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3rd Quarter 2018

“Never before has such a thing been done. It is just incredible to me and a revolution in shipbuilding� Ponant newbuilding and R&D director Mathieu Petiteau, page 13


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Contents 3rd Quarter 2018 volume 11 issue 3



Ferry profile 7 Future of the Fjords is the first fully electric carbon-fibre ferry. PST was invited on board the ferry to hear about it

Cruise ship profile 13 Ponant’s newbuilding director told PST about the new technology and features on the first of its Explorers-class vessels


IMO greenhouse gas agreement 21 IMO greenhouse gas agreement countdown - what will be the impact on shipowners and operators?

Fast ferry profile 23 UK ferry operator Red Funnel’s new high-speed catamaran Red Jet 7 is even more energy efficient than sister vessel Red Jet 6, reveal the company’s chairman and the vessel's shipbuilder

Ferry operator 27 Fjord1 is blazing a trail by using all-electric ferries. Its head of projects and newbuilding Arild Austrheim spoke to PST in an exclusive interview


Cruise operator 31 SunStone Ships chief executive Niels-Erik Lund unveils the unique features of the company’s new cruise ships and gives his thoughts on using a Chinese shipyard to build them

Shipyards 34 Grand Bahama Shipyard has achieved a ‘step-change’ in the work it carries out, its chief executive tells PST 36 San Giorgio del Porto and sister yard Chantier Naval de Marseille have forged strong synergies for cruise and ferry refit work

How to...


39 Valmet explains how augmented reality can change the way operators maintain their ships

Ferry market update 40 Alternative power is driving the global ferry orderbook

Accommodation 49 A range of new solutions have been developed for passenger ship interiors

Engines 53 Environmental concerns are driving the development of LNG, as well as cleaner and quieter engines

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

Contents 3rd Quarter 2018 volume 11 issue 3

Liferafts and MESs 59 From the first passenger ship MES to meet new Polar Code requirements, to the first-ever slide-based system being developed for cruise ships, innovation is a trend within this sector

Freshwater generation systems

Editor: Rebecca Moore t: +44 20 8370 7797 e: Brand Manager: Indrit Kruja t: +44 20 8370 7792 e:

63 The growth in the expedition cruise sector and the need to be environmentally friendly are twin drivers for freshwater generation solutions

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Reservations and ticketing systems

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67 Mobile apps, integration, functionality and API are driving reservations and ticketing solutions

Class societies 74 Class societies are homing in on LNG, methanol and fuel cells

Bridge systems

78 E-navigation and advanced radar gain momentum on the bridge


Subscriptions: Sally Church t: +44 20 8370 7018 e: Chairman: John Labdon Managing Director: Steve Labdon Finance Director: Cathy Labdon Operations Director: Graham Harman Head of Content: Edwin Lampert Executive Editor: Paul Gunton Head of Production: Hamish Dickie

80 Digitalisation is becoming a critical pillar of passenger shipmanagement

Battery update 85 Stena Line will use a self-contained energy storage system on the battery retrofit of Stena Jutlandica. PST gets the lowdown from the company behind the system

Published by: Riviera Maritime Media Ltd Mitre House 66 Abbey Road Enfield EN1 2QN UK

Communications 86 Carnival Corp has combined vessel monitoring technology and human expertise to keep track of its fleet of cruise ships

Stabilisers 89 Energy efficient technology is being applied to stabiliser solutions aimed at ferries and cruise ships ISSN 1758-7255 (Print) ISSN 2051-0608 (Online) ©2018 Riviera Maritime Media Ltd

Next issue Main features include: Special focus: China; galley technology; safety equipment; simulation and training; hybrid propulsion; emissions abatement; diesel electric propulsion; noise and vibration; bunkering

Front cover: Cemre Shipyard has built Wightlink’s new flagship battery-hybrid Victoria of Wight. (credit: Cemre Shipyard)

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Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

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Enter hydrogen Rebecca Moore, Editor


ollowing the announcement of the first hydrogen ferries to be built, I think we are on the cusp of seeing a strong take-up of this power within the ferry and cruise sector. After a lot of talk about using hydrogen, we finally have some concrete projects. In June, two announcements were made about the first hydrogen-fuelled ferries to be built. A hydrogen fuel cell ferry is to be built in the US after Golden Gate Zero Emission Marine was awarded a US$3M grant by the California Air Resources Board. It will be built next year and operated by Red and White Fleet. And in the same month, it was announced that Scotland’s Ferguson Marine Engineering is to build a ropax ferry fuelled by hydrogen. Furthermore, there is an ongoing Norway Government project to create a hybrid hydrogen and battery-powered ferry. This is not a vague concept – three groups are bidding for the contract to develop the ferry, which will go into operation in 2021, and the winner is expected to be announced in Q3 this year. These projects and orders are likely to have a domino effect. As naval architect firm LMG Marin (which is involved in the hydrogen bid) managing director Torbjorn Bringedal told Passenger Ship Technology “You need one project and then other projects will follow, in Norway and outside Norway – a bit like with LNG.” He pointed out that LNG use was developed in Norway in state-subsidised ferry projects and then realised over the world. See pages 40-46 for more on this. And there are other drivers to the quick adoption of hydrogen. The Norwegian Parliament has adopted a resolution to halt emissions from cruise ships and ferries in Norway's World Heritage list fjords as soon as technically possible – and no later than 2026. This will bring focus to the use of electric power,

such as batteries and hydrogen. Indeed, many Norwegian local governments now dictate that ferry routes must be either low-emissions or emissions-free. This has led to a strong uptake in the use of batteries, including The Fjords’ Future of the Fjords - the first carbon-fibre vessel in the world to be fully electric, covered on pages 7-11. The fact that batteries are so well established will help with the uptake of hydrogen, as they are a strong step in the direction of using the latter as power. I think we will also see hydrogen used in high-speed ferries – sooner rather than later as there is a study in Norway looking at using fossil-free high-speed solutions which could involve batteries, hydrogen or a combination of both. Batteries have already firmly arrived in the ferry sector. Mr Bringedal said “I believe that hydrogen might have even bigger potential in high-speed ferries as the energy density is so high.” In contrast, if only batteries are used, a reduction in speed or a longer time in harbour might have to be accepted. This will make hydrogen more attractive to high-speed ferry operators. I think it is only a matter of time before hydrogen overtakes LNG as the fuel of choice in the ferry sector. LNG can meet the 2020 low sulphur fuel demands but crucially not zero-emission demands, which is the way the shipping industry is going. But hydrogen and battery propulsion can meet these demands. A study released at the end of June by UMAS consultancy for European NGO Transport and Environment said rolling out LNG infrastructure for shipping in Europe would cost US$22Bn and deliver, at best, a 6% reduction in ship greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 compared to the diesel it would replace. This backs up my belief hydrogen will overtake LNG in the ferry sector. PST


Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

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Future of the Fjords FERRY PROFILE | 7

The Fjords: Future is electric Future of the Fjords is fully electric


uture of the Fjords is the first carbon-fibre vessel in the world to be fully electric. It is also the first vessel of its kind to offer completely emission-free transport through the West Norwegian Fjords UNESCO World Heritage-listed region. The Fjords is co-owned by transport operator Fjord1 and Flåm, which promotes tourism opportunities in the Flåm area, northeast of Bergen.The Fjords chief executive Rolf Sandvik said the reason the company had been able to construct Future of the Fjords was because of its “two very progressive owners.” Delivered in April, The Fjords’ choice of all-electric power means the vessel is quiet, has no vibration and most importantly, is emissionsfree. This is especially topical as just weeks after it started operating in May, the Norwegian Parliament announced it had adopted a resolution to halt emissions from cruise ships and ferries in Norway's World Heritage List fjords as soon as

Future of the Fjords is the first fully electric carbon-fibre ferry, with a unique charging solution. Rebecca Moore was invited on board the ferry to hear about the project from The Fjords, its shipyard and suppliers

technically possible, and no later than 2026. This will make the fjords the world’s first zero-emissions zone at sea and means other ferries and cruise ships will be required to follow in Future of the Fjords’ footsteps. The ferry is a sister vessel to Vision of the Fjords, which was built by the same shipyard Brødrene Aa, and delivered in 2016. But the latest vessel goes one step further as it is fully electric; in contrast, Vision of the Fjords is an electric-diesel hybrid.

World-first charging solution

It also heralds another first – The Fjords has developed a unique charging solution called the Power Dock in partnership with Brødrene Aa. This 40 m long, 5 m wide floating glass fibre dock will sit in the water at Gudvangen, housing a 2.4 MWh battery pack. This was crucial, as it overcame the biggest challenge when it came to building the all-electric ferry. Mr Sandvik explained to the press assembled on the ferry that the company initially thought it could just use ‘plug and play’ to connect to the local grid. But the local community supplies Oslo with almost all of its electrical power. This means the capacity in the grid is very limited and it was unable to provide the charging power needed by Future of the Fjords. Mr Sandvik continued “[the grid would have allowed us to] charge from less capacity and do one trip a day but to make a profit, we need to do five trips a day. We thought that there would be no issue when

it came to storing electricity due to the fact that the grid supports nearly the whole of the east of the country.” This was certainly a huge issue, as by this point The Fjords had signed the contract for the new ferry. The ferry operator and shipyard came up with the Power Dock. It charges steadily throughout the day via connection to the local grid network. The innovative solution allows the vessel to stably, efficiently and cost effectively ‘refill’ in just 20 minutes. And future plans show the great potential the Power Dock has. It has a mobile infrastructure, so The Fjords can tow it to other ports if needed. And Mr Sandvik added “It might have something for different businesses too as we see a future where it could be a holding area for energy for cruise ships, electric bikes and cars.” The dock also stores consumables, fuel for sister vessels, and allows black and grey water to be offloaded for treatment on land. This makes Future of the Fjords the only passenger vessel not to discharge

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

8 | FERRY PROFILE Future of the Fjords

sewage directly into the fjords. “This means that we become a real zero-emissions ship,” said Mr Sandvik.

Carbon fibre and battery mix

The ferry is, like Vision of the Fjords, built out of carbon fibre. The family-owned shipyard Brødrene Aa is a pioneer in building GRP sandwich construction in carbon fibre. In 2002, it started to use vacuum

infusion as a production method to produce carbon fibre. It is now the biggest carbon-fibre fast ferry producer in the world. Interestingly, neither of The Fjords’ vessels are fast ferries. But Brødrene Aa chief executive Tor Øyvin Aa explained to the press gathered on board Future of the Fjords “Fast ferry technology gives a lot of advantages when building a vessel like this.” Because of the lightweight qualities of


42 m


15 m

Propulsion power:

2 x 450 kW

Battery capacity:

2 x 900 kWh 18 knots at 760 kW (with passengers)

Performance: Electricity consumption:

less than 700 kWh per trip, equivalent to 80 litres of diesel

POWER DOCK STATISTICS Charging/capacity:

2,400 kW

DC charging:

1,000 V

Battery pack:

750 kWH

Tank capacities bio/diesel: Sewage: Main dimensions

42 m3 20 m3 40 m x 5 m

MAIN SUPPLIERS Design and engineering: Tailored electric propulsion and battery system: Controllable pitch propeller system: Core material hull/ superstructure: Resin: Copper fibre:

Brødrene Aa Westcon Power & Automation Servogear Diab Polynt Saertex

Furnishing (panels bulkheads, tables, doors):

Ortnevik Tre

Furnishings (chairs, tables):

West Mekan

Railings, exterior: Batteries:

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

West Mekan LG Chem/ZEM

carbon fibre, the vessel weighs less and has reduced fuel costs. Its high strength but low weight structure means there are reduced maintenance costs and a high second-hand value can be commanded. The hull has a low wake that creates almost no waves. This translates to fuel efficiency, as the vessel requires less energy to move. Using carbon fibre means that fewer batteries, at a higher range, can be used. Fewer batteries translate into a lower vessel weight and a lower price for the vessel. There is also a shorter charging time. Mr Aa said that a lot of the yard’s carbon fibre subcontractors were involved in the vessel: Polynt supplied the resin, Saertex developed the copper fibre and Diab provided the carbon material. “These three companies have been involved since we started using sandwich construction,” said Mr Aa.

Battery know-how

The vessel also illustrates the strides made by class when it comes to battery notations, with DNV GL classing the vessel. When construction started on Vision of the Fjords in 2014, there were no defined class rules governing the use of batteries in this particular kind of vessel. In 2012 DNV GL published the world’s first class rules for batterydriven vessels. These were tentative because technology was still developing. In 2015, the society published a more consistent and more prescriptive rule set. And last year another update was published based on the knowledge acquired so far and which aligned with Norwegian Maritime Authority requirements. These rules consist of two notations. There is a battery safety notation that is the only notation followed if the batteries are only going to be

used for peak shaving. The second is a battery power notation concerned with the capacity and availability of the battery. Future of the Fjords needed to follow both notations as it is fully electric. DNV GL principal engineer and battery expert Sverre Eriksen said “The first notation is concerned with the safety of the batteries on board; the requirements are how to protect [the] vessel from a battery fire and about electrical safety.” The second notation, the battery power notation, is about having control of the capacity of the batteries. Mr Eriksen said “You need proper management and need to know the state of health of the battery and test it periodically to establish that its capacity is the correct one.” The vessel needs to take care of redundancy requirements, and part of this is by having two batteries housed in separate battery rooms. Westcon Power & Automation provided the energy storage and complete system integration. This included its e-SEAMatic Blue energy management system, e-SEAMatic integrated automation system, e-SEA drive power conversion and two e-SEA drive electrical motors at 450 kWh each. There was also an e-SEA manoeuvring control system and the company provided the main switchboards. Explaining why Westcon won the contract, its manager of sales and business development Frode Skaar said the solution weighed a few less tonnes compared to the one used in hybrid electric sister ship Vision of the Seas. “It was tailor-made to the vessel to make it low in weight.” He emphasised that it had been important to consider all components of the solution when putting together the energy storage. The batteries came from LG Chem and were adapted for maritime use by ZEM. Fjord1 head of projects >>>

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Future of the Fjords FERRY PROFILE | 11

discharge & fuel tanks vacuum mooring

The Fjords is using the Power Dock charging solution, as it is unable to use electricity from the local grid

and newbuildings Arild Austrheim told the audience it was “challenging” because batteries had not been included in carbon-fibre vessels before. But learning gained from battery hybrid sister ship Vision of the Fjords helped, as did developments in battery technology. The batteries are three times more powerful on this vessel than on Vision of the Fjords, with two 900 kWh batteries compared to two batteries of less than 300 kWh each, although the volume and weight of the batteries on Future of the >>>

40’ battery container

Fjords is only 25-30% more. Servogear provided the vessel with its electric Ecoflow Propulsor – a step up from its original products (Ecoflow Propulsor and Hybrid Ecoflow Propulsor), as being electric it is even more environmentally friendly. Explaining how it boosted fuel efficiency in Future of the Fjords, Servogear managing director Torleif Stokke said “Our system combines a variable pitch propeller with the hull design underneath the vessel. It is about understanding how the

Two battery rooms are used to house the two batteries to ensure safety

forces underneath the hull are working and therefore ensuring that the propeller and hull are designed to work together.” One of the most important things to consider is making the propeller bigger and turn more slowly, therefore increasing efficiency. While he was not able to put an exact figure on the fuel efficiency of Future of the Fjords, he said it was likely to be comparable to the figure the company achieved in a similar model: a fast ferry for 450 passengers where a 30%

reduction in fuel was achieved. As well as boosting fuel efficiency a large benefit of the solution is that it cuts noise and vibration both in the sea and inside the ferry. Mr Stokke said “Comfort is our concern. When you take away noise from the engines, propellors are left as a big source of noise. We are putting a lot of research into controlling this energy.” He explained the challenges of cutting noise and vibration. “Propellers have to take all the energy and put it out through the sea. This pressure creates vibrations. If poorly designed, the propeller's low frequency noise goes through the structure of the vessel.” Summing up the project, Mr Sandvik said “We have used extremely forwardlooking suppliers. This has been a joint venture in the new use of technology.” Future of the Fjords’ allelectric propulsion solution pushed the cost of the vessel Nkr54M (US$6.7M) above its sister ship. Norwegian organisation Enova, promoting low-emissions solutions, with backing from Norway's Ministry of Climate and Environment, provided funding of Nkr18M. Additionally, Enova provided funding of Nkr7M for the Power Dock solution. PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

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Exclusive: Ponant reveals technology behind Le Lapérouse Ponant’s newbuilding director told PST about the new technology and features on the first of the Explorers-class vessels and the challenges in adding its world-first Blue Eye lounge


he first cruise ship of Ponant’s Explorers-class was delivered in June this year and has deployed a range of technology not seen in the luxury cruise operator’s other cruise ships – as well as the ‘Blue Eye’ underwater lounge, the first-of-its-kind in a cruise ship. The ice-class vessel Le Lapérouse was built at Norway’s Vard Shipyard, a subsidiary of Fincantieri. At 131 m in length, it has 92 cabins and suites, with 110 crew members. The moderate size means the ship can access the most remote places. The Blue Eye multisensorial underwater lounge is a world-first. Ponant explained it will allow passengers to discover and experience the underwater world via two portholes, each in the form of a cetaceous eye looking out on to the seabed, nonintrusive underwater lighting, hydrophones integrated into the keel that retransmit the “natural symphony of the deep

Le Lapérouse was built at Norway’s Vard Shipyard (credit: Ponant)


The bulbous bow has been optimised to suit low-speed travelling (credit: Ponant-Philip Plisson)

water and body-listening sofas, offering a unique sensorial listening experience by corporel resonance.” Ponant newbuilding and R&D director Mathieu Petiteau told Passenger Ship Technology “Never before has such a thing been done. It is just incredible to me and a revolution in shipbuilding.” He said creating the lounge within the hull involved a lot of challenges – the biggest of which was to demonstrate that the strength of the complete system would provide the same level of safety as using steel within the hull. Creating the Blue Eye lounge involved replacing some of the steel of the hull with glass. “We needed to demonstrate, in terms of

grounding or ice navigation, there would not be less safety,” explained Mr Petiteau. “It was the most difficult thing to demonstrate, but we believe now that the system is even stronger [than using steel in the hull].” He explained this was achieved by the “way the glass is integrated into the steel frame and how the steel frame was integrated into the hull. “We had to go through each individual material that composed this, we implemented all of these systems within the hull and looked at the impact on the window. We went far into the research and the design of this,” said Mr Petiteau. To this end, Ponant worked

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

LE LAPÉROUSE Length: Passenger capacity: Staterooms:

131 m 184 92






Bureau Veritas

in close co-operation with the maker of the glass and with Hamburg University of Technology, which specialises in materials and finite element modelling. Bureau Veritas classed the vessel. Its global market leader of passenger ships and ferries Andreas Ullrich agreed that the most challenging item was the Blue Eye lounge, as this is the first cruise ship to have glass below the water line. “At 6 m it is very large,” he commented, adding “Originally class rules say you have to use steel, but here we did a risk assessment and a lot of tests to confirm that it is as safe as using steel.”

Energy efficiency focus

Elsewhere, energy efficiency was a key consideration for >>>





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Several challenges had to be overcome to create the world-first Blue Eye lounge (credit: Ponant – Jacques Rougerie Architecte)

this vessel. The efficiency of the propeller has been boosted by using a variable pitch propeller within a variable speed propulsion model. RollsRoyce provided the variable pitch propeller and the electric propulsion is provided by ABB. The set-up involves two shaft lines driven by electric motors, which have controllable pitch propellers at the end. “The use of controllable pitch improves the communication between the hull and the propeller,” said Mr Petiteau, explaining this would lead to fuel savings of approximately 3% annually. The hull and the bulbous bow have been optimised, with the latter developed to suit low-speed travelling. This is a change for Ponant, as for its other cruise ships, the bulbous bow was developed to suit a speed above 16 knots. In contrast, Le Lapérouse has a maximum 15-knots speed >>>

and an operating speed of 10 knots. “So, we do not need a big bulbous bow made for a high-speed vessel,” said Mr Petiteau. “It is designed for low speed.” This change has boosted energy efficiency. The electric models in the ship all meet the new electric EA3 standards, meaning that their energy efficiency and environmental friendliness is a step up compared to previous cruise ships. “This design phase is a big improvement on Le Boreal and its sister ships, which meet the EA1 specifications, and means there is less electric consumption,” commented Mr Petiteau. This is important, given that there are approximately 100 electric motors on board, designed by ABB. He pointed out the gap between the energy efficiency achieved by the latest EA3

standard compared with EA1 is sizable: a medium-sized motor (5 kW) classed at EA3 achieved efficiency of 90%, compared to less than 85% for a motor classed at EA1. Another major boost to the energy efficiency of the vessel is the implementation of a central heat recovery system. Ponant designed the solution with Vard. It recovers heat from the main engines which is then used for the hotel load, including air conditioning and for potable water. Mr Petiteau highlighted the significance “We had a basic one on board Le Boreal, used mainly for distillate water. That was used 5% of the time, but this system takes energy 100% of the time from the engines.” The company decided not to use scrubbers and has instead plumped for marine gasoil. “We don’t see scrubbers as real

environmentally friendly pieces of equipment; they are removing sulphur from the exhaust gas, but the sulphur is still somewhere and is either dispersed to seawater or stored on board to be discharged ashore – and nobody wants it.” Another disadvantage, he said, was that scrubbers consume “much more energy” to carry out their tasks. “The ship is producing more CO2 to remove the sulphur. If you look at the global long-term efficiency of this system, it is not good at all.”

Brand new features

Other environmentally friendly measures include the complete treatment of all fuel sludge, carried out on board. The company has invested in a new generation of Alfa Laval’s PureBilge oily water separator for bilge water treatment,

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


avoiding discharge of bilge water. “We are able to treat everything on board in a very efficient manner,” Mr Petiteau said, adding this was a new addition to the fleet. Another new feature the first in the Explorers-class adds to Ponant’s fleet is the Green Pilot system, which is used to save energy. Sensors measure the exact fuel consumption of every engine. Mr Petiteau commented “It will give us very accurate fuel meter consumption, which means we will know exactly the fuel consumption of every engine, which will allow development of decisions about which engines to start and stop, in order to work out the most effective way to save fuel.” The system was developed by Vard Electro. Ponant has also added equipment to save HVAC costs. “Lots of passengers want to keep their balcony doors open, while the air conditioning is still on in the room,” commented Mr Petiteau. To overcome this challenge, sensors send a signal that the door has been opened and to reduce the air conditioning, placing the system in economy mode. “It is a simple but effective solution,”

“Never before has such a thing been done. It is just incredible to me and a revolution in shipbuilding” Mathieu Petiteu (Ponant)

Mathieu Petiteau (Ponant) Mathieu Petiteau started his career at Ponant as chief engineer/ shipbuilding cruise ship consultant in 2009, where he was site manager for the building survey of the luxury cruise ship L’Austral, assistant site manager for the building survey of Le Boreal and chief engineer for both ships. In 2011, he was project manager and site manager for building Le Soleal and Le Lyrial. He was appointed newbuilding director in 2015 and since December 2017 has been both newbuild and research and development director. Previous to Ponant, he was commissioning manager at STX France, and prior to that, first engineer at Services et Transport.

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

said Mr Petiteau. An innovative environmentally friendly solution has been applied to the refrigeration solutions too. For the first time, Ponant is using a refrigerant that has a lower global warming potential than standard. “This has not been an easy thing,” said Mr Petiteau. “It is difficult to find this type of gas and it costs more as the compressor needs to be modified to be able to work with this refrigerant.” The same engines have been used as on Le Boreal and its sister ships – four Wärtsilä 8L20 engines with eight cylinders each. The only change represented by the engines is that they are now compliant with IMO Tier III regulations, because they are now fitted with a selective catalytic reduction system (SCR) to reduce NOx concentration in the exhaust gas. The addition of SCR was a challenge because they “take space in the tank plan of the ship, which is quite a challenge and for such a small vessel this is not easy at all.” Le Lapérouse received the international Cleanship notation from Bureau Veritas as a result of the

environmentally friendly equipment used. The class society said the criteria for its notation are: limitation of sea pollution stowage on board, ability to transfer ashore, the reduction in the release of polluting substances into seawater such as hydrocarbons, sewage, noxious products, garbage and grey and black water. Furthermore, air pollution levels of greenhouse gases and other ozone-depleting product emissions are limited and checked. In terms of design, it was important for Ponant to “go further” with a yachting design than before. “We really want our passengers to feel like they are on board a private yacht,” explained Mr Petiteau. It also has two more distinct features: a marina has been deployed to allow guests to have close contact with the sea. At the back of the ship, a large hatch opens up to allow a ‘huge platform’ to be deployed. This platform can be adjusted to any level and can even go to 1 m below the sea. “It is a very customised design and designed by Ponant to allow customers to have close contact with the sea,” said Mr Petiteau.” While such a platform has been used before on small yachts, it has never before been used on cruise ships. Ponant has also developed a lighting system. It developed an integrated solution for 28 spotlights on the back of the hull to light up the bottom of the sea. LED technology is used. Le Lapérouse features a reinforced hull for polar exploration, five passenger decks, a fleet of Zodiacs and an 188-seat theatre. Each ship will have 88 balcony staterooms and four suites with bay windows and private terraces. PST

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IMO greenhouse gas agreement – what will be the impact on shipowners and operators? A groundbreaking agreement was made in mid-April at the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). Master mariner and naval architect Niels Bjørn Mortensen looks at what this will mean for the shipping industry


t its 72nd session, IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) adopted an initial strategy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shipping by at least 50% by 2050. Where did the agreement come from, and what are the goals? GHG has been on IMO’s agenda for about three decades and other GHG reduction measures have been adopted previously. In 2011, IMO adopted the EEDI (Energy Efficiency Design Index) and the SEEMP (Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan) and in 2016, the IMO GHG Roadmap was approved including the mandatory data collection system. The newly adopted GHG strategy contains concrete targets to be achieved by fixed deadlines and combined with the above measures, means that shipping will be the first industry to be globally regulated on GHG. The concrete targets, based on 2008 levels, in the IMO GHG strategy are: 1. Reduce CO2 emissions per transport work (tonnes*miles) by at least 40% by 2030 aiming for a 70% reduction by 2050. 2. Reduce total CO2 emissions from shipping by at least 50% by 2050. The industry response and what comes next: The response to IMO’s GHG strategy from the affected players varied widely, from “unambitious,” “too little, too late” to “unrealistic and impossible to achieve.”

The majority, however, consider the GHG strategy as being visionary and a major achievement by IMO. What potential problems could arise during implementation? One of the obstacles to be overcome involves whether the agreement can be implemented in a way that is flag neutral. When discussing GHG issues in IMO, as well as in other forums, developing countries claim their right to “common, but differentiated responsibilities” (CBDR), a concept which was adopted into the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. The CBDR concept basically means that developed countries should lead the way on GHG reductions and be more committed than developing countries. Developed countries also have access to financial and technical resources outside the reach of developing countries. It is quite easy to acknowledge the arguments… when it relates to land-based emission sources. When it comes to ships moving freely around on the oceans which can change flag overnight, the CBDR concept is unworkable. If it is applied and results in fewer obligations on ships operating under flags of developing countries, one could anticipate the result of a massive shift of flag from developed countries to developing countries. Flag states will, via the data collection system, report to IMO which then can monitor shipping emissions. Will IMO then allocate allowable emission amounts based on the fleet size to the flag state?

Niels Bjørn Mortensen: The majority of those affected believe that IMO’s GHG strategy is visionary

Enforcement and emissions trading The next big question that pops up is: How to police emissions? Will ships, or shipping companies’ which emit more CO2 than is allocated based on flag state and fleet size be fined? And where would these fines go? Would they go into the treasury of individual flag states or be passed on to IMO? If IMO takes payment, the body would then need to set up a collection unit. Could shipping companies purchase emission allowances from other companies across flags or even from other industries – in the way that carbon credits are traded – and what mechanisms would be put in place to control and regulate such trades? If this aspect of the above scenario becomes a reality, it could essentially become an emissions trading scheme introduced on the back of this legislation. If this is indeed the way a global reduction in emissions will be handled, there is no need to make the process an afterthought. IMO could at least begin with a plan, a definition and a label. Realistic targets? Does shipping have to be specifically concerned with the targets agreed in IMO at MEPC 72? According to BIMCO deputy secretary general Lars Robert Pedersen, the IMO targets are ambitious, yet achievable. He emphasises that achieving the 50% absolute reduction by 2050 will require all players to work together on smart new technology, better ship designs and new CO2 neutral or carbon-free fuels. PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


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Red Jet 7

– at the top of the energy efficiency game Red Funnel’s newbuild fast ferry Red Jet 7, its lightest vessel to date, has some technical differences when compared with its sister ship, which have been included to allow access to some proposed new routes


K ferry operator Red Funnel’s new high-speed catamaran Red Jet 7 surpasses sister vessel Red Jet 6 as it is even lighter and therefore more energy efficient – and there are other differences between the two vessels. The £7M (US$9M) addition to Red Funnel’s Red Jet fleet was ordered from Wight Shipyard on the Isle of Wight in August 2017, following an

international tender. Red Jet 6 was also built by Wight Shipyard in 2016. The final fit out and commissioning of onboard systems took take place with the vessel alongside at East Cowes, followed by extensive sea trials and crew training in the Solent. It was named in a ceremony at the end of July. Red Funnel chairman Kevin George explained the background of the fleet’s latest vessel to Passenger Ship

Technology. “Red Jet 3 is now 19 years old and in terms of economic life, we think it is time to invest in a new vessel.” “The vessel has 190 seats, whereas Red Jet 4, Red Jet 6 and Red Jet 7 have 275 seats. This matches the growth in our business as it gives us extra capacity and meets peak demand periods,” he explained. Red Jet 3 is currently for sale. Red Jet 7 is very similar to Red Jet 6, but there are a few key contrasts, principally

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


its weight. Wight Shipyard chief executive Peter Morton told Passenger Ship Technology “There was a view to make this boat more fuel efficient than Red Jet 6, therefore we

have refined some of the building techniques.” The shipyard conducted research and a full study on how it could save weight on the latest catamaran – leading to the high-speed ferry being


four tonnes lighter than its predecessor. “We did a full study on how we could save weight on every single item and this led to 200 items where we were able to save weight,” said Mr Morton.

He explained that the company used timber aluminium, which is lighter than conventional aluminium. The shipyard also developed gluing techniques which saved using aluminium plate and cut down on welding costs. Mr Morton said “We refined a lot of engineering techniques to use lightweight engineering details… all ferry operators ask to use less fuel, and if you build a boat lighter you use less fuel.” He said Red Jet 7 would travel at the same speed as Red Jet 6, but “at the same speed we expect to see fuel savings directly related to weight.” While the vessel has the same propulsion configuration as sister Red Jet 6 with four main MTU 2000 series diesel engines and four waterjets, Red Funnel used waterjets from HamiltonJet rather than MJP, which provided the waterjets for Red Jet 6. Mr George explained “I believe that Hamilton waterjets are more efficient for this type of build of vessel as they are already skid-mounted and can be fitted into the stern of the vessel rather than the support arrangements having to be engineered.” The vessel’s Red Jet sister ships use waterjets rather than propellers, too. Red Funnel said this was to aid manoeuvrability and provide the best possible stopping power, while keeping wash to a minimum.

New role, new features

Red Jet 7 will have a few extra features compared to its sister ship because the ferry operator plans to operate the vessel outside its normal waters of the Solent to further afield, such as the south coast of the UK. Mr George explained that Red Funnel was hoping to offer a new service – offering excursions to passengers from cruise ships that stop in

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


added protection from hitting submerged objects and rocks. A major benefit was the geographical closeness between the shipyard and Red Funnel. Mr Morton said “Red Funnel worked very closely

with us – we had an open door policy and it was much easier for them. They could walk in and out of the yard the whole time, rather than send people halfway round the world – this is better for both parties.” PST

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Below: Liinsand • Passenger Catamaran built 2017 • LOA 18.7 m • 50 PAX 2 x 50 kWh COBRA Batteries (Hybrid Drive)


from the other Red Jets is that high-speed vessels now being constructed must comply with IMO’s International Code of Safety for HighSpeed Craft, which requires a double bottom, giving


Southampton. The company plans to run a trial in Q3 this year, with the aim of having a range available next year. Mr George said “We have previously carried out excursions and we think there is a market for that. We are seeing lots of interest from cruise lines [for expeditions] and the best way of selling the excursions is to work with the various agencies and cruise lines to promote the excursions. “We have made sure the vessel is provisioned with all the things we need in case we want to operate out. This vessel will have a few extra features that will enable us to operate outside our normal Category D waters. The main difference is the need to carry a rescue boat.” Therefore, Wight Shipyard has built davits in order to carry a rescue boat for occasions when the catamaran operates outside the Solent. The vessel would only carry a rescue boat when operating out of its usual Category D waters. The company is considering equipping Red Jet 6 with davits as well. Aside from these changes, the two vessels share the same technology and energy efficient features. Each MTU 10V 2000 M72 series diesel engine develops 900 kW at 2,250 rpm and will power a separate waterjet. Two Beta Marine Perkins Sabre 63 kW 415 V three phase 50 Hz generators are being used to provide electrical power. Other technical innovations to help reduce fuel consumption include using vinyl instead of paint on external surfaces above the waterline to reduce weight and applying the latest Teflon hull coatings to minimise drag through the water. Another way in which this vessel and Red Jet 6 differ

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Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


Fjord1 speeds ahead with new technology

Fjord1’s conversion of Fannefjord paved the way for its use of batteries in other ferry projects


jord1 is leading the way when it comes to using batteries in ferries. It has 22 all-electric ferries on its orderbook, with three already delivered. Fjord1 head of projects and newbuilding Arild Austrheim told Passenger Ship Technology “We are by far the leading company to install batteries in ships.” Fjord1 has always been ahead of the game when it comes to new technology. It was the first ferry operator to use LNG in the passenger shipping market, has two vessels that run on biodiesel and is involved in a project using hydrogen as fuel. The ferry operator, which has been operating since 1858, runs 70 vessels and owns 50% of the ferry market share in Norway. Mr Austrheim said the ferry operator’s use of batteries was being driven by the strict requirements of local governments in Norway to operate routes with low or zero emissions. The all-electric ferries span six large tender contracts and 18 different routes. “We operate contracts on behalf


of provincial governments and are competing with other companies and have to meet price and environmental criteria – we are competing on the highest degree of electric operation at the lowest costs,” he explained. The 25 all-electric ferries represent “quite a hectic scenario” for Fjord1, as so many of them are being delivered in such a short space of time. The 22 remaining ferries on the company’s orderbook will all be delivered by the end of next year, meaning that from the second half of 2019 Fjord1 will take delivery of a new vessel every third week on average. “We are introducing a lot of technology at a very high speed” Mr Austrheim said. “One of the things that we really hope the market will develop further is fully automatic charging solutions,” he added. The ferries will be charged automatically from shore and Mr Austrheim said they had so little time in port that charging needed to be automatic to be as quick as possible. Fjord1 would like to see solutions developed that are more efficient and simpler. “We think that there are possibilities for some companies to come

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


up with something new,” he commented. All the ferries are designed to operate as fully electric, but hybrid generators have been installed on board as a backup. Out of the 25 vessels, 13 are being constructed by Havyard Ship Technology in Norway. The remaining ferries are being built by Sefine, Cemre and Tersan shipyards in Turkey. Mr Austrheim said “We are building a lot locally as we believe in supporting local communities and due to the quality and cost efficiency of building in Norway.” Havyard is only a few hours’ drive from Fjord1’s headquarters in Florø. He pointed out that even though half of the ferries were being built in Turkey, they were being built with a lot of equipment from Norwegian suppliers and manufacturers, meaning the vessels consist of 30% Norwegian construction. As well as its all-electric ferries, Fjord1 has been heavily involved with the allelectric sightseeing vessel Future of the Fjords, launched in April this year and operated by The Fjords. Fjord1 owns 50% of the company.

the company was still involved in ongoing tenders that involved a high degree of newbuilds. “These will go on until 2022 to 2023, and if we win, that will decide if we build more vessels.” Asked if the new ferries joining the fleet would replace older tonnage, he explained “It is a combination – some routes are requesting newbuilds as part of a tender, and we have some new routes where the ferries will go.” He said Fjord1 was planning to retrofit a “handful” of its existing ferries (less than 10 years old) with batteries.

Meeting energy requirements

The company signed a deal this year for Rolls-Royce to supply its autocrossing system to 13 of its new all-electric vessels. All contracts also include two Azipull propellers for each vessel with an accompanying propeller control system

LNG and battery conversion

An important backdrop to this project is Fjord1's conversion of its ferry Fannefjord from an LNG-fuelled vessel to an LNG battery-hybrid ferry. The converted vessel went into operation in May 2015, and claims the title of being the first passenger ferry to use a combination of pure gas and battery power. Fjord1’s Fannefjord was the second unit in a series of four ships built by Remontowa shipyard in 2009. It was delivered in 2010 and operates on the Molde-Vestnes route. It is an efficient and clean ship, being a gaselectric powered ferry. The refitted Fannefjord uses a 1,050 V, 410 kWh energy storage system (ESS) consisting of 63 Corvus Energy AT6500 advanced lithium polymer batteries. The ESS was integrated with the existing Siemens drive systems and powered by two LNG generators. Norway-headquartered naval architect and maritime engineering company LMG Marin designed the conversion, together with Fiskerstrand Verft, which carried out the conversion. Mr Austrheim highlighted the importance of this project. “We learned a lot from this, and used this as a reference point for Future of the Fjords,” he said. Fjord1 could be adding to its fleet again if it wins more contracts. Mr Austrheim said

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

from Rolls-Royce. The automatic crossing system provides safe, predictable and energyefficient transit back and forth by automatically controlling the vessel’s acceleration, deceleration, speed and track. The two energy-efficient Rolls-Royce Azipull thrusters respond adaptively to environmental conditions to ensure optimal behaviour and maximise efficiency. The energy consumption of the new ferries will be measured and Fjord1 will be penalised if more energy is used than that included in the bid. The autocrossing solution will help the company ensure it sticks to the criteria specified in the contract. “The idea is that it automatically repeats the best way of driving a ferry on a route. It will automatically calculate and act accordingly with the most energy efficient way to do the crossing and repeat this,” said Mr Austrheim. The ferry operator is also a leader when it comes to using LNG as fuel. It launched Glutra, the world’s first LNG ferry in 2000 and now operates 12 LNG-fuelled ferries. It is the first operator to have two ferries operating on pure biodiesel. Two of its existing ferries were converted from a diesel operation to biodiesel. They started running on biofuel in January 2016. The company was required by the contract to meet the maximum level of CO2 emissions reductions, and using biofuel has a lower CO2 value than marine gas oil. The biofuel is delivered by truck. Fjord1 is also involved in a hydrogen project overseen by Norway's Public Road Administration. It is developing a concept for a ferry using hydrogen and is competing with other operators to do this at the lowest cost. “For some types of operation, hydrogen could lead to improvements and increase the opportunity to have zero-emission operations. The technology already exists but there are challenges to adapting it to a ferry,” said Mr Austrheim. PST

Fjord1 battery highlights

Arild Austrheim (Fjord1): “We are introducing a lot of technology at a very high speed”

• Won six large tenders with low-/zeroemission operations. • 18 different routes by 29 vessels. • Ordered 25 new battery ferries in less than two years. • Three vessels already delivered. • Remaining 22 ferries to be delivered during 2018 and 2019.

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Exclusive: SunStone Ships unveils energy efficiency of newbuilds Energy efficiency and passenger comfort are top priorities for SunStone Ships’ newbuilds – while it is also investing in its current fleet


unStone Ships chief executive Niels-Erik Lund has unveiled the unique features of the company’s new cruise ships and given his thoughts on using a Chinese shipyard to build them. The company is one of the first cruise shipowners to use a Chinese shipyard to build its vessels – it has a contract for four vessels with options for an additional six with China Merchants Heavy Industry (CMHI). In April, the steel cutting ceremony of Greg Mortimer, the first expedition vessel in SunStone’s Infinity-class series, took place with delivery scheduled for August next year. It was at this ceremony that a shipbuilding contract was signed between CMHI and SunStone Ships for the second vessel, scheduled for delivery in August 2020. The third newbuild will be ordered in May and the fourth in Q3 this year. Mr Lund said this was “faster than expected.” He is confident the options will also become firm orders. “We have a lot of interest in these ships. We do not order ships unless we

CMHI director David Zhu (left) and SunStone Ships president Niels-Erik Lund sign the shipbuilding contract for a second cruise ship

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

32 | CRUISE OPERATOR SunStone Ships

have charters. I think the options will come through – we have a lot of good negotiations going on with charterers.” The company is building the ships in China, but with a huge amount of support from Europe. Norway-based Ulstein Design & Solutions has been awarded the contract for the design and equipment for the expedition cruise ships. A unique offering from Ulstein is its patented X-Bow design, which is being used on SunStone’s newbuilds – the first time this concept will be used on a cruise ship. Mr Lund said “Ulstein has built 115 X-Bow ships around the world, with more than 50 of these built in China. They also have quite a large organisation in China, so they are used to dealing with Chinese shipyards and used to delivering equipment packages from Europe to China. The way we see it is that it will be a Europeandesigned and built ship assembled in China.” Meanwhile, Finnish company Mäkinen is the main turnkey supplier for the vessels’ interiors. The company has worked with SunStone for many years and is currently upgrading two cabin decks on SunStone’s Ocean Diamond. The plan to build the ships in China has worked very well for SunStone Ships – the company has scooped a better price and better financing than it could have obtained in European shipyards. “So far we are extremely pleased with the relationship,” said Mr Lund. The relationship is win-win as it is also very positive for CMHI. “Chinese [yards] do not have the experience in building cruise ships – this contract means that they can learn and see how it is done and in the future build much larger cruise ships,” said Mr Lund. He said it was a “smart” move by the Chinese to build a series of small ships rather than build “one large cruise ship and lose a lot of money.” Instead, they can build 10 small ships and learn. While for now European influences are very important in SunStone’s newbuilds, Mr Lund is sure the Chinese yard will learn and build up its experience so it can do more of the building and design in the future. “I am sure that will happen; the Chinese will learn. We have seen that in other industries, such as in cars and computers. I am sure Chinese shipyards will build high-quality cruise ships.” Homing in on the design of the newbuilds, Mr Lund said a major attraction for using Ulstein was its X-Bow hull-line design, which the company has built for offshore ships that sail in bad weather and rough seas. The major difference between this hull line and a conventional one is that the X-Bow has a greater volume at the waterline because it is is much bigger and wider than a conventional narrow and slim hull shape. “In rough seas, a slim bow will not have a lot of volume down in the water and will pitch much more than an X-Bow,” explained Mr Lund. Furthermore, in bad weather a huge spray of water will be created by a conventional bow hitting the waves, creating noise and vibration and causing the ship to brake slightly. In contrast, with an X-Bow, the wave will move off the bow “so there is no slamming and you don’t have the vibration and vessel stopping effects, meaning there is much more comfort for passengers, better fuel efficiency and the ship will be much faster in bad weather. With a conventional hull-line, the ship has to slow down as otherwise the waves hitting the ship will damage it,” said Mr Lund. Explaining the fuel efficiency, Mr Lund said “Fuel efficiency is no different in normal, good weather. But the worse the weather is, the more fuel efficient the X-Bow will be because it doesn’t have the slamming and the braking.” SunStone Ships is also enhancing comfort with another ‘first’ in the cruise ship sector – it is installing Zero Speed stabilisers – which have only ever been used on large, luxury private yachts before.

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

Niels-Erik Lund (SunStone Ships) Niels-Erik Lund has over 40 years of experience in the passenger ship industry. His main responsibilities

include applying his insight towards acquisitions of second-hand cruise ship tonnage for existing clients and new investor groups and managing newbuild initiatives. Prior to founding SunStone Ships, Mr Lund was one of the original founders of International Shipping Partners and until 2012, was the company’s largest shareholder in addition to serving as its president and chief executive. He also previously served as president and chief executive of Scandinavian World Cruises/SeaEscape and worked with DFDS in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Provided by Rolls-Royce, they are used when loading or at anchor and move hydraulically, based on wave movement. Mr Lund said 80% of rolling or pitching disappears when these are used, which will be an important factor for the comfort of SunStone’s passengers. Zero Speed stabilisers will also be installed on one of SunStone’s current vessels, Sea Spirit in April 2019. Explaining why, Mr Lund said this cruise ship is one of the smallest vessels in its fleet and therefore moves more than the larger ships. He said the company would start by retrofitting the stabilisers on this vessel and would “most likely” retrofit them to other ships in its fleet. Another unique feature about SunStone’s newbuilds is that they are being built according to safe return to port (SRTP) requirements. However, the company is not required to do this as its ships are not longer than 120 m. But it is something Mr Lund feels strongly about. “We wanted SRTP because of the remote areas in which we operate. We think this is the right decision. It costs a lot more but creates a much safer ship.” The ships are being built to Polar Code 6 – the highest polar code notation for a non ice-breaking ship. Mr Lund emphasised “We are trying in all aspects to be as safe and comfortable as we can be.” The new ships will run on marine gas oil, like the cruise ship owner’s existing fleet. “We cannot use LNG as we can’t buy this fuel in remote areas and from a tank volume point of view, we would not have enough LNG on board for 20 days without refuelling,” Mr Lund said. But if it were available, then the company would use it as it is “even better than marine gas oil.” The company is busy upgrading its existing fleet, having spent more than US$25M in upgrades over the last few years, which include retrofitting six new engines on Ocean Adventurer to make it much more fuel efficient, while all interior spaces on Sea Spirit have been upgraded over the last three years. “Next year our first newbuild is delivered, but it is important for us to keep up the quality of existing fleet,” Mr Lund said. PST

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A record year and new boss for Grand Bahama Shipyard Grand Bahama Shipyard has a strong year ahead for refit work and has achieved a ‘step-change’ in the work it carries out. Its chief executive explains

GBS provided a full turn-key solution for the revitalisation of Carnival Elation


rand Bahama Shipyard (GBS) is riding high – 2018 is a record year for repairs, refurbishments and revitalisations at the yard, with 29 cruise ships on its orderbook for this year. This follows a robust 2017, when a total of 23 cruise ships underwent refits at the shipyard. The shipyard welcomed a new chief executive David Skentelbery in March this year. Mr Skentelbery has been with the company since January 2016, initially as chief commercial officer and more recently as acting chief

executive. He has big plans for the yard’s future, with the cruise sector currently contributing 60% of the yard’s work. “We want to grow this and have the ability and capacity to do this,” he said. Mr Skentelbery will play a key role in building strong relationships with government officials and other stakeholders, further develop a highly-skilled workforce and sustain the shipyard as one of Grand Bahama’s largest and most significant economic contributors. Commenting on the work the yard has undertaken in 2017 and so far in 2018,

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

he told Passenger Ship Technology “The business is doing well. We are growing the capability to do larger, more complex projects and we intend to continue to do that. We are gaining in resources and competencies to do bigger projects.” He singled out how project management was a very strong skill of the yard. “It is a core competency of the yard and means that we have the ability to demonstrate to cruise lines [that we can] take on [a] larger scope of work rather than traditional ship repair.” Indeed, the cruise ship projects over 2017 and 2018 have set a record not just through the number of them but also through their scope. Mr Skentelbery said “We are confident that we can take on a greater scope of work traditionally managed by cruise lines.” An example is the work the company carried out in Q3 2017 on Carnival Cruise Line’s Carnival Elation. This was the first time that GBS provided Carnival Cruise Line with a turn-key solution for a major revitalisation project that included deck fabrications for cabins and passenger areas and other complex steel fabrications, along with installing a ducktail

and sponsons. GBS managed cabin contractor Almaco. Mr Skentelbery summed up “It was a step-change in the scope of the work that we manage.” Risk and costs are reduced by allowing the shipyard to put the package together and manage the complete solution which is a benefit for the cruise operator. “Cruise ship companies are very busy with newbuilds and refurbishments so having a company like GBS that has more to offer than traditional shipyards is a good advantage for them and something that we will develop in future,” said Mr Skentelbery. He explained that putting the package together was very much a partnership approach with the cruise line. The company is now working on another project for Carnival Cruise Line that is similar to Carnival Elation. GBS’ turn-key solutions will include fabricating and installating new steel structures, including a cabin block structure that will incorporate additional cabins; new structures that will become balconies for mid-ship and aft cabins on several deck levels; fabricating and installating a ducktail and sponsons; and steel fabrications as base components for interior work that will enhance general public spaces. GBS will also fabricate the major


David Skentelbery (Grand Bahama Shipyard) The board of directors of Grand Bahama Shipyard approved the appointment of David Skentelbery as chief executive in March. His role is to oversee the yard’s overall direction and management. Mr Skentelbery has been with the company since January 2016, initially as chief commercial officer and more recently as acting chief executive. He has been in the marine industry for over 40 years and has worked globally in senior management roles and board positions both in shipping companies and shipyards. Mr Skentelbery “will play a key role in building strong relationships with government officials and other stakeholders – an important responsibility in being able to make ongoing improvements to the shipyard, further develop a highly skilled workforce and sustain the shipyard as one of the Grand Bahama’s largest and most significant economic contributors,” the board said in a statement when he was appointed.

support structures for a new waterpark. Standard overhauls to piping and mechanical systems are planned, along with complete hull treatment, thruster, stabiliser and ABB Azipod overhauls. The timescale is 30 days. Other notable projects in 2017 included positioning additional diesel generator modules on four vessels and installing a cyclo-convertor, the latter being a collaborative project between GBS, ABB and Carnival. On the hotel side, GBS supported the Carnival hotel refurbishment team with interior structural modification works on several vessels. Other major work included Royal Caribbean Cruise International’s Grandeur of the Seas, which received a scrubber system, enhancements to upper-deck aluminium and steel structures and complete hull blasting and application of silicone coating. Royal Caribbean's Independence of the Seas has also undergone work at the yard this year. While Princess Cruises returned with two vessels, Caribbean Princess and Pacific Princess. In both, GBS replaced approximately 11 tonnes of steel in structural projects on their hulls and upper decks. Celebrity Summit was also drydocked at GBS last year for a major Azipod overhaul. The vessel was ready to return to operations within seven days. Another cruise operator, Norwegian Cruise Line, drydocked five ships within the first half of 2017. Among the most notable projects carried out on these five ships were the works done on Norwegian Sky, Norwegian Pearl and Norwegian Jade. GBS supported RollsRoyce on the overhaul of controllable pitch propellers (CPP) and thrusters on Norwegian Sky. Norwegian

Pearl and Norwegian Jade’s extensive work programmes included full blast and applying silicone coatings, installing new ballast water treatment system pipelines and overhauling thrusters, stabilisers and Azipods. Royal Caribbean will have two revitalisation projects in 2018 – major projects will run concurrently with GBS turnkey projects of fabricating and installing aluminium deck blocks for incorporating suites. On these projects, GBS will also fabricate the major support structures for new waterparks. Holland America Line will add cabins on several of its vessels, to give customers direct access from the cabin to the promenade deck. Commenting on the refit market, Mr Skentelbery explained “There is a requirement to upgrade some older ships, so we are seeing larger, more complex revitalisation projects.” He said the challenge was the time-frame in which to deliver a “safe and environmentally-friendly project.” He emphasised that planning and risk management

were the keys to success. “All the projects have [their] own individual challenges and complexities, but a seven-day project can be as challenging as a 27-day project.” Commenting on environmental upgrades being carried out by the yard, Mr Skentelbery said “We have been carrying out scrubber retrofits on various vessels for some time now. We will get ourselves ready for LNG in the cruise market. We have just started looking at this but need to fully understand what is coming towards us and work closely with cruise lines to understand what they require from us to be ready for them.” Commenting on the cruise retrofit market, he said “There is competition out there – shipowners have choices. Our location is a great advantage, being so close to the US main cruise ports, but we are not complacent about that because there is competition on the other side of the Atlantic.” But Mr Skentelbery said “We believe we are competitive in terms of capability and price.” PST

Independence of the Seas is one of 29 cruise ships to undergo a refit at GBS in 2018

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


Sister yards forge synergies for one stop shop refits San Giorgio del Porto and sister yard Chantier Naval de Marseille complement each other when it comes to cruise and ferry refit and conversion work

Corsica Linea’s Jean Nicoli in drydock at Chantier Naval de Marseille


epair and conversion shipyard San Giorgio del Porto (SGdP) and sister yard Chantier Naval de Marseille (CNM) have worked on a clutch of cruise and ferry projects since the start of this year, where one of the main focuses is on greener and more fuel-efficient operations. The sister shipyards call themselves a ‘one-stopsolution’ for repair, conversion and refitting operations in the shipping industry, providing services not only to passenger ships but also to offshore vessels and LNG carriers. While they are independent companies, they work together and complement each other. The shipyards’ commercial manager Manolo Cavaliere singled out the yards’ 90-year history plus the wide range of facilities, including a drydock 465 m long by 85 m wide, as being important reasons as to why “even the most complex project” can be carried out and any type of vessel can be handled. Since the start of 2018, CNM has carried out four cruise ship drydocks on Norwegian Cruise Line’s Norwegian Star, Costa Cruises’ Costa Victoria, and AIDA Cruises’ AIDAbella and AIDAaura. Over on the ferry side, drydocks have been completed on Corsica Linea’s Pascal Paoli, Vizzavona and Jean Nicoli ships, and GNV’s Majestic and Excelsior ferries. SGdP completed several projects for GNV (Fantastic and Superba) and Algérie Ferries (El Djazair II and Tariq Ibn Ziyad). Mr Cavaliere commented “The activities performed

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

“Automation helps us report more accurate results, more quickly” Manolo Cavaliere (CNM/SGdP)

were repair and refurbishment operations, specific works on pods and modifications for compliance with new rules or greener/fuel-efficient operations (scrubber installations). These works have been a routine part of the yard’s operations for this year.” A major focus of CNM is using green and energy efficient technology. To this end, it is working with a new technology used for blasting and coating hulls, developed by Hubert Palfinger Technologies. Hull Treatment Carrier (HTC) is now available at CNM for all repair and refit projects. It is the first automated system for maintaining ship surfaces. The HTC system for surface treatment and colour application includes a range of benefits. Mr Cavaliere explained that washing, blasting and coating hulls usually means three standalone processes, resulting in “hundreds of man-hours.” HTC can simultaneously blast and coat the hull, maximising time efficiency and minimising costs for shipowners and shipyards. The system uses ultra-highpressure water blasting of up to 3,000 bars, with an automated application of up to 1,200 m per hour per HTC, meaning up to

30% less coating is needed. The automated application reduces the roughness depth of the vessel with surface preparation and consistent coating. Mr Cavaliere said “Automation helps us report more accurate results, more quickly. These results will both improve material consumption as well as [lessen the impact on] the environment.” He added that compared to common manual application techniques, with HTC’s automatic surface preparation and coating, an “exact and uniform colour composition” can be achieved. “This results in reduced consumption of the colour coating as well as a smoother application of the antifouling, providing a less rough surface, which ultimately leads to fuel savings when the ship is in operation.” Looking ahead to passenger ship refit trends, Mr Cavaliere said “For the last two years, drydock time schedules are shorter. Requests for special projects are higher because of ballast water treatment and scrubber installations and requests for energy saving systems.” He added “The cruise sector is constantly changing, every year it is launching more modern ships, the largest and most technologically advanced, with particular regard to environmental aspects – the new LNG cruise vessels will be a reality.” CNM handles the largest cruise ships, while SGdP is more focused on special projects and ships of up to 260 m in length. PST

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HOW TO | 39

Augmented reality arrives in passenger shipping Augmented reality can change the way operators maintain their ships – for the better


riginally focused on virtual games, augmented reality (AR) has now entered the shipping sector and offers huge benefits. It is something Valmet is focused on and began offering in 2016. Now its AR can be used with all main tablets and smart phone devices for remote support applications. Valmet research director automation R&D Mika Karaila explained “Valmet support centres are located all over the world, with experts in many different domains.” Ship operators will be able to gain support for operational and system problems remotely. The benefits of both real-time discussions with experts and ontime maintenance activities help customers avoid uncertainty in a vessel’s operation from a process automation point of view. “AR is an excellent tool to communicate with our customers. All service requests can be responded to instantly.” And Valmet is planning to develop this further. For example, the vessel’s electrician could have a Pointr application on a tablet for indoor positioning to explain to Valmet’s experts about the fault in a specific process automation cabinet or controller. “In that way, he can be connected to several specialists at the same time in the Valmet Performance Centre. No matter where a ship is located, Valmet’s people will be there virtually,” explained Mr Karaila. Explaining how it works, he said that with Microsoft HoloLens, the customer can walk around the vessel, make a report in the application, order spare parts or write down proposals on which devices may have to be maintained or replaced soon – thus helping to support the lifecycle of the vessel. The company is taking this one step further by using artificial intelligence (AI). This is now working on desktop and mobile phones. “It uses just a browser and it is based on WebVR. Integration to some knowledge/maintenance systems is needed to provide more good solutions,”

Augmented reality (AR) provides troubleshooting for system problems remotely (pictured: Valmet’s Mika Karaila with ‘smart glasses’ for AR)

said Mr Karaila. Explaining the benefits, he said “It can answer and understand questions, can help operators with maintenance, store information and offer solutions. It has huge potential and will not just offer the standard solution. Problem solving is faster and more pro-active.” The AI can be tailored to suit different levels, from being customer-specific to a general global solution. The new technology offers opportunities for training, too. Operators can practise the automation system or services virtually beforehand saving time and money, and the training can be repeated as many times as needed. Travel costs are eliminated and operators can be educated in their own environment. Valmet emphasised that its AR and

AI solutions were especially relevant to cruise ships, which have to operate around the clock when at sea. This makes vessel maintenance and the ability to handle unexpected problems and failures very important. “At sea, far away from port, a technical error can have a major impact on the vessel operation. “Guidance on what maintenance actions need to be taken for getting the ship to the required operation level again can play a vital role for a fast restoration,” Valmet said. PST Augmented reality (AR) means technology where virtual components, such as graphics and images, interact with the real environment. AR is used with tablets or smart phones. The user interacts with the digital images and graphics.

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


Alternative power drives global ferry orderbook A hydrogen-fuelling facility will be established at Kirkwall in Orkney (pictured), to re-fuel the Hyseas III ferry

The need to be energy efficient is fuelling the booming ferry market and driving the rapidly growing use of alternative energy, while the trend to use Chinese yards to build vessels is gaining momentum

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


oth the current and future ferry fleet are dominated by the theme of energy efficiency and a rapidly increasing number of these vessels are being fuelled by alternative power. The ferry orderbook stood at a healthy 241 vessels (fast ferry, ropax, passenger ferry, roro and train ferry types) as of April 2018, according to data from BRL Consultants. Many of these ships will be

fuelled by battery power or LNG and the ferry market is also examining other means of alternative power, including hydrogen and methanol. This transition to cleaner energy is due in part to the upcoming 2020 low sulphur deadline, coupled with increasingly strict local regulations on emissions in certain regions, and the drive to be as energy efficient as possible to save fuel costs. Norway is a major


Notable newbuilds

Brittany Ferries’ Honfleur will run on LNG when it is delivered in 2019

Ferries entering service in 2018: • Irish Ferries is introducing its new cruise ferry WB Yeats. The ferry – currently being built in Germany – is expected to weigh 55,000 tonnes. WB Yeats will sail between Holyhead and Dublin from mid-September 2018, delivering additional capacity for 1,885 passengers and crew and 1,200 cars per crossing. • Red Funnel Isle of Wight Ferries is investing in a new highspeed catamaran Red Jet 7, being built at Wight Shipyard Co. The 277-passenger Red Jet 7 will come into service between Southampton and West Cowes in early July and is a sister ship to Red Jet 6. • New for Q3 2018 is Wightlink’s Victoria of Wight – a hybrid car ferry operating between Portsmouth and Fishbourne on the Isle of Wight. Powered by hybrid energy, the ferry includes a sophisticated power management system, recycling engine heat to warm water and indoor spaces and a modern hull designed to create low levels of wash.

influencer and driver of technology trends within the ferry market. Its ambitious politicians and government institutions now dictate that many ferry routes must be either low emission or emission free. This has led to a surge in battery hybrid and pure battery ferry newbuild orders and deliveries. And where Norway goes, other countries will follow. Interestingly, battery power has now leapfrogged LNG to

become the most popular form of alternative power for ferries in Norway. Naval architect firm LMG Marin managing director Torbjørn Bringedal told Passenger Ship Technology “Natural gas is still of interest out of Norway, but Norway is now more interested in battery power. All inland ferry connections are controlled by the state and/or local counties and they are all looking for ways to improve their carbon

• Caledonian MacBrayne ferry customers will benefit from the UK’s first LNG passenger ferry, Glen Sannox. It is the first of two LNG ferries being built as part of a £97M (US$127M) contract. The vessel is due to be delivered to CalMac Ferries in Q4 2018/Q1 2019. It can operate on LNG and marine gas oil. Ferries entering service in 2019: • Brittany Ferries’ new US$229M vessel Honfleur will be delivered in 2019. The ship will be built in the Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft shipyard in Germany and powered by LNG. Four engines feed electric generators and two electric propulsion motors. • Stena Line’s four new LNG-ready ropax vessels, being built at the AVIC Weihai Shipyard in China, will be delivered during 2019 and 2020, with Stena having an option on a further four vessels as part of the overall contract.

footprint. LNG is not as effective in this respect as battery power, so all focus is now on battery and hydrogen.” Indeed, the goal is for the whole Norwegian ferry fleet to become fossil free.

Fuels of the future

For the reasons outlined above, there is now a push to create a hydrogen ferry. Norwegian Public Roads Administration’s aim, to create a fossil-free fleet,

is behind a programme to develop a hydrogen ferry that will go into operation in 2021. Three groups, consisting of ferry operators Norled, Fjord1 and Boreal, are creating a hybrid ferry design utilising 50% hydrogen mixed with a plugin battery system. The winner is expected to be announced in Q3 this year. LMG Marin is also taking part in the hydrogen contract bid. Mr Bringedal said

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


“Hydrogen will be used on the really demanding routes to remote islands over the longest fjords and at quite high speed. Hydrogen combines well with batteries, as batteries smooth the loads for a hydrogen system.” He explained that hydrogen has a longer life span if used with batteries, as fuel cells are on constant power while the batteries can take on variable loads. Projects such as this will open the doors for other hydrogen-powered ferries. As Mr Bringedal said “The technology for hydrogen is there, but we cannot get further unless we start applying it in ferries and gaining experience.” He said hydrogen use would become a trend within the ferry market. “You need one project and then other projects will follow in Norway and out of Norway – a bit like with LNG,” he said, noting that LNG use was developed

Torbjørn Bringedal (LMG Marin) Mr Bringedal gained an MSc in naval architecture and marine engineering at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in 1991. He has worked for LMG Marin since 1994, with experience spanning the design of naval ships, offshore vessels and passenger ships. He was project manager for the first series of gas ferries designed by LMG Marin, which were built by Aker Yards (now Vard). He became managing director at LMG Marin in 2013.

in Norway in state-subsidised ferry projects and then realised all over the world.

High-speed hydrogen

Hydrogen would also be a good option for high-speed ferries. LMG Marin is involved in a study looking at using fossil-free high-speed solutions which could involve batteries, hydrogen or a combination of both. Mr Bringedal said “I believe

that hydrogen might have even bigger potential in high-speed ferries as the energy density is so high.” In contrast, if only batteries are used, a reduction in speed or a longer time in harbour might have to be accepted. “These can be avoided if hydrogen is used, but this technology has to be taken one step further than with a car ferry, as all the systems need to be optimised for a very low

Ferry investment boost in UK and Asia The UK and Ireland ferry industry is gearing up for growth with more than £1Bn (US$1.3Bn) of investments announced for new ships, ports and service facilities in the next four years, according to figures released by Discover Ferries at the start of this year*. Discover Ferries’ members are: Brittany Ferries, Caledonian MacBrayne, DFDS, Irish Ferries, Isle of Man Steam Packet Company, Isles of Scilly Steamship Group, MBNA Thames Clippers, P&O Ferries, Red Funnel, Stena Line and Wightlink. Discover Ferries director Emma Batchelor said the figures reflected the sustained popularity of ferry travel. “More than 39M passenger journeys* [a year] are made by ferry to UK islands, the Isle of Man and Ireland, France, Spain and Holland,” she said, “and those sustained numbers are enabling ferry operators to invest with confidence in new ships and new routes… In the next four years the scale of this investment will see another step-change in service for travellers.”

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

Investment in the ferry industry is also expected to grow in Asia, driven by increased demand for a newer, safer and more energyefficient fleet. As an example, the Philippines Government is planning to implement a requirement to replace older passenger vessels as a means of improving the safety of operations. The initiative is expected soon, and the age of vessels to be replaced is expected to be 25 years old and above. Once passed, it is expected the Government will give operators about three years to meet their obligations under the mandate. Philippines ferry operator 2GO head of shipmanagement Eduardo Dela Cruz told Passenger Ship Technology “The market is growing, the demand for better ships is there, and there is pressure from regulators, class and the government to modernise and upgrade fleets.” *Figures from Ferrystat compiled by independent research agency, IRN Research, based on returns supplied by Discover Ferries operator members

weight [needed for a high-speed vessel],” he said. The other challenge is that batteries and hydrogen require electric propulsion, which has not been used in a high-speed ferry before. Such a system is “quite heavy and voluminous,” so work is needed to optimise its weight. While Norway is a leader when it comes to hydrogen, companies in other areas are also investigating using hydrogen to power ferries. Scotland’s Ferguson Marine Engineering is to build the world’s first seagoing car and passenger ferry fuelled by hydrogen, due to be delivered in 2020. Port Glasgow-based Ferguson Marine successfully led a European consortium in a bid for EU funding support. The supported development is expected to cost around €12.6M (US$14.6M) of which €9.3M has been awarded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation fund. The consortium HySeas III, jointly led by Ferguson Marine and the University of St Andrews, includes Orkney Islands Council; Kongsberg Maritime (Norway); Ballard Power Systems Europe (Denmark); McPhy (France); DLR - German Aerospace Center; and Interferry. A statement said “Employing Ballard technology [commercial application of heavy duty fuel cell solutions >>>

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provided by Ballard Power Systems Europe], already proven across millions of miles of road transport, the initial objective is to construct and prove the vessel’s modular drive train on shore, testing for stress and durability under conditions employing real-world data from existing vessels.” It added that the vessel will operate in and around Orkney – which is already producing hydrogen in volume from constrained, and hence otherwise wasted, renewable energy. Aside from hydrogen, methanol is also of interest to the ferry market. Stena Line’s Stena Germanica was retrofitted in 2016 to run on methanol – the first vessel in the world to do so. And methanol is a possibility for Stena to use in the future on its newbuilds and existing ships, Stena RoRo managing director Per Westling told the audience at the Ferry Shipping Conference (Shippax) last year. On the subject of methanol fuelling, he told delegates at a session about how the ferry industry will look in 2025 “Our experience is very, very good, it is a very clean fuel and the technology really works, it is a dual-fuel engine which is extremely flexible.” The Methanol Institute is keen to push the use of methanol as marine fuel and >>>

Ferry newbuilds

its chief operating officer Chris Chatterton singled out ferries as being a strong candidate. He said “Shortsea shipping, ferries, inland waterways and workboats – all sectors that have flirted with LNG as fuel – are all potential markets for methanol. The environmental argument is irrefutable: unlike LNG which addresses the SOx/NOx/PM emissions problem, methanol is liquid at atmospheric pressure and offers a future pathway to a low- and zero-carbon emissions profile.” He highlighted the availability of methanol at port locations globally.

LNG still at forefront

Despite the focus on new alternative power such as methanol and hydrogen and the fact that battery power has overtaken LNG in the Norway ferry market, LNG is still very much in demand to power ferries. Mr Bringedal said “In Europe, LNG is really going to be used as a fuel. We are seeing more and more interest in it and more tenders coming out now for bunkering operations.” LMG Marin is itself working on a design for a dualfuelled gas ferry for Italian ferry operator Caronte & Tourist. The 133 m double-ended ferry will have capacity for 290 cars on two vehicle decks, and 1,500

passengers. The propulsion will be based on a gas-electric system using three dual-fuel engines. It is being built at Turkey’s Sefine Shipyard and delivered in September this year. An upcoming trend in the ferry market could well involve a combination of LNG and batteries. Norwegian operator Fjord1 converted its ferry Fannefjord from an LNG-fuelled vessel to an LNG-battery hybrid ferry. The converted vessel went into operation in May 2015and proudly claims the title of being the first passenger ferry to use a combination of pure gas and battery power. LMG Marin designed the concept. Mr Bringedal commented “Using LNG and batteries together has very good benefits. The reduction in the fuel consumption of Fannefjord is impressive. The batteries take out the variable load which means that the gas engines, which are quite vulnerable to dynamic loads, are running under ideal conditions.” Including newbuilding orders, there are more passenger ships in the LNG-powered fleet than any other type of vessel. Sister title LNG World Shipping’s review of LNGfuelled ships worldwide, which breaks the fleet into four segments, shows that as of 1

(Source: BRL Consultants, April 2018)























































May 2018 there were 41 such passenger ships in service, compared to 40 a year ago, and 42 on order, up from 32. There are 22 LNG-fuelled ferries on order, with the orderbook for these ferries stretching to 2020. In terms of vessel numbers, the passenger ship total of in-service and on-order vessels is 24% greater than the next largest segment, tankers and bulk carriers.

Building in China

Aside from alternative fuel, another upcoming trend in the ferry market is the emergence of China as a builder of ferries. Booked-up European shipyards and the lower cost of building vessels in China are drivers of this trend. Indeed, Chinese shipyards claim the secondlargest chunk of the global ferry orderbook with 37 ferries, according to BRL Consultants’ data. It is only just beaten by the USA, which has 41 ferries on its orderbook. Major European ferries being built in China include Viking Line’s new LNGfuelled ferry at Xiamen Shipbuilding, and Stena RoRo is building four gasready ropax at AVIC Weihai Shipyard in China. Both projects highlight the trend for building passenger vessels in China with the co-operation of European naval architects and suppliers. For example, Finlandheadquartered Deltamarin has designed Viking Line’s newbuild and has inked a contract with Xiamen Shipbuilding for engineering and construction support services. Deltamarin has used its consultancy services to support Xiamen in streamlining its production, so that it is suitable for building ropax vessels. It is also involved with the building of Stena Line’s vessels by AVIC Shipyard, providing both design services for the vessels and shipyard consultancy services. PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018



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IN SERVICE Glutra Bergensfjord Stavangerfjord Raunefjord Mastrafjord Fanafjord Tidekongen Tidedronnigen Tideprinsen Moldefjord Fannefjord Romsdalfjord Korsfjord Selbjornsford Tresfjord Boknafjord Landegode Værøy Barøy Lødingen Viking Grace Stavangerfjord Bergensfjord Francisco Hardanger Ryfylke FA Gauthier Osfriesland* Helgoland Samsø Hasvik Bejsfjord Armand-Imbeau II Jos-Deschênes II Seaspan Swift Seasspan Reliant Abel Matutes* Salish Orca Salish Eagle Megastar Salish Raven

Car pax ferry







Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Passenger ferry Passenger ferry Passenger ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry High-speed ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry

2006 2007 2007 2007 2007 2009 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2010 2011 2012 2012 2012 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2016 2016 2016 2017 2017 2017 2017 2017 2017

Fjord1 Fjord1 Fjord1 Fjord1 Fjord1 Tide Sjø Tide Sjø Tide Sjø Fjord1 Fjord1 Fjord1 Fjord1 FosenNamsos Sjø Fjord1 Fjord1 Torghatten Nord Torghatten Nord Torghatten Nord Torghatten Nord Viking Line Fjord Line Fjord Line Buquebus Norled Norled STQ Quebec AG Ems AG Ems Samsø Municipality Boreal Transport Boreal Transport STQ Quebec STQ Quebec Seaspan Seaspan Baleària BC Ferries BC Ferries Tallink BC Ferries

Aker Yards Aker Yards Aker Yards Aker Yards Aker Yards STX Europe Lorient STX Europe Lorient STX Europe Lorient Remontowa Remontowa Remontowa Remontowa Fiskerstrand BLRT Fiskerstrand BLRT Fiskerstrand BLRT Remontowa Remontowa Remontowa Remontowa STX Turku Remontowa Remontowa Incat Remontowa Remontowa Fincantieri Cassen Eils Cassen Eils Remontowa Fiskerstrand Fiskerstrand Davie Sb Davie Sb Sedef Sedef unnamed Remontowa Remontowa Meyer Turku Remontowa

Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce Mitsubishi Mitsubishi Mitsubishi Mitsubishi Mitsubishi Mitsubishi Mitsubishi Mitsubishi Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce Wärtsilä Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce GE gas turbine Mitsubishi Mitsubishi Wärtsilä Wärtsilä Wärtsilä Wärtsilä Niigata Wärtsilä Wärtsilä Wärtsilä Wärtsilä Wärtsilä Rolls-Royce Wärtsilä Wärtsilä Wärtsilä Wärtsilä

Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas & oil Gas & oil Gas & oil Gas & oil Gas & oil Gas & oil Gas & oil Gas & oil Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas DF Gas DF DF DF DF DF Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas DF DF DF DF Gas DF DF DF DF


Car pax ferry


Rederi AB Gotland

Guangzhou International




Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry High-speed ferry Car pax ferry High-speed ferry High-speed ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry Car pax ferry

2018 2018 2018 2018 2019 2019 2019 2019 2018 2018 2018 2018 2019 2019 2019 2019 2018 2019 2019 2020 2020 2020

Rederi AB Gotland CalMac CalMac Torghatten Nord Torghatten Nord Torghatten Nord Torghatten Nord Torghatten Nord Fred Olsen Caronte Doeksen Doeksen Baleària Baleària Baleària Baleària BC Ferries BC Ferries Brittany Ferries Viking Line Polferries Polferries

Guangzhou International Ferguson Ferguson Vard Vard Tersan Tersan Tersan Navantia Sefine Shipyard Strategic Marine Strategic Marine CN Visentini CN Visentini Navantia Navantia Remontowa Remontowa Flensburger Xiamen Shipbuilding MRS Gryfia MRS Gryfia

Wärtsilä Wärtsilä Wärtsilä Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce Caterpillar unnamed MTU MTU Wärtsilä Wärtsilä Wärtsilä Wärtsilä Wärtsilä Wärtsilä unnamed unnamed unnamed unnamed



ON ORDER Visborg Thjelvar Glen Sannox unnamed unnamed unnamed unnamed unnamed unnamed Bencomo Express* unnamed unnamed unnamed Hypatia de Alejandra unnamed unnamed unnamed Spirit of British Columbia Spirit of Vancouver Island Honfleur unnamed Wulkan Nowy unnamed *conversion project DF = medium-speed dual-fuel Credit: LNG World Shipping

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


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Interior & Refurbishment REVIEW Passenger Ship Technology is launching a new supplement this winter, Interior & Refurbishment Review, examining the interiors business for both the cruise and ferry newbuild and refurbishment sectors. Editor Rebecca Moore will be speaking to shipyards, interior specialists, outfitters, refurbishment experts and the ship operators themselves to uncover the latest developments and trends.

2018 • A supplement to Passenger Ship Technology


Interior & Refurbishment REVIEW

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Cruise and ferry interior outfitting takes a leap forward A range of new solutions have been developed for passenger ship interiors, while the fast-growing expedition cruise sector is providing interesting opportunities within design and interior outfitting

Brombach + Gess’ Loggia-Cabin Window system extends a cabin's living space


clutch of new interior design solutions for cruise ships and ferries have either been launched this year or are in development. UK marine interior outfitter Trimline has been working

with spray booth and paint finishing manufacturer Junair to install an energy efficient paint spraying solution, which uses an advanced auxiliary air movement system and more efficient filters to allow cleaner air back in to the environment.

Over the last six weeks (as of end of June), the innovative paint spray booth has been installed, tested and commissioned and the official handover has now taken place between Trimline chairman Gary Oliver and Junair director Steven Wood.

“We have noticed that over the last few years, cruise lines are increasingly requesting superior finishes that were normally only ever seen on our superyacht work. While our experienced sprayers have been able to meet their demands to date, we see this as a growing trend and with the new state-of-the-art spray booth, we are able to meet those increasing requests and offer a more superior paint finish, while reducing energy consumption.” said Mr Oliver. Mr Wood expanded on the energy efficiency benefits. “The QADS (advanced auxiliary air movement system) alone reduces typical process time by about 35% and allows a lower air temperature because the air is agitated, and solvents/moisture is drawn out of the painted items more effectively. In addition, the variable speed drives further allow us to adjust the fan speed and therefore air flow. When combined with QADS, the energy savings increase to around 65%, compared to a standard booth.” Meanwhile Antti Marine, part of Antti-Teollisuus, is concentrating its research efforts on producing cruise ship doors that are lighter in weight, as well as working on a clutch of the latest cruise newbuilds. The Finland-headquartered company has been producing marine doors for three decades. Antti Marine commercial director Markko Takkinen told Passenger Ship Technology how sound reduction qualities in doors needs to be balanced against weight. “We have realised good sound reduction in our doors, and we always try to save weight, as well as fulfill requirements needed for fire safety,” he explained. “It is a challenging issue as very lightweight material does not always go hand-in-hand with sound reduction qualities.” He said doors not related to sound reduction, such as cabin bathroom doors, were easier to make very lightweight. To this end, the company has launched

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


a project to create lightweight prefabricated bathroom doors. Mr Takkinen said “There is a lot of potential to save weight here – the development and improvement in materials today means it is possible to realise lightweight products at acceptable prices.” He singled out aluminium. The company is evaluating creating such doors and hopes to have results next year. Meanwhile, Antti Marine is vwey busy with cruise ship contracts: it provided all the prefabricated passenger and crew cabin doors for Mein Schiff 1 and is doing the same for Mein Schiff 2. It also provided cabin doors to Genting Dream and for Aida Cruises’ AidaNova, where it is supplying all cabin and interior doors. Mr Takkinen singled out an important trend highlighted by AidaNova – Antti Marine is creating installations in the cabin doors to accommodate the technology needed for online locking (other companies provide the locking equipment). Mr Takkinen said “There are more technical solutions behind the face of doors to make the wire connections in order to lock. This is not something particularly new, but more intelligence is being used, with lock developments happening all the time, so we

must develop the doors to meet these new requirements. The lock equipment requires a more detailed technical design, with more cabling used within the door and its frame, so this adds additional work and design issues.”

Made of glass

Glass bonding technology specialist Brombach + Gess have been focused on a new development – it is displaying its Loggia-Cabin Window system at marine trade fair SMM in September. Its marine glazing marketing and sales manager Christina Schanz commented “This provides an interesting alternative to the classic balcony and extends the private passenger area by the size of the balcony.” The cabin is closed by a floor-deep, horizontally divided panoramic glass front. At the push of a button, the living space increases by lowering the upper pane in front of the fixed lower pane and forming a balustrade together with the movable handrail. She added “In closed position the moveable upper window and the fixed lower window are aligned to form a perfectly flat facade.” Elswhere, Brombach + Gess

has developed, in co-operation with DNV GL, Schiffstechnik Buchloh and Stükerjürgen Aerospace Composites, a new and innovative lightweight construction in composite material for a glass sliding roof. This self-supporting composite design is lighter than designs with a supporting structure: Ms Schanz said that in comparison with an aluminum roof, a 43% weight saving can be achieved. The weight saved allows for the incorporation of an additional five to six standard cabins. The composite materials offer additional benefits because they are not vulnerable to corrosion and have better resistance to fatigue. Brombach + Gess has also been working on Hurtigruten’s Roald Amundsen and Fritjof Nansen, being built at Norway’s Kleven shipyard. Ms Schanz said glass bonding technology has been used in these ships. She said “Frameless glass projects provide the illusion of wide spaces.” A type of glass developed by Brombach + Gess especially for maritime requirements is being used for the project. The product DUROmare is a DNV GL-certified laminated safety glass according to

Antti Marine provided the accommodation and interior doors in Genting Dream

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

its type-approval system. Ms Schanz said the special feature of the glass is that it can absorb a more compressive load than a monolithic single pane. DUROmare therefore makes it possible to significantly reduce the thickness of glass required by high-pressure loads resulting in a significant weight reduction, she said.

Expedition boom

The expedition cruise ship sector is presenting interesting opportunities for interior design specialists and suppliers. SunStone Ships is one of the first cruise ship owners to use a Chinese shipyard to build its vessels – it has a contract for four vessels with options for an additional six with China Merchants Heavy Industry. Tomas Tillberg Design is designing the ships’ hotel side. Tomas Tillberg founding partner Tomas Tillberg said “Chinese yards have not built cruise ships before and so the comfort we bring to SunStone is that we bring a European contact to the yard. We can deliver the interior that a modern cruise ship should have, without having to rely on what might and what might not work [which would be the case with the yard], as they can build a ship, but [have] no experience of interiors.” The company has to adapt the interior design to meet not just SunStone’s needs, but also the needs and wishes of the charterers. The first two of SunStone’s ships are for Aurora Expeditions, which specialises in Arctic travel. But the following ship has been chartered to another company. Mr Tillberg commented “From a design point of view, it is very interesting. They are all the same ship base, but for different clients so we can adapt them to their designs. Charterers have specific demands and they cater to certain groups of people, in that way they know exactly who their customers are and what they expect, and we meet these demands.” PST

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The successful marriage of gas and electrics Environmental concerns are driving the development of cleaner and quieter engines by Selwyn Parker

Blue Heron 8’s power unit is designed to operate in a UNESCO site


he ferry route from Bergen in southwest Norway to Kirkenes in the north has no less than 34 stops that traverse some of the country’s most cherished and environmentally sensitive coastline. Currently, diesel-driven ferries run this historic service, but that will change from January 2021 when Hurtigruten switches to gas and electric-powered engines in a progressive conversion of its existing fleet. This is happening partly in response to official pressure but also because of the desire of Hurtigruten chief executive Daniel Skjeldam that the fleet make an environmental statement. “This is an investment for the future, and a historic day for us, for the environment and for the whole, long Norwegian coastline,” he said in April when Hurtigruten signed a letter of intent with Rolls-Royce. “The combination of battery packs with the most environmentally friendly and effective gas engines in the market will provide a huge gain for the environment.” The main engines on up to nine of Hurtigruten’s ships will be replaced with two of Rolls-Royce’s latest B36:45L&PG power units that achieve exceptionally low emissions of NOx, CO2, SOx

and particulates. Not only will these lean-burning engines keep the Norwegian Government happy because the tender for the route specified the lowest-possible emissions, their development also shows how engine makers are rising to the environmental challenge as regulators tighten the screws on the maritime industry.


In many cases the authorities are under pressure from local communities lobbying for not just cleaner air but for a quieter environment. And it is happening everywhere. That is one of the reasons why Canada’s Blue Heron Cruises’ latest ferry, launched in May, is powered by three MTU Series 2000 M72 engines mounted on a form of shock absorber. “The Series 2000 is undetectable in the [ferry’s] passenger lounge and dramatically reduces the noise that carries to waterfront residential neighbours,” the company reports. Blue Heron operates out of Tobermory on the northern tip of Ontario’s Bruce Peninsula, a UNESCO-designated area where environmental sensitivity also includes not making too much noise. That is why the engines in the ferry, Blue Heron 8, are installed on

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


pre-engineered rubber mounts that reduce vibration and noise. Even pushing the ferry at up to 40 knots, they meet the local community’s requirements for peace and quiet. As in the Bruce Peninsula, the increase in the number of designated sensitive areas is serving as a catalyst for cleaner propulsion in passenger ships. One of the challenges is to make engines clean and fast, as on Lake Constance in southern Germany where MTU is developing for city authorities a purely gas-powered unit to be installed in a rapid ferry due to hit the water in 2019. The new eight-cylinder engine, based on the Series 4000 diesels much used in workboats, will have a rated output of 750 kW. This is a closely watched pioneering project. No passenger vessel plying inland waterways in Europe has yet met the certification standards that MTU has been asked to reach on Lake Constance. As MTU informed Passenger Ship Technology, by comparison with a diesel engine that has not been fitted with exhaust gas aftertreatment technology, the gas engine will emit no soot particles, no sulphur oxides, 90% less NOx and 5-10% less greenhouse gas. These virtues mean the engine satisfies the IMO Tier III emission standards in force since 2016, without the need for after-treatment systems. Even better from the viewpoint of the authorities, the emissions “will be significantly lower ” than the limits specified in the EU Stage V regulations applying from 2020. The authorities also want quick crossings. The Lake Constance ferry will be the first on Europe’s inland waterways to be powered by a high-speed, pure gas-driven unit. Its dynamic acceleration will match that of a diesel engine, but the unit promises to lift the bar in other ways. The engine map will be able to display all propulsion modes. The rpm range is so wide that fixed propellers can be used to provide low-cost drive systems. And its power to weight ratio should set new standards – most gas engines on the market are mediumspeed units.

Gas power

Gas power is becoming de rigueur in Europe in just about every place deemed to be of ecological importance. This year, Dutch shipping company Rederij Doeksen will launch two new catamaran ferry services on the Wadden Sea, a massive expanse of water in the southeastern part of the North Sea covered in tidal flats and wetlands. Both of the 70 m long vessels will be powered by 16-cylinder Series 4000 gas-driven units, each with an output of 1,492 kW. As Rederij Doeksen head of operations Richard de Vries

explained “On the Wadden Sea it is very important for us that we operate our ferries in a very eco-friendly manner.” The area is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site. Also built by MTU, these engines are pre-production models. The production versions only started rolling off the assembly line in 2018. The engine manufacturer expects to follow up with the eight-cylinder version currently under development for the Lake Constance ferry. Highly versatile, the eight-cylinder power plants will be suitable for tugboats and special-purpose vessels as well as for ferries.

Waste gas

In the race for cleaner propulsion, MAN Diesel & Turbo’s ethanedriven engines are opening up new possibilities. First installed on a gas carrier some 18 months ago, these units designated ME-GIE have since been developed to operate on almost any gas quality, whether LPG, methane or ethane, and possibly even waste gas in the future. When the engine was first released, MAN reported keen interest but that fell away in the intervening period. Suddenly though, MAN informed PST, the group has received a run of orders, probably in response to the imminent Stage V emission standards. Some of the most innovative and bespoke solutions in hybrid propulsion systems are being developed for luxury yachts. When Sailing Yacht A, the world’s biggest wind-driven yacht, was launched in mid-2017, it was powered by an MTU-devised dieselelectric system as well as by the wind. The system boasts seven different drive modes, rather like the ‘sport’ and other functions in a sports car, that enable the skipper to switch between them according to requirements, such as low-fuel consumption, highspeed or low vibration. The yacht’s fuel-driven engine is married to an E-Drive power pack. Depending on the type of diesel engine, E-Drive can cover electric power ranges of between 100-600 kW per power train.


Dual-fuel engines continue to make progress on environmental and other levels. Wärtsilä’s 20DF, much-used on smaller passenger ships, operates on the lean-burn principle, meaning the unit lets more air into the cylinder than is needed for complete combustion. The result is that peak temperatures are lower and less NOx is released into the air. When the 20DF is running in gas mode, it is fully >>>

The new gas-powered ferry on Lake Constance will be a sister ship to Lodi

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018




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compliant with IMO Tier III regulations without the need to tack on elaborate technology for purifying the exhaust gases. Overall, as Wärtsilä points out, “dual-fuel technology offers reduced SOx and CO2 emissions as well as smokeless operation [when running on gas].” When Spanish ferry operator Baleària launches its new roro passenger ferry in 2019, it will be powered by no fewer than four purely LNG-fuelled Wärtsilä engines, the mighty 50DF, four ninecylinder 20DFs and two of Wärtsilä’s transverse thrusters. The first LNG-juiced passenger ferry on the Mediterranean, the 232 m long vessel will be able to carry up to 1,700 passengers and 331 vehicles. Baleària has also mandated tough targets relating to the reduction of noise and vibration, even at 24 knots. >>>


Hurtigruten’s conversion to hybrid-powered vessels such as its new ice-class cruise ships caps ten years of development by Rolls-Royce of gas-powered engines. But the form of propulsion is just one, albeit vital, element of a package of technology. As a Hurtigruten spokesperson told PST “The main technical elements include hybrid technology that makes possible periods of soundless sailing solely by electric propulsion, an energy-saving low-resistance hull, onboard energy-conservation measures, and peak shaving.” The latter describes how batteries charge and recharge under varying power loads in a way that allows the main generators to operate efficiently at a nearly constant load. Other fuel-saving technologies include L-drive Azipull thruster propellors equipped with permanent magnet motors and the latest iteration of fuel-sipping diesel generators. When the vessels are navigating in narrow waters, in harbours or under dynamic positioning, the batteries will be used as a ‘spinning reserve’. That is, they will have on tap enough power to eliminate the need for a diesel-driven generator running as a back-up in case the captain needs instant redundant power.

Like the latest engines from competing manufacturers, the B36:45 engines are smaller and quieter than previous models. They vibrate less, even under heavy loads, and emit less structural noise. In yet another example of the rapid advances in electric technology, Rolls-Royce will also install its SAVe Cube system on the Hurtigruten ferries, which organises all the control systems for electrical power within a single cabinet and switchboard.

Test bed for new technology

The latest breed of hybrid engines builds on earlier developments, such as the diesel and electrical power unit that has driven the Norwegian passenger and vehicle ferry, 85 m, 1,182 tonne Folgefonn, since 2014. Retrofitted into the Norled-owned vessel, it uses Wärtsilä’s wireless inductive charging technology installed on land and on board. The technology allows the ferry’s batteries to be recharged without cumbersome cables. In fact, Folgefonn has been something of a test bed for new technology that will inevitably work its way through to larger passenger vessels. Norled and Wärtsilä Norway are currently using the ferry to perfect auto-docking procedures – that is, berthing a vessel without the captain’s intervention. In two trials, the latest in April, Folgefonn was successfully auto-docked in the harbour in Stord, Norway. Based on the dynamic positioning technology that has been developed for offshore oil and gas vessels, auto-docking is likely to become a standard form of propulsion in harbours. “We’ve translated our offshore dynamic positioning expertise into a new and exciting potential market for ferries and maybe for cruise ships,” enthused Wärtsilä dynamic positioning managing director Thomas Pedersen. “The plan is to submit the auto-docking functionality for regulatory approval to make automated docking a vital part of the new offering for the ferry and other markets. It is one of the first steps in fully autonomous shipping.” PST

Silent sailing – a mock up of Hurtigruten’s two new hybrid-powered ice-class cruise ships

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


Innovative MES systems launched for passenger ships


nnovation is booming within the MES sector of passenger shipping, with several new products being launched or in the final phase of development. Viking Life-Saving Equipment (Viking) has launched a passenger vessel MES specially to meet the new IMO polar code. As its president of cruise and LifeCraft Niels Fraende told Passenger Ship Technology “We are the first to bring to market a developed system for the polar code, supporting the latest polar code 5 and polar code 6.” He credits Viking’s lengthy experience in the polar region, where its work has included supplying equipment for the Russian Navy. “When the polar code came into force last year it was pretty straightforward for us to come to market with something that was built specially for it,” he said. Introduced at Seatrade Cruise Global in March this year, the Viking VEC Plus Polar has already had orders from cruise ships being built or delivered this year. Approved to temperatures as low as -30°C, when the temperatures fall to below 5°C, the liferaft will start heating up automatically via electric power hooked onto the ship’s power supply. “This stops food over-icing and water from getting frozen, so if an incident happens the raft is ready.” The system includes 40% fewer mechanical components than earlier MES designs and includes cost-efficiencies for installation and servicing. For instance, the system only requires land-based servicing every 30 months, reducing costs related to administration and logistics. Mr Fraende added “We ice-tested the VEC Plus Polar at -30°C, to ensure it will work at the polar service temperature of -20°C typically required for polar code 6 class ships. Released by gravity and featuring measures for controlled descent, the system will launch safely onto ice as well as water.” He added that the entire system including the associated liferafts has been

From the first passenger ship MES to meet new polar code requirements, to the first-ever slidebased system being developed for cruise ships, innovation is a trend within this sector

modified and reinforced to match the extreme conditions under which it may be required to save lives. This includes measures to store polar code mandatory personal and group survival kits along with rations for five-day survival directly at the MES station.

Cruise: first-of-its-kind system

Elsewhere, Survitec is trialling an escape solution never before seen in the cruise ship industry. It is a slide-based escape system, and while similar solutions are

Viking Life-Saving Equipment has launched the first MES solution for passenger ships that meets the requirements of the new polar code

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


available in other shipping sectors such as ferries, the existing solution has yet to be deployed within the cruise industry due to the large size of vessels, their freeboards and their beams. Survitec sales director for marine technical solutions, Richard McCormick told PST “The cruise ship industry is dominated by vertical chute-based systems but has never been able to use inclineslide based systems as design challenges have not allowed current manufacturers to break in to this market.” But Survitec has overcome these challenges using new technologies developed in house, utilising capability found in its aviation and defence divisions. Survitec demonstrated its existing evacuation SuperSlide in the US for the first time at Seatrade Cruise Global in March this year. The SuperSlide has twin tracks allowing for rapid departure and can safely evacuate 750 people in half an hour. It is designed for vessels with freeboard heights of between 3.8 m and 12.5 m and has a small deck footprint. It can be used in newbuilds and retrofitted to existing ships. Explaining the benefits of the system, Mr McCormick said “We pursued it for ease of use on behalf of the operator and evacuee, and as slides are naturally instinctive, people know intuitively how to use them and they can see where they start and end. For people who are mobility impaired, there is an element of familiarity and family groups can descend together in full view of each other. This is all a very different experience compared to traditional vertical chute systems.”

LSA’s MES has been used on BC Ferries’ Spiritclass vessels as part of a standardisation drive by the ferry operator

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

He added “The industry is moving towards high functionality systems that inflate themselves – they want everything ready and waiting for them at the push of a button.” The new technology being developed for the cruise industry removes the human element “enormously.” The company is in the latter stages of the new product’s development and thinks it will be ready within the next 24 months. “We think we have broken through the technical envelope to bring this to cruise vessels,” said Mr McCormick. He said cruise operators were “extremely excited” about this new form of life saving appliance. “This is a revolution we are bringing to the cruise industry in terms of life-saving options.” Survitec already provides its SuperSlide solutions to the high-speed craft and small to mid-sized ferry markets. Customers who have purchased the SuperSlide and have it on board their vessels include: CalMac Ferries, Conseil Général de la Gironde, the French Navy, Norled, Owen Sound Transportation, the Egyptian Navy, Ventrafiken, the Delaware River and Bay Authority and Transport Canada/Bay Ferries. Liferaft Systems Australia (LSA) also has an MES in development, which it is hoping to introduce to market in the first half of 2019. “We can’t say too much about it at the moment, but it is aimed at small to medium ferries and takes the features and benefits of our larger MES regarding very simple operation, compact footprint, lightweight nature and one-stage deployment with no further intervention

of crew, into a smaller package,” said LSA European manager Peter Rea. The company is constantly refining its existing design and one of the areas it is concerned with is weight. The LSA product was originally launched for the high-speed ferry market, although it is used across different ferries. “We try to use products that are as light as possible and are constantly refining to take the weight out of the product,” Mr Rea said. “Weight is a critical concern for all shipowners.” The company’s orderbook is booming at the moment, leading it to increase production capacity by 30% at its Hobart headquarters. Mr Rea commented “We have taken on more factory space and reorganised the whole production and packing methods and flow from cutting the product to packing, in response to demand for our product.” Its current ferry orderbook includes: Molslinjen’s high-speed ferry under construction at Austal, a 110 m, 1,150-passenger high-speed ferry for Virtu Ferries under construction at Incat, and a 109 m, 1,200-passenger high-speed ferry for Naviera Armas, also under construction at Incat.

MES standardisation

The company has just finished an order for two of BC Ferries’ Spirit-class vessels which have undergone a refit at Remontowa Shipyard in Poland. The original MESs were replaced with LSA’s solutions. LSA also provided its MES to BC Ferries’ Salish-class vessels, the first of which was delivered last year. “BC Ferries is looking to standardise the MESs being used on its medium to larger ferries,” explained Mr Rea. This is part of a wider trend within the ferry industry. “The MES is a catch-all, there are many different types from vertical chutes to the inclined slide (like ours), and there are those like ours that are very simple to those that are extremely complicated. “If you have a variety of different MESs it can cause confusion for the crew and prevent flexibility of moving crew within [the fleet] as if the MESs are different they will need to be trained.” He also cited operators benefiting from economies of scale when it came to servicing the liferafts and reduced crew training costs. Mr Rea said “It has got to be safer and a win-win for both OEM and operator. We want to get the message across to the shipowner that standardising has benefits.” PST

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Freshwater solutions move forward with expedition cruise and ‘green’ demands The growth in the expedition cruise sector and the need to be environmentally friendly are twin drivers for the freshwater generation solutions market

ABOVE: Enwa has recently delivered a number of its RO type Water Maker units for cruise ships, with fresh water capacities ranging up to 600 m3 a day


nwa global sales director Kjetil Øxnevad told Passenger Ship Technology “We have seen a dramatic increase in requests from smaller and more exclusive cruise ships which will operate in more sensitive waters. Therefore,

environmental awareness has improved, and thus the opportunities for suppliers who can deliver products that meet and provide a positive environmental benefit for the vessels have increased.” He said using energy recovery units for reverse

osmosis (RO) plants is an example of such a solution. And using a seawater heat exchanger (that increases the seawater temperature by using the ship's surplus heat) leads to a reduction in energy consumption, which again, contributes environmental benefits. This solution has been used in an expediton vessel Enwa delivered last July. It delivered its latest design, a Water Maker SW75T Compact RO system, to a shipyard in Croatia for an expedition cruise vessel. Mr Øxnevad said “The benefit of this new system is that it has a very small footprint so the owner can utilise the available space better, while it is easy to operate, service and maintain. As the vessel will also be operating in Antarctica, our system has been installed with a steam heat exchanger for the feed water to the RO units.” This enables the seawater temperature to be below 0°C without freezing, despite its salinity. Enwa has recently delivered, or has on order, RO-type Water Maker units for cruise ships with fresh water capacities ranging from 37 m3 to 600 m3 a day. This includes two MT-50T SRH units for an expedition cruise vessel; two complete potable water systems for drinking water and swimming pools to USPH (US Public Health) standards for cruise ships being built at a Norwegian yard; and four complete USPH-compliant potable water systems for swimming pools and jacuzzis for another Norwegian shipyard project. Mr Øxnevad added “Furthermore, we are seeing more and more owners adding RO systems for both potable and technical water. Many are also opting for energy recovery units to further reduce energy costs, by up to 60%.” He said the return on

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


investment for an energy recovery unit installed with an RO unit is around 12-18 months, depending on size. Alfa Laval also noted the impact of the boom in expedition vessels for the freshwater generation system market. Alfa Laval global business manager Alex Jönsson told Passenger Ship Technology “Another trend is that more cruise ships are, and will be, sailing in colder waters and polar waters.” Mr Jönsson highighted how the Alfa Laval MEP multieffect evaporator was suited to expedition cruise ships sailing in colder and polar waters. “The trend of sailing in polar waters or colder waters unfortunately limits the capacity for reverse osmosis desalination technology. RO equipment cannot operate below 5°C seawater because the membranes can be damaged.” Therefore shipowners should not rely on a single desalination technology. Mr Jönsson said MEP multieffect evaporators and RO units run in synergy, with evaporators using available free energy, and RO being used for the rest to match consumption. He noted that in cold waters one Alfa Laval multi-effect evaporator can provide 3-4 MW heat and due to that heat recovery, the crew can operate the RO in cold waters. In 2017 Alfa Laval received a key multi-effect evaporator order for two cruise ships.

Each will have two Alfa Laval MEP-6-1000 multi-effect evaporators on board, each producing 1,000 tonnes of fresh water per day. Alfa Laval has received orders for its multi-effect evaporators to be installed on board a further four cruise ships last year. All four cruise ships will have two MEP-6500 multi-effect evaporators on board, each producing 500 tonnes daily. Elsewhere, Alfa Laval has updated the control concept of Alfa Laval MEP multi-effect evaporators, and developed solutions that will save on its electric consumption. Mr Jönsson told Passenger Ship Technology “The update on the controls ensures that the Alfa Laval MEP multi-effect evaporators will follow the available energy, and ensures that steam produced on the oilfired boilers is not used for water production.” The new control can also be used for using excess heat in the Alfa Laval MEP multi-effect evaporators. The controls include energy management systems that will tell the customer the status of the multi-effect evaporators, including electric consumption and thermal heat from exhaust gas boilers.

Trends and future developments

Examining current trends within freshwater solutions, Mr Jönsson said “More

shipowners plan to install solar panels and the distillate from the Alfa Laval multi-effect evaporators is an ideal water to clean the solar panels since there is no mineral residue in the distillate.” He added “It has also been reported that shipowners prefer distillate water for laundry to avoid scaling and reduce cleaning detergent consumption thanks to the very clean distillate water.” Meanwhile, a trend Mr Øxnevad singled out is an increased interest in environmentally friendly water treatment solutions for chilled water and HVAC systems. “Protecting HVAC systems is a proactive step toward safeguarding the environment. As an alternative to chemical dosing, continuous filtration and treatment will prolong the system and component lifespan without risking the environment.” Mr Øxnevad added that HVAC systems require “major capital investment, have long-term operating costs and their energy consumption impacts significantly on the environment and profit.” To maximise the return on investment and minimise the impact of the wider environment, he emphasised it was “crucial” to protect and maintain structural integrity and design efficiency. To this end, EnwaMatic technology has been used

Alfa Laval has developed solutions to reduce the electric consumption of its MEP multi-effect evaporators

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

on numerous cruise ships and passenger ferries. With increased focus on the environment and consequently environmentally friendly solutions, “renewed interest has been noticed especially from the cruise market,” said Mr Øxnevad. Looking at future developments, Mr Øxnevad noted that in the past the most common way to produce technical water for vessel boilers and to clean the outer hull was through using an evaporator. However, he said more owners choose to produce technical water with a double-pass RO system. He commented that an advantage of using an RO is that it can produce water even when the main engine is turned off. Because the RO is not dependent on heat dissipation, it is also not affected by adjustments to reduce energy consumption on other installations. But he said perhaps the biggest difference is the recovery of the proportion of clean water. “It is many times larger for an RO than an evaporator. This requires significantly less energy, a smaller amount of raw water and lower capacity feed pumps,” said Mr Øxnevad. And freshwater trends could be pushed even further – sanitation system company Headhunter president Mark Mellinger told Passenger Ship Technology that its current research is on recycled water. “We are doing extensive functional testing on membrane treatment of mixed shipboard collected wastewater,” Mr Mellinger said. “We’ve had quite a few requests from customers that want to re-use the wastewater from the toilet. The challenge is to make something user-friendly that meets the MEPC and EPA requirements. The effluent will be able to be re-used under EPA guidelines for secondary use, like toilet flushing.” PST





SMM Stand A1.101


WE CARE ABOUT YOUR CUSTOMERS Carus offers innovative solutions for the global ferry industry, giving your customers a better experience before, during and after their journey. The Carus solution incorporates Reservations, Check-In, Port Automation, On-board and Relationship Management.


Passenger ship reservations: apps, API and automation The latest developments within the cruise and ferry ticketing and reservations sector have produced solutions that are a step above what was previously on offer


obile apps, integration, functionality and API (application programming interface) are driving reservations and ticketing solutions within the cruise and ferry industry. Carus has developed a travel app launched in May this year after being installed by UK ferry operator Wightlink. It is also available in Apple’s app store and Google’s Play Store. Carus director of sales EMEA John Bertell said “It is now eight years since the first iPhone was launched, which brought a new type of solution into place, the mobile app. For a while everyone had to have an app, no matter what it did. You just had to have an app. And we have seen hundreds (maybe thousands) of useless travel apps which just disappointed end users.” He stressed that a travel app for the passenger ship industry needs to have functionality, which is what Carus focused on. Mr Bertell explained “To include the right functionality in your app, you have to identify your audience. We see a completely different set of requirements for two distinctive types of app users: the cruise passenger, and the frequent traveller. One-time passengers and people who travel occasionally will never install and keep your app, so forget about those, they will be happy to use your responsive mobile web features.” He said that depending on the type of customer, ferry and cruise operators will see some of the following functional features asked for: • View passenger’s boarding card, also when the phone is offline. • Departure information related to passenger’s planned trip. • Delays, important announcements. • Contact information, driving instructions, maps. • Weather information. • Make a simple booking or use a multi-trip or season card. • Manage and change contact details. • Information on how to get services the passenger wants. • Itinerary, events, happenings. • Newspapers and magazines. • Digital cabin keys. And he warned that operators will see customers uninstalling the app if filled with features such as marketing information, advertisements and push messages, when a passenger does not have a trip planned. With all this in mind Carus developed a simple to use

Carus has developed an app for the passenger ship industry

and flexible travel app, “which you can fill with a selection of practical functionality that fits your audience. You can even tailor several different apps for different markets with different available functionality.” Highlighting the benefits, Mr Bertell said “By serving your frequent travellers through the app you give them a personalised service. You are with them in their phone and you build trust and loyalty. You can tailor services to customers who use you regularly

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


without spreading the benefits to everyone.” E-Dea chief commercial officer Marco Pavoncelli also identified mobile apps as an important trend, among others. He said “Automation and respecting strict safety measures is the great challenge. Mobile apps are more and more common in the ferry industry; they are trying to improve passenger experience by allowing booking show and go, payments and automatic check-in with the use of QR codes for immediate response.” Bearing all this in mind, E-Dea has been developing its range of solutions. Mr Pavoncelli said “We have extended our standardsbased open architecture, enabling deep third-party integration capabilities, providing customers with access to a rich set of integrations with value-added solutions from quality, trusted, market-leading vendors.” He said the company’s Application Ecosystem program helps customers to extend the functionalities provided by E-Dea solutions, “through best-in-class applications vetted to meet their specific requirements along the whole solution lifecycle.” “The recent partnership with a leading revenue management provider to offer an embedded solution to all our customers is a significant step forward in responding to the latest market trends,” Mr Pavoncelli said. “Selling the right product to the right customer at the right time for the right price, has become a key requirement for a growing number of ferry companies and remains, together with dynamic pricing, among the most used methods for maximum capacity optimisation.”

Boosting secure check-in

Improving security at check-in is also a key requirement on a worldwide basis, especially with the growing capacity of ferries. In this direction, in addition to its solutions based on high accuracy licence plate recognition (LPR) linked to its integrated check-in solutions, E-Dea has focused on passive well-proven RFID technology to allow speedy boarding for both passengers and vehicles. Mr Pavoncelli said “It is a technology which provides automatic identification and real-time data acquisition capabilities without >>> >>> requiring a high use of human resources. This technology, which was developed some years ago, has been widely used in the logistics market and in our opinion can be of great use also for the ferry business for accuracy, reliability and low costs.” Integrated in to E-Dea’s check-in solutions, the main benefits of RFID are: increased automation, reduced port congestion, increased security, minimised human errors and better customer experience. Looking to future trends, he singled out blockchain technology. “We believe that blockchain technology will soon be revolutionising the world of transportation and logistics. Blockchain has the answer to the problems that have been plaguing the transportation industry for decades, from data security and transparency to dispute resolution, administrative efficiency and passengers and freight tracking.”


Over at Rescompany, integration has been a major focus. Resco CRM now allows integration with social media channels. HTML5 web page design tools connect Resco customers to users that have WeChat, are on Facebook, or use other social media platforms for communication. “Resco CRM stores click information such as urls, location, viewing history and other web-based metrics. This information also flows through to Resco Notes. Flash

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

Carus’ travel app allows passengers to download maps and driving instructions

sales, offers and incentives can be automated through Notes to capitalise on the ease of communication with social media,” said Rescompany systems customer relations and sales manager Sonja Berrang. More in-depth email integration and chat funcionality have also been a priority. The Resco Client has integrated features including: • No need for switching between Resco and any other software to process enquiries which come in via email or chat. • User can send a single email to a customer outside the mass-mailing functionality, for example as a follow-up to an earlier phone call. • Directly reply within the Resco client app and the ability to build email and chat threads. • Conversations are visible to users with appropriate access rights. • The emails and conversations are automatically assigned to the customer folios. • Additional assignments to bookings and notes are possible. • Attach additional internal information to emails. Elsewhere, enhancements have been added to the Resco Central System, which allow Rescompany’s clients to take control of many of their ship-related management tasks while operating out of shore-side offices. Ms Berrang said “This concentration of information helps ensure consistency, reduces latency, and greatly improves both efficiency and correctness of data updates. Naturally, medium >>>

We trusted Hogia to deliver, and the impressive BOOKIT API has made all the difference, enabling us to develop a custom ecommerce application which has driven a 21% improvement in our conversion rates during the first month after go live. Brett Chamberlain Director of Marketing, Seastreak

The Game Changer. to redesign the Passengers' Experience Automated Check-in System for Passenger Terminals and Ports

Enterprise Reservation System for Ferries, Cruises and RoRo


and large fleets of ocean-going vessels stand to benefit, but Resco Central also provides significant value to those who operate river and expedition ships, where the vessels themselves often have limited manpower available to perform these kinds of tasks.” For instance, clients can handle passenger check-in processes against the central database, allowing guest embarkation to proceed even in situations when the vessel itself suffers loss of communication. Additionally, check-in activities and gangway movement data are replicated from ship-to-shore. She pointed out that clients can set up and maintain centralised point of sale item master lists and manage onboard packages or promotions; co-ordinate gift orders and voucher schemes; manage ship visitors (such as guests or contractors), supervise shore- and ship-based loyalty enrolments and benefit redemption; perform urgent crisis management; and process complaints/claims/compensation and guest surveys. The Ritz-Carlton Yacht Collection has implemented Resco’s Central Reservations and CRM modules. Ritz-Carlton Yacht Collection vice president of information technology Benny Lago said “Resco’s experienced team of professionals have proven an invaluable resource to us in making sure the systems are designed and tailored to our very specific needs. We had a tight timeline with the project schedules being met throughout the project; our whole team are very pleased with the flexibility and capabilities of the Resco products.” >>>

API focus

Hogia is meeting the increased demand for application processing interface (API) and functionality. Hogia international sales executive Meri Rigby said “We are continuing to see a need for a complete and comprehensive API. Our customers need API for everything in Bookit [Hogia’s reservation system], allowing them the freedom to find systems and technologies which are best practice for their business needs, without direct integrations hindering their choices for best-of-breed systems and hardware. “The Bookit API is an agile and extendable platform with well-

Rescompany has integrated new email software into its CRM solution, leading to a range of benefits

documented standard interfaces, and the number of integrations allowed via the API are unlimited.” She added “We are currently working on improving our own Bookit standard web booking pages. Many of our customers have chosen to build their own web-booking pages via our API. Everything you can book, check-in and so on in the Bookit in-house application is available via the API, so there really are no limits as to the functionality, look and feel.” She explained that in the last year Hogia has been asked on a few occasions for a turnkey system including web booking. So, the company is now in the finishing stages of a new, contemporary looking, responsive web-booking solution, which has been built by its own API. Hogia has won new ferry contracts this year which include

Versonix launches reservations data analytics Versonix Corp launched its Seaware Analytics solution this year – and China’s Star Cruises is its first customer. Versonix president Victor Velton told Passenger Ship Technology “It is a solution for any cruise or ferry operator which wants to analyse ticketing reservations data.” Star Cruises signed up for the solution in July and Versonix is currently working on its implementation for the cruise operator. Mr Velton singled out the dashboards as being significant These are personalised depending on who is using them. Different dashboards are created for management, executives and analysts using its Tableau Data Visualisation tool. “We can only show the pertinent information that they are looking for,” Mr Velton explained. “It will allow them to see which markets are doing really well and looks at reservation data from the financial side to show whether revenue targets are being hit.” Other data revealed includes where reservations are coming from – whether from online or travel agents, booking patterns can be further reviewed by breaking down the data and discounts and

promotions can be reviewed, to measure their success. Seaware Analytics is available on any mobile device. It is used as an optional add-on for customers who use or who plan to use Versonix Seaware reservations and ticketing system. Versonix has also integrated its Seaware reservations platform with the global Salesforce CRM system. Mr Velton noted that Salesforce is used by many cruise and ferry operators. Explaining the benefits, Mr Velton said “It offers a 360-degrees customer view combining information from our system and Salesforce. When a booking is finished in Seaware, it will be updated on Salesforce. When our system is combined with Salesforce, cruise ship operators gain a better understanding of who their clients are, improving efficiency of marketing strategies and allowing for targeted promotions.” He said that the company was continuing to improve Versonix Seaware built-in revenue management functionality by adding artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities in analysing the data.

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


US fast ferry operator Seastreak has embarked on a multi-million dollar investment, including a new ferry and Hogia’s Bookit reservation system

the development of new products and upgrades. In the last six months, it has signed contracts with two operators who have overnight operations more akin to mini-cruises. Ms Rigby said “This has led us to review and refigure our cabin reservations to dramatically improve the existing cabin functionality: graphic views both for customers and inhouse booking staff; block booking; opening and closing of cabin sections using simple drag and drop; multiple templates for allocation and distribution of cabins per vessel; to name just a few.” These changes will make cabin booking easier to use, and back office tasks quicker and simpler to perform. Hogia has also supplied solutions to Eckerö Linjen to integrate its bus and ferry services. Ms Rigby said 40% of the ferry operator’s passengers arrive at the terminal by bus and one of its major challenges over the years has been how to handle 13,000 departures per year across 11 multi-leg bus routes. Using an integration between Hogia Transport Systems' PubTrans and Hogia Ferry Systems' Bookit, the company will supply a solution that will allow simple and efficient bus scheduling in PubTrans, which will then be transferred to Bookit for booking seats. It has also developed a hand-held check-in application for US east coast ferry operator Seastreak. “It needed a hand-held check-in application capable of validating tickets extremely quickly. Particularly for its commuter routes, where on one pier it is checking in passengers out in the elements, it was vital it could process its 600 passengers fast and efficiently,” said Ms Rigby. With the help of this new application, the ferry operator can check-in and turn around its vessel in as little as 15 minutes. Indeed, Seastreak has also signed up for Hogia’s Bookit reservation, ticketing and check-in system. The two-phase agreement schedules implementation this year for seasonal routes and next year for commuter services. Seastreak director of marketing Brett Chamberlain said “Our website does the job in attracting interest, but we have had challenges converting that interest into online sales. Seamless transfer of data between our inhouse systems and our e-commerce platform was critical to our decision. We met several providers, but we were very impressed with Hogia’s heavy investment in the enabling API, a prerequisite for advanced web development.”

Scandlines benefits from new integrated reservation system The adoption of E-Dea’s eBooking software by Scandlines has reported benefits and resulted in a very tight project implementation timeframe. The implementation project managed by E-Dea was to deliver a fully integrated reservation system to support Scandlines’ core processes including scheduling, product configuration, pricelist configuration, special offers, packages and more.

E-DeaTransport Technology chief commercial officer Marco Pavoncelli said “Thanks to its straightforward design, the system allows Scandlines to properly manage special offers and flexible prices to maximise seasonable revenue.” He said the main challenge was to implement a system with an “aggressive” time to market constraint, able to integrate numerous third-party systems, including a different

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

reservation system used by HH Ferries on the route Helsingør–Helsingborg. The system is designed to enable Scandlines to provide targeted marketing and valueadded services, establish a strong revenue management approach and enable future implementation of demand management through increased advanced purchase incentives and price flexibility. Scandlines chief IT

officer Morten Hald Nielsen summarised the benefits of the system. “eBooking has contributed to taking our passenger service to a next level, introducing new tools for revenue optimisation and advanced port operation functionalities. Moving from a completely custom-made system to a best-in-class standard system has brought tangible benefits in terms of reducing IT costs and risks.” PST


Class societies home in on fuel cells and methanol Class societies’ work with alternative fuels, from LNG to methanol and fuel cells, will boost their use within the cruise ship and ferry sector


lass societies are focusing on the use of new alternative power sources within passenger shipping. Bureau Veritas (BV) global market leader, passenger ships and ferries Andreas Ullrich – appointed to the position in March this year – told Passenger Ship Technology “New technologies such as fuel cells are, I think, the future.” BV has classed and is classing some ground-breaking alterative power newbuild projects, including Ponant’s icebreaking, LNG-fuelled order; MSC Cruises’ LNGfuelled mega ships; Brittany Ferries’ LNGfuelled ferry being built at Flensburger and Seapsan’s LNG battery-hybrid ferries. The class society “gained a lot of experience” with hybrid technology through the Seaspan project and other operators can benefit from this, as last July BV updated its energy storage systems (ESS) rules with a new chapter providing a framework for electric and hybrid power solutions. The new class notations include power management, power back-up and zero-emission standards. The notations should encourage wider uptake of ESSs to provide both operational and environmental benefits. Lloyd’s Register is also looking at alternative fuels, including fuel cells and hydrogen. It has taken a leading role investigating using hydrogen within passenger ships as it classed the methanol conversion of Stena Germanica. Commenting on the potential use of methanol, Lloyd’s Register global passenger ship manager John Hicks pointed out the benefits of using methanol as a source fuel for fuel cells. “The benefit of using methanol is that it can be put into a normal tank, it does not have to be a type C or cryogenic tank. The infrastructure is there for the use of methanol, I believe.” Lloyd’s Register has been working on a number of joint industry projects on fuel

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

Paolo Moretti (RINA) Paolo Moretti is executive vice president for marine strategic development at RINA with a focus on cruise ships. He is also responsible for the yachting and naval sectors and in charge of marine research and development, and technology innovation activities. Training services for personnel on shore and offshore and the development of new rules and regulations are among his duties. Mr Moretti began his career in the classification department of RINA in 1997. He later supervised cargo vessels and cruise ships in the Far East and Europe and became head of the pleasure craft product line in 2006. In 2011, he became general manager of the marine business.

cells, including on small ferries. Mr Hicks said “LNG started on small ferries before moving to larger ferries and then cruise ships and I can see fuel cells doing the same thing.” He also singled out inland waterway vessels as being a potential market for fuel cells; Lloyd’s Register is carrying out a fuel cell project within this market. “We are working with the industry to go beyond, to 2025 and 2030,” he noted. RINA is another class society involved with methanol and fuel cells for the ferry and cruise industry. Like Mr Hicks, RINA executive vice president for marine strategic development, Paolo Moretti sees potential in methanol. He told Passenger Ship Technology “Methanol is just one of the possible alternatives to power fuel cell power generation systems. Methanol is the low-hanging fruit, liquid, ready for use without excessive pressure, with no cryogenic problems, minimising the impact on the payload of the ship (overall fuel tank capacity).” He said methanol can be a costeffective alternative marine fuel and is available worldwide through existing global infrastructure. Mr Moretti commented “With the growing demand for cleaner marine fuel, methanol is a promising alternative fuel for ships, to help the shipping industry meet increasingly strict emissions regulations.” Methanol significantly reduces sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and black carbon emissions. He singled out the conversion cost to run a ship on methanol as “significantly less” than alternative fuel conversions. RINA has assisted designers and owners in large cruise ship projects to have the system ready for use. RINA has been actively involved from the outset in activities resulting in the adoption of the IGF Code. Currently RINA – on behalf of the Italian


Administration – co-ordinates national experts providing input to the IMO correspondence group on the Amendments to the IGF Code and development of guidelines for low-flashpoint fuels. “The new draft part E and the relevant definitions in part A of the IGF Code are making progress, with a target completion date in September 2018.” The adoption of these long-awaited regulations for fuel cells will be backed up by the Interim Guidelines for ships using methyl/ethyl alcohol as fuel. He said the “basic philosophy” of the Interim Guidelines is to provide guidance for the arrangement, installation, control and monitoring of machinery, equipment and systems using methyl/ethyl alcohol as fuel to minimise the risk to the ship, its crew and the environment. Mr Moretti said “The Interim Guidelines have deep roots into the goal-based approach, enriched by sound engineering principles, current operational experience, field data and R&D. “Goals and functional requirements, specified for each section, form the basis for the design, construction and operation of ships using methyl/ethyl alcohol as primary fuel for fuel cells on board.” Meanwhile, the RINA Rules for Fuel Cells installation in ships, issued in January 2018, are consistent with the developing international regulatory framework. Mr Moretti added “Consequently, only minor adjustments may be expected in the future, mostly triggered by the feedback from ongoing R&D projects or newbuilding activities.” But despite the advances in new alternative fuels, class experts still see LNG as being strong in the industry. Lloyd’s Register has also been very involved in the development of LNG within the passenger ship sector, having classed forerunner Viking Grace, BC Ferries’ dual-fuel LNG ferries and Caledonian McBrayne’s dualfuel ferries. It is also classing Disney’s LNG cruise ships. Mr Hicks said “Lloyd’s Register has helped ports understand the risks associated with bunkering – through our energy and offshore side we have helped a number of ports around the world understand the implications and risks of bunkering LNG.” Mr Moretti said LNG has the best potential to be largely used by all shipping segments, provided the infrastructure is in place, but added that liquid biofuels could gradually replace oil-based fuels.

“To power fuel cells, LNG and other low-flashpoint fuels have to pass through an internal reforming process, before or within the fuel cell stack, to transform their higher-chain hydrocarbons to hydrogen,” Mr Moretti explained. ABS is also boosting its work within hybrid electric power systems – with one of its latest focuses being on the role of supercapacitors. It launched an advisory – Hybrid Electric Power Systems – in February 2017 and continued with the Lithium Battery Guide in May 2017. The most recent addition to the publication series was the Supercapacitor Guide in November 2017. ABS corporate technology manager Domenic Carlucci said “Use of supercapacitors is of increased interest when fast energy delivery is required during a peak power condition, such as using thrusters.” He said ABS has produced the guide to provide requirements and reference standards to facilitate effective installation and operation of onboard supercapacitors. Its purpose is to establish safety guidelines for owners, operators, shipyard builders, designers and manufacturers. Mr Carlucci said “The guide delineates types of supercapacitors, including electrochemical capacitors and lithium ion capacitors, and then defines

Domenic Carlucci (ABS): supercapacitors provide significant advantages for hybrid deployments

requirements for design, construction and installation of supercapacitors in marine and offshore applications.” He noted that supercapacitors have a high-power density and a “fast-charging and discharging process to augment other power sources and can greatly improve the efficiency of traditional energy sources.” Because supercapacitors provide high density short-term power, they could be used to start up a generator or motor on a vessel which could then draw auxiliary power from lithium ion batteries for the majority of its voyage. “These combinations of energy storage technologies provide significant advantages for hybrid deployments,” Mr Carlucci added.

Expedition cruise: Ponant icebreaker and China Expedition cruise ship newbuilding is booming – and is something that Bureau Veritas is very involved in. It is classing Ponant’s planned icebreaker cruise ship. “It is the first cruise ship going to the North Pole, and no one has applied icebreaker developments to cruise ships yet, this is completely new – icebreakers have been designed for decades, but the design needs to be adapted to a cruise ship,” said Mr Ullrich. The class society is also involved in other ships in the expedition cruise sector and is classing SunStone’s expedition ships being built in China and Scenic Cruises’ ultra-luxurious polar expedition ship. Mr Ullrich commented on the SunStone project “This consists of China, France and then Finland for the interiors. Personally, I feel that Chinese shipyards are very capable of building these ships if they build up the right supply chain. For us as a class society, we need to make sure our colleagues in China do as good a job as in Europe.” Speaking about the challenges when building expedition cruise ships, Mr Ullrich said “The biggest challenge is there is less space to put technology in, such as the safe return to port requirements. The Polar Code is also fairly demanding, but we are well positioned in these matters.” PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


DNV GL pushes digitalisation with virtual reality

DNV GL has created a virtual reality presentation (pictured) to demonstate how digitalisation, including a digial twin of the ship, can help cruise operators


NV GL is pushing its digitalisation strategy forward – and to this end has created a virtual reality tour of Royal Caribbean’s Independence of the Seas to demonstrate how digital data will open up new possibilities for cruise ship operators. DNV GL global cruise director Paal Johansen told Passenger Ship Technology “We are using virtual reality to try to describe the core activities we see the industry will be engaged in in the future. It is telling a story of where we [DNV GL] come from, how we look at the future and where we want the industry to see us – which is driving development and digitalisation.” Homing in on the cruise sector, he said “We want to introduce more digital solutions to make operations more efficient and enhance safety levels with sensor technology and digital tools, that is where we see the big benefit.” The presentation shows how ship data could be combined with survey results and a 3D model of the ship to build a digital twin – a digital copy of a vessel, modelled to exactly represent its properties. It also demonstrates how this digital twin could be used to optimise the design, test how the networks on board respond to cyber attacks, and identify when equipment needs maintenance.

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

Mr Johansen said “It builds an immediate picture of vessels as to where the problems could be. This means there can be a plan when it comes to maintenance and operators can have a riskbased approach to operations as it is much easier to identify risk areas with a digital twin.” The digital twin is also useful for the shipyard when designing and building the vessel. “It is a good thing for the shipyard as through the digital twin, it can get feedback on and enhance them. He gave an example: a cruise ship can behave in different ways in different sea states; by feeding data back to the digital twin, seakeeping characteristics can be enhanced in the design.” DNV GL’s Veracity data platform is a hugely important tool for the class society’s digitalisation strategy. It is using this platform to run a pilot with a cruise ship operator, looking at how to prevent incidents. “We are looking at what we call barrier management – certain barriers prevent an incident from happening and we try to control those barriers. We use data to make a holistic picture and make a dashboard for cruise operators to highlight where they should put their focus on and maintenance to prevent safety issues.” The first half of the pilot started last year and finished this year. “We got a lot of good input,” observed Mr Johansen. PST

Stand B5-216


E-navigation and autonomous solutions gain momentum on the bridge Wärtsilä, Sperry Marine and Raytheon Anschütz have advanced their bridge technology, while passenger ship operators can add extras such as Farsounder’s echosounder or ChartCo’s ECDIS overlays, writes Martyn Wingrove

Raytheon Anschütz introduced a bridge integration platform to its INS


anufacturers are developing new radar, e-navigation and surveillance technology for integrated bridge systems on cruise ships and ferries. Wärtsilä is developing new technology for passenger ships using experience from two companies it has acquired in the last 12 months, and claims to be supplying 85% of bridge equipment to cruise ship newbuildings with its NACOS Platinum integrated navigation system (INS)*. Following the acquisition of UK-based Guidance Marine in 2017, Wärtsilä is developing a smart docking product

passenger ships could use to reduce risks during port visits. Smart Quay uses distance and position measuring sensors that use radar, cameras and laser, said Wärtsilä product manager for navigation products Eberhard Maass. “We produced a pilot of a device for measuring distances to piers using infrared and high-definition cameras,” he told Passenger Ship Technology. “It is for large cruise ships and very large container ships with information for docking ships of increasing size.” Wärtsilä is considering integrating some of this technology into NACOS

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

Platinum workstations. “We are generating solutions for extended and augmented reality (ER/AR) and overlaying information on camera feeds, such as speed and distance information, which is under testing,” said Mr Maass. “We are also testing LiDAR [light detection and ranging] technology, and will be integrating these sensors into NACOS Platinum with some type of AR capability in the future. We eventually want to use this technology on bridge windows, but first it will go on workstations.” From the acquisition of Transas, which was completed in May this

year, Wärtsilä is adding e-navigation technology to NACOS Platinum, building on its existing ECDIS solutions. “We have started to do integrated streams and turn ECDIS ideas into e-navigation,” said Mr Maass. “E-navigation is connecting ships and harbours.” Wärtsilä and Transas are both involved in the Sea Traffic Management (STM) project in the Baltic and North seas. “STM is the first step towards e-navigation,” said Mr Maass. “It defines standards for data exchange between ships and shore with a standard route format.” STM makes it possible to exchange routes, then “to optimise routes and transmit route information with other ships”, he explained. Data includes vessel position and speed using the Automatic Identification System, but with information on the intended route with waypoints behind and in front. This means “masters can predict movement and possible manoeuvres of surrounding ships, which should increase safety at sea,” said Mr Maass. “Our ECDIS on board have been configured to handle STM requirements in Europe.” Wärtsilä is also developing its own solid state technology for S-band radar and expects this to be available, along with Smart Quay, in Q4 2018. “Furthermore, we are merging different radar video from S-band and X-band radar feeds in one layer to get advantages from both,” Mr Maass explained. “We are also introducing


non-SOLAS applications in the SOLAS world, such as ice and wave radar applications by using different video processing algorithms presenting the result in similar human-machine interfaces.” There is interest from operators of expedition cruise ships for these technologies for ice navigation. There is also interest from cruise ships operating in China and the Caribbean for radar that can identify and track small objects such as fishing boats. “It is difficult to track these small targets and so we have integrated infrared cameras with target tracking capabilities into NACOS Platinum.” Sperry Marine is testing a new radar platform as part of its VisionMaster Net integrated bridge system that can identify and track small objects in water, such as passengers overboard and fishing vessels. This involves VisionMaster SeaGuard, a new surveillance radar that operates in all weather conditions and wave heights, said Sperry Marine head of product line management Ralf Magner. VisionMaster SeaGuard uses an “X-band fixedphase wave beam and six different waves on different frequencies, so it is not affected in harsh environments and can detect small objects,” Mr Magner told PST. Network-based VisionMaster Net enables operators to switch workstation displays from radar to active overlays on ECDIS. The VisionMaster SeaGuard antenna is enhanced for different types of targets, such as ice. “Cruise ships need ice navigation for iceberg expeditions in winter and detection of small vessels for summer cruises,” said Mr Magner. Sperry supplies integrated bridge systems on cruise ships and high-speed craft with radar and autopilots.

“We also supply passenger ferries that have enhanced security standards.” On the e-navigation side, Sperry Marine is trialling a back-of-the-bridge voyage planning system for automatic route exchange and chart updates. “We are looking at remote assistance and remote maintenance of bridge systems for passenger ships to minimise downtime,” said Mr Magner. Raytheon Anschütz developed its Synapsis NX as an INS* based entirely on a LANbased system, which means radar video and all sensor data is transmitted over LAN. There is a common software backbone, which is a bridge integration platform (BIP) that manages all routes, charts and tracks. BIP performs the central services of an INS, such as data integrity monitoring, target management or alert management. BIP ensures an entirely consistent presentation and handling of data or alarms throughout the system. The navigator can handle any task or attend to any situation from any workstation, and only has to interact with a single system. Raytheon Anschütz adopted a new course of continuous user participation and user workshops when it designed new navigation software. The goal was to

design intuitive and consistent user interfaces and operation concepts, which meet or even exceed the expectations of the operators. These support navigators’ common interaction patterns with regard to daily tasks. In July 2017, Raytheon Anschütz introduced its new ECDIS NX as its first navigation system featuring the user interface design.

Navigation extras

Farsounder’s forward looking sonar can be included in integrated bridge systems. It enables navigators to see what is in front of them under water in 3D and in real-time. Farsounder’s technology can reach up to 1,000 m in front of the ship and can detect icebergs, reefs, shipping containers, large whales and other navigation obstructions. Sonar images can be overlaid on S57 and S63 nautical charts.​Farsounder said this closes any gaps in navigation information for bridge teams. Ships can use this information to explore new areas and poorly charted or uncharted waters safely while avoiding any dangerous obstacles that may be in the water column. ChartCo’s EnviroManager can clearly display on ECDIS the distance from the nearest land as measured from the

country’s official baseline, as opposed to the shoreline on navigational charts. This helps ships comply with a range of environmental regulations on air emissions, bilge water, sewage, garbage, food waste and ballast disposal. EnviroManager product manager Per Österberg said cruise ships would benefit from using this to “remain compliant with environmental regulations, avoid fines, maximise profits and protect their reputations.” This product will display a ship’s position with contoured shading to show its distance from a country’s baseline so crew can see at a glance whether it is in a particular zone. “This allows them to quickly establish which discharges can or cannot be made both at the vessel’s current position and at any point along its planned route, enabling forward planning,” said Mr Österberg. For example, EnviroManager integrates all current Ballast Water Management Convention information including nationally designated Ballast Water Exchange Areas. PST *INS means it complies with IMO Performance Standard MSC 252(83) for integrated navigation systems

Wärtsilä is developing e-navigation and advanced radar applications into NACOS Platinum workstations

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


Digitalisation becomes a critical pillar of shipmanagement Passenger ship operators are using digitalisation for improving ship performance, monitoring machinery, reducing costs and enhancing guest experiences, writes Martyn Wingrove

Saga Travel & Cruises, which operates Saga Sapphire, uses V.Group's ShipSure mobile app

Per Bjornsen (V.Group) Per Bjornsen has 26 years of experience in ship operations, commercial management and shipbroking. He began his maritime career in 1992 as a shipbroker with Bigard Le Grand in Paris, France. By the end of that year he joined Brax Shipping in Sweden and had three years there as a shipbroker. Mr Bjornsen had two more years as a shipbroker with RS Platou in Oslo, Norway and then took a different direction by joining V.Ships in Monaco in 1997 as a commercial director. He has remained with V.Ships since then, becoming director of marine operations in the leisure sector in 2015. He graduated from the Oslo Business School in 1990 and then completed a maritime law qualification at the University of Oslo in 1996.

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


ruise ship and ferry operators are trailblazers in driving shipping towards a digital future. They are utilising the largest bandwidth in the shipping industry for communications and data transmissions. This is delivering information for analysis so that owners and shipmanagers can improve services to passengers, manage operating costs, conduct condition-based maintenance and reduce the environmental footprint of ships. For V.Group, digitalisation has become an important pillar of its business as it manages superyachts, cruise ships and ferries. V.Group director of marine operations in the leisure sector, Per Bjornsen said digitalisation will be increasingly important for the efficient operation of passenger ships. “Digitalisation is a game-changer in how we work as shipmanagers,” he told Passenger Ship Technology. “Digitalisation has become an important pillar of what we are offering, so good communications are critical for our business. Cost savings are from better insight into operations and from more efficiency.”

V.Group offers its ShipSure digital platform as part of its technical management of passenger ships. This has four modules covering procurement, marine operations, crewing and finance. It is cloudbased with online access to applications and interfaces for mobile devices and desktop computers, said Mr Bjornsen. “People involved in vessel management are always on the move and can keep in touch with their operations using ShipSure at any time,” he explained. “We have given customers access to mobile applications and the feedback has been very positive from users.” V.Group has provided ShipSure to Saga Travel & Cruises for use across its management teams. Saga chief executive officer Robin Shaw expressed his positive feedback to V.Group from this experience. “We are pleased and excited to be trialling the ShipSure mobile app,” he said. “My team now have immediate access to important vessel safety, purchasing and performance information and ShipSure is proving an invaluable tool.” Saga Travel & Cruises operates two ships, Saga Pearl II and Saga Sapphire, and has two on order – Spirit of Discovery due to be delivered in 2019 and Spirit of Adventure in 2020. By applying ShipSure, cruise ship owners can focus on other aspects such as hotel operations and customer experiences, “while we manage crewing and technical aspects of shipmanagement” said Mr Bjornsen. “Key is the transparency and easy access to information in real-time, such as ship position, status and crew,” he explained. “Efficiency comes from the level of predictive health of the vessel and its machinery.” This enables owners to track operational performance and perform condition-based maintenance. “The combination of this information is a very strong tool to maintain ships more effectively and to assure a safe, resilient and efficient operation, said Mr Bjornsen. “It is critical to have no downtime and have reliable information on system health and maintenance.”


Mechanics of digitalisation

ShipSure links stakeholders and facilitates teamwork through seamless interfacing. “It has easy access, is transparent and is building on an existing system that has been upgraded with new interfaces and mobile applications,” said Mr Bjornsen. It has one database so there is no duplication of information, while data can be compressed and profiled to work across a variety of communications systems from L-band to VSAT. The procurement module includes requisitions, purchase orders, invoicing, delivery planning, links to supplier portals and authorisation applications. It means superintendents can authorise procurement requests through mobile applications. “New to this is customer access to all procurement and operations data for transparency and an understanding of what is happening in real-time,” said Mr Bjornsen. ShipSure Marine includes inventory management and planned maintenance. It is integrated with risk, safety and environmental management, inspections and analysis. “This all in turn integrates with ship ISM and certification and vessel performance information,” said Mr Bjornsen. The crewing module includes applications for seafarers to access details on certification, joining information and the ship they are serving on. There are also applications for shipmanagers and owners covering crew lists, contracts, payroll, personnel and training details. Finance is for monitoring and managing ship financial performance in real-time with reports and for verifying performance including procurement and operating costs.

Data platform

Kongsberg Digital offers its data platform, Kognifai, to passenger ship operators that want to progress their digitalisation strategies. Kongsberg is in the middle of an operations optimisation project with a ferry owner that operates a large fleet and wants to introduce more autonomous operations. Data processing and analysis is at the heart of digitalisation in shipping, said Kongsberg vice president and commercial manager for Kognifai Vigleik Takle. He added that shipowners use data analytics for reducing operating expenditure and data co-ordination for greater transparency. “In the future of digitalisation in passenger shipping, we believe most efforts will be centred around optimisation of operations with the desired result being higher profitability, reducing risks and increased sustainability,” he told PST. “There are a lot of synergies and the need for seamless integration, with closer collaboration between on board and onshore.” There are three core offerings in Kognifai: • Asset lifecycle operations – ranging from condition monitoring of equipment, such as engines, to developing a digital twin of a ferry that defines the next generation ship. • Operations excellence – how to make operations more efficient, ranging from electronic logbooks to more advanced autonomous operations. • Value chain transformation – how shipowners and operators collaborate with supply chain partners to reduce costs along the supply chain. Mr Takle said passenger ship owners can use Kognifai to develop more automated processes from navigating short ferry crossings, to e-procurement and automated ticketing. Kognifai aggregates data across multiple sources, such as sensors on board, data from business systems, internal control

Vigleik Takle (Kongsberg): “AI is for asset lifecycle operations and predicting failure”

systems and third party data sources. “On top of the data platform we have a marketplace with a large range of applications that allows our customers to transform their data into value,” he said. These applications use the latest technology such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, cognitive computing and blockchain. “AI is for asset lifecycle operations, equipment monitoring, predicting failure and repair requirements and ordering spare parts for this,” said Mr Takle. Kongsberg also provides cyber security for Kognifai applications. “When dealing with critical assets, cyber security is vital, as you do not want a passenger ship to be hacked and crashed into a busy port,” said Mr Takle.

Vital communications

Ship-to-shore communications is a critical requirement for digitalisation processes in passenger shipping. It is almost always

Finferries set to test autonomous ferry technology Finnish passenger shipping group Finferries has signed a collaboration agreement with Rolls-Royce to jointly demonstrate remote and autonomous ferry operations. They will together develop strategies to optimise the safety and efficiency of marine operations by developing the technology for decision supporting systems. Rolls-Royce and Finferries intend to implement the findings from the

Advanced Autonomous Waterborne Applications research project, which finished at the end of 2017. These technologies will be considered in a new research project: Safer Vessel with Autonomous Navigation. Finferries chief executive officer Mats Rosin expects there to be multiple benefits to its business and passengers from deepening its collaboration with RollsRoyce. “We want to actively take part in

ventures where cutting-edge technology is utilised to increase the safety in maritime operations,” he said. Finferries will provide a ship as a testbed to demonstrate Rolls-Royce’s decision support technology, possibly its intelligent awareness product. Rolls-Royce has already tested its intelligent awareness system on a Stena Line ship in the North Sea and this is being trialled on a Mitsui OSK Lines passenger ferry in Japan.

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


available for ship operations on cruise ships and ferries because of the need for ship operators to provide broadband communications to passengers. This culminated with MSC Cruises breaking the bandwidth at sea record at the end of 2017 using Marlink’s VSAT services on MSC Seaside. This bandwidth was mostly used for a short period of passenger social media connectivity, but can also be used for operational requirements. Demand for bandwidth on cruise ships is growing exponentially due to the large amount of passengers with expectations of internet availability, said Marlink president of maritime Tore Morten Olsen. Demand is also coming from owners wanting vessel and fleet operations optimisation. “The reach of digitalisation is being expanded beyond improving logistics and fleet management into a more interpersonal arena,” he said. “It is becoming more about making each passenger’s experience as personalised and as individualised as possible.” Digitalisation enables owners to keep far better track of each passenger’s whereabouts to improve “both passenger safety and the cruise lines’ ability to offer improved cruise experiences for each passenger on board.” “Cruise lines are also able to tailor the cruising experience to guest preferences, making sure that all of their needs are met,” said Mr Olsen. He expects those that can use digitalisation “will be able to differentiate themselves in this very competitive market.” They can mine data for guest likes and dislikes, and preferences for different ships and destinations, which supports marketing and improves the cruising holiday experience. “The data can come from the booking process or through guest interaction with digital services on board,” Mr Olsen continued. “The data is used to understand how to develop the cruise experience for the future.”


Digitalisation introduces new methods of purchasing goods, products and services for passenger ships. It enables e-procurement processes for onboard operators and fleet managers. One of the recent additions to maritime e-procurement is Moscord, which was officially launched in April this year. Moscord founder and chief executive Freddy Ingemann thinks his service

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

Marlink provides Sealink VSAT including antennas on passenger ships

is a maritime version of Amazon’s e-procurement program. He expects shipping companies will benefit from having a sales channel, procurement platform and last-mile delivery in one marketplace. “Shipowners will know where the product came from and can guarantee they get branded equipment, such as electric motors, and get what they buy,” he said. “Prices are lower as ship operators buy direct from manufacturers or industry wholesalers and we aim to have 20% lower

prices on ship supply.” Since setting up Moscord in Q4 2017, Mr Ingemann has continued adding suppliers, manufacturers and delivery partners to the service. “We upload their products on the marketplace and organise deliveries at ports around the world,” he said. “We take care of product consolidation and pricing, provide ship catalogues and will integrate with existing procurement software so onboard engineers can procure products.”

IT infrastructure for cruise ships Lufthansa Industry Solutions has equipped cruise ships operated by Crystal River Cruises with IT infrastructure, digital onboard entertainment and smart cabin control systems. The first of a five-ship series of new river cruise ships, Crystal Mozart, carried out its maiden voyage in Q3 2016 on the Danube River, in eastern Europe. Crystal Mozart was equipped with onboard wifi, a network for monitoring and controlling ship utilities and a centralised IT

system. This network controls the lighting, door locks, air conditioning and security camera (CCTV) systems in a single network structure. CCTV is mandatory on cruise ships to ensure safety during voyages. This centralised IT infrastructure means Crystal River Cruises can integrate, monitor and manage systems from third-party providers. It can also improve performance of onboard services and market activities to passengers. PST


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Benefits and technology behind Stena’s battery power launch Stena Line will use a self-contained energy storage system on the battery retrofit of Stena Jutlandica. PST got the lowdown from the company behind the system


tena Line is retrofitting a ferry with a self-contained battery storage system that will boost its energy efficiency on a difficult trading route. The batteries will be installed on Stena Jutlandica, which operates between Gothenburg and Frederikshavn, and will be used for port berthing operations by Q3 this year. The battery project will start now and will be completed in stages, said Stena. In step one, battery power will be switched on for bow thrusters and manoeuvring when berthing in port. In step two, an extended battery operation will be connected to the propellers, meaning Stena Jutlandica can be operated on electricity for about 10 nautical miles, equal to the distance between Gothenburg and Vinga Lighthouse. In step three, battery capacity will be further expanded and the vessel will operate about 50 nautical miles on electricity corresponding to the distance between Gothenburg and Frederikshavn. The objective of accomplishing this in several steps is to test and gather knowledge about electrical operation along the way. If the project is successful, other vessels in Stena Line's fleet of 38 vessels may also be retrofitted with batteries. Trident Maritime Systems (formerly Callenberg Technology Group) is providing the self-contained energy storage system on the battery retrofit. The unit will be located on the weather deck and can supply up to 3,000 kW instantaneously and has an energy capacity of approximately 1,000 kWh. The solution will contain all components required to be fully automated, including battery banks, converters, transformers and control systems. Peripheral equipment for safety, cooling and performance monitoring is also included to meet requirements BATTERY POWER COUNTDOWN Step 1 • Battery power for bow thrusters and maneouvring when berthing in port. • Optimises power usage during operation (peak shaving). • Battery capacity 1 MWh. Step 2 • Battery operation in port and in the archipelago up to around 10 nautical miles. • Battery capacity about 20 MWh. Step 3 • Full battery power up to about 50 nautical miles. • Battery capacity about 50 MWh.

Stena Jutlandica is being retrofitted with a self-contained battery storage solution (credit: Jean-Pierre Bovin)

from classification societies and authorities. Trident Maritime Systems director of sales and marketing, electrical energy management Per-Erik Larsson told Passenger Ship Technology that using battery power was particularly helpful for Stena Jutlandica’s operating route. In this case, he said the vessel power consumption for accommodation on board the vessel was typically 8-900 kW. “But if the vessel needs to run bow thrusters, this goes up to 2-3,000 kW. This is when batteries can provide the extra power. Otherwise, to store enough energy to cater for this, the operator needs to run the auxiliary engines on idle as a spinning reserve. “This creates wear and tear, a lot of emissions and increases fuel consumption.” He said the batteries would normally be charged by shore power, but charging on a voyage was also an option. “If you run a genset on 800 kW, this is not efficient – the most efficient way is to run it at 80-90% of maximum capacity. In this way the surplus power can be used to charge the batteries.” Mr Larsson said “If you optimise the size of batteries and components, there is no doubt that this is an economically viable solution for many ships, especially ones in narrow waters where you need to have a lot of extra power available.” Mr Larsson highlighted the benefits of using the selfcontained system. “There are some clear advantages of a containerised solution, it is modular and can be moved to other trades and vessels.” It also means that the container can be prepared and tested on shore, making installation on the vessel quicker and easier, and simplifies maintenance. PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


Carnival monitors cruise fleet from Hamburg Carnival Corp has combined vessel monitoring technology and human expertise to keep track of its fleet of cruise ships, writes Ed Martin


arnival Corp monitors and manages a fleet of 37 cruise ships from its new Fleet Operations Centre (FOC) in Hamburg, Germany. When Passenger Ship Technology visited this centre, it looked similar to a NASA mission control room, with banks of monitors on rows of desks facing a screen that takes up an entire wall, all busy with data. This is perhaps apposite, given that the FOC was set up with the goal of providing “aviation-level safety standards” with aroundthe-clock, year-round monitoring for a fleet of 37 vessels. It is staffed by 15 officers with nautical experience working in threeperson shift patterns. They monitor and analyse data from a range of sources and are in constant contact with captains and crews to oversee the Costa group’s 26 vessels under the Costa Crociere, Aida Cruises and Costa Asia brands, plus 11 vessels from P&O Cruises and Cunard Line. Costa’s proprietary digital and navigation and surveillance platform, Neptune, gathers a range of data from each vessel including: • Stability conditions. • Global positioning. • Routeing. • Speed. • Engine condition. • Energy use. • Emissions levels. • Water management. Data on position, speed and direction is used to ensure vessels are not straying from a predetermined course corridor. Any deviations from these voyages results in a real-time notification to the FOC, resulting in an immediate investigation into the cause. Neptune ensures vessels are in compliance with company, national and international environmental regulations by automatically reporting any deviation from targeted values. Almost 2M bits of data are collected by Neptune from each vessel each day, which are used for immediate and longer-term analyses to identify trends and optimise forecast models. This allows for predictive analysis to improve maintenance of vessels and their engines, optimise resources and automatically predict efficient routes. As well as this, external information such as weather forecasts, port infrastructure issues, health risks and reports of political unrest are used to adjust routeing and departure times to ensure vessel safety. Should an incident arise, regardless of whether it relates to passenger safety, engineering issues or a vessel’s arrival at or departure from a port, a crisis meeting is held where staff at the FOC and aboard the vessel will review all available information to determine the best course of action and how to enact it. The Hamburg facility opened in 2015 and complementary facilities were opened in Seattle in 2017 and in Miami earlier this year. They are all individually capable of acting as FOC for Carnival’s entire fleet of 103 cruise ships, should the need arise.

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

FOC has banks of monitors on rows of desks facing a screen that takes up an entire wall

Connectivity technology

The cruise ships are connected to the FOCs over VSAT communications, which Carnival is steadily upgrading on its ships. Carnival is deploying its MedallionNet broadband-at-sea system on cruise ships to boost bandwidth for operational requirements, passenger use and crew welfare. Cruise ships in the fleet already have bandwidth of more than 20 Mbps through Ku-band and C-band VSAT. Some are also using Kaband from SES’ medium Earth orbit O3B constellation. Carnival is upgrading VSAT on ships in the Princess Cruises brand to boost bandwidth well beyond 50 Mbps levels. It started with Regal Princess in 2017 and this broke the bandwidth-at-sea record in February this year by reaching 2.25 Gbps during a specific media-driven event. In March, Carnival’s chief experience and innovation officer John Padgett told PST that MedallionNet will be installed on more Princess ships and then introduced to other brands in the group.

Keeping trim

In May, Costa Crociere successfully tested a new IT element on a cruise ship bridge that enables crew to better understand the vessel’s trim. The test involved Eniram Trim functionality on Wärtsilä Marine Solutions’ integrated navigation systems, Nacos Platinum, on cruise ship Costa Atlantica. Eniram Trim enabled the bridge team to immediately respond to changing conditions to maintain an optimum trim of the cruise ship in real-time. Wärtsilä has added this trim function to its Nacos Platinum control system for navigation, automation and dynamic positioning. Eniram Trim analysis is based on a model of a vessel’s hydrodynamic characteristics, the information gathered by attitude sensors installed on the ship’s hull, and the vessel’s automation and bridge systems.The input gained enables Eniram Trim to calculate the optimal trim in real-time, which leads to lower fuel consumption and greater cost savings than is possible with conventional trimming methods. PST

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Green and energy efficient solutions enter stabiliser sector Energy efficient and environmentally friendly technology is being applied to stabiliser solutions aimed at ferries and cruise ships

SKF’s Dynamic Stabilizer Cover has been designed to reduce drag, and therefore fuel consumption


very time we discuss newbuild projects, we face green and environmentally friendly topics. This is the main focus for a ferry and cruise operator.” So said SKF director of fin stabiliser and steering gears Christopher Schnäckel, a man who knows a lot about the industry and how current trends are shaping future plans. The company is applying fuel and environmental efficiency to its products. At the beginning of last year it

launched its Dynamic Stabilizer Cover (DSC), designed to reduce drag and improve the efficiency of passenger vessels equipped with SKF retractable fin stabilisers types S and Z. When a vessel is in motion, the fin box opening in the side of the hull creates turbulence, increasing drag on the vessel. “The fin box opening causes a lot of drag and therefore creates a lot of fuel consumption,” Mr Schnäckel explained. “We wanted to close these openings to support the operator in reducing propulsion

power and so being more environmentally friendly and reducing the fuel consumption.” The DSC uses two specially shaped air cushions, fitted to the top and bottom of the fin box with small steel rails. In normal operation, the cushions are inflated using compressed air from the vessel’s existing pneumatic systems. Inflated, the cushions form a cover over the fin box opening. When the stabiliser fin is to be extended or retracted, air is released from the cushions by opening the valve. The

cushions are then deflated by the water pressure outside the hull, creating room for the fin’s movement. When deployment or housing is complete, the cushions can be re-inflated. Control of the cover is fully integrated into the stabiliser fin control systems, requiring no additional action by the crew. SKF said that closing the hull openings reduces drag by up to 90%, leading to a 1% to 2% reduction in fuel consumption each time the cushions are inflated. The product will be tested by a large cruise operator this year and Mr Schnäckel said that he hoped by the end of 2018 it would be ready to go to market. The company also has another product in the pipeline: Eco Mode is being launched at SMM this year, with the aim of making stabilisers more intelligent and reducing fuel consumption. “Two big stabiliser fins in operation cause drag, but crew are not sure if they need one or two fins in operation. Our software detects when water is calm and sends a message to say only one fin is needed,” explained Mr Schnäckel. The product also gives information on when the fin angle can be reduced, therefore saving energy consumption. Usually the fin angle is rotated to plus or minus 18 degrees. But the Eco Mode software indicates when the fins can be angled at lesser degrees, down to five degrees. The system is currently being trialled on a ferry. SKF is also using Eco Mode to reduce the electricity

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018


A solution on ice

used by the stabilisers’ hydraulic power units (HPU). “Using more intelligence, we can see when the stabiliser is not being used heavily, therefore one pump of each HPU can be shut down, reducing electricity consumption,” said Mr Schnäckel.

Creating sparks

Elsewhere, GEPS Techno has also applied an energy efficient technology to its stabiliser solution: Green Stabiliser Integrated with Recovery of Energy (GSIRE) is a passive antirolling tank for hulls. It consists of a tank filled with water that is positioned on the beam of the vessel. Vortex chambers are placed on either side and the water follows the lead of the chambers, stabilising the vessel. The GSIRE produces electricity from the waterflow, of up to 250 kW capacity, via turbines in the vortex chambers that are turned by the water. The return on investment is estimated at five to seven years. The GSIRE was retrofitted from an existing flume tank space below the bridge deck on research oceanographic vessel Thalassa in September 2016 in a pilot project. Its sea trial result is approximately 50% roll reduction and 90% at peak period. GEPS Techno installed two 15 kW capacity turbines. GEPS Techno commercial director Audrie Jordan said “We are not yet producing enough electricity to reduce fuel consumption on Thalassa, but it is generating electricity to the main switchboard.” She added that there was the possibility to store the electricity produced on a battery, which could be used in case of a sudden loss of power. The company is working with Bureau Veritas (BV) to certify this. The switchboard electrical installation has already been certified by BV. GEPS Techno used its oscillating bench to test at

Audrie Jordan (GEPS Techno): The stabiliser is producing added value through the creation of electricity

a representative scale of reality, to analyse the results and to then test the chosen solution at sea on Thalassa. Ms Jordan said that it revealed stabilisation performance was improved by the presence of the turbines used to generate electricity. She said that this was because the turbine keeps water in vortex chambers longer, allowing better control of the flow of the water. She also explained that GEPS Techno’s technology is in competition with fins [that are outside the vessel] in the passenger ship stabilisation market. “These fins are deployed at sea and are efficient with high speeds. We have studied the case with one of our cruise line customers to combine smaller fins that would be less expensive [than larger ones], with our system, so that the vessel is stabilised at zero speed and high speeds and to limit the costs.” She added: “It is the only stabiliser that is producing added value [through the creation of electricity].”

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

Rolls-Royce launched a new type of stabilisation at rest solution this year that is particularly attractive to iceclass expedition cruise ships. The company has been supplying stabilisation at rest solutions - providing roll damping when the vessel is at anchor or stationary since 2006, mainly to the yacht market. Rolls-Royce Dunfermline head of sales Paul Crawford told PST “Part of the trailing edge is exposed when retracted and gives an added bilge keel effect. Then the fin is deployed and works actively both at rest and underway.” Rolls-Royce’s new stabilisation at rest product consists of a swept fin that is totally housed when retracted, as opposed to having the trailing edge of the fin exposed. “This is more important for ice-class vessels, where they do not want the fin exposed in the ice when retracted,” Mr Crawford said. It is also the first five-sided fin and provides more performance with less rolling or pitching, according to the company. Rolls-Royce has several contracts for the new style of

fin, which include expedition ships, a retrofit for a vessel conversion, while Poseidon Expedition’s 114-passenger vessel Sea Spirit will be fitted with new retractable fin stabilisers for installation in 2019. Rolls-Royce has also agreed a cruise contract for Hurtigruten’s newbuilds. It is supplying a package of equipment, including its Aquarius 100 stabilisers. Current ferry projects include vessels being built in Caspian, Finland, Poland, India and Scotland. As stabiliser technology develops, Mr Crawford said he believed that instead of using the current hydraulic power units, electric motors would become a way of powering stabilisers. “There is less maintenance needed and less equipment and I see this used especially within ferries in the future, as many are becoming more electric.” He added that while RollsRoyce did not offer such a product yet, the company had looked into this technology Despite the maturity of the stabiliser product, innovations keep coming and energy efficiency will feature heavily in future releases. PST

Rolls-Royce’s new stabilisation at rest product is a swept fin that is totally housed when retracted


2 0 19


Solving the cruise connectivity conundrum Better cruise connectivity is crucial, but there are still challenges to be overcome. Simon Maher* explains how to overcome these obstacles and achieve stronger connectivity


his year, the cruise industry entered into a new golden age, with passenger numbers soaring to unprecedented highs and records being set in multiple arenas including passenger capacity and the number of newbuilds. The rapid growth of the industry is reflected in the increasing size of each new vessel – in March, Royal Caribbean unveiled the latest addition to its fleet, Symphony of the Seas, which set sail on its maiden voyage with over 5,500 guests and more than 2,000 crew members. The vessel is the largest cruise ship ever constructed – a sure indication of where the market is currently heading. Indeed, according to a report by CLIA, 27.2M people are expected to go on cruises in 2018 – 1.4M more than the previous year and a 10% increase on 2016.

Simon Maher (SES Networks): solving the connectivity conundrum on board ships is no easy feat

Passenger Ship Technology | 3rd Quarter 2018

New challenges for a new generation

Despite its wins, the cruise industry is also facing immediate pressures, precipitated by increasing popularity among new audiences. In today’s digitalised world, demand for high-speed internet is exploding in all mobility markets, and passenger ships are no exception. Gone are the days where people went on cruises to ‘get away from it all’. People now want to be able to surf the internet, Skype with friends and upload photos to their social media accounts anywhere in the world and at the same speed as they would at home. Guests aside, connectivity also has the potential to transform the working environment for the 1M+ staff who work in the cruise industry. Isolation continues to be a major issue for those working offshore, with many cut off from friends and family for weeks at a time. A recent survey of seafarers by KNect365 emphasised the importance of internet access for seafarers, with 75% of respondents saying connectivity is an important factor when choosing an employer. This is an important reminder to shipowners wanting to attract and retain the best crews. Needless to say, solving the connectivity conundrum on board ships is no easy feat. On land, remote connectivity can be achieved through three ways: trenching fibre, point-to-point microwave towers or via satellites. Far out at sea, however, shipowners are restricted to the last of these options. And when it comes to satellites, the cruise industry has been plagued by old technology for years. Single high-orbit satellites with underdeveloped, fragmented and unreliable systems have led to low expectations among passengers, with many viewing high-speed internet as something limited to land-based destinations.

Building for a more-connected future

Today the landscape is changing. When SES Networks entered the cruise industry, we saw a clear opportunity to harness our technology to drive a new era of connectivity where service consistency is the norm, not the exception. Our mission was to dispel the myth that it is impossible to have a fantastic internet connection at sea – even in the remotest locations. In a maritime industry first, we offer multi-orbit (GEO and MEO) satelliteenabled connectivity solutions, available in multiple bands (Ka-, Ku- and C-band). Our multi-orbit and multi-band constellation of interoperable satellites and the combination of GEO wide beams, GEO high throughput (HTS) beams and MEO constellations, allow us to deliver an enhanced guest connectivity service to the cruise market, scaling from 100 Mbps to >1 Gbps to a single cruise ship. We continue our investment programme with a strong satellite fleet roadmap built on an advanced HTS strategy. Our HTS strategy started when we invested in O3b Networks in 2009. The launch of SES-15, followed by SES-14, the latest four new O3b satellites, the upcoming SES-12, and another four O3b satellites scheduled to be launched in H1 2019 are an extension of that strategy. This unique integrated offering combination delivers comprehensive coverage, massive throughput and the market’s only fibre-like satellite connectivity. The latest generation of mega cruise ships is being designed to improve passenger services by incorporating the latest technology and design features to meet the needs of guests of all ages, allowing passengers to choose if they wish to remain connected or disconnect while on vacation. PST Simon Maher is SES Networks vice president of global maritime services

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Passenger Ship Technology 3rd Quarter 2018  

Passenger Ship Technology is a leading market title dedicated to technical coverage of all aspects of passenger shipping, including ferries...

Passenger Ship Technology 3rd Quarter 2018  

Passenger Ship Technology is a leading market title dedicated to technical coverage of all aspects of passenger shipping, including ferries...