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We don’t know what tomorrow’s ships will look like. But we do know what will contribute to their fire protection. Click here to watch the video

HIGH-TEMPERATURE INSULAT IONS | MAR INE Even if we don’t know what the future holds, we can still be prepared for it. At Thermamax we already have solutions that support our customers in the marine market sector to fulfill the increasingly strict safety and emissions standards today. With our 100% SOLAS-compliant insulation systems for both engine and exhaust installations, we can ensure effective fire protection, increased reliability and efficient exhaust after-treatment meeting IMO standards. So why not team up with a partner who is already working on what you will need for tomorrow? Thermamax Hochtemperaturdämmungen GmbH


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August/September 2017

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August/September 2017 volume 39 issue 4



Enginebuilder profile 16 Changes give new impetus

Ship type: Tankers & bulkers 19 Tankers maintain positive trend 20 Bleak picture for bulkers 22 The first global step towards an LNG-fuelled oil tanker industry? 23 AET selects new LNG dual-fuel option for newbuild Aframaxes 26 Swedish owners face triple lock on LNG


Yard Profile 29 Improvement as tradition for Dutch builderships

Two-Stroke Engines 33 Generation X hits the mainstream 34 MAN claims advantage on principle

Four-Stroke Engines 36 EIAPP-certified systems take the stage


Additives 39 Reaping the benefits of lubricant sea trials

LUKOIL_Az_190x62_Kompass_auf_Wasser.qxp_Layout 1 24.09.15 13:09 Seite 1

Think LUKOIL !

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

contents Fuel Systems 43 High efficiencies promised from high-pressue fuel injector 44 Ferries fit LNG fuel systems; L’Orange finds a cause and a cure for sticking fuel pumps 46 Get ready for MRV, warns Royston

Emissions 49 Tankers to profit from 2020 fuel regs 50 USCG actively rewards early adopters of scrubber technology

Alternative Fuels

August/September 2017 volume 39 issue 4 Editor: Paul Fanning t: +44 20 8370 1737 e: Brand Manager – Sales: Tom Kenny t: +44 7432 156 339 e: Sales Manager: Rob Gore t: +44 20 8370 7007 e: Sales: Paul Dowling t: +44 20 8370 7014 e:

53 Success boosts methanol’s credibility 57 Hydrogen struggles for acceptance

Sales: Jo Lewis t: +44 20 8370 7793 e:

Power Generation and Gensets

Head of Sales – Asia: Kym Tan t: +65 9456 3165 e:

58 Waste heat generates increased interest 63 Genset market resists hybrid challenge

Transmission 69 Two-stroke engines can benefit from hybrid transmission 70 Research project aims to improve efficiency 73 Workboats to benefit from Reintjes’ innovations; Innovation never stops at Dellner Brakes 74 Shaft load measurements save fuel on dual-fuel engines

Hybrid Systems 77 Battery power boosts hybrid cruising 81 ‘Big two’ stake their claims in hybrid 85 Battery technologies define the future of hybrid

Noise & Vibration 89 Increased regulation boosts noise and vibration clampdown 92 New technology cuts vessel noise and vibration

Production Manager: Sasha Tan t: +44 20 8370 1718 e: Korean Representative: Chang Hwa Park Far East Marketing Inc t: +82 2730 1234 e: Japanese Representative: Kazuhiko Tanaka Shinano Co., Ltd t: +81 335 894 667 e: Chairman: John Labdon Managing Director: Steve Labdon Finance Director: Cathy Labdon Operations Director: Graham Harman Head of Content: Edwin Lampert Executive Editor: Paul Gunton Head of Production: Hamish Dickie Business Development Manager: Steve Edwards Published by: Riviera Maritime Media Ltd Mitre House 66 Abbey Road Enfield EN1 2QN UK

Engineroom Safety 95 Defence in depth can beat oil spray fires ISSN 1742-2825 (Print) ISSN 2051-056X (Online)

Subscribe from just £299 Subscribe now and receive six issues of Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery every year and get even more: • supplements: Worldwide Turbocharger Guide, Fuels, Lubes and Emissions Technology and Ballast Water Treatment Technology • access the latest issue content via your digital device • free industry yearplanner including key dates • access to and its searchable archive. Subscribe online:

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

©2017 Riviera Maritime Media Ltd

Total average net circulation: 15,250 Period: January-December 2015

Disclaimer: Although every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this publication is correct, the Author and Publisher accept no liability to any party for any inaccuracies that may occur. Any third party material included with the publication is supplied in good faith and the Publisher accepts no liability in respect of content. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, reprinted or stored in any electronic medium or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission of the copyright owner.

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66 Spares Supply 99 Counterfeit parts pose increasing threat

Area report: China 103 China faces a long climb back

Marine Intelligence


107 OEMs seek the digital sweet spot 113 MRV drives data adoption 115 New mobile webpage for performance data; Stena Line and Caterpillar form digital partnership; Connected Diagnostics made available for engine management

Fuels & Lubes 117 MEPC 71 fuels further debate

Next issue


Ship Type: Tugs & Workboats Main features include: high-speed engines; turbochargers; propellers; engineroom pumps; cargo handling machinery Also: coatings; area report: USA

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

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s everyone must know by now, the Ballast Water Management Convention was first devised as a response to the dangers of invasive foreign species being introduced in waters where they could do untold damage to the native ecology. Whatever the shortcomings of the process whereby the convention has been introduced, few would argue that its aim is anything other than laudable. However small and apparently innocuous, alien species represent a real threat to the ecosystems to which they are carried. Given “which, the action on their presence in ballast water – however belated – is to be welcomed.” The problem is that ballast water is not the only means whereby ships can carry invasive foreign species. According to recent research published by Tel Aviv University’s School of Zoology, half the ships passing along the Mediterranean coast of Israel are carrying invasive invertebrates. These organisms are apparently passing through the Suez Canal, latching onto ropes and the bottom of the ship. These creatures are filter feeders, so they cover and clog every surface they latch onto, creating a lot of drag for the ship and damaging marine biodiversity in their new environments. So what is to be done? There is no magic bullet. To combat this

threat, shipowners may need to take a new approach to hull coating and maintenance. And, if they don’t do so, how long will it be before regulation requires them to do so? On the face of it, the answer to this would appear to be ‘not very long at all’. This is because in August, the state of California – in a unilateral move – announced that it intends to tighten up its regulations on biofouling to include the mandatory biofouling management of the vessel’s wetted surfaces. Taken with the intention of controlling the ingress of non-indigenous species, this measure has been approved by California's Office of Administrative Law and is to become effective on 1 October this year. It should be said, however, that this move has not come as a complete surprise. California has been pursuing biofouling regulations for some time, as have Australia and New Zealand. It should be said, of course, that in taking this action, California is some way ahead of anything covered by IMO or US regulations. Nonetheless, the transition of this issue from speculative to actual regulation represents a significant step in terms of its progression up the environmental agenda. Realistically, it’s unlikely that most shipowners will have to face regulation on hull fouling in the very short term. In the longer term, however, such measures are looking increasingly likely. MP

Click here for more editor's comment videos

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017








ixed reactions have greeted July’s decision by IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) to support later compliance dates for ballast water discharge standards. Ship managers and owners have welcomed the decision, offering as it does some much-needed breathing space. Speaking to Marine Propulsion, the secretary general of the ship managers’ organisation InterManager, Kuba Szymanski, said that “pragmatism has won”. He hoped that, through this decision, “we could learn a valuable lesson – that co-operation is what creates win-win situations.” He had invited some of the

organisation’s members to offer their views and he passed on two of their initial comments, without naming the companies that had made them. One said the delay would be welcomed “by the whole shipping community and by those who really care about environment, excluding the ones who have a commercial interest [such as] makers, yards and class.” Another had hoped that the revised compliance date would have simply been set as the first IOPP survey renewal on or after 8 September 2019. Otherwise, he believes it is unfair “to the shipowners who made decisions for deharmonisation of [their] IOPPC due to a lack of information and the age of their fleet.”

While ship managers and owners welcomed the MEPC’s support for later compliance, manufacturers are less keen, finds Paul Gunton

The International Chamber of Shipping issued a statement on 10 July quoting its director of policy, Simon Bennett, who described MEPC’s decision as “a victory for common sense that will allow shipping companies to identify and invest in far more robust technology to the benefit of the environment.” It has given the industry “the clarity it needs to get on with the job and make the global implementation of this important piece of legislation a

BELOW: The MEPC71 arrived at its decision in July

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


success,” Mr Bennett said. By contrast, manufacturers have expressed disappointment over the decision. “I think it is entirely possible that many ballast water management system (BWMS) vendors will now leave the sector,” said Andrew Marshall, chief executive of Coldharbour Marine. He made his remarks in notes for the Ballast Water Expert Group run by the Institute of Marine Engineering, Science & Technology (IMarEST), saying that manufacturers may have either a lack of cash or a “lack of faith that the sector will ever generate a return on the considerable investments that they have made in good faith to develop, test and produce BWMS equipment to the standards that they were set.” He was also concerned for owners “who did the right thing” and have invested in BWMS equipment. “If their previous vendor of choice decides to leave the market as a result of this delay, how will those owners secure spare parts or service provision for the equipment that they already have? Do they now have to invest again?” Susanna Wyllie, global proposals manager at De Nora for its Balpure BWMS, said she was disappointed not only about the two-year delay but also that MEPC had retained the link to a ship’s International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate (IOPPC). “Two years may not sound like a long extension,” she said in a statement on 11 July, “but with many owners choosing to renew their fiveyear IOPP certification on the cusp of entry into force, the reality is that this pushes industry compliance out by up to seven years.” But she hoped that “we will see significantly more preparation from owners and operators in the next two years than we have seen in the 13 years since the adoption of the convention.” There is no shortage of equipment available, she suggested. “Over 50 ballast water treatment

systems have IMO typeapproval. Several systems already have USCG approval with many more, including Balpure, going through the approval process and certified under the USCG AMS. It is evident that the industry is well prepared to meet the entry into force deadline with full compliance,” she said. “We are not happy with this,” said Tore Andersen, chief executive of Optimarin. “It is difficult to grow the business with additional testing and slow sales,” he said. “Where will makers get experience from, if shipowners do not install and use the equipment?” he asked. This delay is not good for owners, either, he said. In the short term, they can defer the cost, but “in the long run they risk having less competition.” For many makers, “this could be the end,” he said. As for Optimarin, “we are lucky to have USCG type-approval and can get orders for ships [that need that].” The US market was also welcomed by Tom Perlich, president of Ecochlor. “The majority of the shipowners in our target market (midsize to large bulkers and tankers) call frequently in the US,” he pointed out. With the USCG regulations already in place and USCG type-approval expected, “we are preparing for another record-breaking 2017 and an even busier 2018,” he said. For the wider market, he hopes that shipowners “will use this extension period to plan for a smooth phase-in and gain valuable insight on their BWMS through operational experience.” None of the manufacturers interviewed were surprised by MEPC’s decision, but Mark Riggio, senior market manager for Hyde Marine, was worried about the example it sets. “I am shocked by the thin logic used to push this delay and by how much IMO has allowed shipowner [organisations] to push the agenda,” he said. Going further, Mr Riggio said: “This is setting a dangerous precedent for the organisation that, if not checked, may make future

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

regulation difficult to pass.” He was also concerned about the USCG’s approach and drew attention to its Marine Safety Information Bulletin, issued on 30 June. “By [the USCG’s] own admission, shipowners are not complying with its rules … but they are not doing anything about it,” Mr Riggio said. “As long as they continue to ignore violations of their rule and IMO does not require installations, the damage to the environment will continue. In the end, that’s what angers me the most.” Some manufacturers looked for positive points in MEPC’s decision. What is important, said Anders Lindmark, Alfa Laval’s vice president responsible for its PureBallast BWMS, “is that IMO’s BWMC is ratified and will enter into force and that we have clarity of the implementation schedule for D-2 compliance.” He also underlined the fact that D-1 compliance will be mandatory from 8 September and that the requirements related to

discharge in US waters are already in force. Tore Andersen of Optimarin also saw a silver lining: “It looks like it is a final decision and no more delay can be made,” he said. But Andrew Marshall of Coldharbour Marine was not so sure. “I am hearing rumblings that it is far from clear that this amendment will be adopted at MEPC 72,” he said. “Not all flag states are in agreement on this so the traditional consensus that underpins the operation of MEPC may be absent in March 2018.” He also spoke of “at least two” unnamed owners who, “emboldened by just how easy it was to get IMO/MEPC to cave in this time, are preparing initiatives to not only further delay the convention for retrofits, but also to delay it for newbuildings.” Whatever the outcome, he said, “the marine sector’s credibility is damaged by this delay, but perhaps not as damaged as the environment itself.” MP

KUBA SZYMANSKI, general secretary, Intermanager: “Pragmatism has won”

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Exhaust gas temperature sensors:

the future’s digital A

n exhaust gas temperature (EGT) sensor measures the temperature of the engine exhaust gas to prevent damage to critical components such as the after-treatment system, turbines and cylinder head exhaust valves. It can also be used inside the combustion chambers where hot gases are generated. Exhaust gas temperature is not an accurate measurement but rather a good indication of heat in the cylinder during combustion. It is most commonly measured close to the head. Since all metals melt, deform, or undergo transformation under excessive temperatures, too high a temperature can cause damage to engine components. So it is critical to have a sensor in place to assess the combustion inside the engine, either across the whole unit or cylinder by cylinder. Operating at peak levels, EGT sensors can optimise engine performance and deliver significant fuel and maintenance cost savings. Any abnormal change in the combustion cycle due to the fuel-supply system, airsupply system or combustion chamber configuration can obviously be problematic, so having sensors located on an engine is vitally important. Exhaust gas parameters, such as temperature, pressure and mass flow are all constantly changing in the exhaust pipe during every


PATRICE FLOT (CMR Group): Typically, when electronic sensors were introduced, engines retained double measurements

combustion cycle. At the exhaust outlet of the cylinder head, gas temperature can range from around 800°C during exhaust valve opening to 40°C during exhaust and inlet valves opening overlap. A medium- or high-speed engine running at 1,200 rpm can see extreme changes in temperature up to 10 times per second. During each cycle, the temperature sensor located at the cylinder head will be exposed to the hot and cold exhaust flow. The intermediate temperature observed depends on the location of the sensor on the exhaust pipe outlet, the length of the sensor plunger (in comparison with the diameter of the exhaust pipe), the materials of the sensor (and the corresponding thermal coefficients), and the design of the sensor itself. Typically, when electronic sensors were introduced, many engines retained double measurements: thermo-mechanical to provide a local reading, and an electronic one to produce a remote output – providing two different yet acceptable reading references. The EGT measurement at the cylinder head outlet is not an absolute value: it provides an indicative value that is highly repetitive from day to day when engine load, speed and conditions are the same. EGT monitoring devices survey individual and average values, as well as temperature

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


gradients: they deliver prealarm and alarm status by comparing each individual value with the average value. By monitoring individual gradients, the devices can detect if any cylinder is showing an abnormally fast or slow EGT value change. For a turbine gas outlet the pulse effect is dampened by the blades, so temperature variations are within -/+1°C. The measurement provided is used to accurately evaluate the amount of energy produced in the exhaust, while also being used to calculate the gas temperature at turbine inlet. This provides an indication of the thermodynamic behaviour of the engine, and the real status when compared with the theoretical values of mathematical modelling. EGT sensors, sited on the hot areas of the engines, pose some significant challenges for cable, which might have to withstand surrounding temperatures that can reach as high as 600°C depending on where they are located. Here, mineral insulated cable (MIC) is used for the hot spots before being connected to flexible cable running across cooler parts of the engine. The electronics cable must be resistant to problems caused by water or humidity ingress, and carefully routed to minimise damage caused by gas leakage at the flanges of the exhaust pipes. Leakages might be slight (not even detectable through engine performance) but nevertheless, they can hit the cable when close to the flanges. Another issue to be considered is how much the cable can meet the requirements of any excessive or abnormal engine servicing, typically when heat insulation is incorrectly refitted around the pipes following maintenance. The tendency to add more

and more sensors to engines has added a new challenge to the complete wiring system, affecting both reliability and component costs. For instance, larger connectors on ECUs can be vulnerable during routine maintenance programmes: a single contact damaged inside the connector can be costly, resulting in the whole unit being rendered unfit for purpose. This together with improvements in materials, design, technical applications and CAN protocol has driven increasing numbers of engine manufacturers to look at the capabilities offered by a new generation of digital technology, which heralds significant competitive advantages over the very first sensors. Today, it is possible to equip engines with an array of sensors fully digitised to comply with the CAN bus protocol. The protocol usually refers to the data link layer protocol defined by

ISO 11898-1 and the physical layer defined by ISO 118982, and can be summarised as: The physical layer uses differential transmission on a twisted pair wire. A non-destructive bit-wise arbitration is used to control access to the bus. Purely digitally-controlled engines lie in the future. But the firststeps are being taken by far-sighted manufacturers, which are starting to adopt digital sensors to sit alongside traditional ones on their engines. In part, this is being driven by the restrictive number of analogue input ports available on ECUs. Digital technologies offer the additional advantage that any additional number and combination of CAN exhaustafter-treatment, turbine inlet/outlets, cylinder head outlet, combustion chamber temperature and liner wall temperature sensors can be connected to the existing ECU. The speed and position sensors, and on/off switches, can also be digitised,

EGT sensors can be used to prevent damage to critical components

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

reducing the wiring system to a single-cable CAN loop on the engine. These sensors can incorporate unique series numbers embedded in their software and delivered with temporary addresses or with pre-set ones. When plugged into the CAN loop, they can easily be recognised as different sensors because of their series numbers, despite having the same address. Software tools enable the engine builder to create the address in the factory via a PC and a simple CAN interface, an address that is uniquely allocated and given a unique function on the engine. The superior ‘intelligence’ digital sensors offer will herald a whole new world of possibility when it comes to new functionalities. For example, it will be possible to have the various sensors communicating with each other, sharing their respective values. This will enable them to calculate an average value and deliver pre-alarms and alarms when an individual value starts to stray too far from the mean. The EGT sensors can also record the number of low-frequency cycles (start/ stop of the engine, and start/ stop of voltage supply to the sensor) and the highfrequency combustion cycles. The sensors can then perform residual lifetime estimation and provide the expected ‘date for change’ information, which delivers improved condition-based maintenance and longer-term cost savings. Eventually, considering that similar intelligence will be embedded in every sensor, this approach will see the possibility of splitting the software of the ECU into subprograms that, if one sensor fails, will re-route to another one, delivering improved reliability and all-round system performance. MP


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CHANGES BRING NEW IMPETUS WinGD has undertaken a significant journey over the past two years. How will this affect its approach to the low-speed market?

The advent of the X-Series of engines has been a catalyst for innovation

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


n June 2016 Wärtsilä transferred its 30 per cent shareholding in Winterthur Gas & Diesel Ltd (WinGD) to China State Shipbuilding Corp (CSSC). WinGD had previously been part of a joint venture between CSSC and Wärtsilä (of which it had been a part since 2000). Reflecting on the pace of these changes, WinGD Vice President for Operations Andrew Stump said: “The last two years have been a pretty exciting ride. We’ve had a lot of freedom, which has enabled us to step into the area of industrial innovation. That’s made it a really exciting place to work.” The excitement has in no small part been because so much of the company’s two-stroke engine portfolio is relatively new to the market. The advent of the company’s X-series of engines, which was first launched in 2011, has seen a great deal of innovation hit the market in a relatively short space of time. This has meant it has been a period of firsts for the company. Just to give a flavour of this, the last two years have seen the low-speed, low-pressure six-cylinder 5RTflex50DF, X62DF and 72DF engines used in its first commercial application; the first low-pressure dual-fuel X-DF engine pass its type approval test and entered service; the first IMO Tier III-compliant X72 engine with pre-turbocharger SCR passed its shop test; and the newest WinGD X52 diesel passed its factory and type approval tests. Such levels of innovation would seem hard to reconcile with what has been a very


tough market for low-speed engines. To the suggestion tht a depressed market is a bad time to be launching new two-stroke products under a new brand, Mr Stump takes a contrary view. He said: “I find it an extremely opportune time to reshape yourself as a company because you don’t have the pressure of large volumes of new products.” This is particularly the case, Mr Stump asserted, because of the relative youth of many of the company’s products. "With our breadth of experience and existing technologies, we have been able to expand our portfolio.” he explained. “We are fortunate to be in a position which we can build, improve and further innovate on what we already know, and know well.” In fact, Mr Stump sees this relatively fallow period for the market, and offering the company some muchneeded breathing space. He elaborated: “We actually count our blessings that the market is the way it is because it gives us an opportunity to perfect our products. So, there are some upsides to that from our point of view.” This sort of breathing space may not be available for long, though. In July this year, WinGD announced that successful factory and type approval tests on its X52 engine would trigger an advance orderbook of 13 engines worldwide. All of the 13 enigines will be six-cylinder 6X52s to be built in Korea. They include both IMO Tier II and Tier III emission compliance, with the Tier III engines featuring both low- and high-pressure SCR. Eight of the engines include six 6X52 engine rated 7180kW at 86.9 rpm and employing high-pressure SCR to achieve IMO Tier III compliance. The Tier III engines will power a series of six 49,000 dwt petroleum product tankers. The other two engines with the same rated output are Tier II compliant and will be

installed in two 50,000 dwt product tankers. Finally, five 6X52s rated 8,200kW at 80 rpm will power a series of five 60,000 dwt open-hatch general cargo vessels. These X52 engines will be Tier III compliant due to the use of a low-pressure SCR system. A number of factors underpin the X52's sales successes. The introduction of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) has placed increased emphasis on lowering CO2 emissions and total vessel efficiency. The W-X52’s internal engine and propulsion efficiencies and the ability to apply various power take off arrangements for onboard electricity production make it easier for shipyards to meet these requirements. Equally, WinGD’s common-rail technology means that the engine produces no visible smoke and remains energy efficient at all loads. Furthermore, the W-X52 has been designed to allow for easy retrofit of the two-stroke dual-fuel technology, providing fuel flexibility to owners and operators. Clearly, these successes can only be good news for WinGD in its relationship with new owner CSSC. This relationship is one that Mr Stump feels offers the company considerable advantages. “We are owned by CSSC, which is one of 180 state-owned enterprises,” he says. “So, we are part of a planned economy. Ironically, I find that to be a real positive. It gives us a lot of stability and support.” What form the market is likely to take longer term is nonetheless obviously a matter of key concern to the company. Mr Stump said “You’ve just got to keep doing what you’re doing really well, and the market will swing. You just have to be ready. So, there’s a lot of preparation going on for that swing.” This preparation is focusing on a number of

areas. One is digitalisation, while another is the service side of the business. “We’ve really been building the technical support side of things for owners,” said Mr Stump. “That way, if they do have a technical problem that’s beyond their or their subcontractors’ capabilities, then they can turn to us and we’ll help them out.” “I think one thing the customer can expect is more clarity in terms of who your go-to option is for technical support, and greater understanding that WinGD has a service agreement with Wärtsilä in place. We will see more market competition in the parts and services area but regardless of these developments, WinGD has continued and strengthened co-operation with Wärtsilä to provide full lifecycle service support including parts and onboard services.” Mr Stump continued. Mr Stump is clear about the direction WinGD will take. He concluded: “We can say that we’re different. We have a long history, with a pool of knowledge, experience and technologies behind us, but at the same time we have a new lease of life and we change it up, we are more future-orientated and are technology ambassadors in our field.” MP

ABOVE: The first IMO Tier III-compliant X72 engine with pre-turbocharger SCR passed its shop test in 2016

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

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Tankers positive trend Newbuilding in the tanker market is staying steady, reflecting a positive demand story, Barry Luthwaite reports


ankers have enjoyed a bullish trading market for the last two years and kept newbuilding ticking over. The overall picture is still positive for all types, with a substantial number still being ordered. Owners ordering today are likely to miss the best of a strong market and with little scrapping, there are obvious fears of overtonnaging. The remarkable story in the markets revolves around products and crude tonnage, which shows no sign of slowing. Pricing is a big inducement, as it is barely moving due to fierce competition between builders for business after the drought of dry tonnage interest. There is a firm belief that scrapping will again start moving considerably in two years as environmental legislation tightens its grip. Crude oil business has produced some remarkable investment figures, with record newbuildings placed in a short space of time. This is in response to changing markets and trade patterns. No longer does the Middle East enjoy a near monopoly in choice with different grades of crude and offshore loading terminals gaining ground. A major factor has been the growth in shale oil from the USA. Market balance is still about right for supply and demand but the current pace of ordering may need a closer look. The first six months of 2017 produced a bumper total 42 VLCCs and 15 Suezmaxes. These added a total of 13,321,776 dwt and 2,378,128 dwt respectively to a booming orderbook. The order backlog overall points to 126 VLCC’s and 107 Suezmaxes due for commissioning in the next 2-3 years. Owners favour certain series which induces some discounting in pricing. Against newbuilding commitments 738 VLCCs and 535 Suezmaxes are trading. Shipbuilders still struggle against massive debts and cutbacks in capacity. The tanker boom has, in fact, been their saviour, with 50 per cent of VLCC business going to South Korea. Not only have shipyards enjoyed the crude boom, but high numbers of products and specialist chemical tankers have also been committed. These are from owners who have endured their longest

recession, which lasted seven years prior to the start of any meaningful recovery from the financial collapse of 2008. Strength in numbers has now proved the key to potential success as mergers and complete fleet acquisitions take place. Smaller owners are likely to cease trading. For engine manufacturers all these orders have eased the pain of the bulk carrier drought. However it is noticeable that mounting numbers of IMO Tier II engines are still being offered to owners by shipbuilders. Many of these are left over from cancelled contracts and are proving a useful negotiating ploy for new business. On each newbuilding – depending on size – savings of US$1-3 million may be achieved as they allow legally higher emissions. An original keellaying deadline by the IMO regulators has been increasingly flouted. Some owners are delighted as they consider the deadline imposed was too tight. It is doubtful also that all these Tier II engines are readily available from the shipyard yet engine builders are complying with requests for same. Against this it must be said that the majority of engines will be Tier III models. However in 2017 – well after the deadline – a total of at least 20 Tier II engines have so far accompanied tanker orders and especially for products tonnage yielding much-needed business which might otherwise not have been there. There is solid optimism for the chemical sector. Owners have made moves for newbuildings, especially in the short sea trades. It is increasingly difficult for Scandinavian owners in particular to trade vessels for more for than 20 years despite being in excellent condition. Some vessels are being curtailed by owners at 15 years of age. This has boosted business for China, with fully stainless steel construction orders being procured. Several of these contracts in the smaller sizes have been specified as LNG ready with dual-fuel propulsion. Owners are wary however at the woeful inadequacy of global LNG bunkering facilities and bunkering tankers which may cause LNG propulsion to decline. MP

Tankers Contracted

YTD 2017 AFRAMAX 38 vessels 4,312,670 dwt

HANDYMAX 52 vessels 2,583,008 dwt

HANDYSIZE 23 vessels 613,852 dwt

MEDIUM CHEMICAL 13 vessels 208,200 dwt

MEDIUM PRODUCTS 10 vessels 341,000 dwt

PANAMAX 2 vessels 152,000 dwt


31,000 dwt



12 vessels 67,742 dwt

2 vessels 11,039 dwt



15 vessels 2,378,128 dwt

42 vessels 13,321,776 dwt

GRAND TOTAL 214 vessels

24,020,415 dwt

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


Bleak picture for bulkers 2017 is an improvement on 2016, but times remain extremely tough in the bulk carrier sector Barry Luthwaite reports



795,361 dwt carriers


43,815,636 dwt




7,563,083 dwt


HANDYSIZE 1,394,802 dwt

42 carriers

193 KAMSARMAX carriers

13,236,895 dwt

MEDIUM BULK 192,500 dwt


11 carriers


240,000 dwt carriers


1,522,142 dwt



21 carriers

135,150 dwt


SUPRAMAX 1,447,077 dwt

204 ULTRAMAX carriers

26 carriers

12,861,257 dwt

GRAND TOTAL 864 carriers 83,203,903 dwt


or the mainstay of the market it has been a horrendous time for bulk carrier trading and investment in new ships. 2016 produced a real drought in new orders and 2017 is only a little more encouraging. Trading rates were driven down by overtonnaging and a plethora of newbuildings which contributed to a collapse of the market. However it is doubtful anybody expected such a pitifully low investment in newbuildings. The fact is investors have lost confidence and cannot be persuaded to return to shipping as it is no longer considered the safe haven it once was. Private equity once boosted investment but appetite has waned and, as quickly as it arrived, this form of support has been rapidly withdrawn, especially for relatively small amounts. This hurt many owners, several of which have perished or absorbed in mergers and takeovers. The bulk carrier drought has been a disaster for two-stroke enginebuilders, since this is where they normally enjoy high volumes of orders. 2017 so far is providing more encouragement, but the last thing the market needs is a plethora of ordering. One saviour is in the new designs and especially wider beam vessels, which can navigate the newly-dimensioned Panama Canal locks. The decline in bulk carrier ordering is illustrated by respective figures in unit terms over the last six years apart from golden years (apart from golden years in 2013 and 2014), but which have contributed to the current slump. Respective totals were 591 (2011), 379 (2012), 920 (2013), 826 (2014) 304 (2015), 192 (2016) and 123 (as of time of going to press). In general owners have fought shy of adopting dual-fuel propulsion due to the fact that bulk carriers are tramp vessels and LNG development is way behind globally. The steady revival this year in contracting is still below par but owners have gone for Capesize and Kamsarmaxes. Experts still believe too many Capes are in service which brought about the slump in freight rates but the future is good for Kamsarmaxes, many of which are now geared. Equally the new interest is in geared ultramaxes of around 63,000 dwt with wider beam

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

and acting as a hybrid trader between supramax and Panamax types. Pricing is at its lowest ever, signalling a good time to order. Greeks have entered the market for new tonnage with a vengeance after the long drought and always read the markets astutely. Finance from traditional means like banks and private equity and IPOs now fail. There has not been a successful IPO in New York for nearly two years, underlining investors’ lack of confidence. Instead the inducements now come from the builders and state interventions. Within China, cash-strapped owners participate in ‘win-win’ situations. State owned leasing companies, which are divisions of shipbuilders themselves, offer to put up funding for potential contractors on the basis of bareboat charter to the owner with shares of earnings under the option of the charter being annulled through outright purchase in due course. Several ships have been ordered by this method. South Korea is also considering similar inducement by the state through financial aid. The revival in Japan has slackened due to inducements from their two rivals. The price is still 5-10 per cent more expensive, but blue chip owners from Norway and Denmark do like Japanese-built quality ships. Their solution is to snap up ships on a bareboat charter basis over 5-7 years and bind themselves to purchase outright during or at the end of the charter tenure. The family-owned yards continue to produce excellent quality standard designs built on a cumulative basis for economy of scale. Despite the expired deadline for specifying IMO Tier II engines for ships, orders are still being placed. So far this year at least 25 Tier II engine models have been specified saving between US$1-3 million per ship depending on size. Shipyards find themselves with Tier II engines previously ordered but which were redundant through cancelled contracts. Despite this there is still evidence that freshly-ordered Tier II engines are still being accepted by enginebuilders. More of the latest orders, however, have been specified with Tier III engines for compliance with the strictest emission controls which will be mandatory from 2020. MP

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THE FIRST GLOBAL STEP TOWARDS AN LNG-FUELLED OIL TANKER INDUSTRY? SCF Group (Sovcomflot) has signed an agreement for Shell Western LNG BV (Shell) to supply LNG to fuel the first Aframax crude oil tankers in the world to be powered by LNG. The agreement was announced by Sovcomflot president and CEO Sergey Frank and Shell’s integrated gas and new energies director Maarten Wetselaar


he agreement calls for Shell to provide the LNG fuel for the new generation of SCF Group’s 114,000 deadweight ice-classed Aframax tankers, which are scheduled to come into operation from the third quarter of 2018. They will be the first LNG-fuelled Aframax tankers and will operate primarily between the Baltic and Northern Europe, transporting crude oil and petroleum products. Shell will fuel the vessels from a specialised LNG bunker vessel at the Gas Access to Europe (GATE) terminal in Rotterdam and supply points in the Baltic. Each LNG-fuelled tanker will have an ice-class 1A hull enabling year-round export operations from the Russian Baltic. “SCF Group and Shell have an extensive and successful track record of collaboration and technical innovation, and at the heart of our joint aspirations is the shared desire to play a major role in delivering a cleaner and safer maritime environment. This is why SCF Group and Shell decided to pilot this breakthrough initiative to switch the principal fuel of Aframax tankers, the workhorse of the global tanker industry, to LNG,” said Sovcomflot president

and CEO Sergey Frank. “This is an important next step for gas as part of the energy mix. The decision to work with SCF Group to power the world’s first LNG-fuelled Aframax crude oil tankers is evidence of Shell’s commitment to LNG as a transport fuel. LNG will increasingly play a larger role in helping the shipping industry meet new emission regulations,” said Shell’s integrated gas and new energies director Maarten Wetselaar. The signing of this

milestone agreement marks the fulfilment of an MOU signed between Shell and SCF in September 2015 to develop marine LNG fuelling for largecapacity tankers. Compared with engines burning standard marine fuels, engines running on LNG release over 90 per cent less sulphur oxides (SOx), over 80 per cent less nitrogen oxides (NOx), and over 15 per cent less carbon dioxide (CO2). In addition, the selection of the low pressure X-DF dual-fuel engine for these tankers will minimise particulate matter

emissions. Furthermore, the engines will be fitted with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology to comply with Tier III regulations governing NOx emissions when in fuel mode. SCF Group has opted for these technical solutions to ensure that the new generation of Aframax tankers exceeds rather than merely complies with emission legislation, setting the standard for shipping in the environmentally sensitive regions in which the fleet operates. MP

SCF Group (Sovcomflot) and Shell Western LNG BV (Shell) sign the agreement

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


AET selects LNG dual-fuel option for newbuild Aframaxes


ET is embracing LNG as the fuel of the future by specifying that four Aframax tankers on order at Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), will have an LNG dual-fuel option. The 113,000 dwt vessels, due for delivery from the third quarter of 2018 onwards, will replace existing tonnage as part of an ongoing fleet renewal programme. AET anticipates that up to half of its Aframax fleet and other petroleum assets, including VLCCs, will also adopt the LNG dual-fuel option over the next few years. Though the new ships will have global trading flexibility, their initial operations will focus on areas with LNG bunker availability. Fitted with twin LNG tanks, the vessels will have the ability to trade on LNG fuel for about a month before refuelling. The company is actively working with potential LNG suppliers to ensure reliability of the bunker supply chain globally. “Given that the LNG bunkering infrastructure is and will be particularly strong in East Asia – including Singapore – as well as throughout North West Europe, and the US Gulf, where 0.1 per cent SECA regulations can be met with LNG, these areas will be our focus,” AET president and CEO Captain Rajalingam Subramaniam told Marine Propulsion. AET, a wholly owned subsidiary of Malaysian energy shipping corporation MISC Berhad, anticipates significant growth in the global fleet of LNG-fuelled vessels. Since 2015 AET has conducted its own LNG fuelling feasibility study, which it says has been corroborated by studies carried out by peers and leading industry experts. “We have complete confidence that LNG will play a significant part in the marine fuels mix in the coming years, and we have been reviewing the feasibility of developing a dual-fuel LNG fleet since 2015,” said AET chairman Yee Yang Chien. MISC is a leading global transporter of LNG. “We are utilising this experience with the new AET ships, which we believe sets us ahead of other operators with similar vessels. Our experience allows us to have confidence that the required infrastructure for LNG bunkering will develop at pace as we approach 2020, giving much more trading flexibility in the future,” he continues. Alongside the dual-fuel LNG engines, the new Aframax vessels will be fitted with a range of eco-innovations to maximise fuel efficiency and minimise their emission impact. This will enable

Leading tanker operator says half of its tanker fleet will adopt LNG dual-fuel engines

CAPT. SUBRAMANIAM, AET: “No golden-egg solution when it comes to exhaust gas emissions”

them to be awarded the IMO's ‘green passport’ notation. AET confirmed that the vessels will be fitted with an electrolytic disinfection ballast water management system with filters. The Aframax tankers have also been designed with an optimised hullform, with Samsung asymmetric rudder bulb (SARB), Samsung advanced vibration and energy reducer fins (SAVER Fins), and Samsung advanced vibration and energy reducer stator (SAVER stator). Overall, the EEDI for these vessels is about 28 per cent above IMO Phase 0 and 20 per cent above phase I baselines, when operated in LNG mode. “Each of the four Aframax vessels on order will be installed with a main engine that includes auto-tuning to ensure optimum efficiency of the two-stroke engine, while providing comprehensive fuel data so that we can monitor and amend our operations and keep a clear account of operational efficiency,” added Captain Subramaniam. “We have selected a composite boiler for the vessels, which will enable heat recovery from multiple sources and contribute to optimising the vessel’s overall energy requirements.” “The economic case for LNG dual-fuel engines for a select number of AET’s Aframax newbuild fleet is a strong one,” says Capt Subramaniam. “LNG has been used as fuel on LNG carriers successfully for many years, and we have expertise in the handling of LNG. We have in-house training capabilities through our maritime training academy ALAM, and also benefit from our shipmanagement teams being well-versed in the management of LNG-fuelled vessels and carriers.” He admits “there is no golden-egg solution when it comes to exhaust gas emissions,” but believes there is a broad range of means – each with their own advantages – that can lessen the impact of commercial shipping on the environment, making it important to pursue every avenue to find sustainable solutions. “The impact of LNG in terms of sulphur, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter as well as CO2 in direct emissions is significant, and LNG is a step-change toward a more sustainable fuelling environment. It ensures that we can meet existing and impending emission regulations in a financially sound way, and it is an important development in terms of the fuelling mix across our fleet,” concludes Capt Subramaniam. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

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Stena Bulk’s fleet (including Stena Imagination), is exceptional among Sweden's cargo vessels




combination of a lack of infrastructure, a lack of financing and a lack of a ready market represent a triple lock for Swedish tanker owners pioneering the use of LNG fuel. Outside the behemouth that is Stena Bulk, Sweden's smaller fleets transport cargo to northwest Europe and Baltic destinations. All of the vessels in those smaller fleets are of small or intermediate capacity sizes up to 20,000 dwt and all are in the chemical and/or product tanker trades. In keeping with what has become almost a Swedish tradition, most or all of the newbuildings on order to these companies will incorporate dual-fuel technology.

A key challenge relates to available shoreside facilities. Where LNG shore facilities are not available, ship-to-ship transfers are completed using Antony Veder LNG tankers. Owner and operator Donsotank Rederi is working on the design and construction of a prototype LNG feeder to lessen the dependency of charters on ship-to-ship transfers. The partners in the Donsotank project are Jahre Holding, DNV GL, Torgy and Rolls-Royce. Donsotank has specified the A-tanks favoured by LPG feeders rather than the C-tanks seen on LNG vessels. Studies have determined that an A-tank feeder is cheaper to build than a C-tank, and can be built by any shipyard. A-tanks offer 30 per cent more cargo-carrying capacity than comparable C-tank designs.

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

If the vessel is at anchor for a long time, a liquefaction plant is installed on the vessel to take care of boil-off and convert gas into liquid again. A second key challenge Donsotank and others face is that banks are reluctant to finance a pilot LNG-fuelled vessel. A third key challenge is that charterer interest is lukewarm at best, but more often than not completely lacking. One of the biggest investors in the shortsea trades is Erik Thun (Thun Tankers), a member of the Gothia Tanker Alliance. Thun has nine chemical/product tankers on order, eight of which were ordered this year. An emphasis on Chinese construction is underlined by Avic Dingheng placing orders for 14 stainless steel units – almost half the

current Swedish orderbook – with Chinese yards. Having started with a single order in 2015 for an ice class 1A 20,000m3 product tanker due for delivery June 2019, the owner has just returned to the builder for a series of four 21,000m3 units for delivery through to January 2020. For all the difficulties around the triple lock, there are economic incentives for investing in dual-fuel LNGready vessels. The port of Gothenburg led the pack when it introduced 30 per cent discount on standard port dues for LNG-fuelled vessels back in 2015. Its current scheme runs to 2019. Several north European ports have since followed suit as new sulphur emission controls begin to bite. MP

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Greenland was the first LNG-fuelled vessel built at the yard



lthough Dutch-based and Dutch in origin, Scheepswerf Ferus Smit in fact operates two yards. Its site in Westerbroek has a transversal slipway of 145m length, while the bridges and locks between the yard and the port of Delfzijl limit the maximum breadth to 15.87m. To be able to offer also larger ships a second production site was opened in the year 2000 just across the border in Leer, Germany. The locks of Leer have dimensions of 192m x 26m. The head office is on the Westerbroek site. Both locations are equipped with modern covered building halls in which completely outfitted and coated ring blocks are built. These rings are subsequently assembled on the transversal slipways. With a workforce of 200 people, the group builds between six and eight vessels per year. The group’s stock-in-trade tends to be general cargo vessels up to 23,000 dwt, oil, chemical and product tankers. However, the company is keen to emphasise that it is by no means restricted to these vessels and is able to handle a wide range of ship types, ranging from ultra-modern barges to fully equipped supply ships, self-unloading bulk carriers and multipurpose cargo ships. From its indoor facilities, Ferus Smit assembles its vessels from precision prefab sections. During the design phase,

extensive laboratory tests are carried out to test the sailing properties of a new vessel. The results from the tests are used to produce the optimum shape of the hull. In consultation with the client, the draft design is then developed further. The layout of the vessel and the engineroom are made by designers using advanced computer technologies, while planning of the production process ensures just-in-time delivery of the steel and all other components. The philosophy of Ferus Smit is to retain all processes in-house. This means retaining its own experts in the fields of hydrodynamics, structural design, systems design, outfitting and IT solutions. This integral approach is facilitated by 3D working models that can be accessed in real-time and online so that everybody can see the progress of the design. These 3D models are not only used for CAM, but also for internal and external communication with clients, and finally forms a basis for in-house developed logistic systems for purchase and production. As a European shipyard, in order to compete successfully with yards in the Far East, Ferus Smit has to ensure both top-level technology and quality alongside the best possible productivity. The company takes particular pride in its own production

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


sites that build our ships “from keel to mast”. Knowhow and craftmanship are essential to constantly improve productivity, it needs years of relentless learning-by-doing. This has finally paid off in being able to build significantly faster and so compete on price with lower-cost labour countries, while keeping the advantage of West-European quality with certain deliveries. The company also emphasises how the group achieves competitive advantage, working to reduce fuel consumption, maximising cargo intake, reducing steelweight with uncompromised structural integrity, and easy operable, safe, efficient and greener systems. The group can boast an impressive array of technologically sophisticated recent projects. In October last year, the Westerbroek yard undertook to deliver four oil/chemical tankers with Swedish owner Erik Thun. These new ships are the first step in renewing the fleet of 10 existing tankers. The new design will be a completely revised and updated version of the existing design. The focus for improvement will be to further optimise energy efficiency and ecological footprint, with LNG as optional fuel. The 115m long coastal tankers feature a ‘next-generation’ design focusing on high energy efficiency and low noise levels both above and below the water. Due for delivery in 2018, each of the four vessels includes a six-cylinder Wärtsilä 34DF dual-fuel main engine, a Wärtsilä LNGPac fuel supply system, a Wärtsilä Gas Valve Unit (GVU), and a controllable pitch propeller (CPP). Both shipowner and yard recently gained valuable experience with LNG through the succesful delivery and operation of Greenland and Ireland, the LNG-powered cement tankers. Here, the design incorporated a pressurised LNG tank positioned inside the foreship. These vessels were the first ever dry cargo vessels with an LNG-fuelled propulsion system and LNG tanks integrated inside the hull. In order to build these vessels, a tailor-made, double-walled

cylindrical stainless steel tank of 130m3 that would contain the LNG as main engine fuel under pressure and at extremely low temperature of -162oC had to be fitted. The large tank was hoisted into position in the foreship, of Greenland the first LNG powered vessel to be built at Ferus Smit. Once the tank was inside the hull, the foreship could be closed off with the forecastle block section on top as cover on the same day. Indeed, by the afternoon, the aftship had been wheeled out of the building hall and the wheelhouse finally hoisted on top. Another recent innovation came in the form of the MV Symphony Performer, which was the first in a series of two longrange supply vessels being built by the Dutch shipbuilder for its compatriot shipping company Symphony Shipping. Launched at the Leer yard in October 14, 2016, the vessel is equipped with a DP2 (Dynamic Positioning) system which keeps it within specified positions and heading limits. Featuring a length of 122.5m and a width of 17m, the vessel has a large single hold of completely box-shaped form. The Symphony Performer also has a large loading floor area for project cargoes, including movable tweendeck. Furthermore, the newbuilding’s deckhouse is placed on foreshipfor better protection of deck cargo and enabling to load oversized items over the stern. The second long-range supply vessel, Symphony Provider, joined the company’s fleet in April 2017. The company has two multi-purpose vessels on order that are slated for delivery in October 2017 and January 2018. A the company makes clear, this sort of innovation is inherent to a group, whose motto is ‘Improvement is tradition’. It says as its mission statement: “What we have learnt from our past is to keep a look-out forward. To relentlessly keep looking for possible improvements, because even the smallest ones will make a difference in the end.” MP

LEFT: A second production site in Leer, Germany was opened in 2000

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

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Generation X

hits the mainstream Having passed its FAT and TAT tests, WinGD’s latest X52 engine will soon be on board a range of vessels. What is behind its success?


uly’s news that Winterthur Gas & Diesel’s X52 low-speed diesel engine successfully completed both its factory acceptance test (FAT) and type-approval test (TAT) means the engine’s already extensive orderbook is now ready to translate into commercial reality. The newly certified engine is the five-cylinder version of the 520mm-bore X52 diesel engine from Winterthur Gas & Diesel (WinGD), and completion of the important TAT and FAT signals that the X52 is ready for commercial applications. Testing took place at the Shanghai engine works of WinGD licensee Hudong Heavy Machinery Co, which is part of shipping and shipbuilding conglomerate China State Shipbuilding Corp. Overall, 13 engines are already on order. A 38,000 dwt bulk carrier being built at Guangzhou Wenchong Shipyard in Guangzhou, China, will be powered by the 5X52 on which FAT and TAT certificates were attained. Of the 13 other engines on order, all will be six-cylinder 6X52s to be built in Korea. They include both IMO Tier II and

Tier III emission compliance, with the Tier III engines featuring both low- and highpressure SCR. Eight of the engines are rated 7,180kW at 86.9 rpm and six of these employ high-pressure SCR to achieve IMO Tier III compliance. The Tier III engines will power a series of six 49,000 dwt petroleum product tankers. The other two engines with the same rated output are Tier II compliant and will be installed in two 50,000 dwt product tankers. Finally, five 6X52s rated 8,200kW at 80 rpm will power a series of five 60,000 dwt open-hatch general cargo vessels. These X52 engines will be Tier III compliant due to the use of a low-pressure SCR system. A number of factors underpin the X52’s sales successes. The introduction of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) has placed increased emphasis on lowering CO2 emissions and total vessel efficiency. The W-X52’s internal engine and propulsion efficiencies and the ability to apply various power take off arrangements for onboard electricity production make it easier for shipyards to meet theserequirements. WinGD senior project manager for

new engines Alexander Brückl stated that the X52 has “proven very popular as it is an intelligent engine. Its FAT and TAT were eagerly awaited by shipyards and their customers.” Equally, WinGD’s common-rail technology means that the engine produces no visible smoke and remains energy efficient at all loads.The W-X52 has been designed to allow for easy retrofit of the two-stroke dual-fuel technology, providing fuel flexibility to owners and operators. Mr Brückl is keen to stress that the major benefits shipowners find attractive are the low specific fuel consumption and reduced service costs. The reduced fuel consumption results primarily from the longer stroke configuration of WinGD’s Generation X engines, but they also have a relatively light structure and are designed to have low maintenance costs. “The long-stroke design enables higher torques at lower engine speeds compared with earlier WinGD engines. Due to a larger diameter, more efficient propellers can be employed. At the same time, though, our designers were very aware that an engine’s stroke dimension has a direct effect on engine height which, in turn, has a considerable influence on engineroom size and the effective payload of a vessel. We chose a larger-bore diameter and, as sales figures have shown, the bore-to-stroke ratio selected by WinGD is proving to be very popular,” explained Mr Brückl. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


MAN claims advantage on principle MAN thinks that its use of the diesel principle is giving its ME-GI engine a clear advantage


AN Diesel & Turbo believes its use of the diesel principle in its engines for dual-fuel operation is giving it a crucial advantage in this increasingly competitive market. In particular, the company has seen a number of successes with this engine that it ascribes to the use of the diesel principle. Most recently, Knutsen OAS Shipping, the Norwegian operator, ordered four MAN B&W 5G70ME-GI engines with EGR systems in connection with the construction of two 180,000m3 LNG tanker newbuildings. Upon delivery in 2020, the vessels will transport cargoes worldwide for two Spanish utility companies. The order follows the increasingly popular path initiated by Gas Natural Fenosa, the multinational Spanish group that was the pioneer in adopting ME-GI technology in an order for four LNG tankers in 2013. In this regard, MAN believes it has an advantage. Bjarne Foldager, vice president sales & promotion, two-stroke business at MAN Diesel & Turbo – said: “Our G70ME-GI engine has become a popular choice for LNG carriers globally. This can be attributed in great part to the ME-GI’s embracing of the diesel principle, which is simply the most effective method of converting gas fuel to propulsion power.” Because diesel engines work on the

principle of compression ignition, where fuel is first drawn into a cylinder and then highly compressed, they are able to achieve a ‘compression ratio’ that makes a diesel engine more efficient than its counterpart. With dual-fuel operation, there is no change to the basic architecture of the diesel engine – or to the principle and efficiencies of diesel combustion. By contrast, MAN’s rival engines use the Otto (or lean-burn) cycle, where gas and air are mixed during compression and ignited by the injection of pilot fuel. While it has advantages, this choice has effects on combustion and NOx formation, the pressure of gas injection and overall engine performance due to differing maximum compression pressure and thermal efficiency. The new orders received have come from Corpus Christi Liquefaction, a subsidiary of Cheniere Energy that recently entered into 20-year LNG sale and purchase agreements (SPAs) with the two Spanish utilities. Under the terms of their respective SPAs, the Spanish utilities have agreed to purchase a combined total of over 1 million tonnes per annum of LNG upon the commencement of operations from the LNG export facility currently being developed near Corpus Christi, Texas. The ME-GI dual-fuel low-speed diesel engine represents the culmination of many

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

ABOVE: The ME-GI dual-fuel low-speed diesel engine represents the culmination of many years of development work

years of development work. Depending on relative price and availability, as well as environmental considerations, the ME-GI engine gives shipowners and operators the option of using either HFO or gas – predominantly natural gas. MAN Diesel & Turbo sees significant opportunities arising for gas-fuelled tonnage as fuel prices rise and modern exhaust-emission limits tighten. Indeed, research indicates that the ME-GI engine delivers significant reductions in CO2, NOx and SOx emissions. Furthermore, the ME-GI engine’s negligible methane slip makes it the most environmentallyfriendly technology available, MAN Diesel & Turbo believes. In May 2017, an ME-GIE variant passed operational tests running on ethane, while an ME-LGI counterpart to the ME-GI that runs on LPG, methanol and other liquid gasses has also successfully been introduced to the market. MP

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systems take the stage Wärtsilä’s latest NOx-reducing, EIAPP-certified systems are starting to hit the market


uly and August saw for Wärtsilä’s NOx reduction technology, with the launch of the first vessel to feature IMO Tier III Engine International Air Pollution Prevention (EIAPP) certified Wärtsilä engines and the announcement of two more to come. The first of these vessels was L’Astrolabe, a 72m polar logistics vessel fitted with a complete Wärtsilä propulsion machinery package and Wärtsilä NOR (NOx Reducer) SCR (selective

catalytic reduction) exhaust gas cleaning systems for all the main engines. It was launched on 12 July. The ship was built by PIRIOU (France) for the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Administration. It will be used to transport personnel and supplies to the Dumont d’Urville research station in Antarctica. The four IMO Tier III certified 8-cylinder Wärtsilä 20 diesel engines are combined

L'Astrolabe is fitted with a Wärtsilä NOR (NOx Reducer) SCR (selective catalytic reduction) exhaust gas cleaning systems for all the main engines

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

with Wärtsilä NOR systems to be fully compliant with the IMO Tier III exhaust emission regulations set out in Annex VI of the MARPOL 73/78 convention. The IMO Tier III EIAPP certification was carried out according to Scheme B based on the requirements of IMO Resolution MEPC.198(62). The Tier III EIAPP certificates were issued by Bureau Veritas. The full Wärtsilä scope of supply for this vessel comprises four Wärtsilä 20 main engines, two Wärtsilä controllable pitch propellers and shaft lines including Wärtsilä reduction gears, Wärtsilä NOR systems, and a Wärtsilä tunnel thruster. SCR technology is currently the primary means for NOx abatement, and Wärtsilä’s NOR

system is available for use with all Wärtsilä medium-speed engines. The system enables vessels to be compliant with global NOx emission control area regulations. Furthermore, with the Wärtsilä NOR, the overall performance of the engine and exhaust gas cleaning system is optimised in terms of emissions reduction, noise abatement and engine efficiency. Wärtsilä provides IMO and EPA Tier III certificates for all its engines combined with a Wärtsilä NOR system. Wärtsilä Marine Solutions’ vice president, environmental solutions Juha Kytölä said: “[We delivered] this combination of engines and SCR systems in the same scope of supply, and take full responsibility for exhaust gas emissions, performance, documentation, statutory approvals and certification. Such packages are convenient for shipyards and ship operators, and triggered by IMO regulations are expected to be specified by an increasing number of shipyards and ship owners. Hot on the heels of the launch of L’Astrolabe came the announcement that the latest NOx abatement technology from Wärtsilä will also feature on two new Chinese vessels. The two research vessels are being built for the China Ocean Mineral Resources R&D Association and will also feature the Wärtsilä’s NOR. Each vessel will be powered by two four-cylinder Wärtsilä 20 engines and two Wärtsilä 26 engines, one with a ninecylinder and one with an eightcylinder configuration. They will also be fitted with Wärtsilä retractable thrusters. MP


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Reaping the benefits of lubricant sea trials The use of lubricant sea trials can offer considerable immediate and long-term benefits to stakeholders


ith the current economic pressures and regulatory changes facing the global shipping industry, the idea of considering proof of performance testing on next generation lubricant additive packages isn’t always top of shipowners’ and ship managers’ priorities. However, the practice of enhancing marine propulsion through the testing and implementation of advanced lubricant additive technologies is a key initiative that can deliver value to ship owners and ship managers today and well into the future. The failure to use a properly-tested lubricant in a marine diesel engine can have expensive consequences. Issues contributing to failure can range from cold corrosion, to catalyst fines, to quality of bunkered fuel. Regulation, engine design and vessel operation are the driving forces behind the continuing development of

Sea trials can offer shipowners and managers a range of benefits

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


new additive packages. One of the most significant issues is that the use of lowsulphur fuels also requires lubricant change for maximum engine protection. During combustion, the sulphur in the fuel is subject to oxidation generating predominantly sulphur dioxide but also sulphur trioxide. Sulphur trioxide readily combines with moisture in the air to produce sulphuric acid that can corrode critical engine parts. The lubricant, blended with an appropriate additive package, acts as a neutralising agent to reduce corrosion. These issues create a variety of engine operational issues. Obviously, engine repairs and shipping delays result in unnecessary and costly expenses, not to mention the endangerment of the lives of crews aboard ships that lose power in inclement weather conditions and unforgiving oceans. In order to help mitigate these expensive occurrences, better lubricant and maintenance practices are needed. Specifically formulated lubricant and additive packages are able to address these issues and prevent such problems. Before they can be addressed, however, extensive testing and trialling of these packages is necessary. One such practice is the use of sea trials of new lubricant additive packages. These can not only bring about better engine protection but also increased awareness of how condition based monitoring can contribute to improve maintenance practices and financial returns. A sea trial, also referred to as a field trial, begins with an agreement between the supplier and an original engine manufacturer (OEM). Support from an OEM to conduct a sea trial therefore

occurs from the start. Clearly the role of the additive manufacturer in this process is crucial in providing assurance. For this reason, manufacturer Lubrizol offers to conduct extensive testing of the new additive package on a modern engine using unique, engine-fired protocols. The additive manufacturer also plays a role in training. According to Lubrizol’s field trial engineer John Baggott: “Many times, Lubrizol is sharing knowledge and problemsolving expertise with people who have had limited lubricantrelated training. We provide that benefit.” This kind of communication, technical advice and teamwork are part and parcel to a successful sea trial. Indeed, Mr John Baggott of Lubrizol is keen to stress the importance of working together. “In a recent sea trial, we explained to a vessel’s engineroom team how with improved lubricant additive packages piston deposits can be dramatically reduced which then lessens the

intervals at which they need to be lifted and cleaned. Lifting pistons consumes valuable time when a quick turnaround is needed at port.” The proposed new lubricant is then presented to a shipowner for a trial period of at least 4,000 engine-running hours, or more depending on the kind of equipment in use. With agreement among the project stakeholders, careful planning, preparation and coordination between all parties, ensures the elements of a trial are bought together in a wellexecuted manner, at which point a sea trial can commence. In terms of process, all engine inspections are conducted while the vessel is at port so as not to impact its sailing schedule. The initial inspection starts when a piston or pistons are lifted during the time the ship is in port. Adhering to the OEM-mandated procedures, and in the presence of OEM engineers, the pistons selected are checked, measured, cleaned and then

equipped with new rings and dependent upon the engine, may also include inspection of the bearings and crankcases. Throughout the sea trial, oil is analysed, engine condition and fuel consumption are monitored and reported back to the shipowner, ship manager, chief engineer and OEM. Upon completion of the sea trial, the same pistons may be lifted, checked and measured in a process similar to the initial inspection step. Shipowners and ship managers who participate in a field trial gain many immediate benefits. For instance, as well as the candidate lubricant being supplied at a significantly discounted rate, the engineroom team’s knowledge of lubricant maintenance and monitoring procedures is also enhanced. Perhaps most importantly, a new, fully tested lubricant additive package provides long-term benefits of improved engine durability, lower maintenance costs, and decreased overall operating expenses. MP

The use of low sulphur fuels can create a number of lubrication issues for engines

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

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High efficiencies promised from high-pressure fuel injector A novel fuel injector concept could replace common rail fuel delivery to give improved efficiency and lower emissions


fuel injector concept that promises injection pressures of 5,00011,000 bar is being developed by a Swiss company, RKLabs. The engineers behind the RK Injector (RKI) believe that it will improve engine efficiency by about 15 per cent with what they predict will be a dramatic reduction in both NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. RK Labs’ managing director Gavin Houghton told Marine Propulsion that the new injector will be offered as a direct replacement for current common rail diesel fuel injection systems. He said the RKI nozzle can generally fit into the existing cavity of the common rail injectors but it is larger than common-rail injectors so smaller engines may need the cylinder head entry point to be enlarged. The engine management software would also need updating, he said. It will be aimed at a number of industries, including marine, for which it is setting up a dedicated division. This will work closely with RKLabs’ main powertrain consultancy, Powertrain Technology of the UK, and its development partners, Mazda and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), whose board reports to that country’s Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment. The company’s development team will be moving from locations in Switzerland and the UK to be near VTT in Helsinki and Mr Houghton provided a briefing paper that had been presented

to the Finnish government about the technology. That paper describes the RKI as a self-pressurising diesel fuel injector that receives its initial pressure from the piston compression in the combustion chamber. This is multiplied within the injector and uses it to force the fuel into the combustion chamber through up to 180 tiny holes 0.025mm in diameter. This combination of ultra-high pressures and a large number of small injection holes “has the natural effect within the combustion chamber of creating optimal combustion conditions,” the paper reports. In operation, there is a natural feedback within the RKI as it takes its initial signal from the compression pressure and will only provide the amount of fuel that the combustion chamber will effectively burn, so

no fuel will be wasted. However, the injector can also be controlled electronically through solenoid valves in the same way as existing injectors. RKLabs’ paper sets out both benefits and challenges of its concept, both of them related to one of its claimed benefits: its ability to use a wide spectrum of fuels, from HFO to bio-diesel. The company told the Finnish government that it will allow modern large bore two or four stroke engines to exceed emission and fuel regulations using one fuel for both propulsion and electricity generation with no need for post combustion clean-up equipment. However, the challenge is to make this practical. To make an injector able to cope with the wide range of fuel specifications and qualities “will require a series of technical modifications

from the current optimal fuel specifications used in marine,” the paper says. In particular, current HFO specifications present “a unique challenge to the RKI injector and will require expertise in metallurgy, fuel heating, filtering and treatment in order for the fuels to be able to be injected successfully.” RKLabs is now “on the sixth generation of a physical prototype,” Mr Houghton said in mid August, with two classes of test injectors being built for testing in Japan and by VTT in Finland. The company is now looking to establish long term partnerships with shipowners and engine manufacturers. “To be fully operational in a marine engine we need to work with a partner or a project with several key stakeholders to design, build and test our injectors on a range of marine engines,” he said. MP

The RKI as a self-pressurising diesel fuel injector that receives its initial pressure from the piston compression in the combustion chamber

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Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


FERRIES FIT LNG FUEL SYSTEMS A double-ended ropax ferry will be delivered in November with a dual-fuel propulsion arrangement, the first vessel of its kind in the Mediterranean to be fitted with LNG propulsion. Gas will be handled by an LNG fuel-gas supply system (FGSS) from MAN Cryo – MAN Diesel & Turbo’s marine LNG fuel-gas-system manufacturer. Its fuel system consists of a 150m3 vacuum-insulated storage tank, complemented by auxiliary equipment including an LNG vaporiser, a pressure build-up unit, a bunker station and a heat exchanger. The 133m double-ended ferry is being built by Sefine Shipyard in Turkey for Italian shipowner, Caronte & Tourist. It will and will primarily operate on the strait of Messina between Villa San Giovanni – the main access point to Sicily from the Italian mainland – and the city of Messina. MAN Cryo is also due to supply FGSSs to the Vard Shipyard Group in Norway for two ferries for shipowner and ferry operator, Torghatten Nord. The equipment is due for delivery in Q1 2018 and will consist of a 175m3 vacuum-insulated storage tank along with similar auxiliary equipment to that for the Italian ferry. When MAN Cryo announced its supply contract in April, its managing director Mikael Adler spoke of “a clear trend in the market with an increasing number of inquiries for fuel-gas systems.” He saw this as pointing “towards LNG’s positive growth as a choice of fuel.” Each ferry will be equipped with a gas-electric, hybrid-propulsion system that features optional fast-charging from shore. Their concept was developed by the Norwegian designer Multi-Maritime, which MAN Cryo said has extensive experience of advanced vessels. Their

A MAN Cryo vacuum insulated storage tank and its auxiliary equipment

aim has been to produce vessels with energy-efficient propulsion and a hull shape that offer the best environmental performance, comfort and reliability. Purchasing manager at Vard Group, Thor Inge Skov, cited these the ships’ expected performance as “a very important reason to why we have chosen MAN Cryo as fuel-gas supplier.” The 134m doubleended ropax ferries will operate between Halhjem and Sandvikvåg, south of Bergen.

L’ORANGE FINDS A CAUSE AND A CURE FOR STICKING FUEL PUMPS Sticking fuel pump plungers are a common complaint among marine engineers and engine manufacturers recommend regular checks and cleaning to keep them working

effectively. For example, one engine project guide readily available online recommends lubricating and checking every fuel injection pump for signs of sticking on a weekly basis

L’Orange’s new anti-sticking pump element will improve their operating time

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

when running on HFO. That guide is for RollsRoyce’s Bergen C25:33 engine and now L’Orange – a Rolls-Royce company – has developed anti-stick pump elements that it believes will increase their time-beforeoverhaul and reduced engine downtime, giving up to 10 times more running hours. The anti-stick pump elements can be retrofitted to existing pumps. It has identified the problem as being caused by deposits in the piston barrel, which it believes are most often the result of an incompatibility between the fuel and lubricating oil, which could be caused by low total base number values, or incompatibility between different fuels. When it brought the new version of the pump to market

in May, it explained that it had succeeded in reducing the formation of these deposits and therefore reducing the risk of sticking. “What makes this possible is the combination of an innovative coating together with targeted design optimisations,” it said. It assured customers that the new version has the same the hydraulic properties of previous models. Its literature does not identify the coating material, but says that it reduces deposits on the plunger. The design changes have introduced a microgroove with a scraper ring that separates the lubricating oil from the fuel to reduce the deposits building up in the barrel. As well as the technical benefits, the new pump’s longer service intervals will reduce servicing costs, L’Orange predicted. MP


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GET READY FOR MRV, WARNS ROYSTON Many ships must have fuel monitoring plans in place by 31 August to meet the EU’s monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) regulation, Damian McCann, product manager at the UK diesel power specialist Royston reminded Marine Propulsion readers. In a paper prepared in July, he said that thousands of vessels may need to retrofit monitoring equipment to ensure compliance while shipbuilders have to consider their options for installing suitable technology as part of their ship system infrastructure specifications. For system manufacturers – such as Royston – “moves in this direction will be seen as a boost,” he admitted. Plans must be submitted for verification before formal reporting starts in January 2018. CO2 emissions and transport work data for 2018 must then be consolidated in an annual report, which must be verified by an independent accredited verifier by 30 April 2019, he said. Once that has been done, the report must be submitted to the European Commission and the Flag State, and the vessel should carry the document of compliance from June 2019. The requirement applies to vessels equal to or larger than 5,000gt that call at EU ports. The move is designed to generate a 2 per cent reduction in CO2 levels. IMO’s similar requirement under Marpol Annex VI for ships to have a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) also requires data to be collected on fuel use. It also applies to ships of 5,000gt and above and sets a deadline of 31 December 2018 for them

to include a description in their SEEMP of the methodology that will be used to collect the data and the processes that will be used to report the data to the ship’s flag state. Royston has published a case study about a project in which it supported a European tanker operator to log accurate fuel consumption data, both to contribute to its SEEMP and to optimise its operations. A tailored on-board enginei software package was developed through which the captain logs ports, times, bunker cost, ship condition, voyage notes and weather using a touch-screen on the bridge. All this information is then tied into the fuel consumption data, giving the operator very detailed fuel reports and trends. After six months recording the data, the operator discovered its recommended steaming speed was 0.5kt too high on certain classes of vessel. As a result, it has been able to save 4 per cent of its fuel. MP • For more details, see the 'Marine Intelligence' report on page 113 • Royston’s ‘AutoMode’ capability for its enginei fuel consumption monitoring and management system, won the 2017 Environmental Award from Marine Propulsion’s sister publication Offshore Support Journal. The award was presented during that magazine’s annual conference in February. The award’s judges had been impressed by its ability to optimise OSV fuel consumption across different vessel operating phases. AutoMode was described in Marine Propulsion, August/September 2016.

A computer rendering of a MAN Cryo vacuum insulated storage tank and its auxiliary equipment (credit: MAN Cryo)

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017




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TANKERS TO PROFIT FROM 2020 FUEL REGS JAN CHRISTENSEN (BOMIN): Aframaxes or Suezmaxes will be used for floating storage of surplus fuel oil



hen the IMO ’s 0.5 per cent global sulphur cap enters into force in 2020 there is likely to be a major redistribution of low sulphur fuels as cargo to the benefit of the product tanker fleet. That’s the view of Bomin Group’s global head of bunker operations Jan Christensen. “The switch to a distillates-based world will also have a significant impact on marine energy infrastructure,” he argues. “With increased demand it’s likely that hubs will need to build larger refineries and terminals, and there will also need to be a reconfiguration of storage tanks to hold clean products rather than fuel oil, as well as adapting pipelines to take middle distillates to coastal bunkering terminals.” A consequence of any refinery capacity deficit he says is likely to be the use of Aframaxes or Suezmaxes for floating storage of surplus fuel oil until it can be blended. There is sizeable variation between the current appraisals of the availability of ‘traditional’ distillates. The official IMO availability study, led by CE Delft, believes that the growth of refining unit expansions will be sufficient to meet the projected increase in distillates, hence the 2020 implementation date. However, a rival study by Ensys and Navigistics, on behalf of the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) and BIMCO reached the opposite conclusion, and estimated that 60-75 per cent of additional capacity beyond what already exists will need to be built.

“Accordingly, refiners will be incentivised to create a range of blends,” says Mr Christensen. These are likely to include vacuum gasoil, or low sulphur heavy fuel oil with a low sulphur blendstock added in where it’s available, such as South America. The lack of global infrastructure and bunkering standards for LNG is well documented, which doesn’t make it a viable short-term option, he adds. “In relation to scrubbers, the significant upfront capital expenditure required to install the technology, and the shortage of yard space for retrofitting will limit uptake. This means that the vast majority of shipowners – including tanker operators – will switch to burning distillates and distillate blends to ensure compliance.” Marine gasoil sales in Singapore - the world’s largest bunkering hub - have grown nearly six-fold in the last three years to hit a record of 1.14 million tonnes in 2016 according to the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA). Bomin Group has been an MPA approved supplier since 1988, and has seen this development first hand. “Another sign of the times is S&P Global Platts will shortly launch new low-sulphur marine gasoil and diesel oil prices,” says Mr Christensen. “There is no crystal ball that will tell us exactly where the market is heading. However, there are clear indicators of what we can expect with the impact of regulations, changes to the make up of the fuel mix, and the consensus that crude prices will increase to levels higher than the lows of the past few years,” he concludes. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


The United States Coastguard takes a pro-active approach to the adoption of new emissions control equipment Rear Admiral Thomas (USCG): “When a ship enters the US we look at Marpol compliance and we don't care where the non-compliance occurred”

USCG actively rewards early adopters of scrubber technology


o avoid a ‘race to the bottom’, early adopters of scrubber technology sailing in the United States can apply for a grace period while they familiarise themselves with the technology. United States Coast Guard (USCG) Rear Admiral Paul Thomas told the DNV GL 2020 And Beyond conference in Oslo in June that the United States is “actively rewarding early adopters of scrubbers in a way that avoids a [technological] race to the bottom.” Rear Admiral Thomas told the international audience that the United States grants commissioning periods that allows operators to learn how to use the scrubber, optimise the design and work with the manufacturer while remaining in full compliance with prevailing Emission Control Area regulation. “The full expectation is that within the given pre-negotiated timeline those scrubbers will be up and running and achieving a net effect on the environment that is at least equal to burning low sulphur

It’s simply not good enough to say: “Admiral, I don’t get enough power out of my engine when I burn low sulphur fuel” fuel,” said the Admiral. Rear Admiral Thomas also urged shipping to raise its game in terms of demonstrating compliance and managing the associated operational risks. “The industry has a responsibility to increase transparency in a way that helps those of us who provide the governance to give you the level playing field that you demand,” he said. While recognising the new environmental regulations can impose

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

new operational challenges, it was simply not good enough to say: “Admiral, I don’t get enough power out of my engine when I burn low sulphur fuel.” The market could expect a similarly tough line from the USCG when it comes to enforcement once the 2020 low sulphur cap becomes law. “We are training Marpol Annex VI around the world to help ensure that the 2020 cap will be as uniformly enforced as possible,” said Admiral Thomas. “And beyond that when a ship enters the US we look at Marpol compliance and we don’t care where the non-compliance occurred.” He also said that a ban on vessels carrying non-compliant fuel after 2020 should be seriously considered. “Hopefully that will not happen unilaterally, I know it is being discussed in Europe and other places. But there is probably no reason for a ship to be carrying non-compliant fuel in its tanks after 2020. There is probably a reason for the fuel itself to be considered de facto evidence of a violation of the cap.” MP

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Success boosts

methanol’s credibility Although sometimes overshadowed by other alternative fuels, successful operation on board oceangoing vessels is giving methanol greater credibility


he adoption of methanol as a meaningful part of the fuel spectrum has seen some significant progress over the past 12 months. Methanol-fuelled vessels and engine technologies are growing and, with each new piece of ground broken, methanol is gaining more credibility as a viable fuel option in commercial shipping. One organisation that has never had any doubt this would be the case is Methanex. As its name implies, though, Methanex has an interest in this success, being the world’s largest producer and supplier of methanol. April 2017 marked a year since Methanex’s wholly-owned subsidiary, Waterfront Shipping, welcomed into its fleet seven of the world’s first ocean-going vessels capable of running on methanol. These vessels have achieved accolades from the marine industry for their use of methanol as an alternative marine fuel. Over the past year, the seven 50,000 dwt methanol tankers – powered by two-stroke dual-fuel engines capable of running on methanol, fuel oil, marine diesel oil or gas oil – have been operating safely and reliably across the globe. Jone Hognestad, president of Waterfront Shipping when the vessels were launched, said: “Investing in methanol-based marine fuel is an important step in the right direction, and reinforces our commitment to sustainable proven technology that provides environmental

benefits and meets emission regulations.” Three of these vessels are operated by Mitsui OSK Lines (MOL). These were singled out for glory in the form of the ‘Technology Special Prize’ in the Ship of the Year 2016 awards sponsored by the

Japan Society of Naval Architects and Ocean Engineers (JASNAOE). The three MOL-operated carriers (Taranaki Sun, Manchac Sun, and Cajun Sun) received the accolade having been evaluated for their technological advancement as cutting-edge ‘eco ships.’ Every year, the Ship of the Year judges select the made-in-Japan vessels that represent the highest levels of technology, design, and social responsibility. The Technology Special Prize goes to the most technologically advanced, and only four vessels, including the series of three MOL methanol carriers selected this year, have ever received this prize. To give some idea of the emissionreduction capabilities of these vessels,

April 2017 marked a year since Mari-Jone and its sister vessels had been in operation

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


in April this year ship management group Marinvest celebrated two of its vessels together attaining over 3,000 hours running on clean-burning methanol, and estimated that the use of methanol rather than conventional marine fuel had prevented more than 80,000kg of SOx emissions. MAN has been intimately

involved in the development of these vessels, which are powered by its ME-LGI twostroke, dual-fuel engine. The engine can run on methanol, fuel oil, marine diesel oil, or gas oil. It is based on the company’s established MEseries, with its approximately 5,000 engines in service, and works according to the diesel principle (methanol is a low-

flashpoint, liquid fuel). When operating on methanol, the ME-LGI uses HFO, MDO, or MGO as a pilot fuel (significantly reducing emissions of CO2, NOx and SOx) and eliminates methanol slip. Additionally, any operational switch between methanol and other fuels is seamless. Tests on the ME-LGI engine

when running on methanol have recorded the same or a slightly better efficiency compared with conventional HFO-burning engines. “MAN developed these two-stroke engines in response to interest from the shipping world to operate on alternatives to heavy fuel oil and meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations. To hedge the risk of fuel price volatility, the vessels can switch between fuels, and operate costeffectively,” said MAN Diesel & Turbo head of marketing and sales Ole Grøne. MAN Diesel & Turbo sales and promotion manager René Sejer Laursen told Marine Propulsion: “Tests in blending water with methanol also show promising results in terms of meeting IMO’s NOx Tier III requirements. Such a new Tier III solution could become a game-changer. Tier III can be met with a mixture of 40 per cent water and 60 per cent methanol.” But he did concede that the long-term effect on liner and

MAN’s ME-LGI engine features a combustion chamber including two liquid gas injection fuel valves and two fuel oil valves


piston ring wear needs to be investigated, and that further tests are scheduled in the near future to determine if this could be a new way forward. Key to the efficient operation of these engines and the vessels themselves are Alfa Laval’s FCM One Low-Flashpoint (LF) booster systems, which have now seen 4,500 hours of successful operation. In late 2013 Alfa Laval was selected by MAN Diesel & Turbo to deliver LowFlashpoint Supply Systems (LFSS) for the world’s first methanol-fuelled tankers. Since 2012, the two companies had been collaborating broadly on fuel conditioning for MAN Diesel & Turbo’s new two-stroke diesel engines with liquefied gas injection (LGI) technology. But when the the enginebuilder contracted to equip nine vessels with methanol-burning ME-LGI engines, methanol came quickly into focus. “The effectiveness and market-readiness of our MELGI engine technology has been clearly demonstrated by the fleet,” said MAN Diesel & Turbo customer director Kjeld Aabo. “Alfa Laval’s lowflashpoint booster technology has played a significant role in that success, and we look forward to further co-operation as the application develops,” he added. In fact, new booster developments are already underway. MAN Diesel & Turbo is modifying the ME-LGI engine series to use LPG as an alternative fuel, and once again Alfa Laval is preparing the booster system. “Tests of the engine and booster are expected to be completed by the end of 2017,” said Alfa Laval business manager for fuel conditioning systems Roberto Comelli. “In the meantime, Alfa Laval is preparing to support MAN Diesel & Turbo when the first LPG-related orders come in,” he explained. MP

Methanol – The facts • Methanol is a clear, colourless biodegradable fuel that can be produced from natural gas, coal, ‘biomass’ or even CO2 • Methanol as a ship fuel does not contain sulphur and is liquid in ambient air conditions, which makes it easy to store on board ships. So for ships operating in IMO emission control areas (ECAs), methanol could be a feasible solution to meet sulphur requirements

• When using methanol, the emission reductions are similar to the advantages obtained by using LNG, though the installation cost is only a fraction of that for LNG • Methanol can be stored in normal nonpressurised tanks, and is easy to transport • The 240m ferry Stena Germanica became the first ship in the world to run on methanol in early 2015. Parts | Service 24/7 on +44 2380 861 000 (UK Head office) Southampton, Rotterdam, Malta, Athens and Houston and strategic locations worldwide

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Hydrogen struggles for acceptance Long touted as a viable future fuel, hydrogen is still a long way from widespread adoption. But things may be changing

Peace Boat is planning five new ships of this design that go a step further than the prototype Ecoship by using fuel cell technology


n old, if rather cynical, adage among engineers has it that ‘hydrogen is the fuel of the future … and always will be.’ The thought underpinning this sentiment is that, for all its potential benefits, the technical, logistical and structural problems required to exploit hydrogen are simply too numerous. Notwithstanding this scepticism, there has been no shortage over the years of attempts to introduce the fuel cell as an effective source of power for ships. These attempts continue, with some particularly interesting examples having emerged over the last year. Of these, perhaps the most significant example is found in Royal Caribbean Cruises’ October announcement that it would begin testing fuel cells as a supplemental energy source aboard an existing ship in preparation for use on its ‘Project Icon’ vessels, which are to be delivered in the second quarters of 2022 and 2024. The introduction of fuel cells represents a push in an industry that has made only limited attempts to use them. Described most simply, fuel cells are fed hydrogen, convert it to electricity and produce only water as a byproduct or waste. “As the technology becomes smaller and more efficient, the possibility increases of using fuel cells in a significant way to power the ship’s hotel functions,” said RCL chief of ship design Harri Kulovaara. “We will begin testing these possibilities as soon as we can, and look to maximise their use when Icon class debuts.” Icon is the first new ship class announced by RCL since Celebrity Cruises’ Edge class, which debuts in 2018. The company is also expanding its fleet with new Oasis- and Quantum-class ships for RCI. These new ships are in line with RCL’s strategy of moderate capacity growth. Peace Boat, a Japanese NGO, is planning to build five new ships that go a step further than its prototype Ecoship by using more battery power and deploying fuel cell technology, director and founder Yoshioka Tatsuya told Marine Propulsion. Overall, the target is to build five ships in five years “depending on the market situation,” Mr Tatsuya said. He unveiled details about the future newbuildings: “The new ship will be similar to our Ecoship prototype, but we are expecting developments in batteries and fuel-cell technology.” Peace Boat is considering more battery power and integrating fuel-cell technology to achieve “more energy efficiency in renewable propulsion.” Ecoship will run on LNG dual-fuel, but Mr Tatsuya indicated that “maybe fuel cells could be integrated a few years later.” He unveiled plans for Ecoship to use tablet computers to allow passengers to see how much energy they are consuming. Another example can be found at Norway’s Fiskerstrand Holding, which wants to build a hydrogen-powered ferry. The vessel is part of a wider project, HYBRIDShips, that aims to improve awareness and knowledge of zero-emission propulsion systems. Fiskerstrand has set the ambitious goal of having the ferry ready by 2020. Hydrogen has political support in the form of an EU commitment to invest in a new fuel-cell system for marine purposes, as part of the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen 2 Joint Undertaking, which is backed by the European Commission, Hydrogen Europe, and research groups. For all this progress, though, there is a long way to go before hydrogen fuel cells become commonplace on board vessels. For the moment, then, hydrogen is still ‘the fuel of the future’ - but that future may now be closer than previously thought. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017




or all the efforts of engineers, large container vessels still utilise as little as 50 per cent of their fuel energy. The rest of the energy is generally wasted via heat losses of various types. Of these, the vast majority of the heat loss goes via the exhaust gas in form of thermal and kinetic energy. For these reasons, the use of a wasteheat recovery system (WHRS) to increase the energy output from combustion engines is becoming an increasingly viable way to reduce fuel costs. Through the WHRS, the recovered energy is converted back for mechanical work. The main engine’s exhaust gases are channelled to a turbine generator, where the power for the vessel is produced. WHRS uses the heat, flow and pressure from the excess exhaust gas, which rotates the generator and feeds the main electrical grid on board the vessel. Several types of WHRS are available that combine steam turbine and power turbine generator units. Of these, the simplest and cheapest system is the power turbine generator (PTG), which consists of an exhaust gas turbine installed in

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

the exhaust gas bypass, and a generator that converts power from the power turbine to electricity on board the ship. The recovered energy, which is typically up to 4 per cent of the main propulsion shaft’s power output, is converted for electricity through the PTG WHRS. Essentially, the WHRS allows a vessel to produce more power at a very low cost (and simply) by harnessing the excess power provided by the vessel’s main engine. The initial cost of the WHRS will be covered by the fuel savings made during the operation of the vessel. The WHRS can be optimised to meet the required level of efficiency and tailored for the specified propulsion plant. Based on these main parameters, the payback time can be estimated in advance relative to the prevailing cost of fuel and the operational profile of the ship. Such solutions, though far from new, are effective. More novel solutions have been and are being devised, though. One such that hopes to achieve savings of 8 per cent is being researched by the UK-based Energy Technologies Institute, and was reported on by Marine

Propulsion in March. Already on the market, though, is Calnetix Technologies’ Hydrocurrent 125kW marine heat-recovery system. Hydrocurrent was developed by Calnetix and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Marine Machinery and Engine Company (MHI-MME). It uses an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) process with a proprietary turbo-generator to convert thermal energy from an engine’s jacket water into usable electricity for shipboard consumption. The system can produce up to 125kW of electrical power from a temperature source as low as 80oC, saving up to 200 tonnes of bunker fuel and reducing carbon monoxide emissions by 18 tonnes per year. It does this by reducing the load on the ship’s bunkerburning diesel generators. Calnetix’s technology is designed to address the fact that, while heat from engine exhausts is used on many ships for heat generation, it has to date been difficult to extract heat from lower-grade sources such as the engine coolant. Hydrocurrent technology is designed to remove this barrier and tap into the lowgrade jacket water heat to


increased interest generate additional electrical power without incurring any additional fuel usage. The system is designed for use with ship engines ranging in size from 10MW to 30MW output with a range of engine jacket water temperatures of 80o-95oC, and with seawater cooling ranging from 10oC to 320oC. The ship's main engine jacket water and sea water are used to facilitate evaporation and condensation of an

organic working fluid with a boiling point lower than that of water, flowing through a closed loop. The cycle begins with the liquid working fluid stored in a receiver tank at a pressure slightly above atmospheric and a temperature only a few degrees above sea water. The liquid is pumped to a higher pressure and circulated to an evaporator, where it vaporises, absorbing heat from the engine jacket water.

The pressurised vapour is then expanded through the turbine of the integrated power module (IPM), which produces electrical power with its integrated generator. The working fluid is then cooled to a liquid state in the condenser, rejecting heat into sea water, which is pumped overboard. The liquid working fluid is finally returned to the receiver tank to repeat the cycle. The working fluid pump is of centrifugal multi-stage

Hydrocurrent taps into the low-grade jacket water heat to generate additional electrical power without additional fuel usage

design and is mounted horizontally to help achiece a compact skid. A special feature of the pump is its low suction head, which accommodates particularly cold condensing conditions encountered in colder oceans. Driven by a variable frequency drive, the pump is capable of varying the cycle flow and pressure to compensate for varying heat source conditions and desired power-generation settings. Electrical power produced in the IPM is converted to meet the power quality and specification requirements of the ship. This is accomplished in an active converter within the Hydrocurrent unit. The electrical output power automatically synchronises with the ship’s grid voltage and frequency, and maintains this synchronisation irrespective of ship grid fluctuation or heat source changes. At the core of the Hydrocurrent system is the ‘Carefree’ IPM, which provides the means to convert pneumatic power into electrical power. The IPM is a combination of a radial turbine and a permanent magnet (PM) generator. The turbine and permanent magnets of the generator are integrated into a single rotor shaft, and are supported by active magnetic bearings. This fundamental design feature brings numerous advantages over typical turbogenerators. These include the PM generator providing higher efficiency and smaller size over other types of generators, as well as the

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


magnetic bearings enabling frictionless operation, thereby eliminating energy loss, wear and maintenance. The first commercial Hydrocurrent system was installed and commissioned in April 2016 on the A.P. Møller containership MV Arnold Maersk, and has been in continuous service since. In a white paper detailing the installation, commissioning and initial operational feedback, Calnetix noted that the 125kW system consistently generated 110-115kW of electricity for the ship’s grid during the trial voyage. At full cooling water flow, the system generated the full-rated 125kW. On the back of this validation, last August saw Calnetix sign an exclusive manufacturing agreement for the Hydrocurrent with Tokyo Boeki Machinery. Under the agreement, Calnetix will supply the Carefree IPM and other proprietary components, and Tokyo Boeki’s Energy Industries Division will manufacture the finished Hydrocurrent systems. THE SEARCH CONTINUES The search for ever-greater efficiency and savings continues, however. The latest development efforts at Deltamarin use its simulation models, and are strongly focused on developing the waste heat recovery systems of vessels. According to Mia Elg, Deltamarin development manager for energy and environmental efficiency, the solutions in this field are not only limited to the processes utilising waste heat, such as organic Rankine cycles, various turbines for exhaust gases or steam or absorption chillers. “The heat recovery and production equipment must also be considered – such as boilers, heat exchangers in the diesel engine cooling-

water systems and even heat pumps,” she asserted. “The improvement potential in ship fuel consumption with the waste-heat recovery technologies available today could reach 4-6 per cent, even with the primary machinery consisting of the most efficient diesel engines on the market. Reaching this goal or an even higher saving potential requires taking a holistic view of all heat processes in the ship.” Deltamarin believes that, in order to make significant improvements to an existing system, it is necessary to have a fundamental understanding of the waste-heat recovery and energy ‘potential’ in the various ship heat flows. So the latest version of the simulation tool includes a new feature: efficiency analysis of heat utilisation. Ms Elg stated that the analysis method, unlike the traditional energy balance, "is based on the second law of thermodynamics. This analysis method helps in identifying the improvement potential in the heat systems, and ultimately helps in identifying the best sources of converting waste heat into electricity.” This ‘energy flow modelling’ is achieved by applying Deltamarin’s new smart simulation tool. This is a highly flexible, dynamic simulation platform at system level that can accept data in almost any format and at various levels of precision. Such flexibility is required, since the energy models are configured for various purposes. Deltamarin has put this expertise into practice with its development of a new vessel concept with Viking Line for an LNG-fuelled ropax newbuilding. This concept is designed to be highly energy efficient, with particular emphasis on wasteheat recovery in addition to hullform development and

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

weight control. The result was a concept that achieved 10 per cent higher efficiency than its sister vessel Viking Grace. The Harris Pye Engineering Group is working with more than 10 companies and shipyards worldwide on a variety of waste-heat recovery systems including solutions for FSRUs, LNG carriers, container ships, bulk carriers and tankers. Scopes range from standard waste-heat recovery units for installation in the exhaust of gas turbines, to complete efficiency evaluations recovering usable heat from multiple sources on board. “Vessel managers are increasingly operating their vessels in situations where slow steaming or long periods at anchor result in reduced recovery of heat from the main engine exhaust,” explained Harris Pye chief technical officer Chris David. “This can result in an increase in the cost incurred in firing the auxiliary boiler. Use of the waste heat from other systems, especially from the auxiliary engine exhaust gas, can significantly reduce additional fuel costs, and in some cases prevent the auxiliary boiler from having to be fired. Waste-heat recovery

steam generators can also provide additional redundancy to many marine systems by ensuring that steam-generating capacity for essential services can be made available, even when the primary steam-generating plant is out of service or under maintenance.” One scenario relating to improving overall energy efficiency on which Harris Pye worked concerned 25 Aframax tankers at anchor for 120 days in an emission control area. The current spend on auxiliary boiler low-sulphur diesel oil is in the region of US$60,00090,000 per year. Harris Pye is analysing the possibility of using auxiliary engine cooling water to preheat the main engine jacket water as part of the overall solution. “Of course essential services such as lube oil purifiers, hot water calorifiers, and bunker heating are still required,” explained Mr David. “So we undertook evaluation and cost comparison between using electrical heating, or generating steam from the auxiliary generator engines. The payback time is then calculated from the cost of the various modifications against the consumption of low-sulphur diesel oil,” he stated. MP

CHRIS DAVID (Harris Pye): “Use of the waste heat… can significantly reduce this additional fuel costs”


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market resists hybrid challenge Innovative and reliable products abound in the genset market, despite challenges from alternative technologies


he genset market has been relatively volatile in recent years, reflecting the general overcapacity in the market and consequent lack of newbuildings. In certain markets gensets are also coming under pressure from battery-based hybrid systems, which in some instances mean that there will be reduced need for onboard power generation. Despite all this, there is still demand for efficient generating sets and no shortage of equipment options available. Wärtsilä’s Auxpac range of gensets covers a wide range of power requirements. Its most recent additions, the Auxpac 32 and smaller Auxpac 16, were introduced concurrently to the market as pre-engineered generating set packages based on Wärtsilä’s proven four-stroke diesel engine technology. The engines feature direct fuel injection and charge air cooling, and are suitable for auxiliary power applications on all classes and sizes of vessel. They are based on the Auxpac 20 and 26 engine packages, of which there

are approximately 1,000 in operation with over 6 million cumulative hours of running. The Wärtsilä Auxpac 32 is the most powerful generating package in the range, capable of an output of up to 4,160kW electrical (kWe), and its compact design provides a high power-to-space ratio. As a pre-commissioned standard package, installation time is reduced and reliability increased. The package is available with six-, seven-, eight- or nine-cylinder engine configurations, starting with the W6L32 specification rated to deliver 2,400 kWe. There are four more ratings in the range, with the maximum power output being over 4,000 kWe. Capable of 50Hz or 60Hz frequencies, the packages are suitable for a wide range of vessel types, and particularly aimed at the power requirements of tankers, bulk carriers and large container vessels. The Auxpac 16 is of similar design and is available based on five-, six- or seven-cylinder engine configurations. The package includes an integrated multi-functional,

An MAN 12V175D MEL Genset including SCR equipment has been installed on board a PSV since 2016

digital automation system with electronic governing to ensure smooth control. This also provides rapid and stable response to sudden transients in load demands. The smallest W5L16 packages are capable of delivering 455 kWe at 50Hz or 525 kWe at 60Hz, with the W7L16 configurations offering 635 kWe and 735 kWe at 50Hz and 60Hz frequencies respectively. The standard package scope of both products includes automation systems with serial bus communication interfaces for monitoring

and safety systems, this arrangement minimising external cabling and interface connections. Baseframes are designed for resilient mounting directly onto the vessel hull structure, allowing simple installation and reliable alignment of the generating set. Resilient mountings reduce levels of structureborne noise transmission from the generating sets to the vessel's hull, increasing the comfort for crew. Both Auxpac 16 and 32 units are capable of operation on the lowestLFO viscosity of circa 2.0 cSt to levels of 700 cSt

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


The Wärtsilä Auxpac 16 serves the smaller end of the market

seen in HFO (based on 50°C fuel temperature). The engine can also operate on fuel oils with sulphur contents below 0.01 per cent sulphur. The Wärtsilä Auxpac 16 serves the lower end of the market, from approximately 500 kWe to 750 kWe per generating set. The Wärtsilä Auxpac 20 goes up to approximately 1,700 kWe, the Wärtsilä Auxpac 26 serves power needs up to 2,800 kWe, and finally, for the uppermost power range required typically by large container vessels, the Wärtsilä Auxpac 32 offers between 2,400 kWe and 4,500 kWe. Electrical outputs are available at 400V, 690V or 6.6kV at 50Hz, with the same at 60Hz other than the lowest voltage, where 450V is the equivalent. Protection class is to IP23 as standard, with an option to increase this to IP44 if required. Temperature rise and insulation is to class F

standards in all cases. A more recent innovation has seen the increasing use of dual-fuel technology for main genset installations. This will be the case on the forthcoming Tallink 27-knot ropax Megastar, in the shape of two Wärtsilä 8L20DF mediumspeed prime movers and a single 6L20DF model. LNG fuel will also be used by two 3,000kW thermal oil heaters, sized to meet the vessel’s considerable heating load. The prime movers for the five main generators are three 12-cylinder models of the Wärtsilä 50DF engine and two six-cylinder versions, making for an aggregate output of 45,600kW on the basis of the nominal maximum continuous engine ratings. The overall generator output is 44,000kW. The engines can be run on natural gas, LFO or HFO without any difference in delivered power, and will

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

automatically switch to fuel oil back-up in the event of any interruption in LNG supply while in operation. Both the gas admission and pilot-oil fuel injection are electronically controlled. The multi-genset configuration and electric drives will enable the operator to closely match the number of engines in service at any one time to the ship’s fluctuating power requirements, in accordance with scheduling needs, voyage profile, weather and ice conditions, and ‘hotel’ electrical load. Selected engines can then be used at their nominal power, where the efficiency is highest. MAN Diesel & Turbo’s most recent engine to have proved its value as a genset is the 175D, which is now globally certified for marine propulsion (diesel-mechanic and diesel-electric) and genset applications with a power

output of up to 185 kW/ cylinder by the classification societies ABS, BKI, BV, CCS, DNV/GL, KRS, LR, NK, RINA and RS. In fact, it was announced in July this year that, after more than 10,000 running hours on testbeds and a successful DNV GL type approval, an MAN 12V175D MEL Genset including SCR equipment had been installed on board the platform supply vessel Edda Fonn since 2016. The Edda Fonn from Østensjø Rederi is an advanced, cost-effective, flexible 90m vessel used for inspection, maintenance, survey and light construction service. The vessel is equipped with a DP2 system, and is designed for the most challenging sea applications. The retrofit into an offshore service and supply application with its challenging load profile – low engine load during









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working mode and high engine load during transit – was selected in order to ideally demonstrate the ease of installation and commissioning of the 175D into already existing rooms, and its efficient operation and reliability. An existing genset was exchanged with the MAN 12V175D-MEL Genset, rated at 1,920kW, at 60Hz. The MAN 175D is engineered with all auxiliary components attached on the base-frame, while fitting into the existing vessel foundation. Since the end of 2016, the genset has collected over 4,000 running hours. Chief engineer Nils Are Hermansen said: “The genset has been running smoothly for a few thousand running hours. It’s more efficient than our former propulsion set-up, both in terms of fuel consumption and maintenance efforts and costs. Due to the compactness of the genset and its small footprint, we could install it into the existing vessel system within a week and without any major modifications.” Caterpillar’s marine generator sets span 11kW electrical output to over 7.7MW. Indeed, few companies can offer such a wide range of marine generating sets as Caterpillar, enabled through a combination of its traditional Caterpillar Marine products and heavy-duty combinations from its MaK business unit. Its M25E and M32E engine platforms are suitable for propulsion duties as well as generator applications. The M32E was designed for offshore markets with particular focus on diesel electric and generator set applications. Output speeds have been raised and there are now options of 720 rpm and 750 rpm drives. These

speeds improve compatibility with electrical generators and, in turn, reduce generator costs and increase electrical efficiencies. The boost in cylinder power to 550kW has extended the M32 power range close to 5MW. Generator sets are now available with electrical outputs of 3,165 kWe with six-cylinder engines to 4,747 kWe with nine-cylinder engines, based on generator efficiencies of 96 per cent and a power factor of 0.8. Using similar technological developments, the smaller MaK M25E generator offers electrical outputs from 2,016 kWe to 3,024 kWe, the engine having a 5 per cent power increase and reduced fuel consumption compared with the M25C from which it was developed. The package uses a combination of proven features including the MaK FCT camshaft system and

waste-gate and cylinderbypass technology. As with the M32E, the M25E meets both EPA Tier 2 and IMO II requirements. Remote condition monitoring and diagnostic maintenance programmes are available to ensure engines continue running in optimum condition. Power and efficiency improvements have been achieved through a series of developments including a new-generation turbocharger system and an optimised, smaller charge air cooler. The engine design itself is more compact and weight has been reduced. Importantly, MaK has retained its policy on output ratings, which can be maintained when operating in any conditions, making high ambient load reductions unnecessary. The company offers an optimisation kit, which improves efficiencies when generator sets are

running at load factors of 47 per cent or less. The M20C product is the smallest available in the MaK marine generator set range, and is available in six-, eight- and nine-cylinder in-line engine configurations. Packages are based on a common singlepiece base-frame, designed for ease of installation and reliable alignment. Auxiliary equipment is mounted onpackage, including the fuel supply system, which is also suitable for both medium and heavy fuel oil duties. As a generating proposition, the M20C has power capabilities from 1,224 kVA to 2,160 kVA. At the top of the range, the MaK 9M46DF generator set has the largest bore engine and the highest power output, at 7,768 kWe, but it is closely matched by the 16-cylinder VM32C package, rated at 7,680 kWe in 50Hz operation. MP

The M32E was designed for offshore markets with particular focus on diesel electric and generator set applications

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017











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ybrid propulsion arrangements based around two-stroke diesel engines will see growing demand, believes the power transmission specialist Renk. “The shipping industry is facing more and more emission and pollution restrictions so shipbuilders and owners will be forced to apply some kind of hybrid propulsion systems in the future,” it commented in an email exchange with Marine Propulsion. To match that expectation, it has been emphasising its MARHY (maritime hybrid) system, which it launched at the SMM Exhibition in Germany last September and is continuing to promote at industry events throughout this year, in particular at the World Hybrid Expo in Amsterdam in June. It argues that, since two-stroke engines offer efficiencies of up to 55 per cent and are both simple and reliable, they will be irreplaceable in the future. “The MARHY package can be added to this propulsion system quite easily,” Renk said in a paper it provided for this report. At the time of writing, in early August, the company hopes to secure its first order for a MARHY package around the end of this year or early 2018, although many of its components are established members of Renk’s product range with many previous references. By basing it around these existing products, Renk has aimed to create MARHY as a cost-effective and reliable option for many marine applications that will yield a quick return on investment. In most cases, the number of generator sets can be reduced when adding MARHY, Renk’s paper said. It also outlined some other

Renk’s MARHY hybrid transmission package arranged for take-home power (credit: Renk)

MARHY provides take-home power Renk’s MARHY (maritime hybrid) transmission can provide power takehome (PTH) support for propulsion systems using either fixed-pitch or controllable-pitch propellers but there will be slight differences in its design between the two variants. With fixed pitch propellers, engine speed inevitably reduces with ship speed during slow-steaming to reduce fuel consumption. But power take-off generation can continue be maintained: it is far more efficient and cost-effective than using four-stroke diesel-powered generating sets, Renk said in a paper it provided for this report. With MARHY installed, it is possible

to operate in a PTH mode, in which a frequency converter (FC) and an electric motor is used to propel the ship instead of the main engine. Due to a vessel’s cubic power-speed relationship, less than 5 per cent of the normal engine output would be needed to reach 7 kts for a vessel that has a 22 kts speed at maximum continuous rating (mcr). Where controllable-pitch propellers are fitted, both propeller speed and pitch are controlled simultaneously. A propeller running at zero pitch and full speed would consume 20-25 per cent of the mcr power, Renk’s paper notes, so in a PTH mode, the propeller speed would be reduced via the FC.

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


benefits that this design approach fosters: since the package can be added to two-stroke engines quite easily, the paper said, “the vessel gets a full redundant propulsion system that fulfils classification [standards] … and the ‘safe return to port’ requirement for passenger vessels.” In addition, because of the redundancy it provides “hazardous cargo in chemical tankers, containers or crude oil tankers can be transported in restricted areas,” the paper said. MARHY can be used with either fixed-pitch or controllable-pitch propulsion arrangements and Renk’s paper outlined how it would be incorporated into either case to provide take-home power (see p69). In the future, considerations such as EEDI and redundancy, along with hybrid, battery, electric and flexible drive modes, will need to be evaluated during a new vessel’s design phase or when planning a refurbishment, Renk’s paper said. “The MARHY package is already considering all these arguments and gives a real measureable benefit for the shipowner,” it added.

That package includes some key components, including a hydraulically actuated propeller shaft clutch, which disconnects the main engine. More than 100 of these clutches are already in service. A tunnel gear box is also included, increasing the propeller shaft speed to 1,500 or 1,800 rpm to match the electric motor/generator speed and frequency. Standard asynchronous motors of 690V have been chosen for MARHY, as it is the most widespread type of electric motor in industrial applications due to its simplicity and low costs, Renk’s paper reports. A standard frequency converter (FC) is also used. Because the 690V motor requires a lower current compared with a 450V machine, a smaller size of frequency converter and connecting cables can be used. ABB ASC880-17, Vacon NX Ch64 and Leroy Somer MD3 F2RL are the pre-selected FCs for the package, but others can be considered.

RESEARCH PROJECT AIMS TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY Propeller maker Teignbridge of the UK is working with the country’s Energy Technologies Institute (ETI) to develop a high efficiency propulsion system (HEPS) for ships that aims to reduce fuel consumption by around 8 per cent as part of a bigger project to find larger efficiency savings. This two-year project, which began in March, aims to develop a commercially-viable system that can be retrofitted to a variety of vessel types, Teignbridge said in a statement at the time. It will make use of a 14m catamaran research vessel that Teignbridge has ordered from Exeter Maritime; delivery was expected in September, as this issue of Marine Propulsion was published. It will be able to test propellers of up to 1.2m diameter using a podded drive arrangement, with larger screws tested by scaling from that size. The project was inspired by an ETI study published early this year. It forms part of the institute’s Heavy duty Vehicle Marine Programme, which “aims to increase the efficiency of land vehicles and marine vessels by 30 per cent by 2050, by developing and deploying emission-reducing technologies from 2025 onwards”.

Writing about the project on ETI’s website, its strategy manager, Stuart Bradley, reflected on IMO’s EEDI initiative, saying that, although that is admirable, “additional initiatives are needed, and the intention of this programme is to provide the technology, tools and commercial advantages to shipowners, operators and charterers to accelerate compliance with emissions targets.” His report identifies five areas of technology where efficiency improvements should be possible, including propeller efficiency along with transmissions and prime movers. When the co-operation agreement with Teignbridge was announced in March, ETI’s HEPS project manager Deborah Stubbs said it was “one of a number of demonstration projects the ETI is running which, when used in combination, could reduce fuel consumption by up to 30 per cent and cut the carbon emissions from shipping in a cost effective manner.” MP

ETI’s report identifies technologies where efficiencies can be made, including transmissions and prime movers

The ETI is a public-private partnership. Its members are BP, Caterpillar, EDF, RollsRoyce, Shell and the UK Government. Read its report via

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


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WORKBOATS TO BENEFIT FROM REINTJES’ INNOVATIONS Supply vessel, wind farm transfer vessels, tugs, yachts, fishing and inland waterway vessels form the initial target market for Reintjes Fast Clutch, launched in June. It makes it possible to shift drive from ahead to astern smoothly in about a second, the company told Marine Propulsion, and is available as a gearbox control valve option. The company’s public relations manager, Vanessa Plenker, said that the clutch can be retrofitted to existing gears and is initially being offered on its small gears in its WAF/LAF, WVS/WLS and ZWVS ranges, to which it can be retrofitted. Reflecting on the German company’s gearbox developments over the past year, it was clear that vessels of this size play an important part in the company’s development plans. For example, hybrid power arrangements will become increasingly significant in workboat design in the future, she suggested. For example, in May this year, the Reintjes Hybrid Step-Up gearbox (RSGL) was demonstrated during the Offshore

This cutaway drawing of Reintjes’ RSGL gearbox shows how the gears step-up the speed from the input shaft (credit: Reintjes)

Technology Conference in Houston, USA. For that demonstration, it was linked to a BAE Systems electric motor and the combination was dubbed the BAE HybriGen Zero system (see box). This gearbox is intended for retrofit installations and is designed to fit on the front of an engine, where it drives a permanent magnetic electric generator of up to 300 kWe. That unit can also serve as a high-torque motor, which can operate as a starter in place of a conventional airstarting system.

BAE HybriGen Zero components In addition to a Reintjes Hybrid Step-Up gearbox and a BAe Systems electric motor, the BAE HybriGen system includes these Reintjes components: • An integrated multi-disc clutch • A flexible coupling on input side • A bell housing for directly mounting the generator • A shaft for direct engine connection • Hybrid-ready construction for rear-end drives


Sweden’s Dellner Brakes has expanded its product range in recent months, introducing new technology both at the SMM exhibition in Germany last September and Nor-Shipping in Oslo in June this year. “We pride ourselves on continuous technical innovation,” the company’s chief executive Marcus Åberg told Marine Propulsion. At SMM, Dellner launched an electrical version of its established stopping, turning, locking (STL) shaft braking system and with it

By using this power take-off arrangement, it is possible to switch off the onboard generator sets when it is use. Ms Plenker said that this arrangement improves efficiency, because only a minimum amount of power is taken from the main engine, running at its most efficient point and the system provides power onboard only where it is needed. Other benefits include reduced operating and maintenance costs, she said. For newbuildings, Reintjes is planning to expand its existing hybrid system by adding battery packs to their existing scope of gearbox, electric motor, frequency converter and remote controls. The past year has also seen Reintjes launch a range of WVSA down-angle gearboxes. These allow a shaft to be angled at 8-10 degrees between the gearbox’s input and output, saving space in an engineroom. More details can be found in Marine Propulsion, February/ March 2017.

came an innovative remote control technique. STL shaft brakes enable vessels to change direction “quickly and efficiently with maximum control and manoeuvrability,” the company’s literature notes, and this electrical version (eSTL) allows all three functions to be run consecutively with a single touch of a button. It provides stopping torque of up to 900 kNm, turning torque of up to 600 kNm and locking torque of up to 1,650 kNm, but

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


higher torques can be provided on custombuilt eSTL systems, which can be scaled up and adapted for specific applications. In a statement at the time, Mr Åberg explained that the STL system allows users to select from its three functions and said that eSTL “will give them even more choice for small and mid-range applications.” He told Marine Propulsion in August that the brakes can be operated remotely via a hand-held controller or even from a smartphone or tablet computer. “Remote operation of our STL systems means operators can stop, turn and lock the ship’s propeller shaft safely from a distance, making working procedures safer and also saving operators’ time,” he said. Dellner has been researching different types of remote controls for around 15 years, he said, describing them as forming part of a wider trend in the industry towards wireless control and monitoring. He believes it is “extremely important to keep pace with the increasing digitisation that’s happening in the world today.”

Its most recent innovations are two heavyduty disc brakes that it has added to its SKD range. They have a modular design which the company believes provides more choice for its customers along with “outstanding stopping power at extremely competitive prices for large industrial, marine and offshore applications,” it said in a statement at the time. Its new SKD 140 brake is suitable for large vessels and delivers a braking force of up to 258kN to stop rotary motion and to hold loads stationary. It has two brake housings, each containing a powerful hydraulic piston. Its other new model is the SKD 4x140 brake, which combines two brake assemblies containing a total of four powerful hydraulic pistons to deliver braking force of up to 516kN, making it Dellner’s most powerful brake yet. Dellner has also developed an offshore version of the brake, with corrosion protection and hard wearing paint and pistons that are specially designed to withstand harsh conditions.

Thanks to the brakes’ modular design, Dellner can also provide larger systems by combining several brake assemblies or by producing customised housings with several pistons to suit specific installations. Manufacturing these brakes benefits from what Åberg described as “new manufacturing processes” that make it possible “to offer these brakes to our customers at extremely competitive prices,” he said. In operation, they use cylindrical guide pins that transmit the tangential braking force from the brake lining to the brake housing and mounting stand, which means that the brake pistons are not subject to any radial forces, which makes the brakes last longer than they would otherwise do, Dellner’s statement explained. Four weeks after Nor-Shipping, the company added two lightweight failsafe brakes to its SKP range. Its SKP 180 weighs 315kg and delivers up to 226kN braking force through two brake housings while the SKP 4 x 180 weighs 630kg and combines two brake assemblies containing a total of four pistons to deliver braking force of up to 453kN.

SHAFT LOAD MEASUREMENTS SAVE FUEL ON DUAL-FUEL ENGINES Accurate torque measurements from an engine’s propeller shaft can help control main engines and lead to considerable fuel savings, according to the German instrumentation specialist, HBM. Its T40MAR torque transducer is certified by a number of class societies for marine use and the company’s business development manager for torque applications, Guy Beaho, referred Marine Propulsion to a case study describing how Wärtsilä is using the transducer with its dual-fuel engines in marine installations with direct driven propulsion. When the engine runs in gas mode, the fuel injection system needs the precise load signal for the engine to work correctly, the case study reports. And to produce a precise load signal, a very accurate torque transducer is needed, it adds. Wärtsilä installed a T40MAR to its engine between the engine flexible coupling and the gearbox hub to measure the output shaft’s torque. Other methods were not accurate enough but T40MAR has an accuracy class of only 0.15 (±0.15 per cent), the study says. It quotes Mr Beaho explaining that the main contribution to this accuracy comes from “the documented

unbroken chain of comparisons tracing back the HBM torque transducers to the reference transducer of the German National Standard.” Direct torque measurements of up to 400 kNm can be made by the T40MAR and its measurement signals – which can be either analogue or digital – are transmitted without needing contacts, which helps make the sensor maintenance-free, the

company suggested. In a paper published on its website in July, HBM reports that accurate shaft torque and load measurements are essential for dual-fuel engines to be able to switch between fuels without losing power. And when an engine is running on LNG, this data is needed to control critical operating modes relating to cylinder pressure, such as knocking, misfiring or overload, the paper says. MP

HBM’s T40MAR fits onto the engine to provide accurate load data (credit: HBM)

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017







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Color Hybrid’s batteries will be recharged either by means of a power cable with green electricity from shore, or by the ship’s onboard generators

Battery power boosts hybrid cruising G

iven the passenger ship sector’s unique position in the shipping industry, it tends to lead the way in environmental measures. Alongside a sincere desire to be environmentally sound and to accrue operational benefits from that, the need to be ‘seen to be green’ has driven the sector’s drive to cut emissions where possible. This has been the case in the use of scrubbers and adoption of LNG as a fuel, and now it is the case with regard to the adoption of hybrid propulsion systems. So far, ferries have led the way in battery use: indeed, the rise in the use of the technology in this sector has been so dramatic that it is now almost commonplace. In Norway in particular, a combination of government incentives and fortuitous timing has led to dramatic growth in installations on ferries. Many of the vessels serving on local and commuter routes are due for renewal and this, together with policies designed to nudge vessel owners towards lowemissions operation, has created ideal conditions for electrification. Increasingly, though, the technology is

Until now, hybrid/ battery vessels have been restricted to short-sea vessels such as passenger ferries. But new cruise vessels are changing that

finding a significant place in larger vessels in the cruise industry. Its use seems set to grow strongly, with major reasons being the rapid development of the technology and reduction in costs. Hurtigruten’s newbuild expedition cruise ships are a good example of this phenomenon. It was recently announced that the operator’s second vessel, Fridtjof Nansen, will have significantly more battery

capacity than the first, Roald Amundsen: most likely 5 or 6 MWh compared with 1.2 MWh on the first newbuild that will be delivered. This additional capacity has been made possible by improvements in battery technology that have halved the price per MWh since the first ship was conceived – something that will no doubt encourage the use of batteries by other cruise and ferry operators. The improvements also allow for operational benefits, such as increased ‘silent running’ in ice regions. Roald Amundsen will manage 15-30 minutes at high speed and with a full passenger manifest without its diesel engines running, estimated Hurtigruten senior vice president for new projects Jens Lassen. At lower speeds and with a reduced hotel power load, “operation time will be significantly longer,” he told Marine Propulsion. Fridtjof Nansen, though, will achieve considerably longer periods and will be able to operate in port, relying on its batteries rather than running its engines or using shore power. These larger batteries enable the possibility of fully electric sailing across longer distances and over longer periods of time. Battery power

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


will be used when sailing into fjords, at port and in vulnerable areas, meaning silent and emission-free sailing. It will be possible to add more battery capacity to Roald Amundsen, but Mr Lassen suggested that it will be cheaper to arrange this as a later upgrade. Hurtigruten chief executive Daniel Skjeldam said the cruise line was putting aside extra space in the hybrid expedition and cruise ships to install even more battery packs as the technology becomes more available. “This technology is moving very fast,” he said. The vessels “are the most innovative and sustainable ships out there, taking the learnings from battery ferries in Scandinavia and putting them in these vessels.” Mr Skjeldam added: “They will be the most technologically advanced ships out there. The expedition industry needs to develop away from 50-60-year old ships and find new technology that reduces emissions considerably. That is the very important part when we sail in the most sensitive areas in the world.” Summing up, he declared: “The future is electric.” The hybrid technology for Roald Amundsen and Fridtjof Nansen is being delivered in two phases. On the first vessel,

auxiliary battery power will provide large reductions in fuel consumption related to “peak shaving.” This solution is to be installed on the first expeditionary ship, ready for delivery in 2018. Roald Amundsen and Fridtjof Nansen will include, in addition to the hybrid power solution, the latest automation and control systems, including the Rolls-Royce Unified Bridge, the first delivery of two Azipull propellers using permanent magnet technology, two large tunnel thrusters, stabilisers, four Bergen B33:45 engines, winches and power electric systems. Rolls-Royce will also supply four B33:45L diesel engines to power the world’s largest hybrid ferry, which is being built for Norwegian operator Color Line. Designed by Fosen, the 160m long newbuild will be built at Ulstein Verft in Norway. It will be a plug-in hybrid ferry that operates using both diesel and electrical power. Rolls-Royce will deliver the four engines in March 2018, and the contract includes an option to provide engines for a second vessel. “The shipbuilding industry in Norway has lately proven its competitiveness internationally in the cruise and ferry market, and we are proud to be part of these innovative newbuilding projects,”

Hurtigruten's second expedition cruise vessel will have significantly more battery capacity than the first

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

said Rolls-Royce vice president of engines (marine) Kjell Harloff. “Our Bergen engines have now been sold to nine vessels in this particular segment over the past year. It is a track record that demonstrates a highly attractive and competitive engine range.” Scheduled for delivery in summer 2019, Color Line’s new ferry will be able to accommodate 2,000 passengers and 500 cars. The vessel will operate on the crossing between Sandefjord in Norway and Strømstad in Sweden. As a plug-in hybrid, Color Hybrid’s batteries will be recharged either by means of a power cable with green electricity from shore, or by the ship’s onboard generators. Its bank of 4-5 MWh batteries will deliver sufficient power to enable fully electric operation for 30 minutes silently and with zero CO2, NOx and SOx emissions. The advances of battery technology are such that questions are increasingly being asked as to whether hybrid battery technology could find its way onto larger, ocean-going vessels. As things stand, batteries simply do not offer the requisite energy density for long ocean voyages. But they are rapidly falling in price per kW-hour and, should this trend continue, a range of possibilities may present themselves. In a recent conversation with Marine Propulsion, Mr Lassen asserted that batteries are not just for passenger ships, but for deepsea shipping, too. Roughly 50 per cent of their fuel energy goes to waste, of course, but he says this is only because they have no way of storing it. He believes that a lot of that energy could be recovered via boilers and steam turbines to generate electricity, store it in batteries and reuse it when the ship is in port. Narve Mjøs, director for battery services and projects for DNV GL, which is classing the Hurtigruten vessels, said of the technology: “I am confident we will see battery and hybrid technology being implemented on large, trans-ocean cruise vessels as well. For example, operators could use battery power to eliminate emissions during port sailing and port operations and ensure noise and vibration-free operations when sailing through spectacular tourist sites such as fjords. Battery power could also power tender boats and eliminate any vibrations and diesel smoke. Depending on the operational profile of the engines, we would also see a reduction in fuel and maintenance costs. Cruise operators are eager to capitalise on these benefits, and are already taking their first steps to make it a reality.” MP

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stake their claims in hybrid The increasing popularity of hybrid propulsion can be gauged not just by the latest applications of existing technology, but also in the activities of OEMs and enginebuilders themselves


ajor investement in hybrid propulsion technology by the world’s two largest enginebuilders underline the key role these technologies will play in meeting today’s requirements for low emissions and high efficiency. In June, MAN Diesel & Turbo announced its intention to acquire a 40 per cent holding in Canadian hybrid specialist Aspin Kemp and Associates (AKA). The investment came about as part of MAN Diesel & Turbo’s strategic development programme, ‘Basecamp 3000+’, launched in 2016. As part of this programme, the company announced strategic acquisitions and partnerships to expand its product range with respect to the global trends of decarbonisation and digitalisation. The move toward hybrid technology is seen as a key plank of this strategy, said MAN chief executive Dr Uwe Lauber. “The partnership with AKA is a key element in our strategy to strengthen our role as technological forerunner in the field of marine propulsion,” he said. “AKA’s specialised expertise links battery storage systems and marine engines. The new co-operation marks an important step on the way to further establishing ourselves as a principal system supplier for energy management on board ships.” Energy management systems (EMSs)

provide fully automatic control and optimise the power distribution of drive components of ships. On ships with hybrid drives, electric motors and battery storage systems are employed alongside diesel and multi-fuel engines. The battery system is recharged with surplus energy from the engine, enabling the engine to be operated in its optimum load range at all times. Any load peaks can be quickly and efficiently covered by the electrical storage system. AKA’s collaboration with key industry partners has allowed it to develop and continuously improve technology for power, propulsion, and drilling applications in the offshore oil and gas and marine sectors, which the company will build on through this new partnership. “AKA is a

BELOW: The Wärtsilä HY is a fully integrated hybrid power module in a dieselmechanical configuration

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


technological pioneer in growth niches that are of decisive importance for us, for example in the integration of battery storage technology for hybrid drive systems for the maritime sector,” said Dr Lauber. “Hybrid drives are becoming ever more important as they help to improve the efficiency of the drive systems and at the same time reduce emissions,” he added. AKA's achievements include the world’s first hybrid-powered harbour-assist tug boat, and the world’s first hybrid offshore drillfloor system. The company is a pioneer and world leader in highly reliable and efficient closed-bus solutions for vessels utilising dynamic positioning systems. The company’s chief executive and co-founder Jason Aspin expressed his excitement about the possibilities offered by this collaboration: “We are in a time where the proper application of technology and innovation is going to result in radical changes to how society works with respect to transportation and power generation. Massive changes are required to meet the environmental challenges ahead of us, and together with MAN we can be leaders in that change.” Not to be outdone, Wärtsilä chose the Nor-Shipping 2017 exhibition to launch a fully integrated hybrid power module combining engines, an energy storage system, and power electronics optimised to work together through a newly developed EMS. The Wärtsilä HY is the marine sector’s first hybrid power module of this type, and is available in three configurations: diesel-electric, diesel-mechanical with power take-out/power take-in, and dieselmechanical with shaft generator/motor. Initially available only for diesel engines, the company plans to include dual-fuel engines at a later stage. Gas-burning engines in particular will benefit from battery use to keep the load within a range safe from knocking. Speaking to Marine Propulsion, Tony Chronnell, Wärtsilä’s sales manager for power propulsion, said: “Hybrid systems will undoubtedly be a significant part of the propulsion landscape in the future. We anticipate that they will provide a significant percentage of all contracted vessels.” The development of HY began in 2015, with its first testing taking place in combination with the Wärtsilä 26 engine on tug and ferry applications. At its heart, is the product’s energy management system. “The EMS enables

highly sophisticated operations to ensure that every possible bit of performance is squeezed from the system at the lowest possible energy cost,” said Mr Chronnell. The Wärtsilä HY will provide a wide range of benefits through increased operational efficiency and flexibility, resulting in lower fuel consumption, reduced emissions, and improved vessel performance. When operating in ‘Green Mode,’ zero emissions can be achieved. Smokeless operation is also achievable at all load points and in all operating modes, due to a new patent-pending automation procedure. Furthermore, the reduction in engine operating hours lowers maintenance requirements and extends the intervals between overhauls. In addition, propellers can be started by the energy storage system and operated at low rpm. Manoeuvring capabilities are enhanced and engine low-load running is avoided. The Wärtsilä HY will have dedicated versions for each category of vessel. The first versions being made available will be designed for tugs and medium-sized ferries, though Wärtsilä sees big potential

in other types of vessel as well. In fact, in the process of launching the new product, Wärtsilä announced the first order for the HY, a new 80-tonne bollard-pull harbour tug for Italian owner Rimorchiatori Riuniti, the biggest operator of tug vessels in the Mediterranean. The equipment will be delivered during the second half of 2018, and the new tug is expected to be in service by the beginning of 2019. The HY system will allow the tug to move within the waters of the port of Genoa by exploiting the battery powered propulsion and only using diesel propulsion in order to obtain the maximum power needed. Rimorchiatori Riuniti group technical director Raffaello Corradi said “We are proud to be the first in the industry to embrace this exciting and innovative hybrid technology. Wärtsilä is a company we know well, and we are not really surprised that it was the first to introduce this level of innovation. For us, Wärtsilä HY will provide operational flexibility, added security, and, above all, environmental sustainability.” MP

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Battery technologies define the future of hybrid Hybrid propulsion technology stands and falls by the capabilities of the onboard batteries used. So what are the latest developments?


ybrid propulsion that combines electric is also modular, meaning that a battery system drives, diesel generators and high-power can be tailored to closely match the customer’s batteries is driving the development power and voltage requirements.” of vessel power-management systems Saft’s Seanergy energy storage systems (ESS) designed to reduce fuel consumption, CO2 emissions are based on SLFP technology and are intended and overall maintenance. to provide maintenance-free energy storage in A battery on each engine benefits vessels in a reduced volume, combining high operational a number of ways. The overall power-generation reliability over thousands of cycles with requirement can be downsized by removing a outstanding energy efficiency genset, while other gensets can be loaded in their “Compared with other Li-ion chemistries,” says optimum working range. Also, batteries smooth Mr Vir, “SLFP technology is particularly well suited the load by compensating for peaks and troughs, to civil marine applications as it delivers reliable as well as enhancing safety and reliability by performance over a wide temperature range, has providing back-up in the event of blackouts. high tolerance to electrical and mechanical abuse, The increased adoption of hybrid propulsion and has a high inherent level of safety.” systems relies on developments in battery SLFP cells are incorporated in a number of technology, namely the ability to offer everhigh-profile applications. They are present in greater energy density, power and performance the two specialised Seanergy battery systems while maintaining safety. that Rolls-Royce Marine is integrating in the As things stand, lithium-ion (Li-ion) hybrid propulsion systems for the polar research technology leads the vessel RRS Sir David way. Lithium-ion is Attenborough. The new in fact a generic term: vessel, one of the most there are multiple advanced ever, has been chemistries underneath, commissioned by the UK’s with each chemistry Natural Environment being appropriate for Research Council for a different application. operation by the British In the case of hybrid Antarctic Survey. propulsion, the choice The diesel electric of battery technology is propulsion system will be critically important. powered by new Bergen One of the leading B33:45 engines that will technologies is operate in combination Saft’s Li-ion Superwith the two Li-ion Phosphate (SLFP) batteries. Fully integrated high-power and into the vessel’s control high-energy cell and automation system, technology. Speaking the batteries provide a to Marine Propulsion, combined 1,450 kWh Jayesh Vir, Saft key capacity with a maximum account manager for voltage of 1,011V. They the marine segment, will help deliver the said: “As a Li-ion peak power required by technology, SLFP has the vessel, such as when the advantages of high operating in a dynamic efficiency, long calendar positioning mode, and have and cycling life, fastbeen sized to enable the charge capability and Saft’s Seanergy Energy Storage Systems vessel to be self-sufficient high power output. It (ESS) are based on SLFP technology in fuel during voyages of up

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


to 19,000 nautical miles. The Li-ion batteries will also help to push the vessel through ice up to 1m thick, while towing equipment over the side, with extremely low underwater radiated noise, avoiding disturbing marine mammals and fish shoals or interfering with survey equipment. On a rather different scale, Saft SLFP batteries will form part of an innovative propulsion system for Project Zoza, the working name for the mega yacht under construction by Benetti in Livorno, Italy. As one of the largest and most advanced private hybrid luxury yachts in the world, Project Zoza will feature six main engines and an electrical power plant including two battery systems with a total capacity of 3 MWh. The batteries will enable silent propulsion, as well as peak shaving and zero emission operation in harbour. Project Zoza is one of the first yachts in the world with this capability. A more recent entrant to this market is Corvus Energy’s award-winning Orca ESS. Introduced in June last year,

the Orca also uses lithium-ion technology in its batteries. In fact, Orca uses cells with an extremely high energy density, storing 1.6 MWh. Orca offers a number of safety-orientated innovations, including thermal runaway protection. This problem can generally be prevented, of course, by selecting a highquality cell manufacturer and designing the battery system with a sophisticated battery monitoring system, hardware safeties, and good integration with the energy management system. In the highly unlikely event that a cell fails and its temperature spikes, it is important that adjacent cells do not also experience thermal runaway. Speaking at Nor-Shipping, Geoff Crocker, director of product management and technical sales at Corvus Energy, said: “The Orca energy storage system design achieves true cell-level thermal runaway isolation, meaning that adjacent cells stay cool without the need for expensive active cooling. Further, the Orca ESS module is designed with internal ventilation pathways to vent

gases generated by thermal runaway, and prevent gas from entering the battery room.” Orca ESS has passed the Norwegian Maritime Authority (NMA) thermal runaway propagation Test 1. The NMA requires tests to verify that when safety systems are deliberately defeated and thermal runaway of a battery module is induced by overcharging, the thermal runaway is limited to a single module and does not spread to other modules in the battery pack. Mr Crocker said: “Corvus demonstrated that Orca was designed with a higher level of fault tolerance by eliminating the possibility of thermal runaway spreading to neighbouring cells within a single module.” Thermal management is another area where the system succeeds. “The Orca ESS design is optimised for heat-shedding to maintain a uniform temperature across the cell,” said Mr Crocker. “This enables the cell to operate at its maximum capability. The design incorporates integrated rack fans and active temperature monitoring

between cells, which improves reliability and reduces maintenance costs in the long run,” he explained. Improved thermal management also means that, typically, air-cooling is all that is required to satisfy marine demands, and less battery room infrastructure is needed – both of which reduce system costs. For electrical safety, the design of the Orca ESS module-and-rack leaves no exposed cables for increased safety during installation and operation. Even the optional air- or liquidcooling systems are integrated into the rack, resulting in actively cooled connections. Fewer connections, a shorter conductive path, and cooled connections lead to higher reliability and performance, in addition to improving safety. Mr Crocker concluded: “Some of the design features – in particular those for thermal management and electrical safety – also result in overall system cost-savings due to faster installation, and lower expenditures on the battery room and fire extinguishing system.” MP

The polar research vessel RRS Sir David Attenborough features Saft's Seanergy system

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

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7-8 November 2017, Singapore


The Asian Marine Engineering Conference is Asia’s premier marine engineering gathering. The event brings together regulators, shipowners, shipyards, classification and the wider marine engineering supply chain for two days of high-level discussion, networking and deal making.

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Eric Baudin of BV (right) with Alfonso Moreno from TSI, using hydrophones to assess underwater radiated noise on an offshore vessel

Increased regulation boosts

noise and vibration clampdown


ew and upcoming regulations have had an impact on noise and vibration on vessels. The mandatory Maritime Safety Committee requirement 337 (91) has been adopted by Solas for nearly every sea-going ship with a newbuilding contract from July 1, 2014 onwards. The previous directive in this area – IMO A.468(XII) – was only a recommendation. The new mandatory directive dictates that noise levels in crew areas on-board, including cabins, hospitals, messes, offices and recreation rooms, must be reduced by five decibels compared to the voluntary recommendation, if the vessel is above 10,000gt. This is one of the biggest focuses within noise and vibration currently for DNV GL. which its maritime senior engineer Stefan Semrau said that the background to the directive was that “if crews suffer noisy conditions, such as when trying to sleep

An increase in the regulatory drive on noise and vibration in both crew space and underwater has led to a bigger focus on these areas by ship operators

at night, this can impact upon their work performance and increase the risk of making mistakes”. This directive is particularly topical because many of the first vessels affected by this new standard are in the final stages of construction or have recently been delivered. DNV GL offers a noise prediction analysis service to shipyards and ship operators to estimate the noise levels from machinery,

including the propeller and engines and looks at how the crew areas are arranged and insulated. “If we find a situation where the sound requirements are not fulfilled, then we propose counter-measures such as optimising the insulation or isolating the noise sources,” commented Mr Semrau. He said that the ship type most affected by the requirement are those smaller container ships, just over the

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


10,000gt mark. “These vessels have high engine power and propeller speed and so, while they were already critical for the old voluntary standard, many would not meet the new requirements. We have given lots of advice in this area,” Mr Semrau said. Underwater radiated noise has also become a stronger focus due to a combination of an increased regulatory drive and financial incentives. The issue has recently attracted the attention of regulators and standards bodies. Although not mandatory, in April 2014 IMO published MEPC Circular 833 Guidelines for the reduction of underwater noise from commercial shipping to prevent negative impact on marine life. Furthermore the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) has stated that underwater noise should be classed as a pollution. And from 2012 to 2015 the EU funded the AQUO research project to focus on the impact of underwater noise and vibration from merchant ships on fauna. Shipowners and shipyards from Europe, Korea and the US gathered for this project. French class society Bureau Veritas (BV) was in charge of the final guidelines publically available on It is against this backdrop of increased environmental threats and future regulations that BV introduced its class notation NR 614 – URN in 2014 and updated it last year. BV launched this voluntary notation to help ship operators and ship builders measure and reduce underwater radiated noise. It is also on the back of this increased regulatory drive that RINA Services has launched a voluntary notation this year to be applied to commercial vessels that have mitigated underwater noise. Its Dolphin notation has been developed for vessel operators which operate in sensitive marine areas and who want to demonstrate that they have acted to mitigate the impact of their vessels. BV measurement department head Eric Baudin highlighted that interest had become more marked since two ports had launched financial incentives to encourage shipowners to reduce their underwater noise. Two Canadian ports, Port of Vancouver and Prince Rupert, launched port tax reductions of 47 per cent and 50 per cent respectively to reduce underwater noise due to the endangered species off the cost of British Columbia, while in

the US, Boston port is also considering a similar scheme. RINA Services marine chief commercial officer, Paolo Moretti highlighted the importance of ports adopting these measures: “The most important thing is that they are bringing the problem to the attention of ship operators.” Such incentives could spread to Taiwan due to the endangered white dolphin species living in its waters and Mr Baudin said that he was optimistic that financial incentives might be adopted by some European ports. He explained that measuring and reducing underwater noise can be costly, which mean that previously it had not been a focus for ship operators. “Ship owners cannot gain a direct return on investment for these sustainable measures,” he said. But he pointed out that port incentives were changing this. “You can be environmentally friendly and gain a return on investment in two years.” Another trend that is expected to bolster the drive to reduce underwater noise and vibration is the increase in expedition cruising, due to the sensitive areas that these vessels travel in. BV has already worked with some of the leaders in this market on the strongest grade of comfort class for noise and vibration on its newbuilds. To meet the class notation and most effectively reduce underwater noise, Mr Baudin said that it was crucial to address these issues at the design stage. “The shipyard needs to address the propeller, main and auxiliary engines at design stage because the choice of these components and of their architecture needs to be integrated to optimise noise and vibration levels.” Furthermore, if the issue is not addressed at the start of the design process, it will cost more to make changes to reduce noise at a later stage. Ways of combatting underwater noise levels include enclosing the engine in an acoustic box or placing resilient mounting around the auxiliary engines. Since the propeller causes the cavitation, Mr Baudin believes that it was crucial to ask propeller manufacturers and experts to have a target of low noise right from the beginning of a ship contract. This type of engineering is now a key offering from BV subsidiaries TSI (a Spanish company specialising in vessel noise and vibration) and HydrOcean (which specialises in hydrodynamic digital simulation). MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

“The shipyard needs to address the propeller, main and auxiliary engines engines at design stage”

SNAPSHOT CV Stefan Semrau DNV GL Stefan Semrau has been working for DNV GL – maritime’s advisory section since 2000. As a senior engineer for structures, he specialises in noise and vibration, and works with customers from many different ship segments on carrying out noise prediction analyses, noise measurements and trouble shootings on board vessels.

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New technology cuts vessel noise and vibration


ew technologies and procedures mean that noise and vibration levels within ships are lower than ever before. A main reason behind their reduction is from the increased use of hydrodynamics calculation software, RINA Services marine chief commercial officer, Paolo Moretti told Marine Propulsion. He explained that this allowed simulation of vibration coming from the shaft line and thus allowed the ship to be optimised to minimise pressure forces and cavitation from the propeller. Mr Moretti explained that the application of hydrodynamics software was also “very helpful” if noise and vibration became an issue once the ship was constructed and in operation, as the model could be looked at again and modifications applied. He said that this had been the case on a ferry that RINA had dealt with this year, whereby the bow thruster's motor had been causing too much vibration. “By using our stored model of the ship, we had the possibility to study where the pressure pulses were coming from and analyse it.” Based on this, RINA could see that the electric motor was not properly attached to the structure, thus creating vibrations. Stiffeners were inserted and the problem was solved. Mr Moretti said that this type of problem could be particularly important on cruise ships as it affected the comfort of the cabins at the stern and bow of the ship, where the most expensive cabins are placed. Elsewhere Abeking & Rasmussen (A&R) has entered the luxury expedition cruise ship market with a design

Hydrodynamic calculations, SWATH technology and an increased focus on cutting noise from HVAC piping systems have led to a reduction in noise and vibrations

using a small waterplane area twin hull (SWATH), which boosts passenger comfort by reducing motion as well as noise and vibration. It has launched Luxury Cruising, a 95m boutique ship concept. A&R naval architect and sales director of special vessels Nils Olschner explained the SWATH concept: “The buoyancy – the volume that is carrying the vessel structure – is taken below the waterline, so it is removed from the energy and not excited by waves. If it is not excited, then it does not move.” He explained that it reduces noise and vibration because the diesel engines are down in the torpedoes as well as most of the other

noise-making equipment, where there are no passenger spaces or any accommodation areas directly neighbouring these compartments. “The pure distance between the accommodation and technical spaces reduces both noise and vibration,” Mr Olschner said. Indeed, the shipyard has proof of that as it has built the same ship with the same engine installation in two different ways: on one ship the engines are on the main deck level, on the other they are down in the torpedoes. Noise and vibration carried through vessel piping systems is a challenge for ship operators – and there has been an increased interest in how to reduce the impact of those coming from

Victaulic’s grooved mechanical pipe-joining couplings reduce the noise and vibration of pipes within the HVAC system

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

HVAC system pipes. Victaulic vice president maritime services Didier Vassal singled out this trend and highlighted how the company had recently been contracted to supply its grooved mechanical pipejoining couplings and fittings to the pipes of the air conditioning systems across the river cruise vessel fleet built in German and Belgium shipyards. Mr Vassal said “In mechanical rooms, pumps, chillers, heat exchangers and boilers frequently create noise and vibration which can be difficult to contain. Rubber bellows are often misaligned and fail to deliver the expected noise and vibration attenuations. Three Victaulic flexible connections will do the job”. Victaulic produces a grooved coupling pipe joining system that enables the gasket to seal against the pipe, while the ductile iron housing provides both space for the elastomeric material to flex and containment to prevent overstretching. Each joint is a union and the more couplings installed the better the noise and vibrations will be absorbed. Mr Vassal emphasised how there has been a lack of awareness in the industry about the use of grooved coupling pipe joining systems on HVAC systems. For the past 30 years pipe outlets of chillers have included a groove for the insertion of the coupling pipe system. But there is a lack of knowledge by marine outfitters about what this groove is used for – leading to the bypassing of grooved couplings and the use of older methods, such as the use of welding, flanges and conventional rubber bellows. MP





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Research by IMO has indicated that 50 per cent of all fires on merchant ships originate in the engineroom. Fuel spray is a leading cause. How can it be prevented?


n June this year, the United States Coast Guard (USCG) issued a Marine Safety Alert (MSA) warning of the dangers posed to commercial vessels by fires caused by fuel sprays being ignited by adjacent machinery. Sadly, this is far from being a new phenomenon. These types of incident, which involve fuel leakages contacting hot surfaces and igniting, happen all too frequently, and have been a focus of marine safety organisations for many years. The incident that prompred the safety alert involved an offshore supply vessel with an unmanned engineroom. An engineroom fire led to significant damage, operational downtime and lost company revenues. Investigators learned that the master received a main engine low fuel pressure alarm on the bridge, which was then investigated by the crew. The crew member on watch entered the engineroom and identified a high-pressure fuel leak spraying over and on the port engine’s turbocharger. He also reported a large quantity of diesel fuel in the bilge. The master then went into the engineroom and witnessed the ignition of the fire. Using a handheld portable fire extinguisher, he quickly attempted to extinguish the fire, but without success. The master activated the general alarm, secured the hatches, had crew members secure the ventilation dampers, and closed the remote fuel shut-off valves to the engineroom. The fire then quickly self extinguished. During the post-casualty inspection of the engineroom, the source of the fuel leak was identified as a rupture on a flexible fuel hose connected to the fuel filter assembly. Additionally, it was noted that the fuel filter assembly and its components were installed in relatively close proximity to the turbocharger on the inboard side of the engine. Although components of the

70 per cent of engineroom fires are caused by oil leaks from pressurised systems

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


turbochargers may be insulated, temperatures on some surfaces typically exceed the fuel’s ignition point. In this instance, the heat radiating from the turbocharger components was very high and likely led to the degradation of the flexible rubberised hoses nearby. Yet the installation was confirmed to be consistent with an accepted location on the manufacturer’s marine engine manual. In this incident no lives were lost, but that is not always the case. In 2014, the Oceania cruise ship Insignia was docked in St Lucia, just a few months after the 1998-built ship had been refurbished. A spray of pressurised fuel oil developed from an operating engine’s fuel supply line when a bolted flange parted. The spray contacted the engine’s exhaust piping or turbocharger components and ignited. In televised news reports at the time, large amounts of smoke could be seen billowing from the ship. The vessel’s fine mist extinguishing system automatically activated and “performed as designed, extinguishing the primary fire,” a subsequent Marine Safety Alert said. Fuel pumps and shut-off valves were also secured, it added. But even though the fuel fire was extinguished quickly, it had ignited cable bundles, quickly filling the machinery space with smoke. One crew member and two technicians were unable to escape, and died in the engineroom, the USCG found. The investigation revealed that a fuel line supply flange integral to the engine had parted after three bolts completely loosened and the remaining bolt fractured. Other bolts in the engine’s hot box were broken. The USCG made some initial recommendations: that personnel working in machinery spaces should always have an exit plan, and that engineers should frequently perform detailed engineering-space inspection rounds on engines, systems, and other equipment. David Nichol, senior loss prevention executive for the UK P&I Club, said such incidents are far from rare. “Statistically, about 70 per cent of engineroom fires are caused by oil leaks from pressurised systems, and are invariably the most serious category of engineroom fires,” he told Marine Propulsion. While the immediate causes of such fires are fairly clear, the underlying causes are more complex. “The root cause of such fires can often be attributed to the failure to comply with Solas requirements to properly sheath high-pressure fuel delivery pipes or to provide effective spray shields to flanges and joints in pressurised oil pipework and fittings,” said Mr Nichol. It is also a Solas requirement that surfaces with temperatures above 220oC that might come into contact with oil as a result

of a system failure are properly insulated. Oil fires may also occur when pipe insulation becomes soaked from leaking joints or valve glands, which may eventually spontaneously ignite. Dirty machinery and tank save-alls can fuel a fire. The underlying causes of such fires can be management or crew failures to ensure that machinery is properly maintained and operated in accordance with Solas requirements and manufacturer’s instructions. Poor housekeeping, cleanliness and lax working practices are also common features of engineroom fires. In its MSA on the Insignia case, the USCG suggested that the loosening of the flange bolts may have been caused by vibration. “It is unknown when the involved piping was last removed and reinstalled and whether or not proper torque was applied to the bolts.” David Nichol said the first line of defence is prevention, which means separating uncontrolled sources of fuel and ignition as far as possible. “Shipowners are required to have in place robust procedures for ensuring that machinery is properly maintained and Solas requirements are strictly adhered to,” he said. “Engineroom crew must be given the necessary training and awareness of the potential risks of fire and explosion so that hazards can be promptly identified and remedied. At a basic level, this means high standards of cleanliness and housekeeping in machinery spaces, quickly rectifying leaks and removing any oil spillage or other combustibles.” Mr Nichol also highlighted the importance of maintaining shielding on high-pressure pipe joints and that effective insulation of heated surfaces is essential and must be verified on a routine basis. With regard to the latter, he recommended investing in handheld infra-red temperature detectors to check for any hot spots. Good working practices should be promoted in crew-training regimes and proper risk assessments and ‘permits to work’ completed when hot work is to be performed in the engineroom. There should also be zero tolerance of practices such as

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


gagging open oil-tank-level gauge cocks or blocking open oil tank quick-closing valves. The second line of defence is to maintain the ability to effectively tackle a fire should it break out. Enginerooms are a very challenging environment for fighting a fire, given their design and density of machinery. The engineroom being a large but enclosed space, even a modest fire will very quickly cause the space to fill with dense smoke, giving very limited opportunity for both first-hand fire-fighting and escape. In an engineroom filling with smoke, crew can quickly become disorientated and easily trapped, with fatal consequences. As first notification of a fire may be the activation of the fire detection and alarm system, it is a requirement that the system be tested on a strict routine basis to ensure that all detectors and indicators are functional. All ships are equipped with fixed and portable fire-suppression systems that must be installed, serviced and maintained in accordance with Solas and manufacturers’ requirements. Mr Nichol said: “The club has experience of recent incidents where firefighting efforts were seriously compromised by inadequate maintenance of the fixed system or the inability of the crew to operate the system.” It is essential that there are frequent and realistic drills tailored to address foreseeable fire scenarios specific to the particular engineroom. Ship inspections and postcasualty investigations often find that fire doors giving access to and within machinery spaces were negligently lashed open or had defective self-closing devices. Inoperable fire doors will rapidly facilitate the spread of heat and smoke to the accommodation and other adjacent compartments, resulting in fatalities and seriously hampering the ability of fire parties to fight the fire. It is also strongly recommended that means of escape are marked with high-visibility/photo-luminescent arrows and that escape doors are clearly marked and highlighted. MP To view the MSA referred to here, go to

of all fires on merchant ships originate in the engineroom

engineroom fires are by oil leaks 70% ofcaused

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COUNTERFEIT PARTS POSE INCREASING THREAT 15 tonnes of counterfeit SKF bearings were seized as part of a raid at a warehouse in Piraeus, Greece


n what are undeniably hard times for the international shipping industry, the desire to save money wherever possible is understandable and, in most cases, laudable. Where financial prudence can become its opposite, though, is in the question of spares. Here, the quest for a bargain can all too easily lead to disaster. Counterfeit spare parts are a widespread threat across shipping. In April this year, MAN Diesel & Turbo’s Primeserv issued a customer information statement signed by its senior vice president Augsburg Stefan Eefting and senior manager for technical service Dr Ingo Henne. It stated that the number of serious breakdowns due to component malfunction caused by counterfeit parts is increasing. MAN said: “Because counterfeit parts are often produced with a focus on maximising profit, the counterfeiter omits inspections that ensure the necessary quality for safe operation of MAN Diesel & Turbo engines.” MAN explained the types of problem caused by the use of counterfeit spares across a range of component types. Counterfeit fuel injectors, for instance, lead to reduced efficiency caused by poor combustion, increased deposits like coke and layers, higher fuel consumption

Despite seizures and successful legal actions, the risk of serious technological problems caused by fake parts is increasing

and higher levels of harmful emissions. This can lead to piston seizures with the potential for huge damage. In the case of a counterfeit valve, malfunction could result in failure and damage to the piston crown and cylinder head. In fact, if one valve cone breaks and drops down into the combustion chamber, it will most likely hammer through the piston crown, damaging the cylinder head, other valve cones, injection valve and cylinder liner. In addition to this, metal parts from the damaged valve cones will pass through the exhaust duct to the turbocharger and lead to a total loss of the turbocharger rotor. In such a case, the repair cost would amount to hundreds of thousands of

dollars just for replacement parts. The commercial loss due to downtime would only add to the bill. Some of the most commonly counterfeited parts are bearings. Here, counterfeit bearings are more likely to fail as they do not correspond to OEM specifications. This can cause higher wear and tear of the crankshaft journals and pins. In fact, a bearing seizure can result in the total loss of a crankshaft. To give some idea of the scale of the problem, in February bearing manufacturer SKF announced that it had completed legal proceedings against a dealer of counterfeit bearings in Greece. The proceeedings were initiated in 2009 and concerned a total of 15 tonnes of counterfeit SKF bearings seized as part of a raid at the dealer’s warehouse in the area of Piraeus. The bearings have now officially been declared counterfeit by the Greek courts system, resulting in their destruction. The raid in 2009 resulted in the seizure of 17,000 pieces of counterfeit rolling bearings, with a market value of over US$1.2 million. These were destroyed at a Greek metal recycling facility: crushed in a scrap press, they will never resurface on the market. SKF Hellas managing director Rania

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


Patsiopoulos said of the case: “We are very happy that this case is officially closed and has resulted in a positive outcome for SKF and our customers. We will continue to fight the problem of counterfeit products and importers in Greece. This is vital for us in order to protect our customers and their business as well as the reputation of the SKF brand.” SKF suggests that, rather than being compliant in this trade, most end users are unaware that they are using counterfeit parts. SKF Group director for brand protection Tina Åström explained: “Counterfeit industrial products like bearings are not bought intentionally by customers, so the best way to fight counterfeiting is to raise awareness. Customers who accidentally purchase counterfeit products are being cheated financially, and risk damage to their machinery and expensive downtime.” There is little doubt that many are unwittingly buying counterfeit spares – or having them installed by unscrupulous repair yards. But the often huge variance in price between a genuine and a counterfeit

part suggests that it is almost impossible that some end users would not realise that they are using counterfeit parts. The motivation behind this is fairly clear. Some businesses would much rather save money and replace a part several times than meet the cost of an authentic part. This may be a calculated decision on their part, but it is a potentially very risky one. Consequences can be as severe as losing an engine or threatening lives. On a more practical level, any warranty, liability or obligation regarding engine safety, performance and operation will be rendered null and void if any unauthorised components are used in the engine. In addition, MAN stated that “the use of unauthorised components and spare parts is in many cases a violation of the requirements according to Marpol Annex VI and the NOx Technical Code of IMO." To give some idea of the potential cost and damage caused by the failure of a rolling bearing, SKF quoted an anonymous customer: “We spent €100,000 on large bearings purchased from an unauthorised supplier. We needed the bearings urgently

and the supplier matched our required lead time. The failure took place after only a few months, while the expected service life was several years. We faced costly downtime and broken promises to our customers. All this could have been avoided by more awareness and caution in our sourcing. We will not allow this to happen again.” OEMs urge their customers to source spares exclusively through authorised distributors. OEMs offer technology that can help in this regard. SKF’s Authenticate smartphone app is designed to help identify spare parts, while in 2015, Wärtsilä introduced digital identification technology that helps to improve component traceability. The digital identification solution involves marking each critical part selected for tracing with a unique item identifier that includes a data matrix code that can be read digitally. The codes are registered by the Wärtsilä ERP system when the parts are delivered, and then linked to the correct engines during the manufacturing process. MP

The counterfeit bearings were destroyed at a metal recycling facility by crushing in a scrap press

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

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CHINA | 103

Kamsarmaxes are in demand and ideally suit Chinese builders

China faces long climb back

Statistically China is recovering and there are bright spots, but orders are still well down on 2016


fter a struggling 2016 China is now staging a recovery and has courted overseas partnerships to develop its expertise in evolving new designs and ships of the future. There is steady progress in the passenger sector, as collaboration with Carnival Cruise Line shows signs of breaking through in this sector. Meanwhile, Chinese builders are enjoying a good spell having captured a good share of the tanker rush especially for products and chemical business. Fortunes seem set to improve further as a recovery in bulk carrier business ensues in 2017 after a 15-month drought. Capesizes and Kamsarmaxes (vessels larger than Panamax, that are suitable for berthing at the Port of Kamsar, Republic of Guinea) are in demand and

ideally suit Chinese builders. Tranches of orders are still being specified, with IMO Tier II engines in defiance of a previous deadline imposed by the IMO for mandated Tier III models. Many of these engines are orders orphaned by cancelled contracts, but they do induce new business as owners can save US$1-3 million per ship depending on size. With an improvement in speed of approval for refund guarantees and prices standing still, owners have an ideal inducement to order and are capitalising. Statistically China is recovering, but orders are still well down on 2016. Overall last year for all types China gained 369 orders, down from 613 in 2015. The decline is well illustrated with respective end of year figures over the last four years of 1,125 (2013), 1,011

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

104 | CHINA








511 vessels 46,743,754 dwt

206 vessels 7,234,962 dwt

158 vessels 5,715,839 dwt

141 vessels 14,295,955 dwt

88 vessels 3,670,599 dwt

85 vessels 4,521,868 dwt





74 vessels 1,365,636 dwt

70 vessels 5,297,084 dwt

64 vessels 2,564,975 dwt

58 vessels 1,621,913 dwt







32 vessels 94,153 dwt

30 vessels 541,797 dwt

27 vessels 2,885,020 dwt

27 vessels 1,812,900 dwt

25 vessels 667,107 dwt

15 vessels 914,800 dwt



15 vessels 568,680 dwt

13 vessels 440,561 dwt

BANGLADESH 10 vessels 305,296 dwt



47 vessels 2,306,450 dwt

37 vessels 941,869 dwt





13 vessels 741,100 dwt

12 vessels 554,135 dwt

12 vessels 1,344,746 dwt

10 vessels 1,286,394 dwt






9 vessels 17,790 dwt

7 vessels 89,600 dwt

6 vessels 900,000 dwt

6 vessels 334,000 dwt

6 vessels 123,900 dwt







5 vessels 15,800 dwt

5 vessels 22,239 dwt

4 vessels 169,200 dwt

4 vessels 36,780 dwt

4 vessels 340,000 dwt

3 vessels Unknown dwt






3 vessels 56,200 dwt

3 vessels 52,150 dwt

RUSSIAN FEDERATION 3 vessels 16,580 dwt

3 vessels 252,500 dwt

2 vessels 216,000 dwt

2 vessels 159,442 dwt



2 vessels 9,200 dwt

2 vessels 52,600 dwt

VIRGIN ISLAND 2 vessels 5,800 dwt



1 vessel 22,000 dwt

1 vessels Unknown dwt

SOUTH AFRICA 1 vessel Unknown dwt

SWITZERLAND 1 vessel 26,500 dwt

GRAND TOTAL 1,865 vessels 111,374,374 dwt Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

CHINA | 105

(2014), 638 (2015), and 369 (2016). Evidence so far shows 208 new ships added in the first half of 2017, which indicates a higher volume at the end of 2017 after four consecutive years of decline. Rival yards in South Korea and Japan complain of too much state aid afforded to China’s industry. Effectively, with mergers and acquisitions an increasing feature, this practice is likely to continue. This has kept prices down, but cheap ships are not the answer for an industry that badly needs to recover financially. The government introduced the ‘white list’ of yards in 2013 with an initial 50 signed up. The yards must demonstrate good financial health, be run efficiently and win a steady flow of new orders. In return, benefits are provided in the form of tax rebates and state-backed bank loans. Seven builders were recently removed from the list, but another six added as successors. The country is still however suffering bankruptcies, raising doubts in the minds of some export owners. With these setbacks the government is set to remove another 11 builders from the current list of 70 members as adherence rules are tightened. Apart from the cruise sector, more passenger ferry orders are finding their way to China from blue chip European owners. One of the latest was sealed from Finland’s Viking Line involving construction of a 63,000gt jumbo ferry. Finnish naval architect Deltamarin signed a contract with Xiamen Shipbuilding Industry to provide detailed design, project management support and supervision services to build the ferry. China is always seeking to adopt the most innovative fuel saving measures and environmental safeguards. In this case two 24m high rotor sails will be fitted and the vessel will run fully on LNG fuel due to sufficient infrastructure in Scandinavia. Delivery is scheduled for 2020. The district government of Shanghai is planning to spend 5 billion

yuan (US$739 million) on development of a cruise ship industrial park to serve overseas companies involved in building China’s first luxury cruise liners. China has identified construction of cruise liners within its ‘Made in China 2025’ programme aimed at upgrading manufacturing and supporting employment at its shipyards. Companies within the new Shanghai Baoshan Industrial Zone will benefit from financial support from banks and government funds. It was in May that China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC) signed a US$1.5 billion deal with Fincantieri and Carnival Cruise Corporation to develop a cruise hub which will support a supply chain network for cruise liner construction. The US$739 million investment will stretch over 5-10 years under the letter of intent signed with Baoshan district.

types driving shipbuilders to the brink of ruin with the collapse of the offshore market. In another joint development China has now entered construction of cruise ships for a booming expedition market. Ulstein Design & Solutions signed a contract with China Merchants Group (CMG) to supply design and an equipment package for Ulstein’s new CX103 expedition cruise ship. Four plus optional six vessels have been committed by US based SunStone Ships and the hulls will meet Polar-class PC6 conditions. China Merchants Industry Holding (CMIH) and DNV GL entered into an agreement to work together in order to optimise quality control and construction processes. The ambition for China is to embrace joint partnerships and drive projects in special vessel segments such

The yards must demonstrate good financial health, be run efficiently and win a steady flow of orders. In return, benefits are provided in the form of tax rebates and statebacked bank loans

Shanghai was selected because Shanghai Waigaoqiao Shipyard (SWS) has already started on construction of the first of two more 5,000 pax cruise liners for Carnival Cruise Line, which will operate out of China. Options are attached for two more. The time for the first Chinese-built cruise liner is approaching with 2022 slated and the second stemmed for 2023. It will be a long learning curve for China. The country is pursuing bigger ships and higher CGT returns, but will concentrate more on conventional types. This results from huge losses on many orders taken for sophisticated offshore

as offshore and gas carriers. SWS is one of China’s largest and most successful shipyards. CSSC received around US$17.7 million in government support in the first half of 2017. Much of this was allocated to SWS to support research into construction VLCC and Suezmax tankers and to develop a design for an 18,000 teu containership. The latter is interesting as China has lost out to rivals in the ultra large containership construction stakes. Latest indications are that SWS is intending to go one step further. With recent delivery of the world’s largest containership

– OOCL Hong Kong – at 21,400 teu the shipbuilder is a surprise contender in competing with Hyundai for construction of six plus optional three 22,000 teu containerships for CMA CGM. A letter of intent is expected to be signed soon by the French giant with one of these yards. The quest for bigger ships is good news for engine builders who have suffered from the bulk carrier drought. Dual-fuel LNG propulsion has been specified for a series of chemical tankers building in China for Scandinavian owners. Hudong-Zhonghua still remains the only deep-sea LNG carrier builder delivering impressive results. The builder currently holds a an 11-ship backlog of 174,000m3 LNG carriers for delivery up to 2020. Other builders have bid for business but without expertise and licence agreements for tank containment designs failed to clinch business even for domestic orders. The Pan Asia recently completed successful sea trials and will deliver at the end of September on time as the first of a quartet for Teekay LNG partners. Also participating in the joint venture ownership are China National Offshore Oil Corporation, China LNG Group, BW Group who have signed a 20-year charter with optional extensions to Methane Services Ltd – a subsidiary of Shell. Statistically China portrays an improving position from a deep trough with a slimmer industry and stricter surveillance of shipbuilding and related performance very much the key to achieving prominence globally. In unit terms only China is building 1,865 ships aggregating 111,374,374 dwt. The lead vessel types are Bulk Carrier (526), Tanker (357) and Containerships (261) but the Achilles' heel is in offshore-related tonnage, where 394 vessels are still committed. Many are unlikely to be commissioned and those for overseas account may eventually be absorbed into the Chinese mercantile marine. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

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seek the digital sweet spot

Digitalisation may be the buzzword, but levels of adoption remain relatively low. How are OEMs taking it to the mainstream?


hipping has repeatedly been told that digitisation of vessels and equipment will be the main driver of innovation and business for the forseeable future, with ever-greater levels of remote internet connectivity and developments in data analytics to come. Given such predictions, end users might be forgiven for asking how far this

RIGHT: “Digital is very much part of our core business,” Marco Ryan, chief digital officer, Wärtsilä (see page 110)

revolution has progressed in the propulsion market. Clearly, enginebuilders and OEMs have been prioritising this aspect of their businesses in recent years, seeing it as a valuable tool and a very useful potential income stream. Perhaps earliest to this market was ABB, which now has six ‘Collaborative Operation Centers’ worldwide. The latest of these is the ABB Ability

Collaborative Operations Center in Miramar, Florida. This will remotely monitor hundreds of ships globally, and will work in conjunction with similar facilities in Asia and Europe. ABB is opening an additional such centre in Genoa, Italy, which will have an emphasis on automation systems, in addition to its regular duties to customers. These six centres currently monitor more than 700 ships, a figure ABB hopes to increase to 3,000 by 2020. But as Juha Koskela, managing director of ABB’s marine and ports business, pointed out: “Let’s not forget there are still 90,000 ships operating without this technology, so things aren’t yet changing that fast.” On the levels of adoption of digitisation, Mr Koskela told Marine Propulsion: “It varies from sector to sector and shipowner to shipowner how fast adoption is taking place. Cruise ships are the early adopters, and we’re lucky that we have very close connections to all the cruise operators. They are very advanced in this area.” Mr Koskela sees ABB as ideally positioned to exploit the new technology – not least because of its experience in

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


the field. He explained: “We started early, so we have had four years since starting to realise the digital side of our business. That has given us time to show our potential customers the benefits of what we are doing.” So what can be done to increase the levels of adoption? Mr Koskela does not believe cost is a major obstacle: “Only those who don’t realise the benefits really object to the costs. The problem is how you prove it. So our approach is to say we will try it. We put our software aboard at minimal cost and then they see the benefits.” Another key area where he believes progress is necessary is in the levels of collaboration among OEMs in ensuring compatibility among their systems and the monitoring and reporting platforms. ABB is “working with a couple of other technology companies to come up with a joint ecosystem. At the moment it’s just too expensive for the shipowner to add all these various platforms one by one rather than have one cloudbased platform that allows different OEMs’ products to be used,” Mr Koskela explained. Mr Koskela thinks there will be developments on that front this year, and envisions “a platform where various OEMs can combine and bring together their respective digital services.” ABB senior vice president for vessel information and control Mikko Lepistö expanded on this theme. “One of the things we need to look into is how we are working together in the industry,” he said. “Some of the data is common to us all: ship speed or motion, for instance. It doesn’t make any sense for us all to transfer that information generally 20 times from the same ship. Some of this data can be shared, so we need to look at

that as an industry,” he said. But the issue of intellectual property remains a stumbling block. As Mr Lepistö put it: “We all need to understand what is core and what is context. The core is that everyone has their own IP, and that cannot be shared. But there are also a lot of things that are not so meaningful, such as speed or location. These can be shared.” Wärtsilä is a company with which ABB previously collaborated broadly. But Mr Koskela says the Finnish enginebuilder became ABB's “head-to-head competitor when it acquired Eniram.” This acquisition, which took place in June 2016, was shortly followed by the launch of Eniram’s ‘Skylight,’ a performance monitoring service delivered to the customer on subscription without any costly integration on board. It offers charter-party monitoring and delivers the vessel's speed profile on a per-voyage basis, and provides the vessel's normalised speed fuel curve. More recently, Wärtsilä introduced its Skylight 2.0 update, which includes nautical maps, weather layers, and route importation to make predictive analysis and proactive planning more available. Skylight’s great selling point was as an entry-level package charging a monthly subscription fee, which includes everything from the shipment of the transponder to the vessel, the data traffic, reporting, and the software interface. Eniram vice president for commercial operations Captain Jan Wilhelmsson said the Skylight business model is designed to reflect the realities of the industry and increase levels of digitalisation. “That 97 per cent of the world fleet that isn’t connected and digitalised is driven by the fact that there is a separation between owners and operators,” he asserted.

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

“In other words, the entity that gets the benefit from reduced fuel consumption is not the same as the entity that has to make investment in the vessels. This means that whatever solution we will succeed with will have to be installable and have a rapid payback. So we’ve created a subscription-based service that matches the industry’s way of working.” Eniram’s activity is explicitly part of an attempt by Wärtsilä to position itself as the market leader for digitalisation in the shipping industry. Wärtsilä chief digital officer and executive vice president Marco Ryan explained: “Digital disruption

is already affecting the energy and marine sectors, and will do so increasingly in the future. We are building on decades of expertise in digital development and accelerating the pace at which we build new digital solutions, services and opportunities for our customers. Wärtsilä's recent acquisitions of Eniram and Greensmith demonstrate Wärtsilä’s ambitions and active role in helping its customers benefit from smart technology initiatives.” Speaking at Nor-Shipping in Oslo, Mr Ryan referred to the digital transformation as being “the transitional and acceleration force creating Wärtsilä 4.0, a data-led,

ANDREW STUMP (CSSC Marine Service Co): “We're happy to co-operate with anyone”


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insight-driven agile company thatleverages the most extensive product portfolio in the marine industry, while developing it at an unprecedented pace into a range of exciting new solutions, services and partnerships.” In order to develop digital services and products, Wärtsilä is launching ‘digital acceleration centres’ globally. The idea of these is to take promising ideas and transform them into service concepts and products in co-operation with customers and partners. The first digital acceleration centre is in operation in Helsinki, where five projects are underway. A second centre is scheduled to be opened in Singapore later this year. Two more will be opened during 2018. Additionally, Wärtsilä is creating a technology incubator to focus on accelerating its technical projects around core systems and platforms. Mr Ryan emphasised that Wärtsilä is working closely with its customers and partners to co-create greater value for shipping owners and operators. Central to this thinking is the fact that Wärtsilä does not separate digital development from other functions, but rather integrates it into all its business activities, culture and future opportunities. “Our vision is of Wärtsilä as a service company. We are not going to create a separate digital business with a separate P&L. Digital is very much part of our core business,” Mr Ryan told Marine Propulsion. While Wärtsilä has loudly proclaimed its move toward a digitised future, its former stablemate WinGD has taken somewhat more discreet – although no less decisive – steps down this path. At the end of 2016, the two-stroke engine developer announced its joint development with ship performance monitoring specialist Propulsion Analytics with a view to developing an advanced diagnostics system

for all WinGD engines. The system will acquire and analyse data on the performance and condition of the engine and its subcomponents in real-time and so provide live troubleshooting and diagnostic advice to the crew. In addition, as required, the system will be capable of connecting to shore-based stakeholders. In this way, this system completes and enhances ship digitisation by providing a two-stroke engine performance optimiser and diagnostic system. Andrew Stump, vice president operations WinGD says of this aspect of the business: “We are focusing a lot – like everyone else – on digital. We’re focusing on the internet of things and all that. The good thing about the industry embracing this technology as late as it has is that there are a lot of mature technologies in other industries that we can adopt pretty easily.” WinGD worked with a Polish company called Enamor to develop the necessary hardware, which, according to Mr Stump “will now become standard technology on our engines in the future”. However, as Mr Stump says: “Getting the data is one thing, but using it is another. When you’ve got 500 data signals coming in every second or the one terabyte of information that is the operating data of the ship for the whole year... that’s where Propulsion Analytics come in. These are the guys with the big brains who develop the algorithms that tell you what’s really going on.” As with many OEMs, WinGD is focusing on collaboration with other manufacturers to offer some sort of common platform. Here, Mr Stump suggests, WinGD, in being owned by Chinese state-owned company CSSC,

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

MIKKO LEPISTÖ (ABB): "We all need to understand what is core and what is context"

may have an advantage. “Because we don’t have the same corporate structure as a lot of other players, we can co-operate with others more easily,” he says. “This is really important: the corporates don’t really like to co-operate too much. They’re competing with each other all the time. By contrast, we’re not predatorial in any way.” With that in mind, Mr Stump says WinGD is actively seeking integration partners for its remote monitoring and analytics services. He says: “We’re happy to co-operate with anyone else. If we can arrive at a common platform and share the information somehow then you’ve got the complete picture, haven’t you? We concentrate on the main engine because that’s our business, but if someone else wants to tack their equipment onto our system, we’re open to that. It’s a bonus from our point of view.” In terms of the business model, Mr Stump says that WinGD will be offering an off-the-shelf data analytics package within this year, which the customer can sign-up to operating full-time. However, Mr Stump does acknowledge that on new

engines under warranty, there is a business advantage to his company in offering data analytics as a service. “This will allow us to address our customer needs as well offering advantages to us during the warranty period. Having this data allows us to offer the owner a more reliable product, avoiding any breakages and failures.” Once that warranty expires, however, WinGD offers what Mr Stump calls “a flexible approach”. “The data belongs to the customer and is available for them to use to their benefit. Traditionally our automation systems have a limited digital history. If you have a year’s worth of data you can identify when things started going wrong. That helps a lot with root cause analysis which is typically and frustratingly a slow process today. So, if the operator wants to go back into the history and see more than a list of alarms he can and will find some causal reason. So even if the system is not being actively used for performance optimisation or predictive maintenance, the option is still there to have a service technician dig deeper into the data.” MP

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MRV DRIVES DATA ADOPTION Eniram's Skylight provides fully-automated reporting on charter party speed and fuel consumption



he EU Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) regulations came into force in July 2015. The regulations are designed to cut marine vessel CO2 emissions through enhanced capture and collection of data. The migration of data collection and reporting from a voluntary to a mandatory action on the part of shipowners could have profound implications for the uptake of data-analytics technology in shipping as a whole, as shipowners – already forced to handle and report emissions data – use the capability more widely on their vessels. As specified in Article 6 of the regulation, for every vessel that will be making a commercial call in an EU port from January 2018, a monitoring plan (MP) needs to be developed. Each MP must include the identity of the ship and shipping company/ shipowner; an identification of emissions sources; a description of procedures for monitoring voyages, fuel consumption and activity data; methodology for data gaps; and procedures for quality control and identification of responsibilities and IT systems used. The MP must also specify which of the four permissible emissions logging and monitoring methods have been used. The permitted methods are via bunker fuel delivery notes and periodic stock-takes of fuel tanks, bunker fuel tank monitoring on board, flowmeters for applicable combustion processes, and direct emissions measurements. With the first legal deadline having just passed on 31 August, it is paramount that operators have their MRV preparations in

place, and moves in this direction will be seen as a boost for those manufacturers supplying marine system and equipment. As IMO is introducing a parallel consumption datacollection system, this is an issue that needs to be addressed by shipowners worldwide, not just those who sail to EU ports. This is certainly the opinion of Royston product manager Damian McCann, who asserted: “Thousands of vessels could need to invest in retrofitting monitoring technologies to ensure compliance, while new shipbuilders will be required to consider the options for installing requisite technology as part of ship-wide system infrastructure specification.” Royston’s enginei fuel-management system, which has been designed specifically to enable vessel operators to monitor and improve fuel optimisation and performance efficiencies, can automate the whole process from fuel logging through data transfer to analysis and reporting, enabling operators to easily and successfully comply with their MRV obligations. For full MRV compliance requirements, and building on the enhanced fuel-data analysis and engine-performance reporting options, the latest version of enginei incorporates full emissions monitoring modules, either through a vessel’s existing gas analyser or a low-cost engine profilebased emissions analysis method. Mr McCann explained that “All the information captured on board is made available for remote interrogation by onshore management and supervisory staff through a secure online portal and

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


web dashboard, with enhanced data transmission between ship and shore. In this way, data can be collected and presented for automatic submission to MRV verifiers.” It is clear that effective fuel monitoring and management systems are at the centre of the MRV regulations, and that access to reliable fuel-consumption data will be critical to improving the operational efficiency of vessels while at sea. Such access will also play an effective role in long-term marine engine performance evaluation and mandatory maintenance programmes. ABB, too, sees MRV as just one part of its wider data package, offering a route into wider functionality for end users. As a standardised MRV-compliant software platform, the ABB module collects and visualises data from onboard sensors on a ship’s fuel consumption and CO2 emissions on a per-voyage basis. This information is then used to create an annual emission report as required by the MRV regulations for ships above 5000gt calling at European ports, irrespective of where the ship or the company is registered. The MRV module, though, is one of many components of ABB’s digital marine application, which allows shipowners to monitor performance, such as fuel usage of individual vessels or whole fleets and create benchmarks. The digital marine application is part of the ABB Ability platform, enabling customers to turn data insights into direct actions to enhance performance. Eniram’s Skylight 2.0 is predicated on a relatively low cost of entry for users, so the fact that it allows shipowners to correctly monitor and report a vessel’s CO2 emissions in order to comply with MRV regulations is bound to make it even more attractive. It provides fully automated reporting on charter-party speed and fuel consumption, and enables fleetwide benchmarking and optimisation of vessel speed with a speed profile report that identifies areas where speed profile adjustments could lead to savings. Also aiming squarely at the market demand prompted by the MRV regulations is the Navis Bluetracker monitoring and reporting software. It was declared ‘MRV Ready’ by DNV GL in June, following a validation gap analysis audit conducted by the classification society. The module is able to relay details of CO2 emissions as well as other data relevant to reporting, and meets the requirements of the MRV regulations in combination with the system’s own Bluetracker Manual Reporting system or with an external reporting system integrated via an API interface. The Bluetracker MRV module incorporates a data-validation engine that monitors incoming data in real-

time and checks the physical and shipspecific properties for plausibility against characteristic machine curves, consumption curves and hull models. In addition, the data is checked for chronological order and consistency to ensure there are no time gaps or multiple entries in the reports. An automatic notification function alerts the crew and superintendent ashore if errors exist. “It’s imperative for shipowners and managers to ready their systems for the ongoing collection and monitoring of CO2 levels for all voyages into, out of and between EU ports,” said Navis VP and general manager (EMEA) Guenter Schmidmeir. “Bluetracker MRV is well positioned to meet this need, offering Navis customers automatic aggregation of all MRVrelevant data in real-time, instead of at the end of the monitoring period. Additionally, MRV reports for an entire fleet can be generated by one person, and can be easily submitted to the European Commission.” Classification societies are keen to promote the use of performance-monitoring technology as a means of ensuring compliance with MRV. Bureau Veritas, for instance, announced in July that it will offer Shipulse from Ascenz as a technology for real-time ship performance and monitoring in a deal to service shipowners worldwide. Shipulse captures critical shipboard data covering fuel consumption, bunkering, engine, hull and propeller activity to help monitor performance management and compliance, as well as efficiency, safety and environmental objectives.

The agreement will see Bureau Veritas market Shipulse across its network, offering complementary services and analysis tools based on data-analysis needs across fleets, ship modelling capabilities and the ability to integrate BV software – such as weather routeing and trim optimisation. Shipulse’s CarbonComply module supports EU MRV monitoring and reporting requirements as it enables automated monitoring and reporting of ship CO2 emissions. CarbonComply can register voyages automatically without the need for manual calculations to break down fuel consumption or emissions on a per-voyage basis. The system is able to detect and classify different voyage stages such as sea passages, manoeuvring and drifting, and to identify when a ship is either moored or at anchor. This allows for greater granularity from profiling emissions associated with a sea passage versus those from time spent when anchored. DNV GL’s performance management solution is ECO Insight, which – it was announced at June’s Nor-Shipping – now covers more than 1,400 vessels from 75 companies worldwide. Clearly, DNV GL sees the need to comply with MRV and similar regulations as a major selling point for its performance management solutions, as ECO Insight helps customers comply with existing and upcoming environmental regulations such as the MRV and the IMO consumption data collection system through its Navigator Insight reporting system. MP

Royston’s enginei has been designed specifically to enable vessel operators to monitor and improve fuel optimisation and performance efficiencies

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


NEW MOBILE WEBPAGE FOR PERFORMANCE DATA BMT Smart has launched a new SmartMobile webpage, optimised for smartphones and smaller tablets, that provides fast access to key vessel-performance data. The mobile webpage presents three views to the users: fleet, vessel and maintenance. The fleet view provides an overview view of all vessels using red/amber/green colour coding to identify changes in performance relating to speed and consumption, hull and propeller fouling and trim. The vessel view provides additional vessel performance data relating to the current fuel consumption, speed, cost and trim performance, as well as the wind, wave and ocean currents in which the vessel has operated over the past 24 hours. The information on the vessel view helps to identify overor under-performance, as well as the most likely cause of the change in performance, using a modern-day alternative to the traditional noon report. The maintenance page presents advanced maintenance KPIs that provide the current status of the hull, propeller and main engine.

BMT has optimised its vessel performance software for smart phones

STENA LINE AND CATERPILLAR FORM DIGITAL PARTNERSHIP Stena Line and Caterpillar Marine, together with Pon Power, have entered into a digital partnership in which the Cat Asset Intelligence solution will provide vessel monitoring of multiple Stena newbuilds with planned delivery during 2019 and 2020. The vessels will be optimised for efficiency and flexibility, and will be built by AVIC Shipyard in China. Cat Asset Intelligence provides monitoring and advanced analytics for any critical system on the vessel (Cat

or non-Cat equipment), allowing Stena to make condition-based maintenance decisions and operational refinements. The scope of the digital partnership goes well beyond connecting the main engines. It also includes the auxiliary diesel generators, controllable pitch propeller, bow thrusters, boiler systems and the tank management systems.In addition to the visibility and advisories from the onboard and onshore platforms, Caterpillar will provide Stena with dedicated fleet advisor services.

“We are excited to be working together with Caterpillar and Pon Power to better use the data on board our new vessels to make better operational and maintenance decisions and reduce our operating costs, while increasing our reliability. This will allow us to further move from time- or hours-based maintenance to conditionbased maintenance,” said Stena Line technical operations director Bjarne Koitrand. “Providing digital solutions and services to our customers

requires a close partnership, something we and our counterparts at Pon strive to achieve every day with Stena, and we look forward to helping them in the practical application of our technology,” said Bert Ritscher, business development manager for Caterpillar Marine Asset Intelligence. “There’s a real team mentality in place to ensure Stena gets as much return from their technological investment as possible, both today and into the future,” he added.


Cummins Connected Diagnostics is now available to customers using Zonar's smart fleet-management solution, delivering critical information to operations managers that can help optimise the performance of their fleets. By obtaining data through Zonar's V3 telematics control unit, Cummins Connected Diagnostics wirelessly connects a customer’s engine to Cummins for immediate diagnosis of engine fault alerts. Using

unique Cummins algorithms, Connected Diagnostics prioritises engine fault information and translates it into clear, actionable recommendations that are immediately sent to operations managers. With this report, fleet managers can quickly intervene when service is needed immediately, or can proactively schedule a service event to prevent progressive damage to a vehicle. "We believe that by

offering the advantages of Connected Diagnostics through Zonar telematics, Cummins engine customers will be empowered with actionable data to proactively manage their engines and increase the uptime of their vehicles," said Zonar chief product officer Larry Jordan. "We see a large opportunity to help more fleets maintain a high level of fleet performance and safety through our Cummins relationship," he added. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

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Temporary exemptions for the new NOx Emission Controls Areas in the Baltic Sea and North Sea were agreed



he decision of the 71st meeting of the Marine Environment Protection Committee to allow delays to the Ballast Water Management Convention (see page 9) has served to obscure some of the other details to have emerged from July’s meeting. Many of the decisions and discussions concerned fuel and emissions. For instance, the committee adopted new NOx Emission Control Areas in the Baltic Sea and

North Sea, which will apply to ships constructed after 1 January 2021. Here, temporary exemptions were agreed for ships immediately following their construction or those proceeding to repair. Ballast water aside, the most prevalent non-ballast topics for discussion at MEPC 71 concerned the issues around the consistent implementation of the 0.5 per cent sulphur cap in 2020. Shipowner organisations expressed concerns that, without the

necessary verification and control measures, the cap may not be implemented effectively on a global basis. It was suggested that further work is needed on verification and control, as well as actions to develop a standard format for reporting non-availability of compliant fuel. The committee heard submissions of concern regarding the potential safety implications of using lowsulphur fuel. At present, some blended fuels are not covered

by the ISO 8217 standard. A request was made for ISO to ensure consistency between the relevant ISO standards on marine fuel oils and the implementation of the global 0.5 per cent sulphur limit. A correspondence group has been tasked with developing best practices intended to assist industry stakeholders in assuring the quality of fuel oil delivered to and used on board ships, with respect to both compliance with the Marpol requirements and the safe and efficient operation of the ship. Other issues discussed included how bunker suppliers ought to indicate on the Bunker Delivery Note whether their client is receiving fuel which is above 0.5 per cent sulphur content for use on ships fitted with SOx abatement equipment or

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


undergoing emission reduction and control research. While availability of low sulphur fuel oil in 2020 is not within IMO’s remit, discussions indicated that most stakeholders have adopted a ‘wait and see’ approach because the large-scale market for this fuel is not yet in place. It was noted informally that the 2020 switch could strain not just availability of distillate but also of HFO as suppliers switch the majority of volume to MGO. Nonetheless, any suggestion that there may be any form of delay to the 1 January 2020 implementation of the sulphur cap was ruled out by the Committee, as a majority of member states rejected a proposal to collect data to allow IMO to take stock of the availability situation ahead of 2020. The International Bunker Industry Association (IBIA) took the view that the picture with regards to actual supply capacity, marine fuel demand and uptake of scrubbers will only become clearer much closer to the implementation date. It supported the general idea of data collection, with its representative Unni Einemo telling the committee: “Obtaining such data on the cusp of the implementation date, along with nonavailability reports provided to the IMO from the start of 2020, would help assess where availability of compliant fuels is problematic and also get a clearer picture of when and how the situation is improving. If such data are made available for dissemination to member states it may assist their authorities when assessing fuel oil non-availability reports.” However, most delgates felt that the question of availability had already been addressed by the study undertaken for IMO by CE Delft, which was provided to, and approved by, MEPC 70. ABS director of

environmental performance Thomas Kirk participated in MEPC 71, serving in an advisory role for the US delegation. He is in no doubt that the sulphur cap would proceed as planned in 2020: “The decision taken at MEPC 70 last year was always going to be based on the findings of the IMO’s fuel-availability survey. That survey established that sufficient quantities of low-sulphur fuel would be available by the 1 January 2020 deadline and, consequently, that deadline will stand.” Most importantly, it was felt that the most significant objection to the idea came about because MEPC thought it might lead to uncertainty and potentially delay the preparation process. Any talk of a transitional period permitting exemptions was firmly rejected. Although it supported the idea of a further survey, the IBIA supported this stance, saying to the Committee: “At MEPC 70, the committee took a leap of faith and decided to introduce the 0.5 per cent sulphur limit in 2020 based on a forecast that there would be sufficient refining capacity to meet global demand. It was a good decision, as it gave us certainty about the date so that we all know what we have to prepare for. We must be careful now to ensure we are not moving the target as that would send the wrong signal and throw preparations into disarray. The target date is the only thing that we actually know and we must not sow any doubt about it if we are going to succeed with the implementation.” MEPC 71 also approved a new work programme for the Sub-Committee on Pollution Prevention and Response to address the issue of potential non-availability of fuel oil, including a standard reporting format, guidance to assist stakeholders in

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

assessing the sulphur content of fuel oil delivered and safety implications with regard to using blended fuels, as well as any consequential regulatory amendments and/or guidelines needed to address these issues. As to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from ships, under Agenda Item 6, there were no major developments to the IMO’s Data Collection System, which will collect and aggregate the fuel consumption data from international shipping on which future measures will be based. The committee approved the guidelines on data verification that will make sure the data meet an acceptable level of accuracy, the guidelines for the development and

management of the IMO Ship Fuel Consumption Database keeping the ships anonymised, and a circular to address what happens for vessels flying the flag of a state not party to Marpol Annex VI. Finally, the MEPC agreed to identify measures to mitigate risks associated with the use of heavy fuel oil (HFO) in the Arctic. The potential damage to environment and indigenous communities from highpolluting fuels is set to increase as Arctic waters open up further, and many support a ban on its use and carriage. Others, though, prefer to allow HFO transport but mitigate further against spillage. Concrete proposals will be considered by MEPC 72 in April 2018. MP

BELOW: Unni Einemo (IBIA): Fuel availability date “would help assess where availability of compliant fuels is problematic”

adv_Europort2017_190x130mm.indd 1

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n environmental and economic terms, a vessel that powers itself while carrying no fuel would appear to represent the Holy Grail as far as most ship designers and owners are concerned. The fact that just such a vessel set sail in July on a sixyear global journey is exciting, to say the least. For commercial shipping,

though, the wait continues because the vessel in question is the Energy Observer, a former racing boat that has been converted by a team of nearly 50 engineers, designers and naval architects. Nonetheless, the technologies deployed on the boat may attract considerable interest for commercial shipping in the

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

future. This is becauise the vessel uses a combination of a hydrogen fuel-cell system, solar panels and wind turbines to sail throughout its voyage spanning 50 countries and 101 stopovers. The Energy Observer has been dubbed the ‘Solar Impulse of the seas,’ recalling the historic solar-powered plane that circumnavigated the world between March 2015 and July 2016. Much like the Solar Impulse project, the Energy Observer is a way of showing how new eco-friendly technologies can be put to practical use. The entire undertaking is intended to be a floating demonstration of an autonomous, selfsufficient seafaring vessel

that will be able to indefinitely traverse the globe in all weather conditions. The Energy Observer project revolves around the desire to find concrete, innovative solutions that help make the case for energy transition. The US$5.25 million, 30.5m boat was originally designed in 1983 for racing, and enjoyed success in open-sea sailing before its owners and captains, Frederic Dahirel and Victorien Erussard, teamed up with researchers, engineers, architects, and others to convert it into the Energy Observer project. The boat traded the standard solar battery for its hydrogen tanks, making it almost a third of the


VESSEL SETS SAIL weight the last solar-powered boat to circumnavigate the globe, Tûranor PlanetSolar. It can move three times as fast, with a top speed of 42 knots. It will typically be cruising at 8 to 10 kts as it makes its planned 101 stopovers in 50 countries all over the world. During the day, the vessel primarily uses sun or wind energy. At night, it harnesses a reservoir of hydrogen that the boat itself produces through electrolysis of the salt water. The team behind Energy Observer claims that it is the first vessel in the world able to produce its own hydrogen on board, from seawater, without greenhouse gas emissions. This is particularly

noteworthy, as around 95 per cent of hydrogen currently used as fuel is obtained using fossil-fuelled energy. The vessel's primary sources of power are its solar panels and wind turbines, but it is its hydrogen power systems that are the most innovative. First, sea water is desalinated by reverse osmosis. Then it is pumped into a solarpowered electrolyser, which splits water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. The fuel cell can produce 14.4 kWh of electrical energy from 1kg of hydrogen. The hydrogen fuel will be used at night or whenever there is not enough energy available from the solar panels, wind

turbines or kite to power the vessel. The hydrogen is stored in two 62kg capacity tanks in gaseous form. The boat’s kite sail serves a dual purpose: it assists in navigation and generates power. While it is pulling the boat through the water, the ship’s propeller turns an electric motor to create electricity. The system can make 2-4kW of power. The vessel’s two electric motors boast efficiency rates of 97 per cent. They are also reversible, being able to double as hydrogenators when the vessel is using wind power. The vessel’s fuel cell generates electricity from the stored hydrogen, acting as a range extender

for the vessel. The vessel also features two vertical-axis wind turbines for power production. Mounted near the stern, these produce up to 3kW of power. Each turbine is 2m high and has been developed specifically for the Energy Observer. “There is no silver bullet to fight against global warming: there are solutions, which we must learn to make work between them,” said Captain Erussard. “This is what we do with Energy Observer: bring together the energies of nature, but also of our society – bringing together around this boat the knowhow of companies, laboratories, startups and institutions.”

AUTONOMOUS SHIPS MAY BE GOVERNED BY AN IMO CODE Autonomous ships could be regulated through goal-based standards, similar to IMO’s Polar Code that came into effect at the start of this year for Arctic shipping, believes Martin Bergstrom, a naval architect and researcher at Finland’s Aalto University. He hopes to publish a paper by the end of the year outlining how such a code could be drafted. Mr Bergstrom leads a research group studying the safety aspects of autonomous and Arctic ships. He told Marine Propulsion that, as a new concept in shipping, autonomous ship proposals have much in common with novel Arctic design developments. He was speaking to Marine Propulsion in June, following an ABBhosted round-table discussion in Helsinki exploring how increased autonomy in shipping is affecting maritime jobs. He said that an autonomous shipping code would be more complicated to develop than the Polar Code because it would contradict some current legislation, such as the need for a human lookout. “I see the main challenge with autonomous ships as the functions that are now performed by the crew,” Mr Bergstrom said. Regulations require the lookout to be by sight and hearing so any goal-based alternative would have to address “in technical terms the functional requirements needed to replace a human being,” he explained.

Current regulations also refer to experience and competence requirements for the lookout, so the code would have to set out how an autonomous ship would achieve the same or better level of function, Mr Bergstrom stated. It would be difficult to prove that this functionality is effective, he added. During the round-table discussion, he had said that the first version of an autonomous ship code would be short, “basically saying that an autonomous ship needs to be as safe as a manned ship. Then it is up to the industry to develop performanceassessment methods that can be used to demonstrate that a design is safe,” he said. Mr Bergstrom expects that prototype autonomous ships would be operated within the territorial waters of a supportive flag state to carry out assessments to convince regulators that they are reliable. “It is easy to explain the idea,” he said, and to carry out demonstrations, but “you have to have trust in your assessment.” This could be a first step toward achieving IMO approval for an autonomous ship code, he suggested. “We are not there yet, but at least we are now starting to discuss it. I think IMO is open to new ideas,” he said. But it will take time, given that “the Polar Code took years to agree,” he pointed out. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


ABB ADOPTS THREE-PRONGED INNOVATION STRATEGY Innovating isn’t easy in a tough market, as Juha Koskela, managing director of ABB Marine & Ports, told Paul Fanning when they met at Nor-Shipping in June


hen he was appointed managing director of ABB Marine & Ports in September 2015, Juha Koskela knew that shipping was facing some serious challenges. Two years on, he is clear that things remain tough. Identifying the key issues holding the market back, he said: “The biggest problem is no secret. It’s overcapacity, particularly in cargo ships and offshore vessels.” The shortage of newbuildings, he asserted, has meant that levels of investment in new equipment have made for very tough times. Mr Koskela also said that the level and frequency of environmental legislation is a “a serious burden to shipowners and manufacturers.” While he concedes that environmental legislation does drive investment, he bemoans the fact that it tends to funnel it into particular technologies at the expense of others. This, Mr Koskela believes, tends to force shipowners into short-term decisions with a view to complying with the next upcoming regulation rather than planning for the

longer term. “Many of these regulations make it too difficult for shipowners to think a long way ahead,” he said. ABB Marine & Ports very much prides itself on thinking a long way ahead. It has long been in the technological vanguard, most notably with its invention of the gamechanging Azipod technology in the early 1990s. This tradition of technological innovation continues. Mr Koskela identified three key technology areas that are going to make the biggest difference to shipping and in which ABB is intimately involved: digitalisation, propulsion, and hybrid and battery technologies. In digitalisation, ABB has long had a lead, having set up a number of monitoring centres worldwide and developed a range of enabling technologies. “We are developing our digital services all the time,” Mr Koskela said. “It starts with the basics: have the connections in place and get the sensors on board. From there it’s moved on more to predictive maintenance, plus of course we have our

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

comprehensive Octopus marine software that deals with ABB products, but also advises overall ship operations.” ABB now monitors more than 700 vessels worldwide. Perhaps inevitably, though, the level of take-up on digitalisation is lagging behind technological development somewhat. Mr Koskela is not unduly worried by this. “I think it will accelerate,” he said. “We really are only at the beginning with this technology.” Mr Koskela suggested that market understanding of digitisation is still at a stage of relative infancy, and that digitisation is a much more all-encompassing process than many realise. “I would say there are three layers of adoption: The lowest layer is simple asset monitoring, just to get the sensors on the equipment and allow accurate predictive maintenance.The second one is enhancing and improving ship operations. “The third one – and the potentially biggest opportunity – is an area where we may not actually have a role. That is the overall geologistics whereby terminal operators and shipping

companies are pulling this all together. Maersk is already teaming up with Alibaba. IBM has introduced Blockchain technology to facilitate that. So that’s probably where the big money is.” Mr Koskela said this technology lag is not limited to the vessels themselves, but to the wider infrastructure: “On the ports side of the business, it’s very much the same thing. It is lagging a little bit behind in terms of digitalisation and monitoring operations. But I’m happy to say that as we speak we are opening a new centre in Sweden for a container terminal.” ABB has led the way on the development of hybrid and fully electric vessels, with a number of successful projects in these areas under its belt. Battery technology is an area where Mr Koskela expects to see more and more technological development. “Battery technology is really moving fast,” he said, adding that “here in Norway, every new launch you hear about seems to be battery and hybrid.” Again, this is an area

The NKT Victoria won Ship of the Year at Nor-Shipping 2017 and hosts an array of ABB technology

ABB anticipated, Mr Koskela asserted: “We did foresee that the market for these technologies was coming when we developed our Onboard DC concept, which fits very well together with batteries. We have many projects using batteries. One example is the NKT Victoria, which was made Ship of the Year at Nor-Shipping 2017. Here we have the Onboard DC Grid energy storage system, Azipod units, automation and also full connectivity to our remote operation centres.” The NKT Victoria is indeed an impressive showcase for ABB’s technologies. The cable-laying vessel features ABB's Onboard DC Grid and marine software. The Onboard DC Grid system will increase the efficiency of the vessel by allowing the ship’s engines to work at variable speed, in combination

with energy storage for peak shaving and enhanced dynamic performance, optimising the energy consumption and reducing engine maintenance. Energy storage is also used for back-up for shore connection during cable loading, allowing the ship to be emission free during cable loading. The vessel features 36 main components that send out in excess of 1,500 signals, culminating in a daily data package of approximately 80 megabytes – allowing the assets on board to be remotely monitored. Going forward, Mr Koskela foresees more extensive use of batteries on larger vessels as the technology improves: “I think battery technology can be used in larger ships. We could even see some early indications that fuel-cell technology will come much more quickly than people think. For instance, Royal

Carribbean is talking about using it.” On the propulsion side, Azipod is still the ever-evolving jewel in ABB’s crown, although sales are not as keen as Mr Koskela might wish. “We are constantly developing our Azipod propulsion products," he said. "We announced recently the Azipod XL, which is a bit higher powered than the previous Azipod XO. We still haven’t applied or sold any, but we are very close to having it applied in a cruise ship.” Ultimately, Mr Koskela accepts that the future of shipping will involve co-operation among companies. Here, he believes, ABB’s Finnish location gives it a distinct advanatage. “As well as ABB, Wärtsilä, and Rolls-Royce are well established in the country, and there are also IT companies, such as Nokia, he said.

"They are all collaborating and enabling the further development of digitalisation in shipping. So that’s one example of how these things work. Another one is the PerFECT2, where we are part of a consortium to develop a piston-free container ship using gas turbines and utilising our CRP Azipod technology. That involves close collaboration among different companies, including Caterpillar, DNV GL and ourselves.” Mr Koskela sees the value of his company’s technology as lying in its ability to allow both it and its customers to realise the potential of their assets. Speaking of digitalisation in particular, he said: “Everything now can be measured and analysed and data can be broken down, which means we can use it as a tool for proving our concepts as well as in aiding our customers.” MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017


VPS sounds fuel quality warning Leading marine fuel testing company Veritas Petroleum Services has sounded a warning on bunker fuel quality based on the findings from its marine fuel quality database. VPS tests well over 100,000 fuel samples globally each year. Recent figures taken from its database show that over the past two years, 15 per cent of residual fuels tested exceed the standards specification for at least one test parameter.

Meanwhile, distillate fuels show 9 per cent of all samples tested exceed their specification for at least one parameter. That means that vessels that do not test their fuel run the risk of one in every seven residual fuels giving a higher probability of problems and just over one in 10 distillates doing likewise. Over 250 million tonnes of marine fuel are delivered to the global fleet each year and, while there is an international

Bunker price indications LATEST PRICES Settle

BRENT $52.10 +$0.20

EUROPE Rotterdam MTD Antwerp MTD Lisbon MTW Gibraltar MTD Gothenburg MTD Las Palmas MTD Malta MTD Piraeus MTW St. Petersburg MTD*

IFO-380 3.5% $299-$305 $302-$308 $314-$320 $315-$320 $315-$320 $318-$325 $318-$326 $312-$320 $270-$280

MIDDLE EAST, SOUTH AFRICA Fujairah MTD Durban MTW Dammam-Ras Tanura MTD Jeddah-Yanbu-Rabigh MTD Richards Bay MTW

$308-$315 $335-$345 $316 $324

quality standard in place (ISO8217), testing marine fuel is not mandatory. That is the case even though testing can assist in monitoring fuel quality prior to burning, helping protect the vessel, crew and environment. Not testing fuel prior to burning raises the level of probability of poorer quality fuel causing costly damage or failures on board. Determining when and where in the world such fuel will

(US dollars) – 14 August 2017

WTI $48.82 +$0.23 IFO-180

MGO $482.50 -$4.00


MGO 0.1% $460-$465 $465-$470 $495-$500 $495-$505 $485-$490 $505-$510 $493-$500 $485-$490 $475-$485

$540-$550 $520-$525 Barging $11.50 pmt $530 $530 Subject Enquiry Subject Enquiry

AMERICAS New York MTW Houston MTW New Orleans MTW Vancouver MTW Panama MTW Santos MTD

$310-$324 $290-$308 $300-$310 $305-$315 $312-$318 $311-$312

$490-$515 $485-$500 $485-$495 $600-$615 $515-$530 $646-$647

FAR EAST Hong Kong MTD Singapore MTD Busan MTD Tokyo Bay MTD Shanghai MTW Qingdao MTW

$314-$320 $311-$327 $332-$335 $336-$340 $330-$335 $334-$337

$492-$497 $475-$485 $507-$517 $570-$580 $590-$595 $590-$595

Barging $11.50pmt PPDD PPDD Barging $14.00pmt



*Price not updated from previous report.

MTD = delivered MTW = ex-wharf PP = posted price

Information supplied by Dave Reid - Broker @ WMF e: Wilhelmsen Premier Marine Fuels Ltd

All prices listed are in US Dollars. These are indicative prices only to be used as a guide, subject to change depending on market conditions, quantity & supply date. DISCLAIMER: Please note that the information provided hereby merely contains observations and forward-looking expectations which are subject to risk and uncertainties related to financial and market conditions in relevant markets and may otherwise be subject to change. The purpose of this information is to share insight, which has been reported through common sources or our network. WMF undertakes no liability and makes no representation or warranty for the information and expectations given in this information or for the consequences of any actions taken on the basis of the information provided.

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | August/September 2017

be delivered opens up another area of uncertainty. For this reason, VPS has long monitored fuel quality on a daily basis and, when necessary, issued ‘Bunker Alerts’ exclusively to shipowners and managers that are using its testing programme. These bunker alerts inform clients of specific ports where a short-term quality issue relating to a specific fuel grade and parameter has been identified through VPS testing. This in turn provides information to help the client decide whether or not to take the risk in bunkering such fuel in that port at that particular time. In the first six months of 2017, VPS issued 33 alerts to its clients. These have highlighted short-term quality issues in 24 ports, covering 22 cases relating to residual fuel and 11 relating to distillates. The most common problematic parameter for residuals is density, with nine alerts issued so far this year. Density has both commercial and technical impacts for owners and managers. In the Americas alone there have been six alerts relating to density, including three separate cases in New York over the first half of 2017. Other residual parameters requiring bunker alerts have included: sodium (4); cat fines (3); sediment (3); chemical contamination (2); flash point (1); sulphur (1); and used lube oil (1). By far the most common problematic parameter for distillates is flash point. Seven alerts were issued during the first half of 2017, four in the Americas and three in Europe. This continues a trend seen in 2016, indicating the continuing use of low-flashpoint blending components, with the probable aim of achieving lower sulphur containing distillate products. If the rate at which VPS has issued alerts over the first half of 2017 continues, then this year will see a record number. MP

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Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery August/September 2017  

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery provides the technical, operational and project teams that work for the ship owner/operator/manager...

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery August/September 2017  

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery provides the technical, operational and project teams that work for the ship owner/operator/manager...