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October/November 2017

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October/November 2017 volume 39 issue 5


Ship type: Tugs


11 Tug business enjoys strong demand 13 Tug propulsion innovation cuts emissions 17 Tug industry has faith in hybrid solutions; Wärtsilä unveils hybrid tug designs at Riviera event; Are autonomous tugs automatically a good thing?

Enginebuilder profile 18 Belgian builder a model of diversification

Yard profile 21 Spanish specialist breaks new ground

Four-stroke engines 24 ‘Game-changing’ four-stroke hits new heights

Two-stroke engines 37

29 WinGD launches data collection and monitoring platform; J-Eng wins roro order for 6UEC45LSE-C1 engine

Gas engines 30 MAN moves point to gas-fuelled future

High-speed engines 32 Rapid advances in high-speed sector 34 Innovative propulsion system scalable to wide range of vessel types

Thrusters 37 Practicalities and power drive thruster design 38 ABB breaks new ground with Azipod

Propellers 61

41 3D-printed propeller hits prototype stage 42 New features added to HydroComp PropElements

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Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

contents Alternative fuels 45 Biofuel pioneer makes headway

Pumps 49 Smart pumping rewards investment

Turbochargers 55 Electrically-assisted turbocharging boosts drive for hybrid 59 MET range moves forward


October/November 2017 volume 39 issue 5 Editor: Paul Fanning t: +44 20 8370 1737 e: Brand Manager – Sales: Tom Kenny t: +44 7432 156 339 e: Sales Manager: Rob Gore t: +44 20 8370 7007 e:

61 Hull performance monitoring: The next step to efficient operation? 62 Bureau Veritas joins RECOMMS drones project 64 Selektope-powered antifouling range expands; Ecospeed effective on RRS Ernest Shackleton

Sales: Paul Dowling t: +44 20 8370 7014 e:

Cargo handling

Sales: Jo Lewis t: +44 20 8370 7793 e:

67 Facing the facts of crane failure

Marine intelligence 71 Shipping misses out on the digital dividend 75 Agreements suggest to Fleet Xpress

Area Report: USA 77 Shale revolution boosts US orderbook

Fuels, lubes & emissions 81 Big questions loom over enforcement

Ice class vessels 85 LNG carriers toughen up to survive Arctic

Propulsion 86 ASD takes tug manoeuvring to new levels

Noise and vibration 88 New technology cuts vessel noise and vibration

Head of Sales – Asia: Kym Tan t: +65 9456 3165 e: Production Manager: Richard Neighbour t: +44 20 8370 7013 e: Chairman: John Labdon Managing Director: Steve Labdon Finance Director: Cathy Labdon Operations Director: Graham Harman Head of Content: Edwin Lampert Executive Editor: Paul Gunton Head of Production: Hamish Dickie Business Development Manager: Steve Edwards Published by: Riviera Maritime Media Ltd Mitre House 66 Abbey Road Enfield EN1 2QN UK

Next issue: Ship type: cruise ships & ferries Features: water treatment – to include: • ballast water treatment • waste water treatment auxiliary machinery – to include: • HVAC • stabilisers • boilers also: • training and simulation ISSN 1742-2825 (Print) ISSN 2051-056X (Online) ©2017 Riviera Maritime Media Ltd

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Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

Disclaimer: Although every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this publication is correct, the Author and Publisher accept no liability to any party for any inaccuracies that may occur. Any third party material included with the publication is supplied in good faith and the Publisher accepts no liability in respect of content. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, reprinted or stored in any electronic medium or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission of the copyright owner.


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Safety will drive monitoring take-up S peaking in September at the Ship Machinery Conference in Rostock, Germany, Jens Kohlmann of Carnival Maritime made a genuinely impassioned and unanswerable case for the adoption of remote monitoring technologies. To give some context, it is worth bearing in mind that Carnival Maritime was established in the wake of the Costa Concordia disaster (in which the vessel capsized and sank after striking an underwater rock) and the subsequent engine room fire onboard the Costa Allegra. One of the first moves the company made was to establish a fleet operations centre in Hamburg from which the vessels’ functions and actions are closely monitored. Given this context, it is perhaps understandable that Mr Kohlmann has little patience with considerations of the crew or captains’ feelings about this monitoring. In comments that are covered more fully on page 94 of this issue, he was asked whether the crews considered this to be ‘meddling’, he simply said, referring to the captain of the Costs Concordia “Captain Schettino would not have done what he did if he were being monitored. 32 lives

Paul Fanning Editor Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery

were lost. Whether the captain likes being monitored doesn’t matter in that context!” This is, of course, an extreme case, but such cases often dictate actions and from Carnival Maritime’s point of view it was all the motivation needed to impose remote monitoring from the top down. No-one is suggesting that remote monitoring should be done with no regard to the feelings of crew and captain, of course and Mr Kohlmann was keen to point out that there had been no negative feedback. The progress of digitisation is of course made easier by working closely with those onboard the vessel. However, as this instance makes clear, the concerns of the crew and captain are not necessarily paramount. • The launch of any new engine is obviously big news in Marine Propulsion’s market and particularly when it is of a new flagship design from one of the industry’s biggest names. So it was with great anticipation that I arrived in September for the launch of MAN Diesel & Turbo’s new 45/60CR engine. The details of this new launch can be found in the report on page 24, but suffice to say that it offers a major power boost and

hugely improved fuel consumption over its predecessor, the 48/60 – as well as over competitors, claims MAN. An interesting detail about the new launch, though, is where it is being aimed, with one of its key target markets being the cruise sector, where it is felt that its excellent fuel consumption will make it extremely popular. Indeed, MAN’s calculations, based on a representative load profile of a cruise vessel, show that a ship operating with an MAN 45/60CR engine can enjoy a fuel-oil cost benefit of 5 to 12% in comparison with a vessel powered by an equivalent engine from other manufacturers. The cruise market, of course, has been one of the few bright points in an otherwise gloomy picture for shipping in recent years. Growth here has been solid and sustained, meaning that designing an engine with this market in mind makes sense. However, since the engine is not actually going to be available until 2020, what this launch says about MAN’s view of the cruise sector is interesting, since it suggests that the company has faith that the cruise boom – rather than slowing down – will continue for some time to come. MP

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Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


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“Lies” abound in ballast water management industry, says Coldharbour CEO


Andrew Marshall (Coldharbour Marine): “There will be a disaster of epic proportions”

isinformation and “whopping gorillasized lies” abound in the ballast water management industry, the chief executive of Coldharbour Marine, Andrew Marshall has alleged. If this situation is allowed to continue, “there will be a disaster of epic proportions,” he said. He was speaking to invited guests at the company’s offices in the UK where he said that, because its system – which uses inert gas and cavitation to treat water in the tank during a voyage – suits only about 15% of vessels, Coldharbour is in a position to have “a very clear and firm opinion about what’s going on in the other 85%.” Outlining some of the misinformation he believes will contribute to future problems, he highlighted regrowth after treatment as a significant problem. This could cause a ship to fail a port state control test, he said, which would have a big impact on a company’s bottom line. He also singled out the filtration systems that form an essential component of many systems, suggesting that it is “nonsense” to expect to be able to pass up to 6,000 tonnes/hr of dirty sea water through a 50 μm filter for 18 hours non-stop. To make that possible would require a larger filtration plant than could be fitted on a ship, he said. He stressed, however, that there are “some very good technologies [available] of all types” but said that there are also “some very bad

systems and installations out there.” As a result, owners would be naïve to assume that, because a system has a type-approval certificate, “it will deliver what they want.” Coldharbour is making progress towards US Coast Guard (USCG) type-approval, more than two years after it submitted a letter of intent to apply for USCG type-approval. However, no USCGapproved laboratory able to test an in-tank system was available at that time. One was appointed earlier this year and Coldharbour submitted a new letter of intent on 12 July this year. The laboratory is MEA-nl in the Netherlands and the European testing season is MarchAugust, so the tests will be conducted next year, he said. This is the same centre where it conducted its tests for IMO type-approval and the USCG has appointed Lloyd’s Register as its supervising body, which is the same one that was appointed for its IMO testing. “So we are in the same place with the same supervisors to do the same tests. It’s going to cost me US$3M to do something I’ve already done,” he said. Shipboard tests will be also be carried out next year aboard the Suezmax tanker Bordeira, which will be fitted with a commercial installation in Q1 next year, Mr Marshall told Marine Propulsion. He expects to submit an application in late 2018 and to receive USCG type-approval in early 2019.

Task force pushes for decarbonisation Global Maritime Forum, Carbon War Room, the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition (CPLC), and University College London (UCL) have announced the launch of a Task Force on Decarbonizing Shipping. This industry-led initiative will develop tangible pathways for shipping’s decarbonisation through five working groups, each focused on a key area of the industry. Outcomes of the task force will be presented at the Global Maritime Forum’s inaugural summit in October 2018. The Task Force on Decarbonizing Shipping will bring together leaders and experts from across the maritime industry to develop and mobilise the industry along tangible pathways aligned with

ambitious, science-based emission reduction targets. It will focus on five areas key to effectively addressing the maritime industry’s climate challenge: industry leadership, technology, transparency, finance and carbon pricing. These areas were identified as central to decarbonising shipping at an exploratory industry workshop held in London in June 2017. The task force will develop a vision for collaborative innovation on low carbon technologies; toolkits and guidance to increase transparency about operational efficiency; a best practice guide for incorporating climate risk assessment in ship finance; and recommendations on the role of carbon pricing in tackling emissions. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


Determining the cause of equipment failure Ken Kirby, metallurgist and partner with Brookes Bell, discusses the value of metallurgical investigation of onboard equipment failure

A large casting fracture surface is the type of metallurgical problem that may occur

What role do metallurgists play in investigating equipment failure? In the offshore industry, metallurgists might be called upon to investigate incidents involving the failure of metallic components, for example, a pinion gear failure or rack-tooth failure, on a Jackup rig, usually as part of a multi-disciplined team. Owing to the complex nature of incidents like those mentioned above, the role of a metallurgist may sometimes be overlooked.

Why might a metallurgist not be used?

it’s based on, so in order for the legal team to determine who was at fault, how losses should be recovered and, if necessary, how blame should be distributed, the highest quality of evidence possible should be collected and preserved.

Selecting evidence samples

The decision not to call on the services of a metallurgist as part of the investigation team can sometimes be down to a lack of understanding of the role metallurgy plays and a lack of appreciation of how the discipline differs from that of other disciplines, when understanding the role materials play when determining causation. This can lead to the loss of vital evidence and an extended legal process while an insurance claim is investigated.

Selecting the correct samples is critical for the success of any investigation into metallurgical failures. During most investigations, there is typically a vast amount of material available. However, only a small amount of it might be critical for the metallurgical investigation,� he said. A best practice metallurgical investigation will not be confined solely to the inspection of the fracture surface or damaged areas, but will also include the assessment of all the areas damaged during the failure.

What are the most common metallurgical failures?

When should one call on the services of a metallurgist?

Mechanical failures, such as fatigue or overload and corrosion, are examples of the typical failure mechanisms investigated by metallurgists. Failures may stem from either improper manufacture of specialised components or maintenance issues. Other common failures found on some offshore structures may be down to complex mechanisms such as stray current corrosion.

For the correct evidence to be collected and preserved, it is essential that a metallurgist joins the investigation team at the right time. When an incident occurs, it is usual practice for a core accident investigation team to be appointed, including disciplines such as engineers, naval architects and even tribologists, all of whom bring unique expertise to the case. Failure to identify what constitutes important evidence and what does not can significantly reduce the efficiency of an investigation, often resulting in increased costs and even result in the incorrect conclusion being reached. I work closely with marine engineers, master mariners, tribologists, fire investigators and other disciplines, for example. With most investigations, it is usually the case that the different disciplines complement each other and enable the correct conclusion to be reached, sometimes in a more timely and costeffective manner, ultimately benefiting the overall investigation into an offshore incident. MP

How does the investigation proceed? After a failure has occurred, a metallurgist will identify the specific mechanism which caused a component to fail and why this occurred. This may involve investigating a progressive failure mechanism, such as a bearing failure in a gearbox of a jack-up rig, which eventually resulted in other consequential damage. During an investigation, a metallurgist will begin looking at the failure from the microscopic level, examining the microstructure of the materials which make up the component, all the way up to the behaviour of the metal in the overall component or structure. A failure investigation is only ever as good as the evidence

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

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TUGS | 11

Tug business enjoys strong demand The need for greater power for handling bigger vessels is driving the tug orderbook forward, says Barry Luthwaite


he tug industry is enjoying a bullish period, with demand for various types providing welcome business for smaller builders. Almost 100 tugs greater than 20 m in length have been ordered in the space of one year. The reasoning behind much of this is a requirement for more power to handle bigger ships. Europe has gained strongly for new business centred on big vessel escort and towage in ports and at offshore terminals. Vancouver-based Robert Allan continues to derive great success from commissioning of its specialist designs world-wide. In a latest move the designer was responsible for evolving a new hybrid-powered icebreaking escort tug which will be built at Gondán, Spain for the Port of Lulea in Sweden. Robert Allan has built on experience in icebreaker designs for severe ice conditions in Canadian ports to offer the Swedish port a new vessel known as the TundRA 3600-H. The tug will feature a hybrid propulsion system featuring two diesel main engines, shaft motor/ generators plus electrical battery energy storage. A 90-tonne bollard pull is possible running with two engines and up to 55 tonnes with a single engine. Operational performance is enhanced by battery infrastructure utilising shore electrical connection for recharging of batteries. Significant fuel, emissions and maintenance cost savings will be achieved. Gondán is one of the most successful tug builders in


No 6 181



Salvage Tug


Tractor Tug (unspecified) Grand Total Shipbuilder country USA

5 10 214 no. 43













United Arab Emirates


Russian Federation








South Africa






Hong Kong










Thailand Grand Total

Spain. The builder recently delivered a trio of powerful 108-tonne bollard pull escort and towage tugs for Norway’s Østensjø, which will serve Statoil’s LNG terminal at Hammerfest. These tugs each incorporate a dual fuel arrangement of two 6L34DF engines from Wärtsilä. Scandinavia is well

1 214

equipped with infrastructure to provide LNG refuelling being one of the best in the world for shore based installations. Combined power on each vessel will total 7,344 bhp when running both engines. Mindful of technological advances Wärtsilä has now launched a new portfolio of HY Tug designs featuring

LNG technology. Over 1,000 tugs incorporate Wärtsilä’s hybrid propulsion technology producing impressive results in cost savings and meeting environment legislation. While the use of LNG fuel makes slow progress on deepsea ships it is now gaining significant ground in the towage industry. The future will see utilisation in greater numbers of diesel mechanical hybrid or diesel electric hybrid propulsion covering 40-90tonne bollard pull strengths. Shipyards globally can expect the boom in ordering to continue as more ageing tugs with less powerful bollard pulls become redundant in the age of bigger ships. Damen Shipyards Group continues to make great strides with its portfolio of tug designs many of which are built on a stock basis enabling a short fitting out time of around eight weeks to commissioning. Azimuth stern drive (ASD) tugs remain ever popular from the Damen stable. Albwardy Damen just completed an ASD 2411 design that offers a 70-tonne bollard pull with main power provided by two Caterpillar 3516C engines. Statistically the newbuilding boom is underlined by a global order backlog of 214 tugs. This is dominated by the USA with 43 units although virtually all will be built for domestic owners. Many of these will support the shale oil revolution and the handling of bigger containerships and tankers. Turkey goes from strength to strength as the second largest builder with 23 units, but the difference here is that all will probably be sold for export after starting out as builder’s account. Svitzer is the biggest customer and the sole builder is Sanmar, which holds an almost exclusive tug design portfolio with Robert Allan. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017




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TUGS | 13

TUG PROPULSION INNOVATION CUTS EMISSIONS Permanent magnet motors, hybrid energy generation and storage reduces the size and emissions from tug propulsion systems, says Martyn Wingrove

Veth has included a Visedo permanent magnet motor in an integrated L-Drive for workboats


ropulsion systems have become one of the most important aspects of tug design as owners need more power from their workboats for manoeuvring larger ships in confined spaces. With this in mind, new propulsion options have been developed that deliver greater power, better manoeuvrability and improved energy efficiency. Traditional propellers still have a role to play in tug design, construction and operations, but thrusters have become one of the main elements of many modern designs. With two or three thrusters, tugs are able to turn a full 360o in ever-more tight circles,

which is increasingly important for ship handling operations in harbours and terminals. Veth Propulsion has developed an integrated L-Drive compact and efficient electric propulsion device with a permanent magnet (PM) motor designed in collaboration with Visedo. The unit does not have geared transmission, meaning that it generates less noise, while the electronically-controlled drive and water-cooled PM also contribute to noise reduction, since there is no gear transmission in the tug. Veth told Marine Propulsion that the unit is designed for workboats and is available with nozzle or counter-rotating propellers delivering power ranging from 300 kW to 1,325 kW. The PM motor is 40-60% more compact than an asynchronous motor. This is integrated into the thruster and housed inside the vessel, making it much less vulnerable than if it were located under water. Veth has made adjustments to the control box and aligned the headset to improve the compact design further. These are important design requirements for workboats that have little spare capacity for equipment and shallow draughts, said Veth chief executive Erik Veth. “The minimal mounting height allows the thruster to be fitted below deck height, so that few vulnerable capital assets are underwater,” he said. Using a PM motor improves the propulsion unit’s efficiency, particular during part-load conditions when compared with an asynchronous motor. Mr Veth said they are 5.2% more efficient when the thruster is operating at 25% load. The design of the propeller, especially the shark tail on the counter-rotating propeller optimises the flow of water, improving the thruster performance further.

Hybrid propulsion

Wärtsilä has also developed new hybrid propulsion units. The Wärtsilä HY, as the concept is called, combines the engines, an energy storage unit and power electronics to drive propulsion thrusters on tugs. Wärtsilä said this product was a “benchmark in marine hybrid propulsion” because of the wide range of benefits to tug operators, such as increased operational efficiency and flexibility, lower fuel consumption, reduced emissions and improved vessel performance. It said some operations would not generate any emissions at all, depending on load points and operating mode.

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

14 | TUGS

Wärtsilä HY is a fully-integrated hybrid power module in a diesel-mechanical configuration

Another benefit is the reduction in engine maintenance required because of its fewer operating hours. Lloyd’s Register has issued an approval in principle certificate for the Wärtsilä HY, which has enabled Wärtsilä to deploy the first examples of these hybrid propulsion units on a tug under construction for harbour operations in the Mediterranean region. They will give this tug 80 tonnes of bollard pull and is likely to be deployed in an Italian port by its owner Rimorchiatori Riuniti. The hybrid propulsion contract was signed during the Nor-Shipping exhibition, near Oslo in Norway, at the end of May this year. Wärtsilä’s equipment is scheduled to be delivered during the second half of 2018 and the new tug is expected to be in service by the beginning of 2019. Rimorchiatori Riuniti group technical

VETH INTEGRATED L-DRIVE BENEFITS Compact design: extremely low mounting space requirements High efficiency Minimal noise production Low weight Outstanding manoeuvrability due to the 360o thrust Electric motor inside the ship means few vulnerable components underwater Simplified installation No need for a slip ring cabinet No gear transmission Optimal flow of water due to a shark tail on counter-rotating propeller

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

director Raffaello Corradi said the tug owner was focused on embracing advanced hybrid technology for its new tugs. He added “Wärtsilä HY will provide operational flexibility, added safety and environmental sustainability.” Specific operational features will be embedded in the control logic of Wärtsilä HY to enhance its safety and environmental performance when the tug is operating in waters adjacent to heavily populated areas. Wärtsilä HY will also feature an integrated energy optimisation system that has been designed for hybrid applications to improve reliability and predictability of the power generation.

Propulsion analysis

Rolls-Royce has also studied the use of hybrid propulsion systems and various motors for a notional stern-drive harbour tug with 60 tonnes of bollard pull. The studies considered various diesel-electric systems driving two US205FP azimuth thrusters. The analysis considered 1,460kW engines and two small (215 kWh) batteries, or 920kW engines supplemented by two 500 kWh batteries. The baseline involved two 1,920kW engines and a small auxiliary generator set covering hotel loads. These studies demonstrated that energy storage systems can significantly reduce emissions during most tug operations but will need to be combined with diesel-based power generation until the price and efficiency of batteries has fallen. Another conclusion was the efficiency of using PM motors and induction motors with batteries was similar at full loads. However, the PM motor maintains high efficiency down to very low loads whereas an induction motor’s efficiency drops away. Therefore, a PM solution can save on battery capacity as tugs only need small amounts of time at their maximum load rating. MP


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TUGS | 17

Tug industry has faith in hybrid solutions Hybrid propulsion with energy storage will be a winning technology for tugs in the future, according to delegates at Riviera’s inaugural Asian Tug Technology and & Salvage Conference in Singapore in September. Responding to an exclusive poll commissioned by class society Bureau Veritas, 54% saw hybrid propulsion with energy storage systems as the technology or innovation likely to have the greatest positive impact on operations. High performance tugs with multiple thrusters along the tug length attracted 24% of the vote, while unmanned tugs drew 14% and gas as fuel – whether LNG or CNG – trailed with 8%. A more emphatic vote of confidence was delivered in a follow-up poll where 89% of delegates stated they saw the future as being hybrid and electric propulsion led. Perhaps surprising is that the 7% who voted for nuclear eclipsed the 2% who opted for diesel mechanical. The key barriers to quicker uptake of hybrid and electric propulsion were seen as ‘industry mindset and willingness to adopt a new technology’. Complexity and cost were also cited. Nonetheless, the poll results are a timely boost for Wärtsilä, which unveiled its Wärtsilä HYTug series at the conference. Wärtsilä Marine Solutions’ naval architect Ay Hwa Ngoh gave a detailed presentation which emphasised that the new series can be powered either by a diesel-mechanical hybrid combination or diesel-electric hybrid propulsion and the designs cover a 4090-tonne bollard pull range. Reflecting on the poll results, Mr Ngoh said it was a powerful vindication of Wärtsilä’s belief that new tugs will increasingly rely on battery technologies and hybrid propulsion. “We will take encouragement [from the result] to work on new technologies and to bring [further] solutions to the market that reduce fuel consumption and environmental impact,” he said.

Wärtsilä unveils hybrid tug designs at Riviera event

Ay Hwa Ngoh (Wärtsilä): “We will take encouragement [from the result] to work on new technologies”

Wärtsilä used the conference to launch a new portfolio of hybrid propulsion tug designs. The Wärtsilä HY Tug series feature battery technology, along with diesel engines for harbour towage and escort operations. A hybrid propulsion solution forms the basis of the new designs. There is a design for a 28 m harbour tug with 50 tonnes of bollard pull. The Wärtsilä HY Tug 75 HT tug is a 29.5 m harbour tug with 75

tonnes of bollard pull. A third design is of a 35 m escort tug with 75 tonnes of bollard pull. Wärtsilä said these designs come with the option for operators to select either diesel-mechanical hybrid or diesel-electric hybrid propulsion. They can be adjusted to offer bollard pulls in the range of 40 to 90 tonnes. Energy storage technology enables the total installed main engine power to be less than with conventional designs. Using less engine power decreases exhaust emission levels and the environmental impact of a tug. It also reduces the fuel bill and lessens the amount of engine maintenance needed. Wärtsilä said the designs were optimised for low hull resistance, high towing and escort performance, seakeeping, crew safety and comfort. They are designed with thrusters from the Wärtsilä WST series, featuring large propeller diameters for efficient and high performance propulsion.

Are autonomous tugs automatically a good thing?

Dave Wisse (SMIT Salvage): "humans can make mistakes"

A major talking point at the conference was the advance of autonomous and pilotless tugs. SMIT Salvage contract manager Dave Wisse pointed out that autonomous ships are still operated by humans, albeit from shore… “and humans can make mistakes. These vessels will of course sail in heavy weather and in busy traffic lanes, and will of course have to reckon on other vessels too.” He acknowledged that an accident involving an autonomous vessel “could be

more difficult from a salvage perspective. The crew has, in a way, already evacuated meaning you cannot liaise with anybody on board which might be more challenging.” However, he added that this was not insurmountable. Referencing the case study on the salvage of Modern Express which he presented at the conference, he pointed out that “Smit has been able to save a vessel when there was no crew on board.” Others saw advantages in unmanned tugs when engaged in safety operations, including

fire-fighting operations. Ultimately the issue might not be technical or economic, but regulatory. Bureau Veritas’ market segment director offshore service vessels and tugs Gijsbert De Jong said the class society was having fruitful discussions with flag states when it came to unmanned vessels engaged in local operations. “On international voyages, we are having interesting discussions with legal representatives on how we are going to have to adapt international legislation.” MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


Belgian builder a model of diversification Anglo-Belgian Corporation is having to respond to a tough market with flexibility and diversification, according to Jamey Bergmann


ith a more than 100-year-old history firmly entwined with diesel engine development and relatively small market footprint, Anglo Belgian Corp (ABC) could all-too-easily be seen as an overlooked sibling among Europe’s highly competitive family of diesel engine manufacturing firms. However, as the company makes very clear during Marine Propulsion's visit in September, ABC as a company showcases two industry buzzwords – diversification and adaptability – as the guiding forces that have kept ABC ticking over quite well during tough economic times fir the marine industry. Marine Propulsion reported earlier this year on the company’s solid growth in 2016, and during the follow-up meeting at the group’s relatively new (opened mid-2016) 2,800 m 2 production facility, ABC’s technical director Lieven Vervaeke made it clear that 2017’s order book has been filled and that he was reasonably happy with the

way 2018’s order book was shaping up. “The main thing is that we diversified from the start,” Mr Vervaeke said. “In the marine sector, it’s not so good. It’s struggling for each order. It’s very tough times. But on the other hand, we’re developing [the ability to] offer different solutions to our customers.” “We have generator sets, we have railroads and then we have mobile cranes, or let’s say diverse applications At the moment we also have a lot of work for the nuclear power plants. Right now, we are making 38 emergency gensets. Walking around, you’ll see a lot of blue gensets. They’re all for EDF. So that’s very convenient, particularly while there’s not so much work in the marine business.” Marine Propulsion's article earlier this year concentrated on ABC's latest DL36 range of engines and Mr Vervaeke confirmed that the new range had expanded the company’s ability to serve different vessel types. Despite this expansion, he nonetheless made it clear that the EDF emergency generator contract remained the company’s recent focal point and

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

evidence of ABC’s responsive, adaptive capabilities. “The DL has reached its goal. It’s clearly expanded our power range,” he said. “And we are even starting on the V, which will go to 210 MW and more. In the meantime we also had a very big contract for EDF, which took more time than was foreseen. And again, it proves that we adapt the company according to the customer needs.” Offering further proof of adaptability and responsiveness, Mr Vervaeke addressed the company’s approach to preparing customers for the upcoming IMO Tier III requirements. He said “The question is: what are the solutions? “In general, there are three solutions: You have dual-fuel applications, you have diesel or marine fuels with EGR and you have also marine fuels with SCR

systems. We can say we have all three in our portfolio.” Mr Vervaeke said “We have dual-fuel engines running at the moment, plus projects are starting up, like the dredger Minerva. With the DL, we have started testing using diesel only and we have our certificate for EGR for IMO Tier III. We are now working on the SCR system. And for the DZ system, we have that one already available in dual fuel and with SCR.” Ultimately, Mr Vervaeke said determining the proper solution was up to the individual customer, and that the company strategy was to be prepared to deliver all possible options that are on the table. “We’re trying always to be flexible and to follow the customers in their demands. So, in this way, we develop with the customer and we try to see where we have to head to.” MP

Inside the ABC production facility, a crane lifts a 1.5-tonne ‘V’ engine block

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Spanish specialist breaks new ground The delivery of state-of-the-art LNG-fuelled tugs is the latest success for Astilleros Gondán


n more than 85 years of being in business, Gondán Shipbuilders has built more than 300 vessels of very different specifications for a variety of countries. It has three facilities located in the town of Castropol (Asturias, Spain), while the main shipyard is located in the port of Figueras, with a steel-cutting workshop and large equipment warehouse based in nearby Barres Industrial Park. Altogether, its facilities cover an area of 43,000 m² and have the capacity to process 3,000 tonnes of steel a year. On its premises in Castropol it has a 3,000 m², 14.5 m high industrial plant situated on a 5,000 m² lot. Production at this plant is focused on building passenger vessels and workboats (patrol boats, pilot boats, port service vessels, fishing boats, etc.), made of resins and fibreglass and work catamarans made of GRP, with no technical limitations, up to 34m in length. This facility includes an area that is isolated from the rest of the facility equipped with two heating systems to regulate

temperature and humidity; a radiant floor heating system for the lower part of the building and a hot air system for above. It also has a dual styrene fume and dust extraction system and is equipped with resin sprayers and a vacuum pump for laminating by vacuum infusion. Despite being a relatively new division, this is staffed by professionals with extensive experience in both ship design and production as well as in the construction of models and moulds. This, the company claims, is how its extremely light, yet sturdy boats built with state-of-the-art materials are able to meet the highest in quality standards. GRP Division and its facilities are included in the three certifications – ISO-9001, ISO-14001 and OSHAS-18001 – which the company holds for the construction of steel, fibreglass and aluminum vessels. One of the company’s most recent triumphs began when Østensjø Rederi selected Astilleros Gondán to build the three dual-fuel LNG terminal escort tugs. Construction commenced in the fourth quarter of 2015.

In August, after completing its sea trials programme successfully, AUDAX, the third dual fueltug ever builtin Europe, has been delivered. The first tug of this kind built in Europe, DUX, was delivered by the company inMay, and the second one, PAX, was delivered in July. Designed by the renowned Canadian company Robert Allan Ltd, these state-ofthe-art vessels, with 40.2 m length and 16 m beam, will provide tug services to Norwegian state-owned energy company Statoil, at the far-north terminal located at Melkøya under severe weather conditions. Built to withstand harsh environments, the vessels are shaped specifically to grant full operational availability at temperatures of -20oC and combine environmental sustainability through the use of LNG in most of their operations – complying therefore with IMO Tier III emissions standards – with the flexibility of diesel power to ensure a high level of operational security. Dux, Pax and Audax have a free running speed of 15 knots and are capable of remarkable direct and indirect towing performance, providing exceptionally high direct pull and escort forces: 107-tonne bollard pull and 167-tonne steering force, both class approved by Bureau Veritas The vessels are outfitted to comfortably accommodate a crew of eight people. The extraordinary behaviour regarding noise and vibration isolation can serve as example, achieving noise levels as low as 45 dB in the crew’s cabins. Among their duties, the vessels will conduct approximately 300 LNG ship escorts annually, will assist with berthing operations and will be maintained in readiness for emergency services such as long line towing, fire-fighting, and oil spill response. MP

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The MAN 45/60 CR offers significant improvements in fuel consumption over its predecessor


four-stroke hits new heights A new engine launch by MAN is inevitably big news, so the unveiling of a flagship designed to start a whole new family is even bigger


s Marine Propulsion waited for the official announcement of MAN Diesel & Turbo’s latest four-stroke engine in Augsburg, Germany, it was clear that a theme was developing. The motif on the floor was that of a chessboard, while giant chess pieces adorned the various squares. Meanwhile the accompanying

signage bellowed ‘MAKE YOUR MOVE NOW!’ Eventually, all became clear: this new launch, the company believes, is ‘The Game Changer’. The launch in question was the MAN 45/60CR, billed as the successor to MAN’s 48/60CR engine in the company’s 4X line of highperformance diesel engines. This will initially be available

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

as 12V and 14V versions that boast power outputs of 15,600 and 18,200 kW respectively, with inline versions following at a later stage. For land-based power generation applications, MAN has developed the maximum power version, the 20V45/60 with 26 MW. Compared with its predecessor, the new engine offers a specific fuel oil consumption (SFOC)

reduction from 173 to 166 g/kWh, while providing a power increase from 1,200 to 1,300 kW per cylinder. Alexander Koerber, product manager for the new engine, said this represents a gain in efficiency of 4-6% over its predecessor in marine applications. The ‘game-changing’ aspect of the new vessel, though, lies in its fuel consumption, which D Sokrates Tolgos, MAN’s


head of sales for cruise and ferry, described as setting “new standards in efficiency” and delivering “the highest power output in its class.” In fact, continuing the game-changing theme (albeit perhaps unwittingly) Mr Tolgos said of the new engine while speaking to Marine Propulsion “The 45/60CR offers a unique competitive advantage in that when it comes to SFOC, it is without competition. This engine is playing in a new league and – for the time being – it is playing entirely on its own.” Mr Tolgos’ job title is significant because this engine is aimed primarily at the cruise market, with ferries, dredgers and ropax and roro vessels also targeted. He said “The focus is mainly on the cruise sector, which is why it makes sense for us to launch now. Most of the cruise yards are full and we are already talking with companies about projects that will be delivered in 2021 and 2022.” The fuel consumption of the new engine is clearly a significant factor in its attraction for the environmentally, cost- and publicity-conscious cruise sector. Clearly, the company is making big claims for the new engine’s prowess in this regard, and the figures would appear to back them up. MAN’s figures show that, based on a representative load profile of a cruise vessel (between 50% and 85%), a ship operating with a 45/60CR engine would enjoy a fuel-oil cost benefit of as much as 5-12% in comparison with a vessel powered by a competitor engine. For a cruise vessel of around 120,000-150,000 gt, with 60-65 MW of installed power (and an assumed fuel price of US$591/tonne), this translates into annual savings of between US$1M and US$2.8M per year (calculated at 4,500 hrs). By aiming at the cruise sector, MAN is essentially

backing the current cruising boom to continue for the forseeable future. When questioned on this, Mr Tolgos told Marine Propulsion “The cruise sector is ideal for this engine. They need high efficiency and low consumption, and we can deliver that.” He confirmed that MAN believes that the cruise boom would largely be driven by the growing Asian market. Given this concentration on the cruise sector, it seemed somewhat anomalous that the engine is currently only available in a diesel version. But given that the sectors in question are increasingly moving to LNG and alternative power sources, is this the time to be launching a diesel engine aimed at these sectors? In answer, Mr Tolgos said “There will be a dual-fuel version of this engine, but I cannot give a timeframe.” Speaking to Marine Propulsion at the launch, Mr Tolgos said he did not believe that the launch of a purely diesel engine to the environmentally conscious cruise market would prove problematic given the efficiencies available. “LNG is not a magic solution,” he said. “It is still a fossil fuel, after all.” Mr Tolgos continued “This was always designed to be a family of engines. However, evaluations suggest that by 2030, 80% of engines will still be oil-based and we cannot afford to put all our eggs in one basket.” Speaking to Marine Propulsion, launch attendee Jens Kohlmann, vice president for asset management at Carnival, appeared to confirm that the current lack of a dualfuel option was not particularly problematic as far as his company was concerned. “We are certain that there will be a dual-fuel version of the engine available when we need it, so we are not worried,” he said. The fuel savings are

MAN 45/60CR specifications Bore 450 mm Stroke 600 mm Cylinder configuration 6-10 inline (L); 12-20 V Power output per cylinder 1,300 kW Speed 600 rpm Power range 7,800-18,200 kW BMEP 27.2 bar Specific fuel oil consumption L: 167 g/kWh; V:166 g/kWh

Snapshot CV

Sokrates Tolgos

MAN’s head of sales for cruise and ferry Mr Tolgos started his professional career at BMW Rolls-Royce AeroEngines as an R&D engineer in gasturbine aerodynamics. From 1998 he worked with the Sulzer Group as a contract manager for industrial turbomachinery projects and as a marine sales engineer. In 2003 he joined MAN B&W Diesel AG (today MAN Diesel & Turbo SE).

achieved by a number of factors in the engine’s design. MAN product development manager Alexander Koerber explained: “The new engine is the same size as the 48/60CR, but with hugely improved SFOC. How did we achieve that? By starting from scratch with this engine and using state-of-theart technologies.” The first of these technologies to come under scrutiny was MAN’s common rail injection system, which was updated and adapted to the specific needs of the engine, and optimised using a new version of MAN’s mapping software, ECOMAP. This gives operators the flexibility to run an engine following different SFOC power characteristics, facilitating optimal efficiency at different load points. Mr Koerber stated “We did not really change the common rail system, we just optimised it and adjusted it for the higher engine speed. The benefits of common rail technology are that you always have an optimum relationship between flame temperature and emissions, and you can control the timing and rate of injection.” Another key technology in the achievement of this low SFOC was two-stage turbocharging. Mr Koerber explained “Two-stage turbocharging draws more energy from the exhaust gas as you’re using the energy twice. Also, two-stage turbochargers can be optimised in terms of adjusting for higher pressure ratios, meaning greater efficiency.” But despite the turbocharging being two-stage, load pick-up behaviour is the same as for the single-stage turbocharged 48/60CR engine. This means operators profit from maximised peak pressure and optimal utilisation of the Miller cycle. Simulation was used extensively in the development of the engine. A complete simulation was made of

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017





TUMO (Turbocharger Module)


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the entire engine, while combustion itself was optimised by simulating the process in computational fluid dynamics. In addition, finite elements analysis was used to optimise the engine’s mechanical strength and vibration behaviour. MAN then put the power unit to the test on the world’s largest four-stroke, single-cylinder test engine and started the experimental optimisation and validation phase. The modular design and relatively small footprint for its power means that the engine is able to simplify installation and allow for a smaller engineroom. That said, the 12V version comes in at seven tonnes heavier than the comparable 48/60CR. Mr Koerber notes that the extra weight is due to reinforcements to the engine base, and the addition of the two-stage turbocharger. The 45/60CR features MAN’s latest release of its proprietary engine-control system. SaCoS 5000 represents

“With the introduction of SaCoS 5000, we take a first step into that digital future.”

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

a comprehensive upgrade and expansion of the original system’s capabilities. The development of SaCoS 5000 is a response to the increasing complexity and exponential growth in functionality of modern engines. The main benefit of SaCoS 5000 is its functionoriented architecture that makes it ultra-flexible and enables more bespoke solutions. This means that MAN can add different options to a standard system for the individual customer, such as cylinder-pressure measurements, crankcase monitoring and injectionsystem leakage monitoring. Furthermore, the new system is capable of handling complex functions that demand a lot of control and calculation resources. Such functions include cylinder balancing and the company’s own ECOMAP function, which grants operators the flexibility to run an engine following different SFOC

power characteristics. This facilitates optimal efficiency at different load points. The new SaCoS lays the foundation for the next generation of MAN Diesel & Turbo’s digital products. Chief digital officer Audi Lucas explained: “SaCoS 5000 is a key element of our digitisation strategy and enables a new line of digital solutions that will be available from 2018 on.” He continued “This will offer distinct benefits to our customers. Those solutions will feature a new and modern security design, with both active and passive defenses, while continuous upgrades will ensure that the system evolves as needs change. They will also allow hybrid local and cloud-based analytics across a customer’s fleet and a completely new and revolutionary way to exchange data in real time with all partners necessary. With the introduction of SaCoS 5000, we take a first step into that digital future.” MP

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WinGD launches data collection and monitoring platform


n mid-2017, WinGD signed an agreement with Polish marine automation, navigation and communication specialist Enamor that formalised an existing collaboration covering the development of sophisticated data collection and monitoring (DCM) platform for engines and associated onboard systems. The collaboration has now borne fruit with the first version of the new DCM hardware with monitoring software being ready for commercial applications. Among its features, the platform is closely tailored to operating with WinGD’s engine and ship-specific software, including the advanced diagnostic software WinGD is developing with Propulsion Analytics of Piraeus, Greece, as announced in January this year. “The collaboration with Enamor is the next step in our plan to lead innovation in the field of shipping digitalisation”, said Dominik Schneiter, vice president of research & development at WinGD. “The DCM platform will provide engine owners and operators with an advanced tool aboard ships that collects, stores, visualises and post-processes all engine data, as well as relevant ship information and other machinery data. This comprehensive fund of data will be the foundation of our digital solution portfolio, enabling value-adding analyses and remote support. It is the starting point of a game-changing product that will provide optimum customer value.” Complementing its basic computing functions, the DCM platform will also enable the reliable and secure transmission of data from ship-to-shore via encrypted communication. Ashore, the data can be analysed by the shipowner and WinGD to enhance engine and vessel operation, as well as providing a valuable input to further product and service development. As a result, part of the WinGD-Enamor collaboration will centre on both on-board and on-shore machinery data storage and internet access to the data. “The WinGD DCM platform is the gateway to engine, ship and ship machinery data, creating an IoT (Internet of Things) network with most of the analytics done on the

Remote data collecting and monitoring (DCM) is key to WinGD’s digital strategy

edge, i.e. on the vessel,” Mr Schneiter added. He continued “This platform will allow us to fully leverage the capabilities of the WinGD Engine Diagnostic System (EDS) developed with Propulsion Analytics and provide maximum benefits for our customers." The combination of EDS and DCM, enables WinGD to offer not only insights into operational parameters of vessel, main engine and other vital ship systems but also analytical tools for the ship’s crew and personnel ashore. “It will also offer WinGD as an engine developer, key insights – of the sort that have not been available thus far – for the further improvement of our products and services,” said Mr Schneiter.

J-Eng wins roro order for 6UEC45LSE-C1 engine Japan Engine Corporation ( J-ENG) has received its first order for a 6UEC45LSE-C1 engine. It will be installed in a roro vessel, which will be built at Kanda Shipbuilding. Japan Engine Corporation ( J-ENG) is the former Kobe

Diesel. which changed its corporate name earlier this year following its acquisition of the marine engine business of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Marine Machinery division. The UEC45LSE engine type has been under development

since 2004, backed by extensive market research, and is aimed at the roro vessel, handy-sized bulker and small chemical tanker market segments. With features being continuously upgraded in response to customer feedback,

more than 250 UEC45LSE engines have been built. The newly ordered UEC45LSE-C1 engine has a higher cylinder pressure and output than its predecessor, the latest UEC45LSE-B2 type engine. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


MAN moves point to gas-fuelled future


AN Diesel & Turbo has given the cause of gas-fuelled engines a major boost following its conversion of a container ship and subsequent pledge to provide a €2M (US$2.3M) discount to convert 10 HFO engines into gas engines. Speaking at the Ocean 2017 Conference in Malta, MAN’s chief sales officer Wayne Jones said “We clearly recognise that our interests are best served by ensuring that the world’s oceans remain in robust, good health. MAN believes that it is time for what we call a ‘Maritime Energy Transition’ to find clean solutions for seaborne trade and transportation.” Mr Jones concluded “Just recently, my company set a new benchmark with the world’s first conversion of a container ship from conventional fuel to gas operation. In order to encourage more shipowners to follow this example, MAN is pledging a €2M discount for ten such LNG retrofits to convert existing HFO engines into modern, clean, efficient gas engines.” The term ‘Maritime Energy Transition’ stems from the German expression ‘Energiewende’ and encapsulates MAN’s call to action to reduce emissions and establish natural gas as the fuel of choice in global shipping. It promotes a global ‘turn to gas’ driven by IMO and a common approach of the

The completion of the first conversion of a container ship to dual fuel and a pledge to discount further such products suggests MAN may see gas as the future

The Wes Amelie is the first container ship to have been converted to dualfuel operation

shipping industry and politics to invest in infrastructure development and retrofits. As Mr Jones mentioned, this move followed the first successful conversion of a container ship, Wes Amelie, to dual-fuel operation. This project involved retrofitting the 1,036 TEU feeder ship’s MAN 8L48/60B main engine to a multi-fuel, four-stroke MAN 51/60DF unit that enables dual-fuel operation – the first such conversion of its type the world has ever seen. Wessels Reederei general manager Christian Hoepfner said “Wes Amelie operates in the highly regulated Nordic and Baltic Seas. Since they are both within emission control areas, the

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

ship needs to meet the highest environmental standards and strictest limits for emissions. By converting to a low emission fuel, we are safeguarding the future of this container ship as well as our own competitiveness in the market.” Head of MAN PrimeServ in Augsburg, Stefan Eefting also said “We are very happy to have successfully completed this project with the great co-operation of our partner, Wessels Reederei. In doing so, we trust that the dramatic reduction in emissions will mark the beginning of a trend towards the adoption of LNG as an environmentally friendly fuel within the maritime sector.” “By providing customers

with the technology to retrofit their existing fleet, we are driving what we call the maritime energy transition,” added MAN Diesel & Turbo chief executive Dr Uwe Lauber. “There are roughly 40,000 cargo vessels in operation worldwide. If we are serious about decarbonisation and want the shipping industry to be climate neutral by 2050, we need to take action today.” The dual-fuel conversion has enabled Wes Amelie to significantly reduce its SOx emissions by more than 99%, NOx by approximately 90%, and CO2 by up to 20%. The vessel now meets both the Tier II and Tier III emission requirements set by IMO. Works were carried out at German Dry Docks in Bremerhaven in co-operation with gas-specialist, TGE Marine Engineering, who provided tank and LNG components. Bureau Veritas, the international classification society based in France, classed the conversion. Wessels and MAN Diesel & Turbo originally signed the retrofit contract at the Europort exhibition for maritime technology in November 2015. Wes Amelie has already re-entered service on its usual route between the North and Baltic Seas. MP



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RAPID ADVANCES IN HIGH-SPEED SECTOR A crowded and competitive high-speed engine market is serving to trigger innovation


he need to adapt and improve technologically across a range of highly competitive sectors is very much driving development in high-speed engines. Manufacturers are seeking to break new ground to gain additional market share sometimes even moving into areas traditionally dominated by medium-speed engines. For instance, 2018 will see several adaptations to Cat’s C32 series. The current C32 is equipped with an integrated after-treatment system (SCR) developed by Caterpillar. This is a catalyst that ensures that the emissions, as now stated in IMO Tier lll, can be achieved throughout the engine's lifetime. The required aftertreatment system is available in different configurations, in U-Flow and Z-Flow. The system shares many components with the larger 3500E series, but has only half the filter blocks. The 2018 version of the C32 is distinguished by a new design of the air filters with optional integrated ventilation. In the cooling water system, the hoses are replaced with hard cooling water pipes, resulting in lower maintenance costs. To make the engine more compact, the

expansion tank on the engine will contract. Additionally, the use of a ‘cylinder cutoff strategy’ is notable: this strategy turns off cylinders to prevent low temperatures in the engine, preventing engine contamination and prolonging the life of the catalyst. It also causes less visible smoke. The engine also uses total fluid optimalisation: optimal fuel and urea injection by smart software. This precise alignment ensures that the emissions always fall within the norm at minimal cost. Twin Cat C32 engines were recently supplied to Mainprize Offshore’s new MO4 vessel, which is currently providing vital support to a network of Germany’s offshore wind farms. The MO4 is the latest in an ever-expanding fleet of windfarm support vessels for Mainprize Offshore, which required a reliable engine propulsion solution to carry cargo, equipment and crew. The engines drive fixed pitch propellers, providing a service speed of 26 knots for the MO4, even when fully loaded. Mainprize Offshore needed a solution that would hold the vessel in position when docking, offering good manoeuvrability and steady performance when a change in propulsion direction is required.

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

The latest C32 is equipped with an integrated after-treatment system (SCR) developed by Caterpillar

The marine version of Cummins’ QSK95 engine, which was launched in April 2016, is now starting to see service


The marine version of Cummins’ QSK95 engine, meanwhile, which was launched in April 2016, is starting to see service following the recent delivery of Seacor’s latest CrewZer Class-DP2 high-speed catamarans, the Seacor Puma and Seacor Panther. With four 2,983 kW engines, the Seacor Puma will have significantly more horsepower than its predecessors. This horsepower will be delivered by four of Cummins Marine’s newest marine engine. The QSK95 marine engines operate at 1,700 rpm. Each 95-litre engine is matched to an MGX-62500SC-H marine transmission supplied by Twin Disc and quad HT-810 water jets from Hamilton Jet, to achieve a maximum speed of 40 knots. Compared with mediumspeed engines offering similar power output, the QSK95 offers the benefits of a

smaller size, a lower weight and better transient response while delivering a new level of serviceability. With IMO Tier II certified ratings from 2,386 kW to 3,132 kW, the QSK95 provides 95 litres of displacement in a 78-litre package. Nested cylinders and a 60° V enable a short, narrow engine block relative to other engines of comparable displacement. In addition, the QSK95 weighs just over 13,000 kg. This is between 25% and 70% less than medium-speed platforms of similar power output. For better vessel manoeuvrability, the QSK95 delivers faster transient response through a unique turbo arrangement and a dry exhaust system. By using one turbo for every four cylinders, the QSK95 is able to can make use of a smaller turbocharger. The dry turbo housings and dry exhaust manifold maximise the available energy to the

turbos, allowing them to spool up quickly, resulting in fast engine response. Among its key features is the modular common rail system injectors, which offers cleaner, more fuel efficient combustion through precise control of fuel injection and timing with its electronic management system. The engine is aimed at vessels with high transient power requirements such as tugs, offshore support vessels, ferries and workboats. “These engines afford us additional horsepower over the previous catamarans propulsion machinery,” said Seacor’s project manager Joe McCall. He went on to explain that the mission of these vessels “will be the same as the previous catamarans, to deliver time-sensitive cargoes and passengers at greater speeds than a typical crewboat. Additionally, the seakeeping qualities afforded by the twin

The MAN 175D has received type approval from all the main class societies

hulls ensure that the passengers will have a very fast and comfortable ride.” MAN’s most recent highspeed product, the 175D series, has seen some firsts of late. In May, the engine received type approval from the main class societies. Testing took place in Frederikshavn in front of representatives from ABS, Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia, Bureau Veritas, China Classification Society, DNV GL, the Korean Register, Lloyd’s Register, ClassNK, RINA and the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping. The serial approval follows a string of commercial orders last year, in diverse applications both as main propulsion engine and genset. The engine is available with an output ranging from 1,500 kW to 2,200 kW, and is optimised for propelling ferries, offshore supply vessels, tugs and workboats. In fact, though, the engine recently expanded from this range of vessels to achieve a first by becoming a fully qualified and referenced product for the defence market following the delivery of four MAN 12V175D gensets. MAN Diesel & Turbo head of four-stroke marine Lex Nijsen said “The MAN 175D is compact, reliable and efficient – properties that are of essential importance for use on working vessels to allow safe manoeuvrability in the most challenging and rough weather conditions. Our long-term aim for this engine is to make it the most efficient engine we’ve ever had throughout its lifetime.” Also achieving a first with its high-speed engines is Rolls-Royce, which in August signed a contract with Sanmar Shipyards for the delivery of eight MTU Series 4000 engines for four new terminal tugs, including an option for a further four engines. The tugs will each

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


be fitted with two 16V 4000 M73L MTU engines, each delivering an output of 2,700 kW (at 1,850 rpm). This will be the first time that harbour tugs with 90-tonne bollard pull will be powered by highspeed diesel engines. MTU head of the marine and government business Knut Müller said “To date, it has only been possible to use medium-speed engines for harbour tugs with a bollard pull of over 85 tonnes.” The speed of the engine has been reduced to 1,850 rpm specifically for this application to provide the shipyards with direct control of the propeller without an intermediate gearbox. MTU and Sanmar have signed an additional contract for the delivery of four 16V 4000 M63 engines, each delivering 2,000 kW of power for two tugs with a 70-tonne bollard pull. These new contracts bring the number

of tugs built by Sanmar and fitted with MTU engines to 16. Half of the tug types currently available from Sanmar Shipyards are fitted with MTU engines.

Rolls-Royce signed a contract with Sanmar Shipyards for the delivery of eight MTU Series 4000 engines for four new terminal tugs

Innovative propulsion system scalable to wide range of vessel Caterpillar Marine is developing a proprietary propulsion system for marine applications that will be suitable for a range of vessels. The Cat Marine advanced variable drive (AVD) is a patented system that leverages Caterpillar’s extensive experience with heavy-duty continuously variable transmission (CVT) technology, advanced controls and power-system integration knowledge. In a joint development,Caterpillar's innovation and technology development division (ITDD) is working on what it describes as a

The CAT AVD is scalable to meet requirements of a wide range of vessel types

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

“cross-functional effortto develop and validate a fully integrated marine propulsion system, from bridge interfacetopropellers.” “Thanks to the flexibility enabled by the innovative Caterpillar AVD technology, the speed of the vessel’s engines can be modulated and optimised independently from the speed of the fixed pitch propellers,” said Igor Strashny, Caterpillar ITDD engineering manager with responsibility for the concept. “The speed of the propellers can be varied continuously throughout their full speed range. In addition, the power of the main and auxiliary engines can be channelled independently or jointly to propel the vessel. These features provide superior vessel performance and manoeuvrability while facilitating significant improvements in fuel and operational efficiency,” he explained. Mr Strashny described the Caterpillar AVD as “a cost-effective and fully integrated hybrid propulsion solution that reduces maintenance costs and has conventional service requirements. The system is scalable to meet the requirements of a wide range of vessel types, applications, and power levels, and enables effective downsizing of engines without the loss of performance.” Caterpillar Marine product definition engineer Nathan Kelly told Marine Propulsion “We are planning to introduce the new concept for tugs first in 2018, but the technology will be applicable to other markets as well in the future.” MP




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Practicalities and power drive thruster design


nnovation has been plentiful in the thruster market, with manufacturers balancing the need for power with increased energy efficiency, compactness and ease of installation. One new product this year has been the 5.5 MW SRP 800 U underwater mountable thruster from Schottel. With this latest model, calculations for increasing the power went hand-in-hand with developments for greater installation flexibility and higher safety considerations. As it can be installed afloat, the new thruster is ideal for vessels that cannot be docked easily due to their size or area of operation. Besides application in larger offshore vessels or rigs, the new thruster targets cable-laying vessels, offshore construction vessels and crane ships. The SRP 800 U has been optimised with retrofitting as a core market concept. The design of the interface corresponds

The need for increased efficiency, ease of installation and compactness are the dominant themes in thruster development

to that of models commonly available on the market, making it ideal both for new installation and as a replacement unit. Using a three-way roller bearing as the slewing ring, it was possible to reduce the required installation space and increase the compactness of the drive. Furthermore, the number and size of the protective caps was minimised for underwater installation.

In addition to the standard version with a 90o gearbox, Schottel offers a variant with a propeller shaft inclined by 8o. This reduces detrimental effects on the thrust of adjacent drives and interaction with the hull. In terms of flow characteristics, the azimuthing SRP 800 U adapts itself optimally to its area of operation, be it as a main propulsion unit in a drill ship or construction vessel, or as a positioning aid in a semi-submersible rig. The optimal flow contour was the result of CFD calculations as well as cavitation and manoeuvring trials at SVA Potsdam, Germany. Freedom from cavitation has been demonstrated at speeds of up to 16 knots. Another innovation now available on Schottel’s thrusters is its ProAnode corrosion protection. Schottel’s core idea was to remove the anodes from the outside surface of the nozzle, where

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


they are prone to being knocked off by flotsam such as wood or ice, or even by slight ground contact. Loss of the anodes is usually only discovered during maintenance downtime, by which time corrosion might have become a problem. Plus, depending on the nozzle’s diameter and the anode’s material, anodes offering up to five years' cathodic protection against corrosion can be integrated into the nozzle. This enables a reduction of additional anodes for the hull or other thruster parts. The anodes’ new position in the tail of the nozzle both protects them from damage and improves performance because it contributes to the optimal hydrodynamic flow of the nozzle. Its smooth overall surface reduces flow interference, resulting in lower fuel consumption and pays off in terms of reduced operating costs. Finnish company Steerprop unveiled its CRP ECO LM propulsor in June this year. Featuring permanent magnet (PM) technology from The Switch, the lightweight, compact unit is designed to offer a combination of efficiency, power, easy installation and maintenance, as well as reduced lifetime costs. Installation, retrofit and maintenance are eased by the use of a vertical PM motor. This allows the propulsor to sit inside a vessel hull, simplifying these processes. When the motor is placed on top of the thruster, the unit size can be more compact, increasing efficiency without compromising on hydrodynamics

and lowering operational costs. The Switch is using its proven technology to enhance performance in marine applications. The PM machine, currently in serial production, has a solid track record of operating in the world’s largest wind turbines in rough offshore conditions. Due to the propulsor being especially suited to harsh environment operation and the demands of ice breaking, the thruster has received the highest ice classification.

The Steerprop LM propulsor uses a vertical PM motor

It is robust and, due to its lightly loaded CRPs, offers lower noise and vibrations, enhancing levels of comfort on board. Dutch manufacturer Veth Propulsion, on the other hand, chose to address the size of its thrusters relative to power, and has produced what it asserts is the most compact thruster ever. It incorporates several design innovations to cut height dramatically and offer significant space savings. The company has slashed the height of its 500 kW Veth Integrated L-drive thruster by 80% compared with traditional thrusters of the same power, from 2.4 m to 0.4 m. The space has been saved due to some novel design features in the mounting, alignment of headsets and control box, and the installation of a patent-pending PM motor design built by electric drive specialist Visedo. The use of PM rather than asynchronous electric motors also means that they will be more efficient, particularly at lower loads. The thruster is available with nozzle or counter-rotating propellers. A patented, asymmetrical ‘shark tail’ used for the counter-rotating propellers has been optimised in co-operation with propeller specialist Promarin. Combined with flow caps fixed around the thruster fairing plates, the shark tail minimises resistance The 500 kW version will have its debut installation on a fish delousing vessel being built by Damen for Norwegian operator Remoy Management, for delivery next year.

ABB breaks new ground with Azipod ABB is to provide Azipod propulsion to a cruise ferry for the first time with the installation of a system for a new Viking Line vessel to be built in China. The crusie ferry, which is to be built by Xiamen Shipbuilding Industry, is scheduled for delivery in 2020. The 13-deck, 63,000 gt vessel will have a passenger capacity of 2,800. It will connect the Finnish port of Turku, the Åland Islands, and Stockholm, Sweden. Azipod electrical propulsion is especially suited to the high efficiency and fast turnaround required to navigate the archipelago between Finland and Sweden. Like its high-profile, European-built predecessor Viking Grace, the new cruise ferry will feature LNG engines. But while the earlier Viking Line ship includes conventional shaftline propulsion technology, the latest contract calls for the first installation in a cruise-ferry application of twin XO 2100-type Azipod propulsion. Azipod XO units are the propulsion solution of choice in the cruise ship market. Like all Azipod propulsion units, the XO-type features

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

intelligent control systems and advanced condition monitoring, and is designed for optimised energy efficiency and maintainability. The ship will draw on ABB’s experience in providing Azipod propulsion systems for ships operating in ice conditions, with the Azipod XO units designed to match the ship’s ice class 1A Super notation. “Our expectations for this vessel is that it will be the most efficient cruise ferry operating in the Baltic, if not the world. Our choice of ABB is based on our experience of them as a reliable, innovative supply partner, with the knowledge and understanding to run major projects in Finland and locally with shipbuilders,” said Viking Line president and CEO Jan Hanses. “By utilising ABBs knowledge in the cruise sector, Viking Line’s expertise in ferry operations and our joint experience from Viking Grace, we are - together - writing the future of how propulsion systems will look,” added ABB BU Marine and Ports managing director Juha Koskela. MP

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3D-printed propeller hits prototype stage A future involving 3D-printed components on board commercial vessels has moved a step closer to reality

The prototype 3D printed propeller represented a steep learning curve of the understanding of material properties


prototype of the world’s first class-approved ship’s propeller produced using 3D printing techniques has been completed. The 1,350 mm diameter propeller – named WAAMpeller – is the result of a co-operative consortium of companies that includes Damen Shipyards Group, Rotterdam Additive Manufacturing Lab (RAMLAB), Promarin, Autodesk and Bureau Veritas. The WAAMpeller was fabricated from a nickel aluminium bronze (NAB) alloy at RAMLAB in the Port of Rotterdam. The propeller was produced with the wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) method, using a Valk welding system and Autodesk software. The triple-blade structure uses a Promarin design that is used on Damen’s Stan Tug 1606. With production complete, the WAAMpeller will be CNC-milled at

CAD company Autodesk’s advanced manufacturing facility in Birmingham, UK. Damen’s involvement in the project began in May 2016 as a result of one of its in-house student research programmes. “Three students from Delft University of Technology were investigating the potential of 3D printing for us. They brought us into contact with the other members of the consortium,” Kees Custers, project engineer in Damen’s research and development department, told Marine Propulsion. “What is unique about this group of five companies is that, while we have joint interests, we also have individual aims. This leads to a very productive and co-operative atmosphere in what is a very exciting project,” he said. While 3D printing (or additive manufacturing, as it is more properly known) produces geometries that cannot be

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


manufactured any other way, this prototype 3D-printed propeller the propeller is able to absorb significant impact without damage. still represented a steep learning curve of the understanding of “But we have also been working towards optimising the material properties. “This is because 3D-printed materials are production strategy for 3D metal deposition. This includes bead built up layer by layer,” said Mr Custers. “As a consequence, they shape and width, as well as how fast we can deposit the printed display different physical properties in different directions – a material,” he explained. characteristic known as anisotropy. Steel or cast materials, on the Highlighting RAMLAB’s capacity to print objects with other hand, are isotropic – they have the same properties in all maximum dimensions of 7 m x 2 m x 2 m, Mr Ya said “For directions,” he added. large-scale 3D metal deposition, the WAAMpeller is really Due to this critical difference, one of the first steps was to groundbreaking for the maritime industry. carry out extensive testing of the material properties of the “This technology is a fundamental change in the concept printed material to ensure compliance with of how we make things. With additive Bureau Veritas standards. “This involved manufacturing, you can print most metallic printing two straightforward walls of material components that are needed. There is so much – then using a milling machine to produce potential for the future – these techniques will samples for lab testing of tensile and static have a big impact on the supply chain.” “The WAAMpeller strengths,” explained Mr Custers. This first prototype WAAMpeller will be project... has the It can also be said that the 400 kg used for display purposes, and planning for a WAAMpeller sets a milestone in terms of second example is already underway. “We start potential to yield 3D-printing production techniques. “The production of a second propeller with class significant results challenge has been to translate a 3D CAD approval [in November] – using all the lessons file on a computer into a physical product. in optimising future we have learned over the past few months,” This is made more complex because this noted Mr Custers. “We are aiming to install this vessel designs” propeller is a double-curved, geometric shape second one on to one of our tugs later this year.” with some tricky overhanging sections,” Damen invests considerable resources explained Mr Custers. into its various research and development Yannick Eberhard, a simulation engineer programmes. “Our aim is to build more with Promarin’s R&D department, added effective, more cost-efficient and more that “the transformation from a semi-automatic to robotic environmentally friendly vessels,” commented Damen’s principal processing is the solid foundation for even more complex and research engineer Don Hoogendoorn. reliable future propeller designs.” “The WAAMpeller project contributes to this goal. Not only “Material characterisation and mechanical testing have been does it mark an important advance in 3D printing, but also an important part of this project,” said Wei Ya, a post-doctoral it has the potential to yield significant results in optimising researcher from the University of Twente at RAMLAB. “We future vessel designs. 3D printing technology brings with it an have to make sure that the material properties meet the needs of excellent opportunity to improve ship structures in terms of the application: material toughness, for example – ensuring that both performance and fuel consumption.”

New features added to HydroComp PropElements HydroComp has added significant new features to HydroComp PropElements 2017 Launched in January this year, PropElements is the latest version of HydroComp’s tool for wake-adapted propeller design. It allows naval architects to become a meaningful participant in the design and analysis of these contemporary propellers at later design stages. In wake-adapted propeller design, a custom propeller is optimally matched to the unique inflow properties of the vessel (its ‘wake field’). PropElements is able to consider axial and tangential inflow properties, and ascertain optimised distributions of pitch and camber for prescribed foil characteristics. Of course, the propeller design process with PropElements takes into account blade strength, tip and hub loading, and cavitation. Its calculation pages include propeller, performance, and strength, with supplemental calculations such as for the creation of KT-KQ curves The foundation of PropElements is a unique distributed blade foil code, with empirical connections that allow analyses to be

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

viscous and fully scalable. These corrections are made possible through HydroComp’s experience in hybrid empirical-numerical hydrodynamics. PropElements supports standard nozzle styles, with optional support for contemporary high-efficiency nozzles and tunnel thrusters. While built on the same analytical code-base as an earlier version of PropElements, the 2017 version is a novel program that tackles the component-level hydrodynamic needs of naval architects. The latest update offers a predictive tool that can handle custom and semi-custom propeller analysis and allows naval architects (and propeller specialists) to investigate propeller iterations at later design stages. HydroComp PropElements is now able to evaluate a propeller or progress a design much closer to 3D CFD in a shorter time-frame and at reduced cost. Key upgrades include a new interface using the HydroComp common GUI (as found in PropCad and NavCad). In addition, there is new high blade-loading curvature correction, as well as prediction of induced volumetric flow rate. MP

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Boskalis vessel Edax, a 1,696 dwt cutter suction dredger, successfully used a bio/fossil ratio of up to 50:50 as it worked on phase one of the Marker Wadden project

BIOFUEL PIONEER MAKES HEADWAY The Dutch biofuel leader GoodFuels has seen a number of significant wins that suggest this relatively small part of the fuels mix could soon grow


n discussions about the future fuel mix, biofuels are often something of an afterthought. Other, more established fuels tend to dominate shipowners’ attention when they make their plans, while biofuels tend to be seen as an interesting, but currently impractical alternative. One company seeking to transform this situation is GoodFuels. Led by CEO Dirk Kronemeijer, the company has established itself in recent years as a leader in the effort to make biofuels a viable and economic option in the marine spectrum. But this is not just in the future. As Mr Kronemeijer told Marine Propulsion: “We have a chance to compete with fossil fuels right now.” GoodFuels Marine first came to prominence late in 2015, when it, Wärtsilä and shipowner

Boskalis launched the Sustainable Marine Biofuel Initiative. This is a development programme for next-generation ‘drop-in’ bio marine fuels that are ready-made replacements for fossil fuels, but are sustainable and have the potential to be scalable and affordable over the longer term. Over a period of two years, the consortium has been testing several nextgeneration biofuels at the Wärtsilä test facilities in Vaasa, a process that is to be followed by live testing on various ships within the Boskalis global fleet across different regions and ports. Mr Kronemeijer explained “The consortium was designed to accelerate the development of sustainable marine fuels that are truly sustainable. Initially the focus has been on ‘drop-in’ marine biofuels because we see them as an integral but currently missing part of the

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


long-term marine fuel mix, next to other viable options such as (Bio)LNG. Our drop-in fuels should be suited to blend with MGO as we will do research and testing of straight biofuels as possible replacement of HFO in SECA areas.” Once options are found meeting all criteria (technical, sustainable, economical, and scalable) the plan is for the consortium to push for industry certification and large-scale production. Next to testing, the consortium is also initiating a global scalability study involving leading marine customers, universities, NGOs, ports, (bio)fuel companies, IMO and other leading players and institutes. One outcome of the scheme has been the successful performance of live tests on a sustainable wood-based drop-in biofuel called UPM BioVerno. The fuel, supplied by Finnish UPM Biofuels, is the first-ever biofuel derived from wood residue to be used in a marine fleet. Boskalis vessel Edax, a 1,696 dwt cutter suction dredger, successfully used the fuel in bio/fossil blends going up to 50% as it worked on phase one of the Marker Wadden project in 2016. This resulted in a CO2 saving of 600 tonnes over the operating period. Other pilot schemes have already taken place. In June, fuel containing 30% biofuel was supplied by GoodFuels on board the 104 TEU barge For Ever (an inland barge transporting Heineken export beer) from the Heineken brewery in Zoeterwoude to the deep-sea terminals in Rotterdam. The transportation of the beer will dramatically reduce CO2 emissions by more than 25%, while also sharply reducing harmful local emissions such as NOx and particulate matter. Another initiative led by GoodFuels is designed to encourage cargo owners to purchase biofuel and accelerate the uptake of low-carbon fuels in the marine fuel mix. The GoodShipping Programme empowers cargo owners and shippers to take control of their carbon emissions without having to rely on the shipowner to change its fuel mix. Based on the level of sustainability and/or available budget, the cargo owner determines the desired level of impact by indicating the percentage or part of its ocean freight volume the cargo owner wants to submit to the GoodShipping Programme. On behalf of the cargo owner, the GoodShipping Programme committee enables the fuel switch – replacing heavy fuel oil with sustainable marine biofuel on board a pre-

selected container vessel. Mr Kronemeijer explained: “Up until now, the only way ocean cargo owners could eliminate or substantially reduce the climate impact from ship operations was to select an energy-efficient carrier or to offset their carbon footprint outside the shipping industry. The big difference with other sustainability initiatives is that the GoodShipping Program actually changes the marine fuel mix, and thereby realises a carbon reduction within the industry. Every ocean cargo owner can participate in the GoodShipping Programme regardless of its volume, location, trade routes and existing contracts with carriers or freight forwarders.” He remains acutely conscious, though, that the success of biofuels is ultimately in the hands of the carriers themselves. Mr Kronemeijer explained “They cannot drive the transition on their own: ultimately it needs to be facilitated by the maritime industry. It acts upon the collective responsibility for developing stable demand that can bring production to the next level. As such, the GoodShipping Program aims to improve the accessibility and affordability of low-carbon fuels to all carriers.” A big step toward greater acceptance by the wider shipping industry occurred in September when GoodFuels and energy provider BHP signed a Letter of Intent to collaborate on a biofuels pilot project in Singapore. Slated for operation next year, the project is part of a greater discussion on the use of biofuels as a sustainable alternative fuel. Singapore’s Maritime and Port Authority is seeking collaborative partnerships with shipowners on the bio-energy front, including finding solutions to barriers to the use of biofuels, given that Singapore is the largest bunkering hub in the world. Mr Kronemeijer explained: “We are very proud that our biofuel footprint of supply locations and sustainable customers is spreading from Europe to the largest bunkering port in the world – and our first Asian partner as well. From now on, sustainable marine biofuels are available in Singapore for those ship and freight owners that want to eliminate their carbon and sulphur emissions.” GoodFuels and its CEO are in no danger of resting on their laurels, though. New announcements are on the way. Indeed, Mr Kronemeijer expects “to welcome our first major cruise customer soon”. MP

"The GoodShipping Programme aims to improve the accessibility and affordability of low-carbon fuels to all carriers"

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

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Dirk Kronemeijer CEO Good Fuels

Before his time at GoodFuels and SkyNRG , Dirk Kronemeijer worked for 12 years in the airline industry in London and Amsterdam for both low cost as flag carriers, his last position being Vice President Business Innovation at KLM Royal Dutch Airlines.

Biofuels Although currently only a small part of the marine fuel mix, sustainable marine biofuels offer ship operators a way to reduce a vessel’s CO2 emissions by 80-90%. They eliminate SOx emissions, cut NOx emissions by up to 10% and reduce particulate matter expelled in a ship’s exhaust plume by 50%. Current forecasts predict that marine biofuels could make up 5-10% of the marine fuel mix by 2030.

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Smart pumping rewards investment Shipowners are starting to reap the benefits of pumping control, with savings and increased efficiencies materialising due to their investment in these technologies


he seawater cooling system on a ship is controlled by centrifugal pumps that send ambient seawater in a circulating loop into a heat exchanger with the vessel’s freshwater cooling system. The freshwater cooling system cools the engines, generators, other cooling loops and auxiliary equipment that consume significant amounts of energy. Seawater that has taken on heat from fresh water is then pumped back into the ocean as cooler ambient seawater is drawn in. This continuous operation is vital to the ship’s operation. Where this process offers scope for savings is in the use of energy-optimisation systems. Such systems adjust the speed at which pumps operate, in line with conditions. They are starting to see considerable levels of adoption throughout industry.

One of the most significant large-scale adoptions of such technology in recent years was by Hapag-Lloyd, which in 2014 decided to use an electronic pump control from Colfax Fluid Handling. Hapag-Lloyd elected to equip ships of the 13,200 TEU Hamburg Express class and other vessels with the CM-1000 intelligent pump control system. The CM-1000 system controls the flow rates of seawater cooling pumps based on the temperature of the fresh water and the current need for coolant. As a result, the amount of seawater pumped into the seawater cooler matches requirements, saving electrical power on board the ship. Colfax Fluid Handling’s CM-1000 series allows seawater cooling system pumps to operate at variable speed for energy savings, while its active valve control (AVC) feature limits

the risk of pump cavitation and delivers additional savings by adjusting the duty point for optimal operation. Equally, its condition monitoring and operation monitoring features provide maintenance savings by preventing catastrophic breakdowns and increasing mean time between failures. Ships of the Hamburg Express class provide regular freight service between the Far East and Europe. As they pass through the various climate zones, the temperature of the seawater (used for cooling) fluctuates by 20°C and more. Slow steaming reduces the need for cooling. The CM-1000 system can control seawater pumps in the cooling system by varying their speed, so the volume of pumped seawater precisely matches requirements of the moment. If the ship is stopped or is steaming only very

RIGHT: The intelligent controller has realised savings of more than 455,000 kWh for the two seawater pumps on Kyoto Express

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

50 | PUMPS

slowly, the CM-1000's new AllOff function switches the pumps off completely. During winter demurrage periods in European ports, there is no need to pump seawater for cooling purposes. Collaborating with Colfax Fluid Handling's experts from Allweiler led to the successive use of the CM-1000 in all of Hapag-Lloyd’s container ships. The final CM-1000 was installed in late 2016, making Hapag-Lloyd the smart-technology leader in the marine field. In addition to the technical challenges, the shipping company required rapid service around the world, including spare parts deliveries and marine-capable components. For example, plug connections on cables must be much more vibration-resistant

than those used on land, and shielded against alternating electromagnetic fields. In Hapag-Lloyd’s experience, some suppliers that deliver marine products cannot always be counted on to supply marinecapable components. The CM-1000 uses frequency converters to intelligently control the capacity of seawater cooling pumps based on the temperature of the fresh water and the momentary need for cooling. The system improves the efficiency of onboard seawater cooling pumps and reduces operating and service costs, resulting in highly efficient and sustainable operation of the cooling system. Hapag-Lloyd AG senior superintendent Lars Voss explained “With the CM-1000, we save up to 850 MWh per

year, per ship. This fits in with our ship energy management plan, which allows us to operate our vessels in an environmentally friendly manner.” The variable speed drive of the CM-1000 controller can reduce energy consumption during sea operations by up to 58%. If the AVC function is used in the cooling water system, reductions of up to 85% are possible. In the experience of Hapag-Lloyd, energy savings of up to 96% are achievable during port operations. When the All-Off function is used, savings of up to 100% are possible. If the cooling water system requires a minimum pressure, AVC will deliver that pressure even when speeds are low. But in Hapag-Lloyd's experience, this is only rarely necessary. AVC controls the

valves in the seawater outlet line and automatically adjusts the system's characteristic curve so that the pumps are always running at the ideal operating point, preventing cavitation. The variable speed drive drops energy consumption from 2 x 142 kW to 2 x 40 kW. AVC reduces it from 2 x 142 kW to 1 x 35 kW. During periods of low loads, the reduction can be to as low as 1 x 5 kW. For Hapag-Lloyd this translates into potential savings of approximately 16 tonnes of fuel oil per ship, per month. The results on the 8,600 TEU Kyoto Express suggest the system’s payback will be fairly rapid from lower fuel consumption alone. Since going into operation at the beginning of August 2016 and up to May this year, the intelligent

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most important condition for ensuring a long service life of the frequency converters. The cabinet version can be brought into operation while the ship is in motion, and installation is usually concluded in four days. Mr Voss concluded: "All of the CM-1000 systems have been operating without any

disturbances whatsoever since mid-2015. Our expectations have been fulfilled. We now examine all new ships in advance to determine whether they are suitable for the CM-1000." The CM-1000 is not the only such system on the market, though. Another maritime pumping solutions

manufacturer, Desmi, offers an energy-optimisation approach that is reducing costs for shipowners struggling to comply with new regulations. Desmi has a long track record in the development and manufacture of pump solutions for the marine industry, oil spills, and the

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controller has realised savings of more than 455,000 kWh for the two seawater pumps. Monetary savings were approximately €35,000 (US$41,000) at current fuel prices. In less than nine months, the CM-1000 is saving the shipowner money with every hour of operation. With lower speeds, wear to the casing, impeller, bearing, and mechanical seals is significantly reduced. As a result, the need for overhauls approximately every 20 years will be reduced many times over, according to the chief engineer of the Kyoto Express. Improvement of mechanical seal life is evident after just two years of operation. Prior to installation of the CM-1000, the seals required replacement every year on average. Since the CM-1000 went into operation, not a single seal has required replacement. Such performance allows the shipowner to reduce its stock of spare parts on board the vessel, ultimately increasing availability and improving safety on board. Less maintenance also means less downtime. With the CM-1000, two of the four pumps are sufficient to meet all requirements, from maximum cooling to stoppage. The third and fourth pumps, previously held in reserve and used during demurrage, are no longer needed, remaining operational as redundant systems instead. The CM-1000 controller can be installed when the ship is built or at any time thereafter. From Hapag-Lloyd’s perspective, the cabinet version of CM-1000 has been a particularly valuable solution for ships that never or only rarely stop at European ports. Colfax Fluid Handling provides all of the electronics as a turnkey installation in switch cabinets, including the frequency converter and all cable connections. Mr Voss stated that a climatecontrolled space on board the ship is the ideal solution. In his experience, a uniformly low ambient temperature is the

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defence and energy industries. It has focused on reducing the amount of energy consumed by onboard equipment in and around enginerooms, and has found plenty of ways to cut consumption with a wide range of solutions from seawater pumps to ventilation systems. Its solutions generally have short payback times, but the ongoing annual savings often offer the most compelling argument for shipowners. The company is happy to provide customer data to prove its claims. Auxiliary systems in enginerooms and their pump components are designed to cope with the worst possible foreseeable conditions, but in reality such systems can be made to run at operating levels that correspond to the vessel’s actual load at any given time. Desmi marine and offshore director Michael Lassen said that this is a good strategy for shipowners keen to comply with the new regulations. He explained: “A lot of onboard machinery constantly operates as though the vessel is under 100% load and having to cope with air temperatures of up to 50°C and seawater temperatures of up to 32°C. But those conditions reflect, perhaps, only 1% of a ship’s operating lifetime. The rest of the time, you might say, it is like running the heating in your house at full blast with the windows wide open. Making control systems that closely match energy consumption to actual requirements is something we have been focusing on for a number of years.” As a starting point, Desmi’s own seawater pumps are designed to extract maximum efficiency from today’s pumping technologies. But the company has extended its energy efficiency range to optimisation solutions such as Desmi OptiSave. This, it asserts, can save up to 80% of power consumption for a vessel’s seawater pumping tasks.

“We have delivered many of these solutions,” said Mr Lassen. “All of them have been shown to provide savings of 60-80% for ships travelling, for example, between ports in Europe and Asia.” Seawater pumping systems are not the only pumps in a vessel’s engineroom. Other systems cool down steam that has not been used in steam turbines, for example, condensing vapour into liquid again before feeding it back into the boiler. When there is little steam to be returned to the condenser, less seawater is required, enabling the speed of the pump to be reduced to the minimum that is necessary. Another area for potential savings arises when a vessel is sailing at lower speeds. Normally, three or four fans push compressed air into the engineroom to boost the combustion effect. These systems usually run at full speed, regardless of load, even when less air is required. OptiSave controls these components, too, reducing their speed to correspond to actual requirements. One beneficiary of this system has been Grindrod Shipping, owner and manager of IVS and Unicorn Tankers. It

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

has installed OptiSave on board nine vessels: seven bulk carriers and two tankers. The co-operation with IVS goes back to 2009, and the first OptiSave system was installed on board one of the bulk carriers soon after. “We have a great co-operation with Desmi and their automation team. We always look at how much fuel can be saved and where we can improve the efficiency – and more ideas for improvements are coming up all the time,” said Grindrod Shipping technical project manager Per Fabricius. OptiSave has saved Grindrod a total of 125 tonnes of fuel a month on average, and Mr Fabricius keeps track of the fuel index from year to year so that he always knows how well each tanker and bulk carrier performs. “All vessels sail worldwide and report the numbers on CO2 , NOxand SOx monthly to the main offices in Singapore and South Africa. With the OptiSave system this is an easy task to complete,” he explained. At the moment Mr Fabricius and Desmi are developing a training simulator that will make it easy to train crew to handle the system and improve efficiency. MP

“Making control systems that closely match energy consumption to actual requirements is something we have been focusing on for a number of years.”

BELOW: Desmi OptiSave, it is claimed, can save up to 80% of power consumption for a vessel’s seawater pumping tasks

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Electrically-assisted turbocharging boosts drive for hybrid A new technology acquired exclusively by Rolls-Royce could cut fuel consumption, increase engine agility and facilitate hybridisation


olls-Royce has acquired electricallyassisted turbocharging technology that promises to revolutionise the acceleration capability of marine engines. The innovation comes from an invention devised by engineering services provider G+L Innotec, based in Laupheim in southern Germany. This is the ‘Cross-Charger,’ a hybrid turbocharger with which fuel consumption and gas emissions of combustion engines can be reduced. Rolls-Royce has acquired the exclusive rights of use for the new technology, which allows for the electrically assisted charging of off-highway combustion engines in the power range above 450 kW. The new invention is protected by patents and so has not been available on the market to date. The electrically-assisted charging system comprises an electric drive combined with a traditional turbocharger developed and manufactured by MTU. As a result, the turbocharger can be accelerated electrically and the charge pressure built up earlier. In operating conditions in which the energy required for a faster charge pressure of the turbine would

normally not be sufficient, it is possible to build up with the aid of the electric drive. Using the technology developed by G+L innotec, MTU will be able to increase the acceleration capability of marine engines as well as the load-response capabilities of generator drives. In addition, it will be possible to reduce the engine’s fuel consumption and emissions in a variety of different applications. Due to the increased loadresponse capability, emergency standby gensets will be able to deliver their full output even faster than was previously the case. This technology is ideally suited to diesel and gas engines. The story of the technology began when the predecessor company of G+L developed and produced turbocharger parts for gasoline engines. Speaking to Marine Propulsion, G+L managing director Holger Gödeke said “In this earlier development the high levels of effort which were needed to reach the requirements were recognised. For example, the turbocharger with variable turbine geometry required for the transient response of the engine got very complex and expensive. So they looked for an alternative

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


to increase the agility of the turbocharger and with this the response of the engine.” In co-operation with experts on electric motors, the concept of this new technology was defined. In a publicly-funded project, the first prototype was developed. Meanwhile, different prototype turbos were tested on various engines for on- and off-highway applications. Cross Chargers are of great interest to marine applications, but also to the automotive sector– for which they were originally developed. Asked whether application to the marine sector presented any particular difficulties, MTU director of development turbocharging and fluid systems Johannes Kech told Marine Propulsion “For marine application the technology will be the same. The turbocharger will need the marine specific changes (for example, water-cooled housing). The major question will be the power supply in the vessel. Which voltage would be available in the future in this application? 48 V or 600 V? A further question is the availability of battery power to optimise the engine start.” To provide the turbocharger with electrical assistance, a permanent magnet is installed upstream of the compressor wheel, and the electrical winding is integrated into the casing of the compressor. With this arrangement, the air drawn in by the compressor is not obstructed and at the same time the electrical components are cooled by the air. The special feature of this arrangement is the large gap between the magnet and winding. This so-called media gap motor requires specially designed power electronics. This ensures that there is no

aerodynamic impact on the charger, and also that existing chargers can be adapted easily to enable them to make use of this technology. On the basis of a development collaboration agreement with G+L Innotec, MTU has equipped turbochargers with this electric drive and has carried out component tests to determine its possible potential. In the next stage, the two partner companies will prepare the new products for series production, so that as of 2021 MTU will be able to launch engines equipped with this technology on the market. The first areas of application suitable for these engines include ships, emergency gensets and land vehicles. Questioned on the tangible benefits on offer, Dr Kech said “There will be the possibility to reduce fuel consumption. The amount of savings depends on the changes at the engine. We can use this technology to increase the agility as a major target, or we focus on fuel consumption. Especially if the load profile would allow the capacity to recuperate, the fuel consumption could be reduced.” In terms of target marine markets, the innovation is initally aimed at yachts, where the electrical assisted turbocharger will optimise the agility of the vessel. Dr Kech sees the innovation going beyond that, saying “The ability to use the recuperation function could generate an advantage for all applications.” Rolls-Royce plans to offer engines of its MTU brand with this technology as of 2021. “Electrically assisted charging is a milestone on the way to the hybridising of the engine. Using this technology, it will be possible for us to develop agile, lowconsumption engines,” said Dr Kech. MP

Snapshot CV

Holger Gödeke Managing director, G+L Innotec

With a background in the automotive industry with applied material research and development, as well as process and product development Holger Gödeke co-founded G+L Innotec in 2000 as as spin-off from former Lindenmaier AG

“The ability to use the recuperation function could generate an advantage for all applications.”

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017



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MET RANGE MOVES FORWARD Innovation and application continues for the MET turbocharger range, despite recent changes


his year saw the 30,000th delivery of an MET turbocharger and the range is still growing in both scope and application, despite some big recent changes in the company’s ownership. MET turbochargers were previously made by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Marine Machinery & Engine, a whollyowned subsidiary of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI). However, on 1 April this year, the engine business split off with MHI and Kobe Diesel to pursue integration of their marine diesel engine businesses in the form of Japan Engine Corporation (J-ENG). As a result, MET turbochargers are now made by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Marine Machinery & Equipment (MHI-MME) and led by president Toshiaki Hori, who has pledged to expand the company’s share of this market “through the launch of attractive new products”. This pledge is being realised, most recently with the launch of a new model in the MET-MB series. MHI-MME previously offered nine types of turbochargers in the MET-MB series – from the MET33MB, for smaller engines, to the MET90MB for large engines. The series was developed as

axial-type turbochargers for use with main engines of various outputs. Now, however, MHI-MME has developed the MET37MB turbocharge as a new addition to the MET-MB line-up. This turbocharger is intended for engines with outputs of between 2,500kW and 4,300kW, falling between the MET33MB and and the MET42MB in terms of the airflow covered. The MET37MB, it is claimed, will enable even more detailed response to engine needs. The first MET37MB turbocharger will be installed on a China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation Diesel Engine Co made 6UEC33LSE-C2 engine developed by Japan Engine Corporation. The turbocharger is already being manufactured by MHI-MME and was scheduled for delivery in October. MET37MB is also expected to be installed on MAN and WinGD engines. In addition to this, MHI-MME also received an order from Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) for its MET30SRC radialtype turbochargers to be mounted on its HiMSEN 6H32/40 medium-speed, fourstroke engines. It has already completed delivery of the first of these turbochargers, which are the very first MHI-MME radial

The MET Turbocharger The MET turbocharger was initially developed in 1965 and has continuously been evolved to respond to the needs of engine technology providers. Currently, the MET turbocharger line-up consists of MET-MA/MB (axial type) for two-stroke marine propulsion engines and MET-SRC series (radial type) for four-stroke main and generator engines. These two line-ups have been delivered up to around 2,000 units per year recently. Axial MET turbochargers are licensed to three major engine

Currently, the MET turbocharger line-up consists of MET-MA/-MB (axial type) for two-stroke marine propulsion engines and MET-SRC series (radial type) for four-stroke main and generator engines

turbochargers to be mounted on a HiMSEN engine. These engines and turbochargers will be installed as gensets on four 3,300 TEU container ships (with an option for four more vessels) being ordered by a French owner. Four engines will be installed per vessel. MHI-MME’s MET-SRC turbochargers are designed primarily for four-stroke engines and cover a wide range of engine outputs, from 400kWto 4,400kW. Currently, the MET-SRC series is primarily made for Japanese four-stroke engine manufacturers, but in future, MHI-MME wants to expand overseas sale of the series. MP

manufacturers in Korea, while the MET turbocharger is mounted on two-stroke engines designed not only by Mitsubishi, but also by MAN Diesel &Turbo SE and Winterthur Gas & Diesel. MHI-MME claims market share among two-stroke marine propulsion engines is around 40%. Delivery of radial type turbochargers has been increased over recent years, and it has become a major part of the turbocharger business same as the axial type.

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

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Hull condition and coatings can have a significant effect on performance and fuel consumption



ptimising the efficiency of a vessel is without doubt close to the top of every shipowner and operator’s agenda. Times are tough, the global fleet continues to grow year-on-year and there is a continued over supply of tonnage putting pressure on freight rates. The continuing challenging markets are driving shipowners and operators to find new and sustainable solutions to improve the energy efficiency of their vessels. Technical and operational activities, hull design, propeller and the right choice of hull coating are all key factors being dissected to find an

It is no longer enough simply to coat and otherwise maintain vessels’ hulls. According to group segment manager, marine, dry dock, Hempel A/S Andreas Glud, monitoring them it is a growing priority for shipowners

optimum efficiency mix. Fuel is a significant cost in running a vessel and even the smallest reduction in the bunker bill can impact an owner’s bottom line and environmental performance. Fouling organisms such as barnacles and biological slime attach to the hull to create extra drag that requires additional fuel to move the vessel through the water, significantly impacting fuel costs and CO2 emissions. It is well known that a smooth hull reduces fuel consumption and associated emissions and, consequently, a renewed focus is being placed on a vessel’s hull performance. This is evident at an

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


industry level with the development of the ISO 19030 standard, and by companies offering hull performance monitoring services.

Industry initiatives The ISO 19030 standard, which was first published in November 2016 by the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO), provides shipowners and operators with the foundation for hull performance monitoring. This set of fully transparent methodologies measures changes in ship-specific hull and propeller performance, and defines a set of relevant performance indicators for hull and propeller maintenance, repair and retrofit activities. More specifically, ISO 19030 offers a flexible approach to monitoring (part 3), or a more strict and accurate approach (part 2). This standard defines the method for measuring changes in hull and propeller performance, calculating a set of basic performance indicators and providing guidance on the expected accuracy of each performance indicator. By measuring these changes over a period of time, shipowners and operators

are able to assess the overall efficiency improvements of their vessels.

Advanced monitoring systems Hempel played a role in the development of these new ISO 19030 standards from their inception and throughout the three years they took to be finalised. Because of this early work, it is now possible to offer advanced clear, comprehensive and verifiable analytics to track and assess hull and propeller performance in accordance with the ISO 19030 standard. This gives the potential for lower fuel costs, improved energy efficiency and a reduced environmental footprint. Hull performance teams comprising experts in hydrodynamics, chemistry, physics and other backgrounds in data science, can determine the relationship between hull and propeller performance and the actual fuel consumed. This is not only from a relative performance level over a specific time period, but also by benchmarking the performance against its newbuild condition.

Proven results Euronav, a global leader in the shipping of crude oil, has been working with us and using our silicone coatings on its

tankers since 2007. When we launched Hempaguard X7 Euronav was keen to test this new technology and applied a 300m2 test patch to its VLCC Famenne. Following a dive inspection at 23 months and then again at 45 months it was confirmed that Hempaguard was still giving a slime and fouling-free performance. Following the performance of VLCC Famenne, Euronav decided to switch a number of its vessels to Hempaguard X7. These vessels saw a significant increase in fuel efficiency. However many factors affect a vessel’s fuel performance so we offered Euronav the opportunity to utilise our performance monitoring service, offered in collaboration with DNV GL, to determine exactly how this fuel saving was being achieved. Our hull performance team began monitoring three VLCCs, the Hakone, Hirado and Sara, six months before Hempaguard X7 was applied. Six months after application it was clear that there was an increase in propulsion efficiency, of which a large proportion was directly attributable to Hempaguard X7. Consequently, Euronav decided to apply Hempaguard X7 to three more of its vessels – VLCC Sandra, Suezmax Maria and M/T Captain Michael.

Bureau Veritas joins RECOMMS drones project

The intention of RECOMMS is to develop drones with the capability to inspect steel structures in enclosed spaces

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

Bureau Veritas has joined RECOMMS (Remote Evaluation of Coatings / Corrosion on Offshore Machinery and Marine Structures/Ships), a joint investment project (JIP), to develop drones with the capability to inspect steel structures in enclosed spaces. The JIP’s primary objectives are to develop a steady, stable and reliable drone capable of following programmable flight paths, either pre-determined by 3D imagery software or flown by a pilot, using 3D simulator ship specific training programmes developed in unison with the drone design. This will lead to the development of a complete and marketable inspection drone when delivered with the required software package. Key investment partners for the confined space ambitions include Akzo Nobel, Barrier Group, Bureau Veritas, Drone Ops, Hempel Paints, Marine Technical Limits and a major oil company. Safinah, a coating specialist and consultants is the RECOMM project manager. In the first phase of development the drone will be designed to carry an unobstructed HD camera as well as lighting and batteries with suitable strength, durability and longevity to perform structural and coating inspections within a ballast tank whilst providing reliable clear images fit for comparison with close up inspection. Jean-François Segretain, technical director, Bureau Veritas, marine and offshore said “The end goal is to be able to survey


cargo spaces, ballast tanks and confined spaces remotely and effectively. If we can do this with drones we can help reduce risks to our surveyors and ship crews by minimising the need, for example, to erect expensive staging whilst covering the survey scope which would otherwise require surveyors to work at height or perform tank inspections by means of rafting.” It is estimated that eliminating the need for staging erected for class renewal surveys could save in the region of US$90,000 for a VLCC or US$40,500 for a capesize bulk carrier (based on drydocking costs in China for ships of ten years and older). Jean-François Segretain “While a lot of work has been done with drones nothing yet released has led to drones meeting specific requirements for marine classification close up

surveys. This project addresses the specific needs of our survey requirements and other inspections.” As a secondary goal, the project will also address the potential for inspection of open space marine structures such as offshore wind turbine blades. Once tank inspection objectives have been met, the drone will be designed with a payload carrying capacity capable of further developing the attachment of sensoring equipment with the end goal of performing paint and coating application analysis as well as steel thickness measurement. Paint coating and plate thickness gauging equipment manufacturers are already involved with others being encouraged to join the project, in order to develop specialised sensoring equipment suitable for the drone.

Selektope-powered antifouling range expands

Ecospeed effective on RRS Ernest Shackleton

A new antifouling product containing the unique biorepellent ingredient Selektope has been launched. The increasing diversification in the range of Selektopecontaining products available to shipowners suitable for different vessel requirements demonstrates the versatility of the antifouling ingredient. It also demonstrates a growing commitment to the technology as demand from shipowners for antifouling coatings. Sea Grandprix 880HS Plus is the third product Chugoku Marine Paints (CMP) has launched that contains Selektope. It joins CMP’s Seaflo NEO CF Premium; and Seaflo NEO-S PREMIUM products that were launched in August 2016. The new antifouling coating is based on hydrolysing technology and can be applied to deepsea-going vessels trading worldwide in service periods for up to 90 months. CMP guarantees extended static performance of up to 45 days, thanks to the barnaclerepellent boost enabled by Selektope combatting barnacle settlement on the ship’s hull by temporarily stimulating the barnacle larvae’s swimming behaviour. The organic, non-metal compound is the only one of its kind in a marine

British Antarctic Survey’s decision to apply the Ecospeed hard coating to the hull of its new polar research ship RRS Sir David Attenborough has been supported by the recent drydocking of sister vessel RRS Ernest Shackleton. The 80m long vessel, coated with Ecospeed in 2009, drydocked last month at the Orskov shipyard, in Frederikshavn, Denmark, where the hull was found to be in “very good condition.” BAS superintendent Andrew Webb, said “Shackleton’s hull condition is the best I have seen after typical ice year operations. We tend to account for touch up coats every other year to areas impacted by the ice, but this year we needed to repair even less surface area than expected, despite the vessel encountering heavy Antarctic ice.” The Orskov yard had to touch up areas in the bow and rudder areas. A touch up coat was last applied in 2015. Only remedial coats are required as Ecospeed is a one-coat system and does not need to be removed or reapplied.

Philip Chaabane chief executive I-Tech AB

“As demand for Selektope soars, the number of antifouling products that contain our unique bio-repellent ingredients is expanding”

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

antifouling application. It is characterised by high efficacy at extremely low concentrations (approx.0.1% w/w), ultra-low leaching and flexibility to boost copperbased paint formulations or replace copper completely. Due to the low concentration needed, the company claims, Selektope does not compromise the chemical structure, colour or other cooperative biocides of a marine coating. “As demand for Selektope soars, the number of antifouling products that contain our unique biorepellent ingredients is expanding. This ensures that shipowners and operators have a selection of products to choose from, and confirms the flexibility and compatibility of our product with a range of different antifouling ingredients,” said Philip Chaabane, chief executive I-Tech AB. Marine coating products containing Selektope have been applied to over 150 vessels to date, including: tankers, container ships and LNG carriers, in a series of newbuilding and over-coating projects. I-Tech reports orders for coatings including Selektope in the first part of 2017 being double those achieved throughout 2016. MP

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FACING THE FACTS OF CRANE FAILURE A crane jib that has collapsed during cargo operations


he failure of cargohandling equipment such as cranes can pose a serious safety risk to the health and welfare of the crew and have a significant financial impact on the shipowner. Accurate advice at the early stage of equipment failure investigation can save shipowners, operators and other interested parties significant costs. Prompt diagnosis could also prevent repeated failure elsewhere. While there are a lot of commonalities between failure cases, each case is unique and demands a best-practice investigation that combines theoretical analysis and a practical assessment of the scene. Mobilising the right experts on site from the outset is critical. It will ensure the

preservation of vital evidence that will, in turn, support the quick and efficient conclusion of a crane failure dispute. Chris Dyson, a marine engineer and senior partner with marine consultancy Brookes Bell, has special expertise in this area – expertise he believes is crucial when properly investigating any failures. “On the surface,” he explained, “a crane seems like a relatively simple mechanism. But there are intricacies to any failure that might not be spotted by someone more general like a local surveyor. For instance, there may be a problem with the crane that has not contributed to the failure, but ends up being identified by non-specialists as the cause of failure because it

seems the most obvious issue.” One of the most important issues in avoiding larger failures, Mr Dyson believes, is for all incidents to be properly investigated. He elaborated “A lot of incidents occur with cranes, but they are often perceived by those present as not being particularly significant and therefore not worthy of investigation. But there are knock-on effects that may not be visible and can lead to bigger problems. We advocate that every small incident is investigated.” The costs of crane failure are potentially huge, with far-reaching consequences for shipowners, operators, stevedores and seafarers. These consequences are not limited to the upfront damage costs. There is also the potential

Crane failure is a major problem when it occurs, but its prevention is often not prioritised

impact of injury, or even death, as well as costs and time lost as a result of the crane being taken out of service while the incident is investigated and repairs are completed. The causes of crane failure are various, but there are a number of key areas. The first and most common is wire failure. This can occur for a number of reasons, including being overloaded, fatigued, having a pre-existing defect, or deterioration. This type of incident can cause serious damage, with hook loads, predominantly cargo, being dropped unexpectedly from height. One cause of fatigue, Mr Dyson explained, is often not understood. “When a vessel is at sea, the deck cranes are stowed. But what many don’t realise is that there is still

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


motion in the wires caused by the motion of the vessel. This can lead to damage and deterioration, which is particularly dangerous because the crew will often assume that the wires will be in the same condition when they reach port as when they left.” Exposure to the environment at sea also has a negative effect on wires, causing them to degrade and deteriorate significantly if not properly protected and maintained. The answer to wire issues is for wires to be replaced regularly, although Mr Dyson pointed out out that there is no mandated period set out by regulation at which this must occur. Incorrectly specified slew bearings are another point of crane failure, according to Mr Dyson. “If the slew bearings are not selected specifically for their right service use or for the correct weight of the cargo, it can result in truly catastrophic failure. Cranes are completely dependent on these bearings and, if they fail, you are looking at the whole crane toppling over, with potentially disastrous results for stevedores and crew.” It is also crucial that slew bearings are properly maintained, monitored and looked after in service. Sheaves, too, must have their bearings greased on a regular basis. Remote greasing systems may fall into disrepair, making it necessary to grease the bearings locally, often involving the use of rigging to climb up a crane and gain access to the relevant area. Once the maintenance becomes more difficult and time consuming, it is more likely that it will be neglected, in turn making a crane failure more likely. Sheave issues are likely to promote abnormal and accelerated wire wear. Mishandling during operation is another common cause of failure: when swinging a load, overloading or exceeding the capabilities of the crane can lead to disaster.

Wire damage is the most common cause of crane failure

One issue here is that cranes' jibs are sometimes positioned below the safe angle at which they should be operated. “There is actually an automatic cut off to prevent the jib going below a certain angle because it’s unsafe,” explained Mr Dyson. “However, it’s necessary for there to be an override for this in order to stow the cranes after use. The problem is when people use this override while the crane is still loaded. This can lead to crane failure.” Mr Dyson recommends that the actions of the crane operators (who are commonly stevedores rather than crew members) should be monitored, and controlled as necessary by those on board.

Another significant problem that Mr Dyson identified is caused by manufacturers’ tendency to market key crane components as ‘maintenancefree.’ This, he believes, is taken far too literally by crew, with the result that cranes are neglected altogether. “We have investigated crane failures where such components have failed because they should have been overhauled at some point and it hasn’t been done because of this assumption." Mr Dyson believes that the perception of cranes as simple pieces of equipment tends to mean they come some way down the list of priorities as far as crew are concerned. “This means that they are often subject to neglect,”

he pointed out. The best practice to minimise the risk of failure, Mr Dyson believes, is for shipowners and operators to follow a planned maintenance regime for the inspection and care of cranes, adhering to necessary requirements.One way he recommends to assess the internal condition of the hydraulic pumps and motors is via hydraulic oil analysis. This involves sending a sample of hydraulic oil to a shore-based laboratory where it can be examined for contaminants and wear debris. If internal wear is suspected, shipowners can take suitable measures to address the issue. MP

MacGregor wins hatch cover and crane contracts MacGregor has received an order from Yangzijiang shipyard in China to equip five 62,000 dwt open hatch bulk carriers with hatch covers and cranes. Equipment deliveries will start in 2018 and continue until 2019. "We want to help our customers succeed," said Leif Byström, MacGregor’s senior vice president, cargo handling. "Our commitment to this success is MacGregor's long track record in engineering safe and efficient

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

solutions for cargo handling and stowage." The order comprises the design of key hatch cover components and the delivery of twenty cranes; four per vessel. Each crane will be fitted with an active rotation control (ARC) system, which stabilises and automatically rotates a load in the air "This enables faster load handling, reduces cargo damage and delivers considerable energy savings," adds Mr Byström.


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Successful digitalisation relies on good relationships with the crew




aterpillar Marine believes that, for a variety of reasons, shipping companies are currently failing to capitalise on the benefits of data and digitisation, but that things are changing. Describing the problem, Bert Ritscher, the EAME sales and business development manager for Caterpillar Marine asset intelligence, said: “It sometimes feels like you’re taking a suitcase full of cash into someone’s office and trying to give it to them, but they won’t accept it.” Global business manager Leslie Bell-Friedel supports

The slow pace at which shipping is adopting digital technologies may cost some businesses dear, according to Caterpillar this point, saying: “The technology is there, the data is there, but applying it is really, really hard. It comes down to change management: how you get your chief engineer with 30-40 years on the job to change the way he works is really hard. When you’re talking to the chief financial officer or the CEO, they get

it – but they don’t want to do it because implementation is just too hard.” These comments were made at a digital symposium Caterpillar held in Paris in September. At the event the company announced its intention to bring together all its digital solutions and services, across different value propositions and multiple industries, for one

comprehensive view. Called Cat Connect, this involves a suite of digital service offerings enabling data collection and providing customers with visibility on equipment operation. Implementation is not the only obstacle to widespread adoption, though. Some operators that have invested in data services may have been disappointed by the returns on investment (ROI). Mrs Bell-Friedel believes this can be changed by a more targeted approach to data. “There’s a lot of value in data, but there’s also a lot of noise in data. And there’s a lot of data! Lack of ROI is a consequence of too much data and not enough

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


analysis. People need to think: ‘What’s the right data that I’m looking for in order to achieve my critical performance indicator?’ and focus on that,” she explained. In fact, Caterpillar believes that as little as 5% of the data collected from a vessel is actually useful for understanding its operation. This means there is a need for a more focused approach that looks at all the systems as a whole. “When we apply analytics, we are looking at the interoperability and integration of data across systems and different pieces of equipment. Because that’s where you get your true value from data – seeing how things are working and how they interact,” Mrs Bell-Friedel said. Clearly, such an approach is reliant on good relationships with the crew as a whole, and key onboard staff in particular. This can be easier said than done, as Caterpillar Energy & Transportation digital and technology director Terri Lewis asserted: “The problem is the people aspect. Sometimes you talk to people who feel that it’s obsoleting their job, and that can be scary.” This can lead companies to fear implementing such technologies because of the impact on staff, according to Mrs Bell-Friedel. “Sometimes there’s a top-down approach that says: ‘Guys, we will do this,’ but most of the marine industry at the moment just doesn’t know how to implement this.” Mrs Bell-Friedel is keen to emphasise that crew should not see data analytics as a threat. “This technology can help everyone. The people who need to understand the operation first are the people standing next to the piece of equipment. The chief engineer should not be the last one to know what’s happening. We want to make sure that they’re engaged, have bought in and that we’re all

Being able to access only the data you need and to interpret it properly is at the heart of Caterpillar’s message

working towards the same ultimate goal.” The most effective way of convincing shipowners to implement data analytics in their fleet are successful examples from their peers. Here, Caterpillar is able to offer considerable evidence. “We offer return on investment within three to six months,” said Mrs Bell-Friedel. “We analyse this and can prove it to ourselves and our customers.” The main – and most easily demonstrated – area in which savings are achieved is in fuel costs. Other areas are somewhat less tangible, but nonetheless significant. Another huge factor is in predicting and preventing failures. Of course, as the failure is prevented, it is difficult to prove something that never happened, but Mrs Bell Friedel gave an example. “Exhaust gas differential temperature is an excellent indicator of problems, and on one vessel it was running high and we flagged it up. It turned out that a simple bolt adjustment was needed. A couple of weeks later, it would have caused catastrophic failure.” This type of example, she

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

believes, is where the need to adjust culture is crucial. “The data doesn’t lie. You might need to adjust your algorithm or analytics, but ultimately, the data is telling you something. Proactively going out there to investigate when the data is telling you something’s wrong, but you don’t know exactly what, is a real change of culture when you’re used to reacting to an alarm,” she explained. Another example of savings made was on a small harbour tug. Mrs Bell-Friedel stated: “The owners said that if we could get ‘blood out of this turnip’, they’d believe us. This wasn’t a very sophisticated or highly sensorised vessel, and they didn’t believe there was much scope for fuel optimisation. But in six months we’d made US$230,000 worth of savings.” Such examples are beginning to change people’s minds. Mr Ritscher said: “I cannot give you numbers, but I am seeing a steady uptake of these systems. I don’t think there will be exponential growth, but the number of customers is increasing all the time.”

One factor that may make a difference is the possibility that insurers may start to see the use of data analytics as a means of preventing claims and start to incentivise and even mandate their use. This is a phenomenon Mrs BellFriedel is already seeing. “In the marine space, we’ve already seen insurers get involved – particularly in the leisure crafts sector. We do have customers who are able to reduce their insurance premiums dependent on what analytics and condition monitoring packages they have.” The pace at which the marine industry adopts data analytics remains to be seen. But as more and more examples of success come to the fore, the case clearly gets stronger. “Digital technologies are becoming commercially viable for our industries, and there is growing acceptance by users, so we’re seeing an acceleration of deployment. It’s no longer a question of why, or when, but more about here and now. Any businesses that do not adopt quickly will not be competitive for very long,” concluded Ms Lewis. MP


Agreements suggest shift to Fleet Xpress Recent agreements bringing together new app-based vessel management from two of the biggest names in maritime technology and Inmarsat have boosted the connectivity service Fleet Xpress


Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed between Samsung Heavy Industries and Inmarsat Maritime in September has established a far-reaching relationship to leverage the ‘smart ship’ connectivity offered by Fleet Xpress at the vessel construction stage. In a second arrangement, Inmarsat and Rolls-Royce have signed a letter of intent envisaging the delivery of vessel energy efficiency optimisation via Fleet Xpress 24/7 using Energy Management 2.0 software from Rolls-Royce Marine. Both agreements come under the Certified Application Provider (CAP) programme devised by Inmarsat Maritime to cultivate third party development of the management software

that can fully exploit Fleet Xpress connectivity and its unique service enablement platform. They would appear to suggest that shipping’s leading edge shipbuilders and marine technology brands see the high-speed broadband service as the gateway to the maritime internet. Through its CAP programme, Inmarsat aims to support and enable products that become part of an ecosystem of applications to broaden and enhance services beyond connectivity and enable ‘value-adds’ for end-users. Stein A. Orø, vice president sales, Inmarsat Maritime, has been closely involved in the CAP programme and in the work towards securing partners for Inmarsat. “CAP is part of Inmarsat’s strategy to support the global adoption

of the Internet of Things (IoT) in the maritime market using Fleet Xpress,” he said. “It offers partners a rich set of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that provide application-triggered bandwidth, a managed-cyber security solution and flexible third-party subscriptions on board Fleet Xpress vessels. “Applications covering realtime analysis of data for engine monitoring, weather information and fuel consumption rates can deliver real gains in operational efficiency, safety and compliance, IT security and crew welfare,” added Mr Orø. “Critically, third parties develop new business and new revenue streams while offering full transparency in their own billing processes.” The agreement is of a strategic nature and envisages

SHI will install Inmarsat-approved terminal hardware and offering applications to cover remote machinery diagnostics

the leading South Korean yard installing Inmarsat-approved terminal hardware and offering applications to cover remote machinery diagnostics and CCTV services. Christened ‘Smart Ship’ by SHI, this is an entirely new service through which the yard group envisages owners harvesting data from preinstalled hull-monitors and equipment sensors onboard in real-time, leveraging Fleet Xpress from the moment the ship is delivered. Mr Orø said that Samsung Heavy Industries’ allegiance to Fleet Xpress at the newbuilding stage is nonetheless a standout achievement. Under its preliminary terms, the shipbuilder is expected to retain remote connections to vessels, while Inmarsat will support SHI’s services through a dedicated CAP subscription. Mr Orø explained that CAP is flexible enough to allow end-users to choose whether to dedicate part of their bandwidth allocation to specific vessel efficiency measures, or for the app itself to trigger bandwidth 'dynamically’ for charging per hour. Furthermore, the span of agreements which CAP can accommodate is demonstrated by the Letter of Intent signed between Inmarsat and RollsRoyce, which has high-level strategic significance but also promises a more immediate impact. It foresees vessels enabled by Fleet Xpress and equipped with Rolls-Royce Energy Management 2.0 software maximising efficiency in a way that is constantly verifiable within the Inmarsat CAP, connected via Fleet Xpress and hosted on the Inmarsat digital platform. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


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Shale revolution boosts US orderbook National Geographic Quest sailed on its maiden voyage in early August to Alaska


usiness is currently brisk as far as construction and expansion of the US national fleet Is concerned. The shale revolution has brought a new urgency and ambition to compete globally in exports of crude and chemical/ products to the global markets. US owners have been strengthening tanker fleets with newbuildings and modern, second-hand purchases. Unfortunately, none of these ships is being built in the USA due to Jones Act restrictions, which favour domestic ownership. Overseas owners who wish to trade more with the region complain aobut this, but recent lobbying for reform of Jones Act restrictions fell on deaf ears. Statistically, American-domiciled owners hold a substantial orderbook of 333 vessels aggregating 6,334,279 dwt with all but a handful committed in overseas builders especially those destined for international trade. There is evidence that American owners want to exploit the specialist cruising industry more. Newcomer SunStone Ships concluded a deal with Ulstein Design & Solutions, Norway for a design and equipment package, plus supervision over construction of a series of CX 103 expedition cruise ships. Four vessels have initially been ordered in China from China Merchants Industry Holdings for delivery from August 2019. Options are attached for six more and likely to be exercised because of this booming business where over 30 vessels are currently committed as newbuildings. The ships will adopt Ice Class 1A Polar Code PC6 for Arctic and Antarctic cruising by 80-95 passengers and are costed at US$100M apiece. This is but one example of ambitious determination by US tourist companies and owners to break into this market and match deep sea cruising giants Carnival Corporation and Disney. The appeal of cruising in the Polar region knows no bounds,

The United States is enjoying a strong period, with the orderbook looking healthy for some time to come, says Barry Luthwaite

with other domestic owners likely to join the race. Few if any of the vessels are likely to be built in the USA as it is far too expensive and they do not qualify for Jones Act subsidy. Owners are also having a long hard look at river cruise vessels before European operators like Viking River Cruises exploit US coastal and river cruising. Lindblad-National Geographic Expeditions based in New York committed construction of two cruise vessels to the shipyard of Nichols Brothers. These are by far the most prestigious orders ever received by this traditional small boat builder based on Whidbey Island, Washington State. Each vessel accommodates 100 passengers and cost US$50M apiece. The first vessel is named National Geographic Quest and sailed on its maiden voyage in early August to Alaska. Although larger cruise liners visit Alaska, these smaller ships can penetrate more remote areas which are off limits to bigger ships. Both ships are powered by two 12-cylinder White engines. The second unit National Geographic Venture will deliver in the summer of 2019. The country’s only large merchant vessel construction builder – Philly Shipyard – enjoyed a good year taking orders for four 3,700 teu containerships which will be placed in domestic in service to Hawaii. This takes employment by the builder into 2022. The vessels will be built in collaboration with partner Totem Ocean Trailer Express (TOTE) which will bareboat charter them from the shipyard. Additionally two near sister ships of 3,600 TEU are already under construction for Matson Navigation and will also be delivered for Hawaii service. This pair is due to be delivered in May and November 2018 but there will probably be slippage. All six ships will be powered by MAN B&W 7S90ME-C10 engines. The four TOTE vessels are said to be LNG-ready but there is not yet any confirmation they will be dual-fuel propelled. With the collapse of the offshore market US yards building vessels for this sector have suffered badly. Hawaii operator Pasha Hawaii Transport Lines ordered three 2,525 TEU containerships from Keppel Amfels in Brownsville, Texas. 400 reefer plugs are also fitted. Previously building drilling rigs, Keppel FELS demonstrated another successful example of adapting to construction of commercial merchant ships. For Philly, the containership orders mark a change of direction as previously the builder has been engaged in tanker construction.

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


The third of four 50,000 dwt MR1 products carriers was recently commissioned into the fleet of American Petroleum Tankers with the final one to follow at the end of 2017. As a member of the US Coastguard Heavy Polar Icebreaker design team, Philly Shipyard has teamed up with naval architecture and marine engineering group Vard to develop a next-generation heavy polar icebreaker for the US Coastguard. The design and construction contract for a single vessel and elivery is set for 2023 at a cost of around US$1Bn. There is great pride in the fact that the nation provides the biggest cruise liner group in Carnival Corp, with several ships are based in Miami. The group has added several cruise liners to the orderbook in an unsurpassed time for cruise liner construction and no fewer than ten cruise liners are due to be delivered to Carnival Group between now and 2022. Three of these (known as Helios class) will be delivered to AIDA Cruises (2) and Costa Cruises in 2018 and 2021. The first AIDA vessel will commission by the end of this year. MaK will supply the vessels with 16V M46DF engines, marking a breakthrough for LNG propulsion. Meanwhile, Disney Corporation returned to Meyer Werft, Germany for a third cruise liner. This trio will deliver between 2021 and 2023, increasing the Disney fleet to seven vessels. In another boost for smaller yards there is a renaissance in tug construction. With bigger ships, especially in the containership sector, US ports struggle to keep pace with the necessary infrastructure so new tugs with greater towing power are needed to replace ageing fleets. Some are chartered in until such time as

COUNTRY OF DOMICILE OF OWNER USA Vessels under construction

replacements are built. With a vast river industry hinterland more pusher tugs are also in demand and this tug boom has helped the loss of so much business when the offshore market collapsed. The US is a big player in this sector, especially in the Gulf of Mexico but many were forced into cancellation as owners were driven to bankruptcy with the dramatic collapse of the oil price. The US trading fleet currently numbers 2,997 vessels aggregating 74,496,929 dwt. There is a heavy involvement in the tanker trades underlined by a complement of 341 vessels totalling 35,057,416 dwt. This is closely followed by bulk carriers occupying a strength of 289 units aggregating 19,297, 953 dwt. The strong influence in the offshore sector is demonstrated by a presence of 990 platform supply vessels, 38 offshore support units, 304 offshore related, 52 drill ships and 42 drilling rigs underlining the importance of this industry to the national economy. A fragile recovery is taking place with the worst of the recession over but huge debts still have to be recovered. The overall picture in other sectors however is one of underlying strength for the maritime economy. MP

COUNTRY OF DOMICILE OF OWNER USA Trading vessels vessel type



Offshore Supply






Offshore Miscellaneous



Bulk Carrier



Offshore AHTS









vessel type









Dry Cargo






RoRo Freight



Offshore Supply



Offshore Drill Ship



Bulk Carrier



Offshore Rig



Fast Ferry



Offshore Support



Offshore Rig















Car Carrier



Offshore Miscellaneous












Offshore AHTS



Offshore FPSO



Cruise Inland



Fast Ferry



Offshore Drill Ship



Luxury Yacht



Offshore Support


















Luxury Yacht



Heavy Lift






Cruise Inland









Offshore FPSO



Offshore Gas







Grand Total

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

Grand Total

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Big questions

loom over enforcement Robust and effective enforcement of the forthcoming global sulphur cap is vital. Yet uncertainty remains on how – and even if – this can be achieved As yet, IMO has not revealed its plans for enforcement of the global sulphur cap


f the many issues surrounding the global sulphur cap, one of the most significant is enforcement. But as most shipowners are currently more concerned with the conundrum of how to achieve cost-effective compliance, it is perhaps understandable that they might have little time to concern themselves with this issue. Effective enforcement will have to be at the heart of the sulphur cap, or else there will be justifiable fears that it will be rendered meaningless. As ever, reputable operators will make every

effort to be scrupulously compliant, but the sad truth is that not every operator is reputable. Some smaller operators may look at the potential penalties for non-compliance and the likelihood of getting caught, and conclude that it is a risk worth taking. This raises the unwelcome prospect of scrupulous operators being put at a financial disadvantage by complying. This is a prospect that the Trident Alliance has long recognised. It was formed prior to the implementation of new rules for ECA zones in 2015. According to chairperson Anna Larsson “Effective

enforcement of the global sulphur cap promises to be even more challenging than enforcing the ECA zones currently in effect.” This is especially unfortunate, as the examples set in enforcing the ECA zones do not look especially encouraging. In the ECA zones established in 2015, for example, non-compliance rates in port inspections conducted were 3% in the Baltic Sea and 9% in the North Sea. Yet just 30% of violations were penalised, with very few detentions or legal actions. What is more, different port states set very different financial penalties for non-

compliance, which is likely to lead to disputes over jurisdictional authority as rogue operators seek the least punitive option. In some countries, fines are as low as US$1,500, which, when compared with potential savings of US$100,000 per trip, per ship from using noncompliant fuel, makes clear the incentive for non-compliance. As things stand, profound uncertainty remains on the issue of the willingness or ability of port states or other authorities to enforce the cap. As Anna Larsson put it “We have seen an increased level of enforcement activity in several countries in Northern

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


Europe, with some promising development in the area of airborne sensors which would enable monitoring of sulphur levels at sea and not just in port. While these methods have exposed some sulphurculprits, the legal framework in several countries appears not to be robust enough to bring them to justice.” One recent report by the Columbia Center for Global Energy Policy went so far as to suggest that non-compliance was likely to be so rife as to represent a boon to the industry, by keeping down demand for compliant fuel. In his report Slow Steaming to 2020: Innovation and Inertia in Marine Transport and Fuels, senior research scholar Antoine Halff states “Non-compliance will further alleviate product market pressures. Given the lack of environmental police on the high seas, enforcement is a daunting challenge for the global cap’s implementation. Efforts to beef up enforcement currently focus on tightening paperwork checks at ports, which is a cheaper but less effective approach than actual emission checks by flyover or satellite.” That said, as Anna Larsson acknowledges, some countries have displayed a greater willingness to innovate in the field of emissions monitoring, using new technologies. The great problem with enforcement has traditionally been that it could only take place when a vessel is in dock, when inspectors are on board, or when it passed under a fixed sensor. Without the technology to offer accurate readings of vessels’ emissions while at sea, it is largely impossible to achieve accurate monitoring. Certain systems exist that are transforming this scenario, though. The use of so-called ‘sniffer’ drones is perhaps the most eye-catching. It is the remit of the European Maritime Safety Agency

Snapshot CV

Anna Larsson

Chair, Trident Alliance With over 20 years of experience in international communications and sustainability, Mrs Larsson has held a range of positions within Wallenius Wilhelmsen Logistics, including most recently head of external Communications and Marketing

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

(EMSA) to monitor sulphur levels, and it was its decision to award a framework contract for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) services in the maritime environment. The company awarded the contract for ship engine emissions monitoring was the UK company Martek Marine. The benefit of using these unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are many. They are a lot cheaper to operate than conventional aircraft, and can be operated remotely. RPAS can be flown over 50 km from the ground station with instant and continuous video being streamed back to member states. An onboard gas analyser draws samples of air and monitors SOx, NOx and CO2 levels to determine possible breaches in EU law on the sulphur content of a ship’s fuel. The drones are piloted over a ship. As they fly through the ship’s plume, air is drawn over an array of special sensors designed to analyse the amount of sulphur dioxide present in the ship’s emissions. The drones will then be able to instantly relay the data back to base, as well as offer constant live video feeds. The drones will carry electro optical sensors, an infra-red imaging system as well as gas emission and AIS detection sensors. The UAVs will initially provide a sulphur monitoring service, but Martek Marine has plans to use the EMSA contract to push the boundaries even further and roll the service out globally. Drones may not be the only answer to the question of enforcement, though. Onboard emissions monitoring systems are available and in use. In September last year, Royston announced that it had upgraded its Enginei fuel-management system to include a new low-

cost emissions-monitoring capability. This does not use an exhaust gas analyser, working instead by capturing key engine-performance data, engine and fuel specifications and flow rates to provide an accurate calculation of vessel emissions measurements. While such a system can provide reassurance to vessel owners, it is questionable as to whether it would be sufficient to ensure compliance as far as port state control authorities are concerned.

“Effective enforcement of the global sulphur cap promises to be even more challenging than enforcing the ECA zones currently in effect.”

Potentially more promising in this regard are systems such as that offered by Green Sea Guard, which collects data using a probe installed in a ship’s funnel and feeds it back to the company’s secure servers. Coastguards and other regulators, as well as shipowners and operators, can log in and review the emissions profile of interest. Each device includes a range of security and antitamper measures. Such systems do not come cheap (Green Sea Guard’s costs US$43,000), and many shipowners are unlikely to bear such a cost unless mandated to do so by regulatory authorities. As things stand, it remains to be seen whether the authorities are willing or able to take such a step. MP

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cross the whole range of possible ship-operating conditions in ice, the ship's hull must withstand continuous movement in broken ice and in ice channels, in ramming mode and ice-compression mode. The first three modes are mainly characterised by dynamic impacts to hull structures as ice impacts against the ship's side. This phenomenon is relevant to the bow and, when the ship moves astern, to the aft parts of the hull. Ice compression is characterised by a high static load on the side structures. The most frequently detected damage to hull structures is a permanent deflection of side structures, which can be localised, forming the local deformations of side shell plating between stiffeners and ribs between stiffeners. Sometimes, these can be on a larger scale, involving large areas of the side structures, such as plating and stiffeners, which become plastically deformed. When performing a survey of an ice class ship, the Register of Shipping surveyor will assess this damage to determine whether repairs are necessary. In this context, even at the ship-design stage Register of Shipping requirements consider

LNG carriers toughen up to survive Arctic Icebreaking LNG carriers fixed to the Yamal LNG project will undergo two surveys within five years. Russian Maritime Register of Shipping head of research Maxim Boyko explains why probable damage to ship structures, which ensures that the construction remains safe, even if local separate damage occurs. Interaction with ice can damage the paint coating of the side structures, causing corrosion of the structure. This makes it important, for safe navigation in ice, to maintain the quality of coatings, and to determine the proper corrosion and abrasion margins.


Another important point is the safety of propeller blades under ice impact. If the blade breaks on a ship in the icebreaker-led convoy it creates time and cost issues, and increases the danger of ship damage by ice. That is why we have

developed our rules, paying close attention to modern calculation technologies and the model testing of propeller blades. The Russian Maritime Register of Shipping has elaborated rules that determine the minimum dimensions of propeller blades and minimum required propulsion power based on typical load scenarios applicable to Arctic navigation. Also relevant to the machinery is the strength of the podded propulsion units. The design ice loads on such units must be calculated properly at the design stage to ensure that the pod structure and its connection to the hull has the strength to withstand ice loads. We have learned a lot from our experience at the Yamal project. We have gained

The ice-class LNG carrier fleet, on order and on the water Hull number


Capacity, m³

Launch scheduled




2016, November

Christophe de Margerie




2017, October

Boris Vilkitsky




2017, December

Eduard Toll




2018, January

Rudolf Samoylovich




2018, January

Fedor Litke




2018, January




2018, March




2018, May




2018, August




2018, December




2018, December




2019, January




2019, January




2019, December




2020, February


Source: LNG World Shipping, VesselsValue, shipowners

Vladimir Rusanov

Vladimir Vice

unique feedback and data by applying ice-class rules to high ice-class LNG carriers of non-conventional hull form and dimensions. This has helped us to expand our knowledge into non-conventional Arctic ships. This includes the application of high-tensile steels in extremely cold ice conditions, winterisation of deck equipment and the implementation of interesting structural design solutions. Every aspect is carefully assessed to consider the safety of the design. The result of the research has given us the opportunity to optimise the required number of drydocking surveys. An analysis of 25-plus years of data covering the annual docking of icebreakers and ice-class ships shows how the precision of the requirements for hull and propulsion systems, as defined in the Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships, has ensured the long-term safe service of vessels of the given class. Based on this analysis, since 2016 the icebreakers and ice ships meet similar requirements to dock, in survey terms, to other sea-going ships. So instead of an annual survey in dock, icebreakers and ice-class ships now undergo two in-dock surveys of the underwater part of the hull and steerable propellers in five years. This also applies, of course, to Arctic LNG carriers. MP Maxim Boyko is head of research at the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


ASD TAKES TUG MANOEUVRING TO NEW LEVELS Martyn Wingrove gained exclusive access to the above- and below-deck technology on one of Damen Shipyards Group’s latest azimuth stern drive tugs


amen Shipyards Group has designed its latest batch of azimuth stern drive (ASD) tugs to be crammed full of powerful engines and generators. These drive two Rolls-Royce propulsors to generate 70 tonnes of bollard pull for escort and harbour operations. These were some of the systems that were highlighted to Marine Propulsion during an exclusive tour of the latest of these tugs to come off the Damen production line. The tug tour was conducted during a visit to Albwardy Damen’s shipyard in Sharjah Hamriyah Freezone, in the United Arab Emirates. This ASD 2411 design, ASD 92 tug incorporates the latest hull and skeg designs and the most recent developments in propulsion, wheelhouse and winch design. It is one of a series of tugs built as stock vessels and available to purchase. Albwardy Damen project manager Sajan Karolkuni explained that the ASD 2411 design tug is 24.4 m long and 11.3 m wide and has been designed for manoeuvring ships in terminals and harbours and for vessel escort work. He said one of the key elements in the design and construction was to generate as much bollard pull as possible without jeopardising the tug’s size or manoeuvrability. Its power comes from two Caterpillar 3516C engines that have a total power of 4,200 kW at 1,600 rpm. These drive two Rolls-Royce US 255 azimuthing thrusters with fixed pitch propellers of 2,600 mm diameter.

Electrical power comes from two Caterpillar C4.4 TA gensets

Auxiliary equipment on the ASD tug includes two Caterpillar C4.4 TA main generator sets that each produce 86 kVA, with 230/400 V at a frequency of 50 Hz. Other equipment includes two general service pumps, two fuel oil header pumps, three bilge water pumps, a water separator and a Rickmeier lubricant oil pump. Mr Karolkuni also pointed out that the fire-fighting (FiFi) pump for the tug’s FiFi 1 system was located centrally in the

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

engineroom. This diesel-driven pump can deliver 2,700 m3/h to two electricallycontrolled monitors, which can deliver 1,200 m3/h each and to two waterspray units that each have a 150 m3/h capacity. This system was delivered by Fire Fighting Systems. While the FiFi 1 system should only be needed in an emergency, another part of the deck equipment is designed for daily tug operations. Mr Karolkuni explained that the


“There are two of these for redundancy and overhead dials that include compass and propulsion information,”

DMT-supplied double-drum winch near the bow of the vessel has 68 tonnes capacity and can be used with a tie-bit for harbour operations. There is also an electricallydriven capstan and 100-tonne towing hooks fore and aft. Around the deck is a set of fenders. At the bow there is a combination of cylinder and block fenders, while there are D-shaped fenders on the side and aft of the tug and cylinder fendering at transom corners. The whole of the tug is controlled by an automation system supplied by Praxis, which also provided a digital display and controls on the switchboard and outside the master’s cabin. The rest of the switchboard was supplied by Alewijnse Marine. Automation data can also be displayed on an integrated bridge in the wheelhouse. This has a 360º view for the master with a swivel chair that provides access to tug controls and workstations.

Furuno Electric supplied most of the bridge equipment in ASD 92. The Japanese company supplied radar, echosounder, speed log, automatic identification system and a differential satellite-based positioning unit. “The displays can be configured for different information requirements, such as conning, tug alarms, fuel consumption, electric generators and diagnostics,” Mr Karolkuni said. It can also display information about the tug’s pumps, ventilation, lighting and fuel levels. “There are two of these for redundancy and overhead dials that include compass and propulsion information,” he explained. Communications equipment on the tug includes two Sailor Compact 6222 VHF radios from Cobham Satcom and two Tron TR-20 handheld VHF radios from Jotron. This company also supplied the emergency radio beacon and search and rescue transponder. Propulsion controls are supplied by Rolls-Royce, while Schneider Electric provided the winch controls. This ASD 2411 is a similar design to two tugs that are to be built by Wilson Sons Estaleiros yard in Brazil for Saam Smit Towage. These are scheduled to be delivered in the middle of 2018. It is also similar to tug Columbia, which was delivered to Italian owner Rimorchiatori Riuniti in May this year for harbour operations in the Mediterranean region. This also had 70 tonnes of bollard pull. MP

ASD 92 has two FiFi 1 monitors and a wheelhouse with a 360o view

Damen’s ASD 92 Designer/Builder: Damen Design: ASD 2411 Bollard pull: 70 tonnes Total power: 4,200 kW Length: 24.4 m Beam: 11.3 m Engines: 2xCat 3516C Thursters: 2xRolls-Royce US 255 Winch: DMT, 68 tonnes Automation: Praxis Switchboard: Alewijnse Marine

On the bridge Search light (FiFi 1): 2x Pesch, 450 W, Xenon Radar system: Furuno FAR-2117 Propulsion controls: Rolls-Royce Winch controls: Schneider Electric Autopilot: Robertson AP-70 DGPS: Furuno GP-170D Echosounder: Furuno FE-800 VHF: 2x Sailor Compact 6222 VHF: (hand-held) 2x Jotron TRON TR-20 Compass: 2x Magnetic, Kotter type Speed log: Furuno DS-80 Navtex: Furuno NX-700 AIS: Furuno FA-150 EPIRB: Jotron Tron-60S SART: Jotron Tronsart20 Anemometer: Observator Windsonic OMC 115

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


New technology cuts vessel noise and vibration Hydrodynamic calculations, SWATH technology and an increased focus on cutting noise from HVAC piping systems has led to a reduction in noise and vibration. By Rebecca Moore

Abeking & Rasmussen’s cruise ship design uses SWATH technology, which cuts noise and vibration by creating distance between technical areas and accommodation


ew technologies and procedures mean that noise and vibration levels within ships are lower than ever before. A key reason behind their reduction is from the increased use of hydrodynamics calculation software, RINA Services marine chief commercial officer, Paolo Moretti told Marine Propulsion. He explained that this allowed simulation of vibration coming from the shaft line and thus allowed the ship to be optimised to minimise pressure forces and cavitation from the propeller. Mr Moretti explained that the application of hydrodynamics software was also “very helpful” if noise and vibration became an issue once the ship was constructed and in operation, as the model could be looked at again and modifications applied. He said that this had been the case on a ferry that RINA had dealt with this year, whereby the bow thruster's electric motor had been causing too much vibration. “By using our stored model of the ship, we had the possibility to study where the pressure pulses were coming from and analyse it.” Based on this, RINA could see that the electric motor was not properly attached to the structure, thus creating vibrations. Stiffeners were inserted and the problem was solved. Mr Moretti said that this type of problem could be particularly important on cruise ships as it would affect the comfort of the cabins at the stern and bow of the ship, where the most expensive cabins are placed. Elsewhere Abeking & Rasmussen (A&R) has entered the luxury expedition cruise ship market with a design using a small waterplane area twin hull (SWATH) arrangement, which boosts passenger comfort by reducing motion as well as noise and vibration.

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

It has launched Luxury Cruising, a 95 m boutique ship concept. A&R naval architect and sales director of special vessels Nils Olschner explained the SWATH concept “The buoyancy – the volume that is carrying the vessel structure – is taken below the waterline, so it is removed from the energy and not excited by waves. If it is not excited, then it does not move.” He explained that it reduces noise and vibration because the diesel engines are down in the torpedoes as well as most of the other noise-making equipment, where there are no passenger spaces or any accommodation areas directly neighbouring these compartments. “The pure distance between the accommodation and technical spaces reduces both noise and vibration,” Mr Olschner told Marine Propulsion. Indeed, the shipyard has proof of that as it has built the same ship with the same engine installation in two different ways: on one ship the engines are on the main deck level, on the other they are down in the torpedoes. The version with engines in the torpedoes has reduced noise and vibration by 50% compared to the other ship. Noise and vibration carried through vessel piping systems is a challenge for ship operators – and there has been an increased interest in how to reduce the impact of those coming from HVAC system pipes. Victaulic vice president maritime services Didier Vassal singled out this trend and highlighted how the company had recently been contracted to supply its grooved mechanical pipe-joining couplings and fittings to the pipes of the air conditioning systems across the river cruise vessel fleet built in German and Belgium shipyards. Mr Vassal said “in machinery rooms, pumps, chillers, heat exchangers and boilers frequently create noise and vibration which can be difficult to contain. Rubber bellows are often misaligned and fail to deliver the expected noise and vibration attenuations. Three Victaulic flexible connections will do the job”. Victaulic produces a grooved coupling pipe joining system that enables the gasket to seal against the pipe, while the ductile iron housing provides both space for the elastomeric material to flex and containment to prevent overstretching. Each joint is a union and the more couplings installed the better the noise and vibrations will be absorbed by the gaskets. Mr Vassal emphasised how there has been a lack of awareness in the industry about the use of grooved coupling pipe joining systems on HVAC systems. For the past 30 years pipe outlets of chillers have included a groove for the insertion of the coupling pipe system. But there is a lack of knowledge by marine outfitters about what this groove is used for – leading to the bypassing of grooved couplings and the use of older methods, such as welding, flanges and conventional rubber bellows. PST





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BEST OF THE WEB USCG updates its OceanSaver type-approval An updated US Coast Guard (USCG) type-approval certificate has been issued to TeamTec OceanSaver, following September’ s sale of OceanSaver’s assets to IMS Group. It replaces the original certificate issued on 24 August. The certificate confirms that the only difference is the manufacturer’s name; “All equipment manufactured under approval number 162.060/3 before October 18, 2017 remains approved,” the new certificate notes.

Gulf foresees single lubricant for post-2020 ULSFO Gulf Oil Marine’s technical director told Riviera Maritime Media that his company’s current post-2020 lubricant design plans include a universal solution for engines running on ultra-low sulphur fuel oil (ULSFO). Speaking ahead of chairing the Asian Emissions Technology Conference in Singapore in November, Don Gregory said “Our opinion, at the moment, from the information we have, is that we will be able to design a lubricant that spans 0.1-0.5% [sulphur fuels] for all types of engines.”

USCG type-approvals: A situation report Following 19 October’s type-approval of an Erma First ballast water management system (BWMS), six companies have been awarded type-approval certificates and one more application is pending. A further 37 companies have submitted letters of intent to apply for type-approval. The earliest of these was submitted by Desmi Ocean Guard in February 2013 and the

most recent was submitted by Bawat in September this year.

China-built LNG carriers fit Wärtsilä 34DF engines CSSC Wärtsilä Engine (Shanghai) Co (CWEC) has landed an order to deliver 16 engines to four LNG carrier newbuildings under construction at the Hudong Zhonghua shipyard in China. The four vessels are almost certainly the four conventional LNG carriers that Japanese shipowner Mitsui OSK (MOL) has ordered to tranship cargoes from the 16.5 million tonnes a year Yamal LNG project in the Russian Arctic.

Offshore support vessel starts work with hybrid energy system Eidesvik Offshore’s platform supply vessel Viking Princess has returned to service after being refitted with a hybrid power system that incorporates batteries. The Norwegian vessel is the first offshore support vessel in which batteries have been used to reduce the number of generators on board the ship. The new energy storage saolution will improve engine efficiency, generate fuel savings and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Sirius invests in online monitoring Wärtsilä has signed an agreement with Eidesvik Offshore to install a hybrid propulsion system with batteries on its vessel Viking Princess.

Viking Princess will thus become the first offshore supply vessel (OSV ) on which batteries reduce the number of generators on board (other offshore vessels have already been fitted with batteries which augment generators but do not replace them). The new energy storage solution will improve engine efficiency, generate fuel savings and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Omsk Refinery starts production of low-sulphur marine fuel oil Russian refining and production company Gazprom Neft has produced its first ultra-low sulphur fuel oil to meet the requirements of the emissions control areas (ECA) as laid out in IMO’s MARPOL protocol. The Omsk Refinery developed a catalytic cracking technology in 2016 for producing marine fuel oils that meet or fall below the 0.1% limit required to comply with the MARPOL ECA standards. The fuel has also been certified to comply with the Eurasian Economic Community regulations.

Exxon survey: 70% not ready for sulphur cap A marine industry survey conducted by ExxonMobil has found that the route to compliance with the International Maritime Organization 2020 0.5% global sulphur cap is unclear for many vessel operators. Results highlight an ongoing sense of confusion and lack of preparedness, with 70% of respondents saying that they do not believe the industry is ready for the deadline. The makeup of the marine fuel mix in 2020 and beyond is a clear area of

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


concern, with wide-ranging views from the industry on how the landscape will evolve.

BWC to offer boxed Ecochlor treatment systems Ballast Water Containers (BWC) of the UK can now offer its portable treatment unit with a USCG type-approved Ecochlor treatment unit, following what the two companies termed a “strategic collaboration” in an announcement on 12 October. BWC’s chief executive Richard Lawson told MP that Ecochlor’s single stage treatment technology, operating during uptake only, was a key factor that impressed him in reaching the agreement with the US-based company.

New centres to speed Wärtsilä’s ‘intelligent vessel’ strategy Wärtsilä has opened the first of four Digital Acceleration Centres (DACs) to speed up innovation on a range of new business models and solutions, including the industry's most advanced ‘intelligent vessel’ and other ground-breaking projects.

The first Digital Acceleration Centre has launched in Helsinki, Finland; the second will open in December in Singapore and two further acceleration centres, one in central Europe and one in North America, are anticipated during 2018. In addition, ‘pop-up’ DACs will be tested with customers around the globe.

Denmark-China’s ballast MoU will lead to wider co-operation A memorandum of understanding (MoU) signed between the Danish industry body Danish Maritime and the Shipbuilding Information Centre of China (SICC) to work together on ballast treatment development will lead to wider links between the countries’ maritime technology sectors. Speaking to Marine Propulsion, Danish Maritime managing director Jenny Braat described the MoU as the first step towards stronger co-operation between the two countries “on green shipping, environmentfriendly equipment and safety [matters].” The MoU was signed on 13 September at the end of a ballast treatment technology conference in Qingdao, China, by Danish Maritime’s international director Klaus Rostell and SICC director Li Yanqing.

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CMAL moves closer to building hydrogen ferry Caledonian Maritime Assets Ltd (CMAL) is “actively” working on a hydrogen ferry project with the aim to build a ferry powered by this fuel. The Scottish ferry owner’s director of vessels Jim Anderson told delegates at a panel discussion about electrification, at Interferry’s annual conference. “We are actively working on a hydrogen ferry project and have done a cost model capex and it can be done.” The company started the project in 2010 and has been working on it with partners including Ferguson shipyard.

Offshore Towing considers fleet refurbishment Offshore Towing is considering retrofitting its fleet of tugs and supply vessels with new shaft seals and other components after success with one of its oldest units. It operates a fleet of six ocean-going tugs and two supply vessels, providing towage and support services in the Gulf of Mexico and Bay of Campeche, Mexico. The Louisiana, US-headquartered tug operator has upgraded a 1974-built tug at Conrad Deepwater shipyard, in Morgan City, Louisiana. It extensively refurbished 9000 hp (6700 kW) tug Zion Falgout at the shipyard during Q3 2017.

Acquisition sees Wärtsilä strengthen expertise in positioning technology Wärtsilä has acquired Guidance Marine Limited, the privately owned company that specialises in sensor solutions for dynamic positioning and other vessel control systems, such as collision avoidance and remote control operations. In a statement, Wärtsilä said it is “deeply committed to providing technologies needed to enhance intelligent shipping, whereby digital solutions will greatly improve the efficiency, safety and profit-earning capabilities of its maritime customers.”

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017





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In the wake of disasters in 2012, Carnival Maritime was formed with a brief to innovate for safety. Jens Kohlmann, the company’s vice president asset management, talks about the journey


t is almost a truism to say that shipping can be a conservative a massive impact on our share value – billions were lost and more business. The danger of getting it wrong can often lead to a importantly, lives were lost. Things had to change.” resistance to technological change that means the industry as a The development of Carnival Maritime was how those things whole is rarely at the cutting edge. started to change and conservatism about new technology was no That said, the cruise industry tends to move faster than other longer an option. In founding this service unit to enhance safety, the sectors, for instance, because its customer-facing, competitive Costa Group is a pioneer in the cruise industry. In fact, the events nature makes it imperative to ensure that the companies involved of 2012 made it imperative that the group as a whole was ready to have to be seen to be offering customers the latest technologies to embrace new technology in a range of areas. ensure comfort, environmental performance, hygiene and – above Based in Hamburg, Carnival Maritime brings together the all else – safety. marine technical and engineering expertise of the entire Costa Occasionally, however, events can sometimes force businesses Group. The unit provides digital support to the 27 vessels of Costa to adapt more quickly. This has certainly Cruises, AIDA Cruises and Costa Asia, enabling been the case with Carnival Maritime, which real time support in risk and crisis management as was formed in 2015 as the Marine Service well as optimised route planning. Unit of the Costa Group. It was founded to Additionally, Carnival Maritime assists “32 lives were lost. foster communication processes between ship shipbuilding, maintenance and refurbishment, and shore as well as further strengthening takes care of trainings, route planning, technical Whether the captain collaboration and co-ordination between procurement, medical services, support of the likes being monitored Carnival Maritime and the brands Costa nautical and technical staff on board and auditing simply doesn't matter of the vessels with regard to safety, danger Cruises, AIDA Cruises and Costa Asia. It is an understatement to say that 2012 prevention and staff. in that context!” was a terrible year for Costa Cruises. In When it comes to developing the best possible January, the Costa Concordia capsized and vessels for the future, Mr Kohlmann is certain that sank after striking an underwater rock off the answer is to focus on big suppliers to deliver Isola del Giglio, Italy. 32 people died and the cutting edge solutions Carnival Maritime the total cost of the disaster, including needs. “Big ships are getting more and more victims’ compensation, refloating, towing and complex and in order to get the equipment and scrapping costs, is estimated to be around US$2Bn, more than three technology we need to keep our lists of suppliers to a minimum. times the US$612M construction cost of the ship. That means we have to work with big partners.” As if this weren’t bad enough, in February the same year Costa In terms of the technologies Carnival deems necessary to Allegra suffered a generator fire while off the coast of Africa achieve its safer, more efficient vessels, Mr Kohlmann believes one approximately 200 miles southwest of the Seychelles on 27 February of the main ones to be automation. This is, he claimed, increasingly 2012 and was taken into tow toward the island of Mahé in the imperative on cruise vessels, whose sheer complexity means that Seychelles Islands the following day, a journey of several days. automation is already a must. Illustrating this, he says: “AIDAPrima Given these events, it is not hard to understand why such a has 20-30,000 functions that need to be taken care of by 900 crew, group would be felt to be necessary. Jens Kohlmann, vice president while an average container ship has just 1,000.” asset managementof Carnival Maritime, is not slow to acknowledge Mr Kohlmann sees this process of adopting automation as this legacy, saying “Those incidents – Concordia and Allegra – had gaining increased control rather than losing it, with systems

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


no longer being subject to possible human error. “The point of automation is self-control,” he said. “Systems must be able to protect themselves.” A major part of this control, he asserted, will come in the form of remote surveillance by experts located onshore. “These things we are installing are very complex,” he said. “Our staff are often out of their depth. That means we must always be able to get expert service to them. We need 24/7 access to shore-based assistance because our vessels run 24 hours. I can’t [afford to] wait for another disaster before I start to develop other models.” These are early days, however. Later steps will be to develop a technical fleet operation centre. This will focus on being able to switch into the individual engine or control room and, as Mr Kohlmann put it “telling the crewmember which buttons to push”. He believes that that process may overall take 10-15 years, but Carnival Maritime will start with things like energy management and water management and move on from there. When it comes to the question of how crews will adapt to these changes and whether they regard it as ‘meddling’ to be monitored from Hamburg, Mr Kohlmann has little patience. After pointing out that from its present experience the company has had no negative feedback, he said “It’s a different way of working. Captain Schettino [of the Costa Concordia] would not have done what he did if he were being monitored. 32 lives were lost. Whether the captain likes being monitored doesn’t matter in that context! He would simply no longer think of doing such a thing.” Nonetheless, he is keen to point out that overall responsibility

for safety remains onboard and that the monitoring that goes on is simply a check. He said “From the Fleet Operations Centre in Hamburg, we can see if there is a problem and we simply ask whether they are aware and what the background is. The full responsibility lies onboard.” Mr Kohlmann also believes that there is much that can be done in terms of vessel and equipment design that would also increase safety on board new vessels. One of his particular bugbears is in the case of engineroom fires. If a ship has an engineroom fire, he asks "why did the ships fail and why did the ships have fires when they met international standards? Maybe international standards do not help us enough? An allowed surface of 220oC is not sufficient – our fires happened at lower surface temperatures. Also, surfaces do get hotter than 220oC. Diesel can be ignited at 60oC, so we must have surface temperatures that low.” In addition, he said, the fuel systems are near the turbochargers, but that is where the surfaces are hottest. If any further proof were needed of just how forward-thinking the brief Carnival Maritime has, one need only look at the company’s readiness to look at 3D printing of spare parts. “We have started to think about being able to print spare parts at sea,” he said. “We want to be able to look at what we can do in this respect. We want to do it in close co-operation with the manufacturers so they can tell us which spare parts we can 3D print ourselves.” “If manufacturers don’t move on this, there is a danger they will start to see illegal 3D printing of spare parts taking place,” he warned. MP

Jens Kohlmann, vice president asset management, Carnival Maritime

Snapshot CV

Jens Kohlmann

Vice president, asset management Carnival Maritime Prior to the formation of Carnival Maritime, Jens Kohlmann was director, yards and strategic projects for AIDA Cruises

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017


ISO may produce intermediate ISO 8217 specifications before 2020 It is possible that a “publiclyavailable specification” could be ready sooner in response to a request from the IMO for ISO to “keep consistency between the ISO standard and implementation of the 0.5% sulphur limit,” according to the International Bunker Industry Association. The sixth edition of the

standard was published in March 2017. It dealt with the issue of fatty acid methyl ester(s) (FAME) and introduced a new reporting requirement on cold flow properties for winter grade distillates (cloud point and cold filter plugging point), but it was not then able to address all of the issues arising from the introduction

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to the market of several less conventional types of marine fuels with maximum 0.10% sulphur for operation in emission control areas (ECAs). Quality concerns specific to low sulphur types of fuel are expected to become even more pressing with the 0.50% sulphur limit in 2020. The technical committee

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$345-$349 $339-$346 $355-$363 $365-$370 $365-$368 $365-$368

$525-$530 $513-$525 $545-$565 $570-$580 $605-$610 $610-$615

Barging $11.50pmt PPDD PPDD Barging $14.00pmt



*Price not updated from previous report.

MTD = delivered MTW = ex-wharf PP = posted price

Information supplied by Dave Reid - Broker @ WMF e: Wilhelmsen Premier Marine Fuels Ltd

All prices listed are in US Dollars. These are indicative prices only to be used as a guide, subject to change depending on market conditions, quantity & supply date. DISCLAIMER: Please note that the information provided hereby merely contains observations and forward-looking expectations which are subject to risk and uncertainties related to financial and market conditions in relevant markets and may otherwise be subject to change. The purpose of this information is to share insight, which has been reported through common sources or our network. WMF undertakes no liability and makes no representation or warranty for the information and expectations given in this information or for the consequences of any actions taken on the basis of the information provided.

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | October/November 2017

that reviews and updates the ISO 8217 marine fuel standard, as well as ISO 8216 (classification of marine fuels) has started looking at what to do for the next revision. The normal revision process takes at least three years so it will be ready in late 2020 at the earliest, probably later. However, it is possible that the ISO 8217 technical committee (ISO TC28/SC4/ WG6) could work on an interim solution by producing a publicly available specification (PAS), which is an intermediate specification published prior to a full International Standard. A PAS is initially valid for up to three years, after which it may be extended for up to another three years or can be withdrawn. The PAS, or elements of it, could be adopted as part of the next full ISO 8217 revision. At the moment, ISO 8217 is divided into marine distillate (MD) grades, distillate FAME (DF) grades and residual marine (RM) grades. Some fuels already meet the 0.10% sulphur limit in ECAs that do not fit into the distillate category, and hence are typically sold under ISO 8217 residual marine specifications (RM grades). ISO 8217 will likely continue to have MD grades of pure distillate fuels, so the main question is how it will address the low sulphur fuel blends that fall into the RM category today. The most pressing quality concerns about the blends that are expected to be produced to meet the 0.50% sulphur limit in 2020 relate to stability and the compatibility between various products, and this would likely be the focus of the work. It could include incorporating new test methods to get a better measure of fuel stability and compatibility. MP


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Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery Oct/Nov17  

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery provides the technical, operational and project teams that work for the ship owner/operator/manager...

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery Oct/Nov17  

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery provides the technical, operational and project teams that work for the ship owner/operator/manager...