCS already manages four ships for the company. Mr Groeger explained why he felt they won an open tender. “What spoke for us is that we continuously improve with them. We made them what they are, they made us what we are. We are a service provider, but they refer to us as a partner,” he said. He believed that this was because CCS has an “open, honest and transparent approach”. CCS also manages four of Hapag-Lloyd Cruises’ vessels. CSS’ parent company is currently creating a procurement company that CCS customers will be able to access via the cloud. “If they want to purchase through that, there is a huge ability to save costs in purchasing,” Mr Groeger said. PST

Snapshot CV Jim Barreiro de León President and chief executive Jim Barreiro de León joined CMI on 1 May 2017 and describes himself as a “hands-on, yet pragmatic leader”. He began his career in the maritime industry in 1986. After several years working on board ships, in 1995 he took a position with V.Group as managing director for its V.Ships Leisure division. Mr Barreiro de León dedicated 21 years to V.Ships, managing its passenger fleet with overall responsibility for the technical, marine and hotel operations, focusing on cruise, ferry, expedition and river cruising segments.

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FERRIES COULD BE REMOTELY OPERATED FROM SHORE Rolls-Royce and Wärtsilä are developing technology for remote monitoring and control of passenger ships while NTNU has built simulators for teaching future ferry operators by Martyn Wingrove


ehicle and passenger ferries operating on short routes could be unmanned and autonomous by 2020. Rolls-Royce Marine president Mikael Makinen thinks up to five unmanned ferries could be controlled by a single operator in a control room in the future. He told Passenger Ship Technology that autonomous solutions will be developed faster than anticipated as the benefits are demonstrated. He said auto-crossing (automatic crossing system) technology is being developed by extending the abilities of existing autopilots to enable ferries to become unmanned in the future. “There have been developments in different [aspects] of situation awareness,” he said. This includes introduction of Lidar and night vision cameras to augment the information that remote control centres would gain from short and long distance radar. “In Norway, we could have five ferries operated by one person ashore in a remote

control centre,” Mr Makinen suggested, if all five are on sea voyages. More operators could be added if multiple ferries were being controlled entering or leaving docks. There could be several of these remote control and ship intelligence centres globally to enable further steps towards autonomous ships. “Some shipowners will want to do this themselves,” he said, adding that there will be some that will be happy to contract remote monitoring and control of ships to companies like Rolls-Royce. “This is how the market will evolve.” Rolls-Royce opened a ship intelligence and remote monitoring demonstrator in Ålesund, Norway, in November. In the same innovation centre, the Norwegian University of Science & Technology (NTNU) has built simulators, with ferry models, for testing vessel remote control and autonomous operations. These are both for teaching students on the new skills required for remotely controlling vessels and for testing these new technologies and operations.

Fjord1 targets autonomous operations

Rolls-Royce Marine president Mikael Makinen: in Norway, we could have five ferries operated by one person ashore in a remote control centre

NTNU head of nautical education Arnt Myrheim-Holm said a ferry belonging to the Norwegian operator Fjord1 could be one of the first to become remotely controlled. There are currently crew on board this electrically-powered ferry but there will be increasing remote control and autonomous operations in 2018. NTNU has conducted research into developing autonomous ferries that can transport passengers and vehicles across channels. NTNU Oceans director Ingrid Schjølberg said such ferries would need minimum amounts of on-deck structures

and could be alternatives to building bridges or tunnels between islands and mainland. She is also a vice dean for research and innovation at NTNU’s Faculty of Engineering. These vessels could be barge-design ferries-on-demand with only a few minutes of sailing time, she said. They would have electric propulsion, plus autonomous navigation and anti-collision software. For ferries completing longer distances, there would be extra requirements for remote monitoring and control. Technology developed for remote controlled and autonomous ships can

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018


be used to design and operate partiallyautonomous vessels, said Prof Schjølberg. These would include lower-cost sensors, higher computer processing power, e-navigation and decision support tools. Wärtsilä Marine Solutions is developing technology that enables remote control of passenger ships, as well as other types of vessel. Its president Roger Holm unveiled Wärtsilä’s Smart Marine Ecosystem vision in November. As part of this, Wärtsilä intends to develop e-navigation, ship optimisation, industry digitalisation and vessel remote control. “The opportunities offered through smart technology will foster a new era of collaboration and knowledge sharing between shipowners, suppliers and partners,” Mr Holm said. Wärtsilä opened its first digital acceleration centre in Helsinki, Finland in October and another in Singapore in December. Mr Holm described three primary forces that he said will re-shape passenger shipping: big data analytics, which will optimise both operations and energy management; intelligent vessels, which will enable automated and optimised processes; and smart ports, which will result in smoother and faster port operations. Wärtsilä’s route to this smart marine ecosystem includes its performance-based co-operation with Carnival Corp and its cruise ship fleet. Almost 80 cruise ships are powered by Wärtsilä and these are being monitored. “It is easier to optimise the equipment for the client as it is ours,” said Mr Holm, adding that “other shipowners are looking at our Carnival package and at the joint benefits of this concept.”

Wärtsilä set to unveil new bridge systems Wärtsilä is enhancing the Nacos Platinum integrated bridge system hardware and software, two years after gaining this technology through the acquisition of SAM Electronics from L-3. The upgrade work involves adding voyage planning stations and solid-state radar. Wärtsilä is also updating the software on this bridge system’s platform with more radar applications and algorithms as it helps the industry develop intelligent shipping. In an exclusive interview, Wärtsilä product manager for navigation products Eberhard Maass told Passenger Ship Technology that new integrated products will become available through these developments. “We are currently improving the platform by introducing new monitors for the integrated bridge for use by all types of applications, such as radar, ECDIS, conning, automation and engine controls,” he said. This includes introducing high definition 32 in and 55 in monitors to complement existing 22 in and 24 in displays currently offered. “There will be voyage planning stations, or tactical tables, incorporating more functionality to ease route planning and monitoring,” said Mr Maass. These stations will incorporate further layers of information on electronic navigational charts, such as weather and environmental data, such as wind, current, sea state and air pressure. “Three-to-seven day weather forecasts can be used to optimise

voyages, to organise pilots and route around bad weather, then optimise the speed over the route,” Mr Maass explained to PST. Wärtsilä is also adding small monitors to navigator, master and pilot chairs so that other bridge systems and external applications can be operated from those epositions. Wärtsilä is also developing its radar technology. “We are working on solid state S-band radar that will be available at the end of 2018 and working on functionality that we are calling intelligent radar merging,” said Mr Maass. This will allow two X-band and S-band radar feeds to be merged into one image, which enables bridge teams to use the advantages of both bands, such as the long range of S-band and short-range and high definition of X-band. “There are also plans to incorporate radar applications that come with nonSOLAS radar, such as wave radar, ice and oil detection and video analytics,” he added. Radar can be used for multiple target detection and analytics and for measuring wave height, period and direction. This comes from advances in algorithms to detect the different types of target, which is useful for Polar navigation. Wärtsilä is also developing methods for incorporating infrared camera images. “This is useful to cruise ships operating in East Asia where there are many wooden boats, which cannot be easily detected by commercial navigation radar,” Mr Maass explained. This is because wood is not as radar reflective as metal, but heat traces

Path to autonomous ferries Extension of existing autopilots

▶ Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

Introduction of Lidar

Introduction of night vision cameras



from these boats can be tracked. For the longer term, Wärtsilä is planning e-navigation and intelligent applications for bridge systems, such as its Smart Predict application. It is participating in the Sea Traffic Management (STM) project for voyage planning and execution and connected logistics chains. This is being administered by Swedish and Danish maritime authorities with the aim to include up to 300 ships, 13 ports and five shore centres. Wärtsilä’s main part of this project is delivering bridge systems for the ships involved and Mr Maass explained how information is exchanged with all the main partners in the project. “Route plans and schedules are communicated by ships to ports so arrivals can be planned, pilots can be made available and there will be fewer vessel queues,” he said. “Ship masters can plan more optimised schedules with information from the shore.” He added: “We are working on intelligent vessels with more functionality and packages such as anti-collision or anti-grounding features and functions for ECDIS and automatic docking.” These advanced software features should provide more information to bridge teams and improve navigation safety. PST

RIGHT: Nacos Platinum has multifunctional workstations for radar, ECDIS, conning and other control functions

Development of global ship intelligence centres


Simulators to test autonomous operations

Anti-collision software

▶ Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018


Batteries and waste heat will drive cruise energy efficiency C

Jan-Erik Räsänen: there have been rapid advances in battery technology

ABOUT THE WRITER Foreship appointed Jan-Erik Räsänen as head of new technology in 2016. Mr Räsänen was formerly with ABB and is an acknowledged expert in shipboard energy optimisation. He has a breadth of experience in battery power and fuel cell development.

ruise shipping is newly open-minded when it comes to the energy sources that can improve vessel efficiency and 2020’s global 0.5% cap on fuel sulphur content is not the only reason. Rapid advances in battery technology mean that the cruise sector could emulate the car industry in exploiting hybrid power, albeit differently packaged. Projects seeking to optimise energy use begin at the design level for both newbuilds and conversions. Our starting point is to establish what the owner’s managers want to achieve and their thoughts on how to go about it. Then we analyse their wishes and make recommendations, advising them on the goals that are achievable and where we might have to look at alternative solutions. Efficiency improvements could come from considering new energy storage techniques – either electrical or thermal – but they might also result from reclaiming efficiencies from existing systems. What is important is the complete energy flow of the vessel. An overall understanding of the energy balance between production and consumption is needed, so that insight can be offered into where the energy should be used and where it is typically wasted. We need to establish what the energy sources of the vessel are/will be, and where efficiency gains might be available. You could, for example, describe waste heat energy as an alternative energy source which can be reused by being fed through absorption chillers, organic Rankine cycle or steam turbines. In the past, container shipping companies have used steam turbines to reclaim the plentiful waste heat generated by 60-70 MW two stroke engines. Until recently, cruise ship engines generating on average 9-16 MW have not been large enough to justify sizeable steam turbines, especially when considering the typical operational profile of a cruise ship. However, we are seeing a change because now it is becoming possible to fit small steam turbines on these ships, partly because of lower heat demand in

Passenger Ship Technology | 1st Quarter 2018

traditional steam processes with LNG fuel and fresh water production and partly as a result of improved waste heat energy recovery systems. Foreship is undertaking several feasibility studies evaluating next-generation waste heat recovery systems for cruise ship owners. One goal is to minimise the use of oil fired boilers to save the fossil fuel that would otherwise be burned but while also serving the combined needs of the galley heating process, fuel heating and the reverse osmosis plant to produce fresh water and support laundry services. New potential is also fast-emerging for cruise ships to exploit battery power, where the energy stored can be derived from a variety of sources. Customer interest has always been there, but objections to battery technology in the cruise market has always been based on space and cost; now both are coming into place. Foreship has already been involved in a feasibility study to evaluate the use of battery power for a leading cruise operator. Furthermore, shipboard battery options are developing fast. In late 2016, one battery maker was offering a 6.5 kWh battery with dimensions of approximate 36 cm by 30 cm by 30 cm. Six months later, the same supplier is offering a 9.7 kWh battery of the same size. Typically, a high charge and discharge rate has been one of the major criteria to minimise the size of these batteries due to their large size and weight. But, with increased density and lower price/kWh, we see a step away from this. With moderate charge and discharge rate, we expect a longer lifetime of the batteries as well. It is not likely that we will see large numbers of ships operating solely on batteries but I believe 40-60% of all vessels could benefit from auxiliary battery load exploitation to support peak load shaving. A small number of ships – say, 5% of the fleet – will also use them for specific duties: in the cruise sector, for example, battery power could be useful during port entry, where the environmental gains would be strong. PST

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Passenger Ship Technology 1st Quarter 2018  

Passenger Ship Technology is a leading market title dedicated to technical coverage of all aspects of passenger shipping, including ferries...

Passenger Ship Technology 1st Quarter 2018  

Passenger Ship Technology is a leading market title dedicated to technical coverage of all aspects of passenger shipping, including ferries...