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June/July 2018 volume 40 issue 3


Yard profile 12

12 A new chapter in the life of Finland’s Rauma shipyard

Ferries 15 Rederij Doeksen’s newbuild ferries are fuelled by LNG 18 Market analysis – the orderbook is being driven by alternative power 23 Electric propulsion – green legislation is spearheading the adoption of battery technology 28 HVAC – HVAC systems can offer big energy savings 30 Stabilisers – new technology is rewarding users with substantial efficiency gains

28 Enginebuilder profile 32 MSC order shows popularity of G95 series among mega container shipping

Two-stroke engines 35 MAN’s ME-GIE is pushing the boundaries of two-stroke propulsion


Four-stroke engines 39 Battery-driven four-strokes may revolutionise propulsion

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Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

contents June/July 2018 volume 40 issue 3 Head of Content: Edwin Lampert t: +44 20 8370 7017 e: edwin.lampert@rivieramm.com Brand Manager – Sales: Tom Kenny t: +44 7432 156 339 e: tom.kenny@rivieramm.com

56 Ballast water 42 Innovation is the buzzword in this green-aware age 45 Increasing retrofits mean operators must learn ‘on the job’ 48 Sampling and testing - new standards and innovative test kits announced

Auxiliary systems 51 Automation - overcoming data transmission and network security challenges 55 Compressors are providing cleaner vessels and emissions 59 Filters and separators – crew knowledge can help avoid fines 62 Steering gear and rudders – evolution not revolution in this critical area

Fuels and lubes 67 Embracing the sulphur cap

Sales Manager: Rob Gore t: +44 20 8370 7007 e: rob.gore@rivieramm.com Sales: Paul Dowling t: +44 20 8370 7014 e: paul.dowling@rivieramm.com Sales: Jo Lewis t: +44 20 8370 7793 e: jo.lewis@rivieramm.com Head of Sales – Asia: Kym Tan t: +65 6809 1278 e: kym.tan@rivieramm.com Group Production Manager: Mark Lukmanji t: +44 20 8370 7019 e: mark.lukmanji@rivieramm.com Chairman: John Labdon Managing Director: Steve Labdon Finance Director: Cathy Labdon Operations Director: Graham Harman Executive Editor: Paul Gunton Head of Production: Hamish Dickie Published by: Riviera Maritime Media Ltd Mitre House 66 Abbey Road Enfield EN1 2QN UK

Next issue Main features include: Market analysis: tankers and bulkers; Electrical and hybrid systems; Driveline; Fuels and fuel systems; Exhibition preview – SMM, Hamburg; Engineroom safety


Send your news and views to our market leading editorial team today: mpnewsdesk@rivieramm.com

©2018 Riviera Maritime Media Ltd

ISSN 1742-2825 (Print) ISSN 2051-056X (Online)

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Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

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Scrubbing round the edges of fuel availability

I Paul Gunton, Executive Editor

“Faced with a choice of fuels to sell, bunker suppliers will drop HFO from their price list because of their barges’ delivery systems”


n my online comment on 23 May, I wrote about the likelihood of there being a shortage of scrubbers when the 0.5% sulphur cap comes into effect in 2020 and the possibility – some say only a small possibility – that there may be a shortage of HFO as a result. I received two emails with reaction to those remarks: one from the technical director of a tanker owner and the other from the chief executive of a scrubber supplier. Those two roles bookend the debate that spans users and manufacturers. At one end, the tanker operator referred to discussions with bunker suppliers who are concerned whether they will be able to handle the range of fuels that will be on offer after 2020. They are not willing to use the same barges for high-sulphur and low/ultra-low sulphur fuels, he said. Because their pipes and pumps do not allow complete segregation, they cannot risk even a droplet of high-sulphur fuel contaminating 0.5% sulphur fuel because that would make it non-compliant. Never mind the argument about the possible shortage of scrubbers: faced with a choice of fuels to sell, bunker suppliers will drop HFO from their price list because of their barges’ delivery systems. This operator is based in Singapore, the world’s most significant bunker port in terms of volume and pricing, so his comments relay the views of some significant players. Director of the Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems Association, Don Gregory, has also considered the logistics aspects of fuel supply post-2020. In smaller markets, “supply-chain limitations of storage and transport may result in a shortage of supply capability for high-sulphur fuel oil as the supply chain capacity switches to 0.50% sulphur fuels,” he told me. My tanker owner also raised questions about compatibility of future fuels, especially those created as blends, and the scrubber maker echoed that concern. “In my view,” he said, “there will be plenty of compliant fuel, but measures have to be taken to secure their compatibility when mixed with other fuels.” His company is not one of the big scrubber

names and its chief executive admitted that, with the current demand, “finally we will be able to cash in some of [our] investments”. My takeaways from these reactions are simple – and probably simplistic. Both ends of the scrubbing debate share very similar perspectives and concerns so, if a solution is needed, everyone seems to be pushing at an open door. But I am not sure that a specific solution is needed: scrubber manufacturers are confident that, given time, they will meet the demand for their products. If bunker barges are not able to load the range of cargoes required, new or modified tonnage will emerge to meet demand. And Don Gregory is confident that there will be no shortage of HFO coming from refineries. As 2020 nears, this topic will become a critical business pinch point. Beyond that however, I see calmer waters and long-term market equilibrium. What will matter most then, of course, will be compliance and enforcement. Those will be the real long-term outcomes and the trickiest to resolve.

Rolls-Royce Marine is up for sale. Would you like to make an offer?

One Marine Propulsion reader certainly does; I put him in touch with Rolls-Royce and asked for a first interview if the deal goes through. He was responding to an exclusive interview I had with Rolls-Royce Marine president Mikael Makinen; you can read it in full online via http://bit.ly/MP-MM-interview. I had interviewed him in 2014 when he had just joined Rolls-Royce, so I had a unique opportunity to ask him whether he had achieved the goals he had set out then. He was frank about that: No, he had not. He had had the rug pulled from under him by the collapsing oil price. Almost overnight, a sector that had buoyed the division’s revenue, growth and confidence became a millstone that very nearly sank the ship. So he had to set new goals and make difficult decisions. I was impressed by the approach he is taking to the sale. Read my interview and email me at paul.gunton@rivieramm.com to tell me how you would have reacted to the dilemmas he faced. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018


Crime and punishment in a post-sulphur age Niels Bjørn Mortensen offers a personal view on compliance and punishment when it comes to the upcoming 2020 sulphur cap regulations


aving worked on the implementation of the Sulphur Cap rules for many years I have come to realise that those who try to bypass them do so via one of two ways: through the ships’ crew, without knowledge or consent of the owner; or through authorisation, usually tacitly, by senior management, which then trickles down through the technical and bunker departments, all the way to the bunker suppliers. To illustrate the first approach, we could take an example of a bulk carrier (post 2020) given instructions to bunker 1,000 tonnes of 0.50% sulphur fuel in Buenos Aires. The captain and the chief engineer happen to know the bunker supplier (possibly a former colleague) and instruct him to in-stead deliver 1,000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil (HFO), issue a bunker delivery note (BDN) stating the fuel is compliant and send an invoice to the charterer (or owner) for 1,000 tonnes of 0.50% fuel. The price difference between the invoiced fuel and the delivered HFO can easily be US$200,000 plus. Less than a handful of officers need to be involved on board the ship and the potential rewards could be US$30,000 to US$40,000 each, multiple times a year. Scenario two involves a more formalised approach, when senior management agree among themselves to cheat the rules. One might expect this to occur among those shipping companies that pay their own fuel bills, typically container, roro and cruise lines. Such companies often operate several hundred ships, so the number of people involved in the office, on board the ships and within the bunker suppliers is large. Everyone involved in the duplicity will need to be instructed (one assumes verbally

to avoid a paper trail) and will expect a slice of the cake. The obvious risk in this scenario is the potential for a disgruntled (or ethical) participant to blow the whistle on the racket. The likelihood of this happening increases as more people become involved. The consequences of being embroiled in this sort of scandal could be devastating for a company, resulting in untold reputational damage and substantial fines, among other repercussions. Imagine for a moment that a bunker adjustment factor (or emergency bunker surcharge) had been charged to cover the extra cost of the more expensive fuel. It is reasonable to assume those who had been cheated would want their surcharge back and it is also fair to assume they would take their custom elsewhere in future. Both of these scenarios fall under noncompliance and should be penalised as such. There is little doubt that given the huge sums involved in bunker cheating, some in the shipping industry will be tempted to try to make some “easy money”. But is it realistic to suspect bluechip shipping companies to organise and execute cheating from top-management level? German Shipowners’ Association managing director Dr Martin Kröger does not think so: “With the paperwork involved, including BDN, oil record books, logbooks, double accounts for fuel bills, MRV reporting and so on, cheating [at] a corporate management level will literally be impossible.” Perhaps the various PSC regimes would be better placed focussing on small companies operating on the spot market? Indeed, those violations detected so far point at the latter and it seems unlikely that this will change post 2020. MP

Given the huge sums involved in bunker cheating, some will be tempted to try to make some “easy money”

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

Snapshot CV

Niels Bjørn Mortensen Master Mariner & Naval Architect Niels Bjørn Mortensen is one of the industry’s pre-eminent regulatory experts. His has headed BIMCO’s marine department, served as Maersk Maritime Technology’s director of regulatory affairs and chaired the Danish Shipowners’ Association technical committee. He also sits at the Danish Maritime and Trade Court as an expert judge.


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GETTING THE MEASURE OF FILLING-LEVEL MEASUREMENTS A new smartphone app, coupled with triedand-tested cable glands, is helping overcome problems when taking hydrostatic filling-level measurements says Andreas Koch, head of product management at Trafag


illing tanks on ships to a constant level is no easy task. Tanks are often of different size, shape and structure and the filling level must be monitored continuously. In addition to the various products – fuel, ballast water, potable and process water, lubricants and coolants – which vary greatly with regards to their chemical and physical properties, the type of tank and monitoring system often differ. Because the measuring range of the filling-level transmitter depends on the tank height and the density of the contents, either the corresponding values are parameterised in the control (which requires a complex control and an input option), or the filling-level sensors are calibrated for the required pressure measurement range individually. The main disadvantages of the individual calibration approach are longer delivery times – due to the sensor being bespoke – and complex warehousing, when replacement parts for various installations must be available at a central location.

Parameterising via smartphone

More expensive transmitters can be configured via a PC; Trafag’s solution is a standard filling-level transmitter that can be configured via an Android app. For this purpose, a special Trafag interface tool is required, as well as a voltage source in the form of a “powerbank”. With these in place, the measuring instruments can be parameterised quickly via mobile. The parameter sets can be saved as files and in the case of replacement parts, the original parameter set can be loaded onto the replacement device in just a few seconds. This opens up new options for manufacturers of tank and pump control systems. It is now possible to use a simple, standard control (which does not require a programming interface) to input the tank and fluid parameters. The filling-level sensor can then be parameterised with a smartphone on site during installation; the data can then be saved in the project documentation. This results in a streamlined, cost-effective solution to realise simple tank control and monitoring systems.

Overcoming installation problems

To prevent openings at the tank, and therefore potential leakage, the pressure transmitters are usually introduced into the tank suspended by a cable through special openings and immersed in the medium to be measured. Because both the measuring probe and the cable are


Trafag’s filling-level transmitter can be configured via an app

in the tank and hang freely, problems often stem from two notable areas: due to flows in the tank, the transmitter can be driven away from its original position and thus measure a level other than that intended; or the cable sheath may be damaged during installation or operation, allowing fluid to penetrate the transmitter between the sheath and cable wires, resulting in electronic failure. Penetration of fluid into the pressure transmitter is the most frequent cause of failure in immersed-level probes. As such, transmitters are often provided with an additional weight to prevent them from being pulled along with the flow, or are fastened to the tank wall. Special cable protection is rarely used. Trafag’s solution uses an interface on the pressure transmitter for a special Serto screw joint. With this metallic-sealing screw joint, a simple metal pipe can be pushed over the cable and screwed bluntly with the adapter included in delivery. This solution is more expensive than a bare cable, but it offers a wide range of advantages: • The stainless-steel pipe protects the cable from damage, including to the cable sheath. • The steel pipe is firmly mounted to the upper part of the tank and fixes the immersed transmitter in position, independent of any flows. • The entire upper part of the transmitter, including the cable, is insulated from the medium via the stainless-steel pipe and leaktight screw joint. This removes the need for an expensive cable to protect against aggressive media, allowing users to select a more cost-efficient cable option. • In the case of very deep tanks, the pipe can be welded in the lower area of the tank, saving a lot of cable length and wiring work (from the upper section of the tank). • Optimal equipotential bonding is ensured by the metallic connection of the sensor housing with the tank, which protects the transmitter with regards to EMC and electrochemical corrosion. The adapter system has been thoroughly tested over many years and is safe and easy to install. It is also corrosion- and ageingresistant thanks to the metallic seal. All necessary parts, except for the steel pipe and the assembly tools, are included with the Trafag pressure transmitter. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018


Rauma shipyard: a new chapter Rauma shipyard has bounced back after being relaunched as Rauma Marine Constructions and is targeting the ferry newbuild market, writes Rebecca Moore


Håkan Enlund (RMC): The Molslinjen order is a milestone

auma Marine Constructions (RMC) has hailed its ferry order from Danish operator Molslinjen a “milestone”. The order, placed in June 2016, is significant on two levels: it is both RMC’s first newbuilding order and the first ferry commission since the shipyard restarted as RMC. The shipyard has been through a turbulent time since it was closed by former owner STX Finland in 2013 and subsequently bought by the city of Rauma in 2014, prior to being relaunched as RMC. Since that time, it has steadily increased its workforce to 350 employees, compared to 700 when the yard was owned by STX Finland. Investments have been made in yard facilities, with automated equipment being introduced to modernise the shipyard. RMC executive vice president of sales and marketing Håkan Enlund told Marine Propulsion: “To restart a yard was tougher than we thought, but we are on the way and the Molslinjen order is an important milestone.” Discussing the pace of the project, he said “We have had a controlled development in the increase in our newbuilding activity, if we accelerate too fast there is a danger that we will fall down.” The company has recently undergone more changes to achieve its growth plans. In

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

December last year, the shipyard announced it had appointed the chairman of its board, Jyrki Heinimaa, to be the new chief executive. In addition, RMC also elected a new chief operating officer, chairman of the board and member of the board. “RMC’s growth story has been phenomenal from the beginning,” said Mr Heinimaa. “The changes in management are a natural consequence of the next growth phase of the company. At this stage, the challenges the company faces are different from those at the start-up phase. It is, therefore, the right time to strengthen and develop the management of RMC according to the requirements set by the new phase. Private sector funding has a crucial role to play in enabling growth and ensuring private funding in future projects will be essential to RMC’s growth,” he said. Against this backdrop of change, RMC is building Molslinjen’s vessel and in doing so, surpassing some key targets. In March 2017, construction of the ship started ahead of schedule and RMC announced that construction has progressed as planned. RMC launched the ship in January this year. The exterior of the ferry has been completed and the ship has now been relocated to a drydock for equipment assembly and interior work, followed by trial runs and commissioning. It will be delivered to Molslinjen by the end of June 2018. The 158 m long ropax that RMC is building is the first vessel order that Molslinjen has placed with the yard. Designed and optimised for use on a route between Rønne on the Baltic island of Bornholm to mainland Denmark, it will have capacity for 600 passengers and will include two car decks totalling 1,500 lane m (able to take trailers, trucks and cars). Mr Enlund said the ferry will run



purely on marine gas oil. He noted this was unusual, as many ferry operators had decided to go down the LNG or scrubber route. “We have gone a straightforward way and it is a clever solution that is less complicated than running on LNG or installing complicated exhaust cleaning devices that can be unpredictable,” he said. The ferry will use engine heat recovery technology to heat up water used on board for consumption. Other energyefficient methods include using LED lighting throughout the ship.

Molslinjen’s newbuild is both RMC’s first newbuilding order and first ferry commission since the shipyard re-started


The new vessel will also include a Valmet DNA integrated automation system to cover the control, alarm and monitoring of machinery systems and Rolls-Royce scooped the contract to provide the main propellers and propulsion control system. Finnish engineering firm Telesilta will be responsible for system installation. This illustrates the importance RMC places on using a partner-network approach. It is taking advantage of the maritime cluster that has formed in Rauma (and Finland), which has extensive experience in building and servicing car and passenger ferries. While the Molslinjen newbuild is currently the only ferry on order, Mr Enlund said that while he was not able to reveal anything yet, there was “a lot of activity” around other possible ferry newbuild contracts for RMS.

The shipyard has a strong history of building ferries, having built 40 when it was under STX Finland for major operators including Stena Line, P&O Ferries and Brittany Ferries. The shipyard also focuses on smalland medium-sized specialised vessels, including icebreakers and naval ships. Other work it is currently carrying out includes the refurbishment and modernisation of the Finnish Environment Institute’s marine research vessel Aranda. The work will involve a 7 m extension to the vessel, as well as the implementation of an all-electric power transmission, which will significantly reduce the underwater

RMC receives boost from Finnish maritime cluster


STX Finland decides to close Rauma shipyard


Privately owned Rauma Marine Constructions (supported by City of Rauma) takes over the shipyard. Local private investors play a key role re-establishing shipbuilding activity in Rauma. The Finnish flag is hoisted on the yard’s roof


The yard carries out refits on Tallink Group ferries and Finnish state-owned ice breakers


RMC receives a further capital injection from the original local investors, Finnish Industry Investment and a fund managed by Taaleri


RMC wins a contract to build a Molslinjen ropax


RMC signs a design contract with Finnish Defence Forces (FDF Logistics Command) for Squadron 2020 corvettes


noise emitted by the ship. And after signing a letter of intent in September 2016, RMC is now working under a design contract for the Squadron 2020 Programme of the Finnish Defence Forces. However, the ferry sector is RMC’s main market and it aspires to grow its orders in this area. “We want to be the major player that we used to be before the closure of the shipyard,” said Mr Enlund. He concluded: “Our strategy is to be a major player in the north European ferry market.”

RMC has benefited from the strong maritime cluster in Finland, especially in Rauma and in the southwest of the country. According to figures from the Finnish Maritime Cluster 2020 study, produced by BRAHEA Centre and Turku School of Economics at the University of Turku and published in June 2016, there are 461 maritime companies in this area, making up 30% of Finland’s total maritime firms. Their combined turnover is €2.8Bn (US$3.4Bn), 23% of the Finnish maritime cluster’s turnover. Highlighting RMC’s beneficial location, Rauma is number two in the list of top 10 cities in the maritime cluster in southwest Finland with 94 companies located there, surpassed only by Turku with 246 companies. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018




The round bilge of the catamaran hulls will lead to a very low ship resistance (Credit: MTU)

REDERIJ DOEKSEN PAVES THE WAY WITH PURE LNG Rederij Doeksen’s newbuild ferries are ground-breaking in many ways, including being 100% fuelled by LNG, writes Rebecca Moore


n contrast to the LNGdiesel dual-fuelled model used by many operators, Rederij Doeksen’s two newbuild ropax ferries are distinctive in being 100% LNG-fuelled. Strategic Marine is

building the two vessels and general manager commercial Mike Bell told Marine Propulsion: “LNG is the unique point of [the vessels]; the fuel system is very different to the normal,

DESIGN PARTICULARS Capacity: 64 cars and 600 passengers Truck lanes: 130 m Speed: 14 knots Propulsion system: Two MTU lean burn single fuel LNG engines, each driving a Veth CRP azimuth thruster Class: Lloyd’s Register MAIN SUPPLIERS Construction: Strategic Marine Vessel design: BMT Nigel Gee Interior and exterior design: Vripack Sneek LNG fuel system: Marine Service Noord Hoogezand Waste heat recovery systems: Orcan Energy Gas gensets: Scania (developed and manufactured by Scania distributor Sanfirden) Contra rotating rudder propellers: Veth Main engines: MTU


traditional diesel engines. The fact that they are pressurised and temperature sensitive has to be taken into account.” Currently being finished at Strategic Marine’s shipyard in Vietnam, Willem Barentsz and Willem de Vlamingh are due to travel to the Wadden Sea area - where they will ply the route between Harlingen and Terschelling in the Netherlands - at the end of July this year. The vessels will then have final commisioning and trails upon arrival in Europe. At the annual Interferry conference in October last year, Rederij Doeksen managing director Paul Melles explained the key reasons behind the ferry operator's decision to commission the newbuilds. He said the company wanted to replace old tonnage (its Midsland ferry that currently plies this route), meet demand for two additional midday departures from Harlingen

and Terschelling, add more car deck space, allow more flexibility (to adapt to seasonal effects) and allow more daily turnarounds and increased capacity. To achieve these goals, Rederij Doeksen decided to use two smaller ropax ferries rather than one single, large ferry. The operator also wanted to increase the service speed from 12 knots to 14 knots to meet its new requirements. Mr Melles commented: “We wanted to increase the speed of the ropax ferry, but to do this to a 1,000 gt vessel on a 21 nautical mile shallow route would mean using a huge amount of power and create a disturbing wash in a World Heritage area.” Instead, the ferry operator realised that building two smaller ferries to travel at 14 knots was achievable. The ferry operator also wanted to reduce the environmental impact by lowering NOx, CO2 and noise levels and by increasing the efficiency of the ferries, leading to lower operational costs. A reduced ship size means less wave-making and squat resistance, leading to less propulsion power used and reduced emissions and operational costs. Therefore, Mr Melles said the decision was made to construct the ferries out of aluminium.

Water depth challenges

Water depth was an important consideration in the build as it falls to just 5 m in some areas, with some quite turbulent sea conditions. It was decided that the

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018


most efficient hull design for the shallow waters the vessels would travel was long, slender hulls. “This offers a safe and wide stable platform with no need to carry ballast water,” commented Mr Melles. Rederij Doeksen head of operations Richard de Vries said: “The round bilge of the two slender catamaran hulls, with the very sharp bows, give the underwater ship a nice line and, with the anodes and sea inlets recessed, it will certainly ensure a very low ship resistance.” Mr Melles added that the ferry operator’s research showed that an LNG-fuelled ferry, with direct mechanical propulsion, using batteries for peak-shaving to power their bow thrusters was the “most practical, reliable and clean energy source” for a 21 nautical mile ferry service for a fixed A-B route.LNG tankers from terminals in Zeebrugge, Rotterdam or Eemshaven will be deployed to fuel the ferries. The plan is to bunker once a week, so the ferry operator is creating a gap in the ferries’ schedule for this.

LNG engines based on diesel models

A symmetrical propulsion system arrangement within the two hulls of each catamaran was agreed upon. Two MTU 16-cylinder V 4,000 engines

The first two pre-production units of the new mobile MTU gas engine from Rolls-Royce. From left to right: Rederij Doeksen managing director Paul Melles, MTU sales manager Phil Kordic and Strategic Marine service and warranty superintendent Peter Cottam (Credit: MTU)

very good load acceptance”. To meet this challenge, the gas supply comes through a spark-ignition system to the engines, with an injector for every cylinder. Mr Müller said it was “very important” to have “individual combustion control for each cylinder” to meet the load requirements. He explained that doublewalled fuel piping was used, which is an IGF requirement for an “inherently safe” engineroom.

“The first parameter was to deliver a product that had a behaviour very close to that of diesel, with the same performance range and map” Stefan Müller (MTU)

were chosen – fed by two LNG tanks – with each driven by a Veth CRP azimuth propeller. MTU director application centre marine Stefan Müller said the main challenge was that the “propellers need a propulsion system that is very focused on

Another striking feature of the engines is that, according to Mr Müller, they are the first high-speed pure gas engine to operate with diesellike performance. He explained: “The first parameter was to deliver a

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

product that had a behaviour very close to that of diesel, with the same performance range and map. The engines’ dynamic acceleration behaviour meets the requirements needed for this application.” Its engines are based on MTU’s existing S4000 marine diesel engine. The IMO Tier III compliant engines will each deliver 1,500 kW. The power output per cylinder is 93-125 kW with an engine speed of 600-1,800 rpm and fuel gas consumption of 9,561 kJ/ kWh at 100% power. The engine's cooling system consists of a separate circuit for charge air cooling. The gas gensets are Scania-based units developed and manufactured by Scania distributor Sanfirden. Waste heat recovery systems are being provided by Orcan Energy, whose ePack system will be added to the main and auxiliary engines. The waste heat recovery systems are based on the Organic Rankin Cycle (ORC). Orcan

Energy explained that the ORC solution works with a refrigerant (R245fa), which “boils” at 15° Cat atmospheric pressure. Via a screw expander, the vapour will be directly converted to rotational energy. This screw expander operates at a much lower speed and has a flat efficiency curve over a wide operating range, in contrast to a steam turbine. The outcome (active power) from the waste heat recovery system is 77 kW. This is converted into direct current by a frequency converter to charge the batteries. Both battery packs are charged during the mooring of the ferries via inverters; they each deliver 77 kW of power to the two electric bow thrusters. The Veth propellers also boost energy efficiency. They consist of two contra-rotating screws with two rudder propellers. Rederij Doeksen said these ensure efficient and low-noise propulsion. Because the power is distributed over two smaller screws, there are fewer pulsating vibrations compared with one large screw and this improves comfort on board. Smaller screws usually have a lower propulsion efficiency compared with screws with a large diameter. The rear propeller of each pair uses the rotating wake of the front propeller and converts it into 10% extra propulsion force. Aside from using LNG, the ferries have many other environmentally friendly and efficient features: solar power will be used for part of the hotel electric load; boilers are LNG-powered; low energy LED lighting is being used throughout the vessel; zincfree anodes for cathodic protection will be deployed; and silicon non-toxic antifouling is being used. Mr Bell summed up: “The entire design has been done to be as energy efficient and clean as possible.” MP


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18 | MARKET ANALYSIS ferries

Alternative power drives global ferry orderbook The need to be energy efficient is fuelling the booming ferry market and driving the rapidly growing use of alternative energy, while the trend to use Chinese yards to build vessels is gaining momentum, writes Rebecca Moore

Snapshot CV


oth the current and future ferry fleet are being dominated by the theme of energy efficiency and a rapidly increasing number of these vessels are being fuelled by alternative power. The ferry orderbook stood at a healthy 241 vessels (fast ferry, ropax, passenger ferry, roro and train ferry types) as of April 2018, according to data from BRL Consultants. Many of these ships will be fuelled by battery power or LNG fuel, and the ferry market is also examining other means of alternative power, including hydrogen and methanol. This transition to cleaner energy is due in part to the upcoming 2020 low sulphur deadline, coupled with increasingly strict local regulations on emissions (in certain regions) and the drive to be as energy efficient as possible to save fuel costs. Norway is a major influencer and driver of technology trends within the ferry market. Its ambitious politicians and government institutions now dictate that many ferry routes must be either low emission or emission free. This has

led to a surge in battery hybrid and pure battery ferry newbuild orders and deliveries. And where Norway goes, other countries will follow. Interestingly, battery power has now leapfrogged LNG to become the most popular form of alternative power for ferries in Norway. Naval architect firm LMG Marin managing director Torbjorn Bringedal told Marine Propulsion: “Natural gas is still of interest out of Norway, but Norway is now more interested in battery power. All inland ferry connections are controlled by the state and/or local counties and they are all looking for ways to improve their carbon footprint. LNG is not as effective in this respect as battery power, so all focus is now on battery and hydrogen.” Indeed, the goal is for the whole Norwegian ferry fleet to ultimately become fossil free.

Fuels of the future

For many of the reasons outlined above, there is now a large push to create a hydrogen ferry. Norway’s National Road Administration’s aim, to create a fossil-free

Torbjorn Bringedal (LMG Marin) Mr Bringedal gained an MSc in naval architecture and marine engineering at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in 1991. He has worked for LMG Marin since 1994, with experience spanning the design of naval ships, offshore vessels and passenger ships. He was project manager for the first series of gas ferries designed by LMG Marin, which were built by Aker Yards (now Vard). He became managing director at LMG Marin in 2013.

Ferry Newbuilds (Source: BRL Consultants, 16 April 2018) VESSEL TYPE

2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 TOTAL 53
















































Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018


fleet, is behind a programme to develop a hydrogen ferry that will go into operation in 2021. Three groups, consisting of ferry operators Norled, Fjord1 and Boreal, are creating a hybrid ferry design utilising 50% hydrogen mixed with a plug-in battery system. The winner is expected to be announced in Q3 this year. LMG Marin is also taking part in the hydrogen contract bid. Mr Bringedal said: “Hydrogen will be used on the really demanding routes to remote islands over the longest fjords and at quite high speed. Hydrogen combines well with batteries, as batteries smooth the loads for a hydrogen system.” He explained that hydrogen has a longer life span if used with batteries, as fuel cells are on constant power while the batteries can take on the variable loads. Projects such as this will open the doors for other hydrogen-powered ferries. As Mr Bringedal said “The technology for hydrogen is there, but we cannot get further unless we start applying it in ferries and gaining experience.” He said that hydrogen use would become a trend within the ferry market. “You need one project and then other projects will follow in Norway and out of Norway - a bit like with LNG,” he said, noting that LNG use was developed in Norway in state-subsidised ferry projects and then realised all over the world.

High-speed hydrogen

Hydrogen would also be a good possibility for high-speed ferries. LMG Marin is involved in a study looking at using fossil-free high-speed solutions which could involve batteries, hydrogen or a combination of both. Mr Bringedal said: “I believe that hydrogen might have even bigger potential in high-speed ferries as the energy density is so high.” In contrast, if only batteries are used, a reduction in speed or longer time in harbour might have to be accepted. “These can be avoided if hydrogen is used, but this technology has to be taken one step further than with a car ferry, as all the systems need to be optimised for a very low weight [needed for a high-speed vessel],” he said. The other challenge is that batteries and hydrogen require electric propulsion, which has not been used in a high-speed ferry before. Such a system is “quite heavy and voluminous”, so work is needed to optimise its weight. While Norway is a leader when it comes to hydrogen, companies in other areas are also investigating the use of


NOTABLE NEWBUILDS Ferries entering service in 2018: • Irish Ferries is introducing its new cruise ferry W.B. Yeats. The ferry – currently being built in Germany – is expected to weigh 55,000 tonnes. W.B. Yeats will sail between Holyhead and Dublin from mid-September 2018, delivering additional capacity for 1,885 passengers and crew and 1,200 cars per crossing. • Red Funnel Isle of Wight Ferries is investing in a new high-speed catamaran Red Jet 7 which is being built at the Wight Shipyard Company. The 277-passenger Red Jet 7 will come into service between Southampton and West Cowes in early July and is a sister ship to Red Jet 6. • New for Q3 2018 is Wightlink’s Victoria of Wight – a new hybrid car ferry operating between Portsmouth and Fishbourne on the Isle of Wight. Powered by hybrid energy, the new ferry includes a sophisticated power management system, recycling engine heat to warm water and indoor spaces, and a modern hull designed to create low levels of wash. • Caledonian MacBrayne ferry customers will benefit from the UK’s first LNG passenger ferry, Glen Sannox. It is the first of two LNG ferries being built as part of a £97M contract. The vessel is due to be delivered to ferry operator Caledonian MacBrayne (CalMac Ferries Ltd) in Q4 2018/Q1 2019. It can operate on LNG and marine gas oil. Ferries entering service in 2019: • Brittany Ferries’ new £175M vessel Honfleu will be delivered in 2019. The ship will be built in the Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellshaft shipyard in Germany and will be powered by LNG. Four engines feed electric generators and two electric propulsion motors. • Stena Line's four new LNG-ready ropax vessels, which are being built at the AVIC Shipyard in China, will be delivered during 2019 and 2020, with Stena having an option on a further four vessels as part of the overall contract. ABOVE: Brittany Ferries’ Honfleur will run on LNG when it is delivered in 2019

hydrogen to power ferries. Caledonian Maritime Assets Ltd (CMAL) is “actively” working on a hydrogen ferry project. The Scottish ferry owner’s director of vessels Jim Anderson told delegates at a panel discussion about electrification, at Interferry’s annual conference in October last year: “We are actively working on a hydrogen ferry project and have done a cost model capex and it can be done.” The company started the project in 2010 and has been working on it with partners including Ferguson shipyard. “We are very hopeful we can build a hydrogen vessel - we can look to do that with the excess of renewable electrical power [in Scotland] at the best tariff, this economic model works. The challenge is the new technology, but it is very possible, and we are looking to do it.” He said the biggest challenge is storing the fuel, which would “take up a lot of space on the vessel”, which would also need to bunker every second day. The company needs to look at how to build this into the timetable.

Aside from hydrogen, methonal is also of interest to the ferry market. Stena Line’s Stena Germanica was retrofitted in 2016 to run on methanol – the first vessel in the world to do so. And methanol is a possibility for Stena to use in the future on its newbuilds and existing ships, Stena RoRo managing director Per Westling told the audience at the Ferry Shipping Conference (Shippax) last year. On the subject of methonal fuelling, he told delegates at a session about how the ferry industry will look in 2025: “Our experience is very, very good. It is a very clean fuel and the technology really works; it is a dual-fuel engine which is extremely flexible.” The Methanol Institute is keen to push the use of methanol as a marine fuel and its chief operating officer Chris Chatterton singled out ferries as being a strong candidate. He said “Shortsea shipping, ferries, inland waterways and workboats – all sectors that have flirted with LNG as a fuel – are all potential markets for

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

20 | MARKET ANALYSIS ferries

methanol. The environmental argument is irrefutable: unlike LNG which addresses the SOx/NOx/PM emissions problem, methanol is liquid at atmospheric pressure and offers a future pathway to a low- and zero-carbon emissions profile.” He highlighted the availability of methanol at port locations globally.

on a gas-electric system using three dualfuel engines. It is being built at Turkey’s Sefine shipyard and will be delivered in September this year. An upcoming trend in the ferry market could well involve a combination of LNG and batteries. Norwegian operator Fjord1 converted its ferry Fannefjord from an LNG-fuelled vessel to an LNGLNG still at forefront battery hybrid ferry. The converted vessel Despite the focus on new alternative power went into operation in May 2015 and like methanol and hydrogen and that fact proudly claims the title of being the first that battery power has overtaken LNG in the passenger ferry to use a combination of Norway ferry market, LNG is still very much pure gas and battery power. LMG Marin in demand to power ferries. Mr Bringedal designed the concept. said: “In Europe, LNG is really going to be Mr Bringedal commented: “Using used as a fuel. We are seeing more and LNG and batteries together has very more interest in it and more tenders coming good benefits. The reduction in the fuel out now for bunkering operations.” consumption of Fannefjord is impressive. LMG Marin is itself working on a design The batteries take out the variable load for a dual-fuelled gas ferry for Italian ferry which means that the gas engines, which operator Caronte & Tourist. The 133 m are quite vulnerable to dynamic loads, are double-ended ferry will have capacity for running under ideal conditions.” 290 cars on two vehicle decks, and 1,500 Including newbuilding orders, there are passengers. The propulsion will be based more passenger ships in the LNG-powered Hamilton Jet Feb 2018_Hamilton Jet 16/04/2018 11:22 Page 1


fleet than any other type of vessel. Sister title LNG World Shipping’s review of LNGfuelled ships worldwide, which breaks the fleet into four segments, shows that as of 1 May 2018 there were 41 such passenger ships in service, compared to 40 a year ago, and 42 on order, up from 32. There are 22 LNG-fuelled ferries on order, with the orderbook for these ferries stretching to 2020. In terms of vessel numbers, the passenger ship total of in-service and on-order vessels is 24% greater than the next largest segment, tankers and bulk carriers.

Building in China

Aside from alternative fuel, another upcoming trend in the ferry market is the emergence of China as a builder of ferries. Booked-up European shipyards and the lower cost of building vessels in China are drivers of this trend. Indeed, Chinese shipyards claim the second largest chunk of the global ferry orderbook with 37


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ferries, according to BRL Consultants’ data. It is only just beaten by the USA, which has 41 ferries on its orderbook. Major European ferries being built in China include Viking Line’s new LNGfuelled ferry at Xiamen Shipbuilding, and Stene RoRo is building four gas-ready ropax at AVIC Weihai Shipyard Co, Ltd in China. Both projects highlight the trend for building passenger vessels in China with the co-operation of European naval architects and suppliers. For example, Finland-headquartered Deltamarin has designed Viking Line’s newbuild and has inked a contract with Xiamen Shipbuilding for engineering and construction support services. Deltamarin has used its consultancy services to support Xiamen in streamlining its production, so that it is suitable for building ropax vessels. It is also involved with the building of Stena Line’s vessels, being built by AVIC Shipyard, providing both design services for the vessels as well as shipyard consultancy services.

Ferry investment boost in UK and Asia The UK and Ireland ferry industry is gearing up for growth with more C than £1Bn (US$1.3Bn) of investments M announced for new ships, port and service facilities in the next four years, according to Y figures released by Discover Ferries at the CM start of this year. MY Discover Ferries members are: Brittany Ferries, Caledonian MacBrayne, DFDS, CY Irish Ferries, Isle of Man Steam Packet Company, Isles of Scilly Steamship CMY Group, MBNA Thames Clippers, P&O Ferries, K Red Funnel, Stena Line and Wightlink. Discover Ferries director Emma Batchelor said the figures reflected the sustained popularity of ferry travel. “More than 39M passenger journeys* are made by ferry to UK islands, the Isle of Man and Ireland, France, Spain and Holland [a year],” she said, “and those sustained numbers are enabling ferry operators to invest with confidence in new ships and new routes… In the next four years the scale of this investment will see another step change in service for travellers.” Investment in the ferry industry is also expected to grow in Asia, driven by increased demand for a newer, safer and more energy-

efficient fleet. As an example, the Philippines Government is planning to implement a requirement to replace older passenger vessels as a means of improving the safety of operations. The initiative is expected soon, and the age of vessels is expected to be 25 years old and above. Once passed, it is expected that the Government will give ferry operators about three years in which to meet their obligations under the mandate. 2_Tanker_W124xH190_EN-.pdf 1 2018/02/13 14:53:08 Philippines ferry operator 2GO head

of shipmanagement Eduardo Dela Cruz told Marine Propulsion: “The market is growing, the demand for better ships is there, and there is pressure from regulators, class and the Government to modernise and upgrade fleets.” MP *Figures from Ferrystat compiled by independent research agency, IRN Research, based on returns supplied by Discover ferry operator members



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Siemens adapted battery and propulsion technology powers the world’s first fully battery-propelled car ferry Ampere

Rise of the electric ferry E

arlier this year, the Norwegian parliament announced that it had adopted a resolution to halt emissions from cruise ships and ferries in the Norwegian world heritage fjords as soon as technically possible, and no later than 2026. Operators must conform or risk financial ruin, and this is resulting in a scramble towards battery and hybrid power as a standard means of propulsion. Siemens head of offshore and marine center Torstein Sole-Gärtner told Marine Propulsion: “In the near future most ferries [in Norway] will include some kind of energy storage, and we also think that by 2020 there will be 60 ferries that are hybrid or electric in Norway.” The development of battery ferries in Norway is expected to drive similar developments in the marine and ferry sector further afield. Mr Sole-Gärtner said “We see energy storage as very important for offshore vessels


Norway’s tough environmental legislation is spearheading the drive towards batterypowered ferries, and the technology will likely prove valuable across the wider shopping industry, says Rebecca Moore

and offshore platforms, we have high expectations for this market. One of our major plans is to take the electric propulsion and battery technology developed in ferries and take this globally from Norway, to help develop the electric propulsion marine sector.” Siemens is opening a fully automated and digitalised plant in Norway in Q3 2018 that will develop and manufacture energy storage technologies for both marine and offshore oil and gas applications. Indeed, the company has been at the forefront of developing electric propulsion and battery technology for the ferry industry. It provided

the propulsion and battery solution for Ampere in 2015, the world’s first fully batterypowered car ferry. Mr SoleGärtner said that the solution was based on technology that Siemens had developed for the offshore industry. With the change from diesel propulsion to battery, Norwegian ship owner Norled has reduced the cost of fuel by 60% on Ampere. Other recent contracts include two new batterypowered ferries for Fjord1 (announced in 2016) and the electric solution for FinFerries’ battery-powered car ferry Elektra, delivered last year. Most prominently, Siemens is

providing the electric propulsion and energy storage solution, management and automation for Color Line’s new battery hybrid vessel, which will be the largest battery hybrid plugin ferry in the world when delivered next year. Siemens is using its BlueDrive PlusC propulsion system and the new BlueVault lithium-ion energy storage solution, which aims to reduce emissions and risk for offshore and marine deployment. Mr Sole-Gärtner said “One advantage is that it allows integration of the energy storage system in an efficient way without a lot of equipment.” The system also uses a direct current rather than an alternating current, which makes it “fit for purpose for use with a battery system” and it works more efficiently with a battery system compared to an alternating system. One challenge Siemens must overcome in the installation is the sheer size of Color Hybrid. “The propulsion

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

24 | FERRY SYSTEMS electric propulsion

system and batteries are larger than those usually deployed in a ferry, but the technology is scalable, so it can meet different needs and be used across small and large ferries,” explained Mr Sole-Gärtner. Fully electric Future of the Fjords Another very innovative allelectric ferry is The Fjords’ Future of the Fjords, delivered in April this year. Marine Propulsion was invited to visit the ferry and hear from key players. Future of the Fjords is the first carbon-fibre vessel in the world to be fully electric. It is also the first vessel of its kind to offer completely emissionfree transport through the Western Norwegian UNESCO World Heritage-listed region. The ferry is a sister vessel to Vision of the Fjords, which was built by the same shipyard Brødrene Aa, and delivered in 2016. But the latest vessel goes one step further as it is fully electric; in contrast, Vision of the Fjords is an electric-diesel hybrid. It also heralds another first – The Fjords has developed a unique charging solution called Power Dock, in partnership with Brødrene Aa. This 40 m long, 5 m wide floating glass fibre dock will sit in the water at Gudvangen, housing a 2.4 MWh battery pack. This is an intrinsic component, fundamental

to overcoming the biggest challenge in building the all-electric ferry. The Fjords managing director Rolf Sandvik explained to the press assembled on the ferry that the company thought it could use ‘plug and play’ to connect to the local grid. But the local community supplies Oslo with almost all its electrical power, meaning grid capacity is limited; there was not enough to provide the charging power needed by Future of the Fjords. Mr Sandvik continued “[the grid would have allowed us to] charge from less capacity and do one trip a day but to make a profit, we need to do five trips a day. We thought that there would be no issue when it came to storing electricity, due to the fact that the grid supports nearly the whole east of the country.” This was a huge concern, as by this point The Fjords had signed the contract for the new ferry. To resolve the problem, the ferry operator and shipyard came up with Power Dock. It charges steadily throughout the day via connection to the local grid network. The innovative solution allows the vessel to efficiently and cost effectively ‘refill’ in just 20 minutes. Future plans show the great potential of Power Dock. It has a mobile infrastructure, so The Fjords can tow it to other ports if needed. Mr Sandvik added:

“It might have something for different businesses too, as we see a future where it could be a holding area for energy for cruise ships, electric bikes and cars.” Westcon Power & Automation provided the energy storage and complete system integration for Future of the Fjords. This included its e-SEAMatic Blue energy management system, e-SEAMatic integrated automation system, e-SEA drive power conversion and two e-SEA drive electrical motors at 450 kWh each. There was also an e-SEA manoeuvring control system and the company provided the main switchboards. Westcon manager of sales and business development Frode Skaar said that the solution was “tailor-made to the vessel to make it low in weight”. He emphasised that it was important to consider all components of the solution when putting together the energy storage. The batteries came from LG Chem and were adapted for maritime use by ZEM. Battery notation boost The vessel also highlights the strides made by class when it comes to battery notations, with DNV GL classing the vessel. When construction started on Vision of the Fjords in 2014, there were no defined class rules governing the use of batteries in this kind of


Power Dock is a unique charging solution developed for battery-powered Future of the Fjords


vessel. In 2012 DNV GL published the world’s first battery-class rules. These were tentative because technology was still developing. In 2015, the society published a more consistent and prescriptive rule set. And last year another update was published, based on the knowledge acquired so far and aligned with Norwegian Maritime Authority’s requirements. These rules consist of two notations: Future of the Fjords has been built to both. DNV GL principal engineer and battery expert Sverre Eriksen said “The first notation is concerned about the safety of the batteries on board; the requirements are how to protect [the] vessel from a battery fire and about electrical safety.” The second notation, the battery power notation, is about having control of the capacity of the batteries. “You need proper management and to know the health of the battery and test it periodically to prove that the capacity of the battery is correct,” Mr Eriksen said. The vessel needs to take care of redundancy requirements and part of this is having two batteries in separate battery rooms. With so much innovation feeding through to the wider maritime sector, it may well be the case that Future of the Fjords could easily have been named Future of the industry. MP

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electric propulsion FERRY SYSTEMS | 27

Stena Line introduces battery power Stena Line will use a self-contained energy storage system on the battery retrofit of Stena Jutlandica. Rebecca Moore got the lowdown from the company behind the system


tena Line is retrofitting a ferry with a self-contained battery storage system that will boost its energy efficiency on a difficult trading route. The batteries will be installed on Stena Jutlandica, which operates between Gothenburg and Frederikshavn, and will be used for port berthing operations by Q3 this year. The battery project has commenced and will be completed in stages. In step one, battery power will be switched on for bow thrusters and manoeuvring when berthing in port. In step two, an extended battery operation will be connected to the propellers, meaning Stena Jutlandica can be operated on electricity for about 10 nautical miles, equal to the distance between Gothenburg and Vinga Lighthouse. In step three, battery capacity will be further expanded and the vessel will operate about 50 nautical miles on electricity, corresponding to the distance between Gothenburg and Frederikshavn. The objective of accomplishing this in several steps is to test and gather knowledge about electrical operation along the way. If the project is successful, other vessels in Stena Line’s fleet of 38 vessels may also be retrofitted with batteries. Trident Maritime Systems (formerly Callenberg Technology Group) is providing the self-contained energy storage system on the battery retrofit. The unit will be located on the weather deck and can supply up to 3,000 kW instantaneously. It has an energy capacity of approximately 1,000 kWh.


The solution will contain all components needed, including battery banks, converters, transformers and control systems. Peripheral equipment for safety, cooling and performance monitoring is also included to meet requirements from classification societies and authorities. Trident Maritime Systems director of sales and marketing, electrical energy management Per-Erik Larsson said that using battery power was particularly helpful

for Stena Jutlandica’s operating route. In this case, he said the power consumption for accommodation on board the vessel was typically 800-900 kW. “But if the vessel needs to run bow thrusters, this goes up to 2,000-3,000 kW. This is when batteries can provide the extra power. Otherwise, to store enough energy to cater for this, the operator needs to run the auxiliary engines on idle as a spinning reserve. “This creates wear and tear, a lot of emissions and increases fuel consumption.” He said the batteries would normally be charged by shore power, but charging on a voyage was also an option. “If you run a genset on 800 kW, this is not efficient – the most efficient way is to run it at 80-90% of maximum capacity. In this way the surplus power can be used to charge the batteries.” Mr Larsson said “If you optimise the size of batteries and components, there is no doubt that this is an economically viable solution for many ships, especially ones in narrow waters where you need to have a lot of extra power available.” Mr Larsson highlighted the benefits of using the self-contained system. “There are some clear advantages of a containerised solution: it is modular and can be moved to other trades and vessels.” It also means that the container can be prepared and tested on shore, making installation on the vessel quicker and easier, while simplifying maintenance. MP Stena Jutlandica is being retrofitted with a self-contained battery storage solution. (Credit: Jean-Pierre Bovin)

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018


HVAC innovations lift energy savings


erry operators are realising that energy efficiency among their HVAC systems has never been more important than it is in today’s competitive market. And while ferries remain slightly behind the cruise market in terms of using the most sophisticated HVAC systems, the sector is catching up as more large ferries and cruise ferries are built. This is the opinion of Koja Marine director Esko Nousiainen, who said "The bigger the ship, the more energy that is being used”, making energy efficiency more of a priority. He added that ferry operators were increasingly concerned with passenger comfort, meaning that their interest in HVAC systems has increased. Koja Marine is providing the HVAC system for the new Molslinjen Ferry being built at Rauma Marine Construction. Mr Nousiainen said “The design is very reliable and easy to use.” Previously, the company provided the entire HVAC system to Viking Line’s Viking Grace. The contract included air conditioning for all passenger and crew spaces and cargo space ventilation, together with automation design. Energy efficiency was a key priority; the system included energy conserving frequency converters, direct driven fans and nanotech sorption wheels for cooling recovery. “As well as being very energy efficient, the system was very quiet. There is very little noise on the vessel and they did not want the HVAC system to spoil that,” he said. Mr Nousiainen said that to create such a quiet system, the company overcame the challenge of using very low pressure in the system to create very quiet cabins. Koja also provided the HVAC system for Tallink’s LNG-fuelled Megastar highspeed ferry, delivered at the start of last year. Again, energy efficiency was key and a variable air volume system was selected to make it as energy efficient as possible.

Magnus Hansson told Marine Propulsion. To this end, it uses an advanced process involving several algorithms to qualify the data it collects from HVAC equipment. Another important part of this process is to make sure all parts of HVAC work as one seamless system. “It is very easy for sub-systems to counteract each other, as very often different parts are provided by different suppliers,” Mr Hansson said. "Therefore, smooth co-operation between the different systems is of great importance.” Callenberg’s accumulated HVAC energy savings have hit 300M kW hours annually. “Every year, we achieve an improvement on digitalisation and improve return on investment,” said Mr Hansson.


Halton Marine has been developing a completely new HVAC technology that promises to provide substantial savings in ventilation lifecycle costs. The cabin HVAC solution, called

Big data and new technology are driving the development of HVAC solutions for ferries, says Rebecca Moore

CaBeam, uses chilled beam technology as opposed to the usual fan coil. While it has been used on land in hospitals and hotels, this is the first time it has been applied in the marine sector. Halton Marine director Sami Piirainen explained the benefits to Marine Propulsion: “There are not so many components in the product compared to fan coils. For example, there are no filters that require changing, or a fan with electrical consumption and maintenance needs.” The efficient mixing of the chilled beam ventilation system results in uniform air quality inside the cabin. Supply air is diffused from linear slots on the product. Chilled beams use the primary air to induce and recirculate the room air through the heat exchanger of the unit, resulting in high cooling capacities and excellent thermal conditions in the space without a fan. The CaBeam concept was launched at SMM 2016 and has been undergoing cabin integration testing. It will be launched later in 2018. MP


Meanwhile, Callenberg Technology Group is focused on “turning big data to smart data”, HVAC marine conversion director

Koja Marine provided a variable air volume system to make Tallink-operated Megastar‘s HVAC solution as energy efficient as possible

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018


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30 | FERRY SYSTEMS stabilisers

Beyond stability: energy efficiency drives innovation in stabiliser tech Energy efficient and environmentally friendly technology is being applied to stabiliser solutions aimed at ferries and cruise ships, by Rebecca Moore

SKF's Dynamic Stabilizer Cover has been designed to reduce drag, and therefore fuel consumption


very time we discuss newbuild projects, we face green and environmentally friendly topics. This is the main focus for a ferry and cruise operator.” So said SKF director of fin stabiliser and steering gears Christopher Schnäckel, a man who knows a lot about the industry and how current trends are shaping future plans. The company is applying fuel and environmental efficiency to its products. At the beginning of last year it launched its Dynamic Stabilizer Cover (DSC), designed to reduce drag and improve the efficiency of passenger vessels equipped with SKF retractable fin stabilisers type S and Z. When a vessel is in motion, the fin box opening in the side of the hull creates turbulence, increasing drag on the vessel. “The fin box opening causes a lot of drag and therefore creates a lot of fuel consumption,” Mr Schnäckel explained. “We wanted to close these openings to support the operator in reducing propulsion power, so being more environmentally friendly and reducing the fuel consumption.”

cushions are then deflated by the water pressure outside the hull, creating room for the fin’s movement. When deployment or housing is complete, the cushions can be re-inflated. Control of the cover is fully integrated into the stabiliser fin control systems, requiring no additional action by the crew. SKF said that closing the hull openings reduces drag by up to 90%, leading to a 1% to 2% reduction in fuel consumption each time the cushions are inflated. The product will be tested by a large cruise operator this year and Mr Schnäckel said that he hoped by the end of 2018 it would be ready to go to market. The company also has another product in the pipeline: Eco Mode is being launched at SMM this year, with the aim of making stabilisers more intelligent and reducing fuel consumption. “Two big stabiliser fins in operation cause drag, but crew are not sure if they need one or two fins in operation. Our software detects when water is calm and sends a message to say only one fin is needed,”

The electricity produced [by GSIRE] could be stored on a battery, which could be used in case of a sudden loss of power

The DSC uses two specially shaped air cushions, fitted to the top and bottom of the fin box with small steel rails. In normal operation, the cushions are inflated using compressed air from the vessel’s existing pneumatic systems. Inflated, the cushions form a cover over the fin box opening. When the stabiliser fin is to be extended or retracted, air is released from the cushions by opening the valve. The

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

explained Mr Schnäckel. The product also gives information on when the fin angle can be reduced, therefore saving energy consumption. Usually the fin angle is rotated to plus or minus 18 degrees. But the Eco Mode software indicates when the fins can be angled at lesser degrees, down to five degrees. The system is currently being trialled on a ferry. SKF is also


stabilisers FERRY SYSTEMS | 31

using Eco Mode to reduce the electricity used by the stabilisers’ hydraulic power units (HPU). “Using more intelligence, we can see when the stabiliser is not being used heavily, therefore one pump of each HPU can be shut down, reducing electricity consumption,” said Mr Schnäckel.

She added: “It is the only stabiliser that is producing added value [through the creation of electricity].”

A solution on ice

Creating sparks

Elsewhere, GEPS Techno has also applied an energyefficient technology to its stabiliser solution: Green Stabiliser Integrated with Recovery of Energy (GSIRE) is a passive anti-rolling tank for hulls. It consists of a tank filled with water that is positioned on the beam of the vessel. Vortex chambers are placed on either side and the water follows the lead of the chambers, stabilising the vessel. The GSIRE produces electricity from the waterflow, of up to 250 kW capacity, via turbines in the vortex chambers that are turned by the water. The return on investment is estimated at five to seven years. The GSIRE was retrofitted from an existing flume tank space below the bridge deck on research oceanographic vessel Thalassa in September 2016 in a pilot project. Its sea trial result is approximately 50% roll reduction and 90% at peak period. GEPS Techno installed two 15 kW capacity turbines. GEPS Techno commercial director Audrie Jordan said “We are not yet producing enough electricity to reduce fuel consumption on Thalassa, but it is generating electricity to the main switchboard.” She added that there was the possibility to store the electricity produced on a battery, which could be used in case of a sudden loss of power. The company is working with Bureau Veritas (BV) to certify this. The switchboard electrical


Audrie Jordan (GEPS Techno): The stabiliser is producing added value through the creation of electricity

installation has already been certified by BV. GEPS Techno used its oscillating bench to test at a representative scale of reality, to analyse the results and to then test the chosen solution at sea on Thalassa. Ms Jordan said that it revealed stabilisation performance was improved by the presence of the turbines used to generate electricity. She said that this was because the turbine keeps water in vortex chambers longer, allowing better control of the flow of the water. She also explained that GEPS Techno’s technology is in competition with fins [that are outside the vessel] in the passenger ship stabilisation market. “These fins are deployed at sea and are efficient with high speeds. We have studied the case with one of our cruise line customers to combine smaller fins that would be less expensive [than larger ones], with our system, so that the vessel is stabilised at zero speed and high speeds and to limit the costs.”

Rolls-Royce launched a new type of stabilisation at rest solution this year that is particularly attractive to iceclass expedition cruise ships. The company has been supplying stabilisation at rest solutions - providing roll damping when the vessel is at anchor or stationary since 2006, mainly to the yacht market. Rolls-Royce Dunfermline head of sales Paul Crawford told Marine Propulsion “Part of the trailing edge is exposed when retracted and gives an added bilge keel effect. Then the fin is deployed and works actively both at rest and underway.” Rolls-Royce’s new stabilisation at rest product consists of a swept fin that is totally housed when retracted, as opposed to having the trailing edge of the fin exposed. “This is more important for iceclass vessels, where they do not want the fin exposed in the ice when retracted,” Mr Crawford said. It is also the first five-sided fin and provides more performance with less rolling or pitching, according to the company.

Rolls-Royce has several contracts for the new style of fin, which include expedition ships and a retrofit for a vessel conversion, while Poseidon Expedition’s 114-passenger vessel Sea Spirit will be fitted with new retractable fin stabilisers for installation in 2019. Rolls-Royce has also agreed a cruise contract for Hurtigruten’s newbuilds. It is supplying a package of equipment, including its Aquarius 100 stabilisers. Current ferry projects include vessels being built in the Caspian region, Finland, Poland, India and Scotland. As stabiliser technology develops, Mr Crawford said he believed that instead of using the current hydraulic power units, electric motors would become a way of powering stabilisers. “There is less maintenance needed and less equipment and I see this used especially within ferries in the future, as many are becoming more electric.” He added that while Rolls-Royce did not offer such a product yet, the company had looked into this technology Despite the maturity of the stabiliser product, innovations keep coming and energy efficiency will feature heavily in future releases. MP

Rolls-Royce’s new stabilisation at rest product is a swept fin that is totally housed when retracted

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018


G95 series gains momentum within mega container ships


he news that MAN Diesel & Turbo has won a major order from the Geneva-based carrier, Mediterranean Shipping Company (MSC) for a series of 11 23,000 TEU-capacity container ships, underscores the popularity of its new engine design. Each of these newbuildings, six of which will be built by Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI) and five by Daewoo Shipping Marine Engineering (DSME), will be powered by MAN B&W 11G95ME main engines. The contract in itself is significant and highlights the tremendous success of this relatively new engine type over the past two years. There are now 44 container ships in service with G95 series engines, all delivered since 2016, and a total of 88 orders placed. MAN Diesel & Turbo has carved out a significant share of the larger container-ship market within a remarkably short space of time. Discussing the concept, MAN vice president sales and promotions two-stroke business Bjarne Foldager said: “This is an engine that has been developed and built very much with the needs of slow steaming container-line operations in mind. The G-type engine’s longer stroke means it offers lower revolutions per minute and combined with an optimised engine design and the use of

a larger propeller, this means much lower fuel consumption and reduced CO2 emissions.” The MSC ships will be powered by a 95-bore engine, which is the largest available in the G-series programme. Indeed, the 11-cylinder version of this engine type that will feature on the new 23,000 TEU ships will be among the largest marine engines in the world. Only the 12-cylinder, 95-bore engine design within the G-series is bigger, and this has yet to feature within a container-ship newbuilding project. Mr Foldager added: “These are big, powerful engines

that have been optimised to achieve the lowest possible fuel consumption, which is what MSC specified as a priority. The owner wanted a combination of power and efficiency to achieve the minimum unit transport cost per container, and we have been able to deliver an engine design that fully meets that objective.” While MAN Diesel and Turbo has a long reference list for the G95 series engines, including a number already installed on board MSC ships, the operational experience of this engine type is relatively short, going back only two years.

MAN Diesel & Turbo has secured a significant order from MSC, underlining the market's acceptance of its new-generation container ship engine design, writes Rebecca Moore

Mr Foldager said: “The engines we will be delivering to MSC are based on a proven design and will not feature any major changes from units delivered to date. Based on the operational data we have so far, these engines are performing well in the field and are achieving the efficiency levels we anticipated. But, of course, we are continually looking to improve the design and performance of these engines and we will be making some minor adjustments based on operational experience.” MAN Diesel & Turbo anticipates no significant

The G95 series main engine has proved to be popular with container-ship owners, thanks to a design that has been optimised for slow steaming operations

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018



complexities in integrating the G95 series engines into the new 23,000 TEU container ships designed for MSC, although installing any engine weighing 2,210 tonnes, as these do, does not come without its challenges. Mr Foldager said: “The expertise of the enginebuilders in South Korea, Hyundai Heavy Industries and Doosan Engine, which will construct engines for SHI and DSME respectively, is critical. Experts from MAN Diesel and Turbo, supported by the engine teams in Copenhagen, will be embedded at their factories during the manufacturing process in South Korea to ensure that the engines produced fully match MSC’s requirements.”

G95 series in contention

MAN Diesel & Turbo is currently working on a number of other large container-ship projects. Hyundai Merchant Marine is seeking to build a series of 23,000 TEU and 14,000 TEU vessels, and the Copenhagenbased company is working with South Korean engine builders

on proposals for these ships. The G95 series is being suggested for this project and others being worked on for Greek, Taiwanese and Asian shipowners. Enquiries from the container-ship market currently include requests for dual-fuel engines that can run on both conventional bunker fuel oils and LNG. MAN Diesel and Turbo can offer a comparable G95MEGI engine type, that is fully compliant with the global sulphur emissions regulations coming up. Mr Foldager said: “Many shipowners are evaluating whether they should build ships with dual-fuel ME-GI engines. The advantage of the G95 series option is that the ME-GI version is based on the same combustion technology, so owners can be reassured that if they opt for G95ME-GI engines they will get the same fuel efficiency levels.” MAN Diesel & Turbo will officially launch its LGIP engine range later this year, which will run on propane gas. The company has already received the first order for this engine type, outside of the container-shipping sector, but

the technology is considered well suited for large newgeneration container ships as well. “The advantage of using propane is that it is readily available and the supply-chain infrastructure is less complex,” noted Mr Foldager. The company is also upgrading its offer for smaller container-ship types, including those engaged in feeder trades. The company is rolling out its MK 10 engine range for this market, available in four sizes from 60 to 90 bore, which offers significantly lower fuel consumption levels than the earlier generation MK 9 engines. The new MK 10 engines feature cylinders positioned closer together, allowing the overall size and weight to be reduced, while new types of connecting rods for the pistons introduce greater flexibility into the design. “We are confident that the container-shipping market will embrace the benefits of the new MK 10 platform,” said Mr Foldager. “It represents a simpler design with fewer components, lower total weight and reduced fuel consumption. As such it offers a significant improvement for container-ship owners.”

Wärtsilä to supply CMA CGM box ships A revolutionary series of nine LNG-powered, 22,000 TEU container vessels ordered by French carrier CMA CGM from China State Shipbuilding Corporation will feature new technology from Wärtsilä. The company has recently developed and received orders for LNG-fuelled auxiliary gensets for the new series, which has been designed inhouse by CMA Ship Solutions. Each of the ships, due for delivery in 2020, will have six W34DF gensets installed on board and the contract is described by Wärtsilä as being a significant step for the containershipping industry. Wärtsilä product director Patrik Wägar said: “By running on LNG compared with diesel you can reduce NOx emissions by 85% and CO2 by


25%, significantly reducing the environmental footprint of the operation. The global sulphur cap in 2020 will clearly change things and will lead to a shift to LNG as fuel, but hybrid solutions are also in the spotlight. For container vessels the W34DF option will create added value with the ability to add gensets as a back-up for hotel loads in combination with single main engines, to reduce both energy consumption and CO2 emissions.” The W34DF engine, based on the wellproven Wärtsilä 32 engine type developed in the 1990s, has already been specified for LNG carriers, offshore support vessels and shuttle tanker newbuildings. This is, however, the first time the technology has been specified within a new container-ship project. MP

Snapshot CV

Bjarne Foldager (MAN & Diesel Turbo) Mr Foldager has been vice president of sales and promotion, twostroke engines, MAN Diesel & Turbo, since September 2016. His career started as a shipping trainee at Maersk Line, where he spent one year in the reefer and terminal efficiency department, and his second shipping trainee year in operations. He spent 25 years at A.P. Moller - Maersk Group, with jobs spanning Maersk Line fleet operations and various positions within Maersk Tankers. His later roles included global head of operations for Maersk Tankers between 2014 and 2016, where he was responsible for all commercial operational matters for Maersk Tankers globally. Previous to this, he was managing director of Maersk Malaysia and before that, A.P. Moller Singapore Pte managing director and head of Maersk crew management.

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

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The engine that can run on just about anything

MAN’s ME-GIE re-writes the rulebook when it comes to two-stroke propulsion, writes Selwyn Parker


he GasChem Orca - a 28,580-tonne, 188 m chemical carrier started sailing nearly a year ago between Houston and Teeside, bearing a load of semi-refrigerated ethylene and ethane. Technically a liquefied ethylene gas (LEG) carrier, the Orca is an original vessel in several ways, but its engine is particularly so. Known as ME-GIE (for gas-injection ethane), it is a world first that sets new parameters in twostroke propulsion. Designed and manufactured by Mitsui and MAN, it is the first gasinjection two-stroke that can run on ethane. Several years in development, the ME-GIE is an important advance on the gas-injection engine (MEGI) concept that has sold in the hundreds of units. And intriguingly, it can run on just about anything. As MAN Diesel & Turbosales manager Rene Sejer Laursen said at the launch of the GasChem Orca: “This development is particularly exciting as it opens up the prospect for multi-fuel combustion, including the combustion of methane, waste gas and volatile organic compounds.” In practical terms, that means the vessel can run on a mixture of LPG and


GasChem Orca, powered by an ethane-burning MAN engine (Credit: Peter Quaade)

methane or ethane; from an environmental viewpoint, the latter is a particularly attractive fuel for shipowners because its emissions profile is similar to methane, while containing negligible sulphur and comparatively lower CO2. So the power unit’s ability to burn waste gases is of considerable interest for a

maritime industry looking for cheaper forms of fuel. Waste gases can include anything from light hydrocarbons to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are given off crude oil when it is stored or being loaded. If VOCs can be captured and put to good use instead of being lost, that is clearly a positive from

“Orca and Beluga [have an] average speed of 14.5 knots and a maximum speed of 21.2 knots, fast enough for an LEG carrier”

every standpoint. As MAN pointed out, a VOC-burning engine suggests numerous long-term possibilities. “It opens the door for new applications for the engine in, for example, shuttle tankers or off-shore applications such as floating production storage and offloading vessels where VOCs are abundant,” explained Mr. Laursen. There are now two of these vessels sailing between Teeside and Houston; the Orca joined a sister ship, the GasChem Beluga - launched in late 2016 - and their performance has attracted considerable interest. Owned by Norway’s Ocean Yield, which specialises in long-term charters, the LEG carriers have been handed over on a 15-year bareboat charter to Germany’s Hartmann Group, which in turn sub-chartered them to Middle East group Sabic Petrochemicals. The vessels have now been in action for a combined two and a half years. Although the Orca and Beluga are not designed to tear up the oceans, the engines can push them at an average speed of 14.5 knots and a maximum speed of 21.2 knots, fast enough for a LEG carrier. MAN did not provide sales

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018


figures, but the signs are that the ME-GIE has a promising future. Barely had the engine been released before the manufacturer received orders for eight units.

Ongoing developments

MAN’s ethane-burning engine is a prime example of the efforts enginebuilders and suppliers are putting into two-strokes. Earlier this year, Switzerland-based Winterthur Gas & Diesel, a specialist in two-stroke technology, unveiled an advanced diagnostics system that it has been developing with Greek ship-performance specialist, Propulsion Analytics. Designed for two-stroke diesel and dual-fuel engines, the system is known as Wide and delivers realtime data to the crew that, Winterthur said, “will provide live trouble-shooting and diagnostic advice”. As Winterthur Gas & Diesel vice-president for operations Andrew Stump explained, the system will “optimise engine performance in all its aspects, [such as] fuel consumption, power and emissions”. Not only will the crew see the data, so will the office

back on terra firma. Mr. Stump added: “[The diagnostic system] will be able to predict malfunctions…. in order to prevent failure as well as fix technical problems faster and more economically.” According to Winterthur, a prototype has been running since 2017 and this year the system will be progressively installed on Winterthur’s entire portfolio of two-strokes. Winterthur told Marine Propulsion that it already has orders to retrofit Wide on 55 ships during 2018. As Wärtsilä said in a statement in March this year, “pistons are the footsoldiers of most energy generation systems… and the wear and tear on them is excessive, pressures are huge, and tolerances are tight.” A piston can be 1 m in diameter and weigh up to 1,400 kg; a massive rotating mass that is inevitably prone to breakdown. In another example of the constant refinement of marine engines, Wärtsilä has unveiled a means of doubling the functioning life of pistons on two-stroke engines. After being tested on container vessels for up to 15,000 running hours,

LNG carrier Audace, powered by a Winterthur two-stroke engine

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

Wärtsilä and QuantiServ - its global maintenance and repair subsidiary - have developed a new coating and reconditioning system that can double the working hours of their piston heads. Known as QS 50K, the system can add a minimum 50,000 hours in running time, compared with 24,000 hours in the case of standard chromium-6 plating. The laser-controlled process can be done in a day according to the company: “This means less downtime and huge cost savings for customers,” said QuantiServmanager for workshop standards and tool development Peter Blok. In fact, tests show that a QS 50K-coated piston can outlive a brand new one, according to Wärtsilä. As a bonus, the system can also be applied to non-Wärtsilä piston heads. Returning to the LEG carriers, their innovations do not start and end with the engines. Both vessels feature space-saving Star-Trilobe tanks – three cylinders combined into one – that give an extra 30% of space compared with standard bi-lobe tanks. As a result, the vessels boast a

cargo volume of nearly 38,000 m3, making them the world’s largest LEG carriers. The family owned Hartmann group, a specialist in gas tankers, also developed a new kind of low-resistance hull shape for these vessels that makes their engines more effective. The superstructure is located at the bow and the engine at the stern, which Hartmann says makes for a highly efficient distribution of weight and achieves a significant reduction in ballast water. Hartmann also designed a wave-piercing entry, dubbed the “svelte bow”.

Dual-fuel propulsion

Encouraged by the reaction to the ME-GIE power units, MAN is pushing on with two-stroke development. In March, it announced the building of a new test-engine facility in South Korea in collaboration with the engine and machinery division of Hyundai Heavy Industries, with the purpose of advancing dual-fuel propulsion. According to Lars Juliussen, head of MAN’s diesel and turbo research centre in Copenhagen, the facility will focus on “environmentally friendly, costcompetitive gas engines and related equipment”. The centre will start up in early 2019 and MAN is particularly interested in developing pump vapourisers, a new technology that pressurises and vapourises LNG fuel to the exact pressure and temperature required by gas-injection engines. Launched recently by MAN’s Copenhagen base, the pump vapouriser also makes fuel-gas supply system installations more compact, which reduces cost and weight. With so much action and interest in the sector, the gasinjection engine is rapidly becoming one of the success stories of marine propulsion. MP



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Batteries included: hybrid four-strokes revolutionise propulsion When the cruise ship industry adopts hybridpowered propulsion, it is a clear indication that the future lies in batteries married to hydrocarbonfuelled engine systems, writes Selwyn Parker

Wärtsilä HY: Such propulsion solutions could represent a significant percentage of all contracted ships in the next decade


orwegian operator Hurtigruten signed a contract this year with RollsRoyce Marine to start a massive retrofit job on its fleet, that will see at least six cruise ships converted to LNG and electric power. Soon, Hurtigruten will launch the first of two expedition ships that can run for up to one and a half hours purely on batteries. Commenting on the project, Hurtigruten chief executive Daniel Skjeldam said: “This is an investment for the future, and a historic day for us, for the environment and for the whole, long Norwegian coastline. The combination of battery packs with the most environmentally friendly and effective gas engines in the market will provide a huge gain for the environment.” Mr Skjeldam has run the numbers. According to Hurtigruten, fuel consumption and emissions on the


expedition ships will fall by about 20%. Rolls-Royce has supplied the power plants – four electrically adapted, mediumspeed Bergen-class B33:45 engines – for the expedition vessels. “In the next few years batteries will drive larger vessels for longer distances,” says Rolls-Royce vice-president of power electric systems John Roger Nesje. And Scandinavia could be the catalyst. The pressure from environmentally conscious authorities in the region is becoming so great that most ferries in these waters will likely be updated with cleaner propulsion in the near future. Norway is a case in point. DNV GL senior consultant for environmental technology and compliance Martin Christian Wold predicted in a technical article released in May: “DNV GL expects no new LNG-fuelled vessels to be ordered for the Norwegian trade. In fact, some

existing LNG ferries will be retrofitted for electrical or hybrid propulsion.” Wold’s conclusion is based on a tender for new ferries launched recently by the county of Hordaland, famous for its many fjords and islands. The tender was framed in a way that put a high weighting of 30% on clean propulsion; thus it had the unexpected effect of only attracting bids for all-electric ferries. “We expected some degree of electrification on most ferry connections but we were surprised about the high degree of electrification we ended up with,” says Karl Inge Nygard, leader of the legal department in Skyss, the agency that organises public transport in the county. The result of the tender is that more than US$1Bn will be spent on fully electric vessels and other low-emission onboard technology, in the form of automatic mooring systems, and onshore where buffer batteries will be installed at ports. The tender has also put pressure on the operators of existing ferries in Norway – and inevitably in other Scandinavian countries – to cut emissions as quickly as possible. In Hordaland, as classification society DNV GL reports, there are 20 ferries with an average age of 29 years that between them “emit as many noxious fumes as all the buses of the county combined”. Because current ferry contracts expire between 2018 and 2020, most of these operators will have to start putting aside a retrofit budget. It is unlikely, however, that Norway’s ferry fleet will go all-electric overnight. In a

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018


technical paper released late last year titled “Hybrid propulsion is part of the future for RoPax ferries”, Wärtsilä noted that hybridpowered ferries, especially ropax vessels that require more grunt, will figure prominently among the 30 predicted additions to the fleet over the next few years. As the company explained though, these will be plug-in hybrid ferries.

Driving four-stroke

The rapidly accelerating shift to four-stroke hybrid propulsion is a product of several forces that are spreading outwards from specifically regulated areas, such as Norway’s fjords. Quite apart from emissions,clattering diesels are becoming unpopular in a growing number of ports, natural reserves, special marinas and other low-noise areas. But the shift to quieter and cleaner four-strokes could not happen without advances in battery technology. Switzerland-based battery maker Leclanché has, for instance, devised increasingly high-capacity and versatile diesel-electric systems for a variety of ships, including workboats such as tugs and cargo vessels, where the extra short-term grunt delivered by batteries is good for pulling and towage. It is also good for peak-shaving – load management that reduces running costs. Leclanché chief executive Anil Srivastava enthuses about “the huge opportunity for marine vessels across the world to reduce their harmful emissions and cut their operating costs by leveraging battery storage technology.” The group’s latest technology is a Marine Rack System – a ready-to-sail product that is scaleable in size and capacity, rated to 1,000 volts, liquid-cooled, and available with either water mist or foam-based fire-fighting systems. In Finland, Wärtsilä has come up with a complete hybrid package that the group believes is a world first. Named WärtsiläHY,

it integrates engines, energy storage and power electronics. All three are linked up with a new energy-management system and when the system is operating in so-called “green mode”, there are no emissions whatsoever. Already the recipient of a stamp of approval from Lloyds Register, WärtsiläHY has been developed with an eye firmly on the future. “There is a notable trend in the marine sector towards hybrid propulsion solutions,” its engineers stated in the above-mentioned technical paper. “These are anticipated to represent a significant percentage of all contracted ships within the coming 10 years.” Wärtsilä plans to roll out dedicated versions of the system for every category of vessel, but the group is starting with tugs and medium-sized ferries. The first customer for the WärtsiläHY package is Italian tug owner and operator Rimorchiatori Riuniti, which expects to launch its new hybrid-powered vessel in early 2019.

Getting in early

Planning for hybrid newbuilds must begin early, partly because the rate of development in electric power is so rapid that allowances for future technology need to be made. “As new energy sources and propulsion developments evolve, the future demands and possibilities should be taken into serious consideration during the planning of newbuild ferries,” said Wärtsilä. As regards larger ferries, Wärtsilä does not expect traditional four-stroke engines to be rendered obsolete any time soon. “As a basic configuration, we see that in transit operations the most efficient [system] is with direct mechanical propulsion,” the paper’s authors conclude. “However when manoeuvring or operating at low loads, it is normally more efficient to run with electric power.” As an example of an effective hybrid solution, Wärtsilä proposes two 12-cylinder

Wärtsilä 31 dual-fuel engines, each with two-speed reduction gearboxes. (As an aside, the Guinness Book of Records judged the Wärtsilä 31 to be the world’s most efficient four-stroke engine at its release in 2015.) To this combination is added a power take-in/ power take-off (PTI/PTO) system. Combined, this configuration gives available propulsion power of 10 MW on each propeller. The result is that the vessel runs at normal service speeds under main engines alone, while the PTI/PTO units supply power for the other onboard consumers, using the PTO as a generator. However, the PTI/PTO units serve as the connection to the vessel’s electrics, including the batteries. The auxiliary engine set-up is built around one eight-cylinder Wärtsilä 31DF (for dual fuel) and one nine-cylinder 20DF. Between them, they act as generating sets for the ship’s hotel load, doubling up as extra propulsion power for low-load operations via the PTI, and for charging the batteries. Three tunnel thrusters – two in the bow and one aft – do the rest.

Charging up

While engine manufacturers have been hard at work on hybrid propulsion, there has also been rapid progress in port-side recharging systems, where the main challenge is to reboot the electrics as quickly and smoothly as possible. The technology has moved from complicated and time-consuming plug-and-charge all the way to a Bluetoothlike wireless system that delivers the juice without any physical contact between the vessel and the charging unit. The system works even if there is a half-metre gap between the charging unit and the vessel. None of these technologies were even on the horizon a few years ago. The rapid progress made since then shows where hybrid power is heading and how quickly it is likely to get there. MP

Wartsila‘s tug concept for hybrid power

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018


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42 | BALLAST WATER innovation

Manufacturers hint at technology upgrades

Desmi Ocean Guard’s CompactClean BWMS has a patented shape to reduce its size (Credit: Desmi Ocean Guard)

Service experience and type-approval standards are influencing treatment innovation says Paul Gunton


Ballast water management system (BWMS) makers have hinted at plans for new or upgraded technologies in recent months. At Alfa Laval, for example, its vice president and head of its PureBallast work, Anders Lindmark, provided an overview of its next development during an exclusive interview with Marine Propulsion at its Swedish headquarters in May: it will be offering larger-capacity reactors with its UV-based system. At present, its largest capacity unit can treat up to 1,000 m3/h but it will be launching one that can handle up to 1,500 m3/h. The reason, Mr Lindmark said, is because it has sold a number of systems to treat larger throughputs, for which it has supplied two or more reactors working in parallel. With a larger reactor, “we are reducing the footprint and installation complexity,” he said. An official announcement was expected in mid-June as this issue went

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

to press, with more details available at the SMM exhibition in Hamburg in September. Deliveries will start in 2019, he said. Trojan is another manufacturer focusing on a smaller footprint and simpler installation. Its Marinex BWMS also uses UV technology and the company’s marketing manager Mark Kustermans said that it plans to introduce its new features this year. They are “a result of the innovative work from our dedicated R&D group, growing experience at shipyards and operation of systems in the field,” he said. Desmi Ocean Guard chief executive Rasmus Folsø drew attention to its CompactClean model, which it announced last September. It is also a UV-based BWMS and, as its name suggests, it has been designed to “set a new standard for how small the footprint of a BWMS can get,” the company said. CompactClean’s UV unit “has a unique and patent-pending shape that … ensures optimum dosage of the UV to all organisms in the water and the result is a system that can meet even the very strict USCG-type approval requirements,” the company’s website said. It will not replace Desmi Ocean Guard’s existing RayClean system, Mr Folsø said, noting: “RayClean has the market-leading lowest power-consumption; CompactClean has the market-leading lowest footprint.” Another manufacturer planning to offer a variation on its current system is Bawat, although its chief executive Kim Diederichsen was guarded about the details. He said that its unique combination of heat and deoxygenation is suitable for a wide range of applications, including ships, offshore rigs and mobile port solutions. “We have identified additional opportunities for solving customers’ ballast water treatment challenges, which we plan to market in the near future,” he said. MP


innovation BALLAST WATER | 43

Ballast-free design avoids need for BWMS Partners in a project to develop a ballastfree LNG carrier began the second phase of their initiative in March. GTT, Lloyd’s Register (LR), Dalian Shipbuilding Industry Corp (DSIC) and Exmar are working on a design for a 30,000 m³ LNG carrier concept, which they have dubbed the ‘B-Free’ design. It received approval in principle from LR in December 2017 and Phase 2 aims to develop the design further and validate results from the first phase by applying more detailed analysis and verification, including model testing. For unladen mid-size LNG carriers, ballast water is more critical to achieving sufficient draught for propeller immersion than for stability. The B-Free design

intends to do this by having a triangularshaped lower part of the hull, LR explained in a statement. This allows the vessel to sit deeper in the water when unladen, achieving the necessary propeller immersion for its 5.6 m diameter propeller while maintaining stability. The project partners said that, compared to a conventional 30,000 m3 LNG carrier, they have been able to provide the same cargo-carrying capacity with their B-Free design in a much smaller hull. It uses GTT’s Mark III membrane in a two-cargo-tank configuration, rather than the three- or four-tank arrangement usually used. The B-Free LNG carrier has a lightship weight of about 1,000

tonnes less than that of the conventional ship, resulting in improved harbour access and lower harbour fees, they said. During Phase 2 of the B-Free LNG carrier design project, DSIC will concentrate on ship layout and performance, including: hull line optimisation, utilising computational fluid dynamics; ship model test verification; propulsion selection; and hull structure basic design. BELOW: A deep V-shaped hull means the ship’s propeller remains immersed without needing ballast (credit: Lloyd’s Register)

Water quality concerns support BWTBoat concept Indian classification society IRClass has proposed a new role for its BWTBoat concept, which is primarily designed to deliver treated ballast to ships. The alternative role involves operatin gas a powerful filter in ports with challenging water conditions, to provide clean water to ships that can then use their onboard ballast water management system (BWMS) to treat the water. In a report prepared for Marine Propulsion’s sister publication Ballast Water Treatment Technology, BWTBoat’s inventor and project manager Sandip Patil referred to what he called an “eyeopening” submission by South Korea to IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee in July 2017. That paper reported that BWMSs do not work properly in ports with challenging water quality, either because they get clogged, or because ballasting operations are delayed due to frequent back flushing. The South Korean paper, similar to another from Canada, mentioned the possibility of receiving clear ballast from port-based

facilities, if available. BWTBoats could do that, Mr Patil said, because they have a much larger water catchment area than a ship and multiple filters to deliver flows of up to 10,000 m3/h, he explained. In his paper, Mr Patil said that although BWMSs are mostly tested at real-world biological loads, they are not subjected to realworld sediment loads. “G8 [testing] guidelines only specify the total suspended solids (TSS) condition as >50 ppm (>24 ppm for USCG). [But] in the real world, TSS load can vary up to 1,000 ppm, directly affecting – by delaying or stopping – cargo operations,” he said. • IRClass has been working on its concept since 2013. Mr Patil’s report also described a design development that has halved the concept's cost and means that ships would not need any retrofitting or deck connections to receive treated ballast water from BWTBoats. He described the new arrangement as acting “like [an] external plug-in to [a] ship’s sea chest”.

ClassNK ballast rules match BWMC Japanese classification society ClassNK has released a new set of technical rules and guidance for shipowners covering ballast water management system (BWMS) installations. They “draw upon the knowledge of ClassNK’s in-house experts, incorporate guidance from the International Association of Classification Societies and satisfy Japanese domestic law,” the organisation told Marine Propulsion in April.


ClassNK’s Rules and Guidance for Ballast Water Management Installations were issued on 8 September 2017 to coincide with entry into force of IMO’s Ballast Water Management Convention (BWMC). In addition to meeting the BWMC requirements, its rules “stand as a regulation requirement”, it said in a statement at the time. At the same time, the society made corresponding amendments

to its Regulations for the Classification and Registry of Ships. ClassNK also advised Marine Propulsion that its 3D laser scanning technology, called Peerless, “offers shipowners the opportunity to assess how to retrofit BWMS on their ships quickly”. This helps avoid time-consuming manual work by taking point data from 3D scanners and converting it into 3D models. This can be done within one or two days, rather than the 10-14 days required for manual processing the class society said. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018


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retrofitting BALLAST WATER | 45

Installations build retrofitting experience T

he inherent similarities which usually exist between sisterships can be exploited to save time and money when retrofitting ballast water management systems (BWMS). For example, Argo Navis Marine Consulting & Engineering co-founder Andreas Zontanos explained recently in a case study for Marine Propulsion’s sister publication Tanker Shipping & Trade, that: “I usually recommend owners do not scan all the sisterships, as long as the technical staff is allowed to carry out basic checks on each vessel to verify locations set aside for the system installation.” Mr Zontanos was referring to the company’s work as the integration engineer for retrofitting an Ecochlor BWMS on a 115,849 dwt tanker this year, following three installations on similar ships from the same fleet in 2017. Although the projects might be similar, a series allows improvements to be made, he indicated. For example, the fourth tanker in the series benefited from improvements learned from retrofitting the first three vessels: piping was rerouted due to placement difficulties that occurred during the first retrofit and the Ecochlor generator’s location was moved to improve accessibility. The compressed air lines were also upgraded to allow for better water draining prior to use. For Techcross, its experience of about 1,000 BWMS installations on newbuildings and as retrofits has helped it identify the best situation in which to fit them: ideally, during a drydocking period or, if that is not possible, during a voyage. So when it proposed that a retrofit installation on a 4,800 dwt tanker would be carried out during a voyage, it was already targeting a less-than-perfect option. But then the ship’s operating schedule was suddenly changed, making even the voyagebased option impossible. In a case study published in Marine Propulsion’s Ballast Water Treatment Technology guide, the company explained that the work to fit one of its ECS300B (Electro-Cleen System) BWMSs was


Case studies reveal learning points for suppliers and owners, as growing numbers of BWMSs are fitted, writes Paul Gunton

actually conducted in the outer port of Yeosu in South Korea. This change of plan meant that its installers had to overcome the difficulties of an unstable working environment, with no change from the original timeframe. In particular, they needed a tug with a crane and a means of transporting and lifting supplies from the port’s berths to the vessel. They also had to adapt as the work progressed. They found that the ECS system’s total residual oxidant sampling pipe and neutralising agent dosing pipe would partially block the vessel passageway, so they modified the design drawings and reinstalled the lines to resolve the inconvenience. They made additional modifications so they could manage their working time to meet the ship’s operating schedule. For example, they removed fittings that needed adjusting so that the main welding work could continue.

Do-it-yourself installations

In an unusual installation, one shipowner took a do-it-yourself approach. Using ship staff and selected subcontractors “is a lot cheaper” than other installation options, according to Seatruck Ferries fleet director Ben Coppack. Installation was very straightforward, Mr Coppack said. “It’s

just filters, pipes and pumps,” he pointed out. For the electrical work, he paid tribute to the SeaKing Group, which provided an electrical technician to travel with the ship to connect all the components. Wärtsilä SAM Electronics provided the control systems. For an average of about £175,000 (US$246,000) per ship, the Irish Sea operator installed an Optimarin Ballast System (OBS) on each of five roro freight ferries. Installations began in November 2016 on board the 5,300 dwt Seatruck Progress and continued until September 2017. For four of the ships, the system was delivered as a set of components and the crew used Optimarin’s manuals to assemble them. For the other ship, Seatruck bought a skid-mounted system that Optimarin had available from stock and broke it down to get it into the vessel. Mr Coppack chose a UV treatment system because of the limited space available and because it did not use any chemicals, which would add to its operating cost. Although the ships do not load much ballast compared with large ocean-going ships – about 100-150 m3 – they do this twice each day; much more frequently than other ship types, so the total volume, and thus the amount of chemical that would be needed for some systems, is large. MP

Seatruck’s crew installed Optimarin systems on its vessels (Credit: Optimarin)

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

46 | BALLAST WATER retrofitting

Can shipyards rise to the retrofit rush? Shipbuilders “are the least familiarised stakeholders” in the expected rush to fit ballast water management systems (BWMSs) to meet IMO’s extended deadline, according to one leading shipyard executive. Dave Iwamoto, a senior executive at shipbuilder Japan Marine United and a council member of the Active Shipbuilding Experts’ Federation (ASEF), which brings together 10 Asia shipbuilding groups, was speaking in September 2017 at the International BWM Technology and Standardisation Forum organised by the Shipbuilding Information Center of China (SICC).

“Not many shipyards have built up practical experience” He told delegates that because many shipowners have delayed installing BWMSs, “not many shipyards have built up practical experience” or have the range of services needed to retrofit a BWMS. He also outlined a catalogue of potential difficulties that could be avoided with proper planning and effective

communication between the many parties involved in a project, such as designers, suppliers, fitters and flag-state representatives. Mr Iwamoto also stressed the need for care when handling BWMS components. They are more delicate than [the] equipment that shipbuilders normally handle, he said. “Particular care is needed for associated instrumentation, since any damage to this may not allow final commissioning work when time may be running out.” Even before the equipment arrives at a yard, there may be delays caused by import rules. “If the work is done in one country with a BWMS purchased from another, customs regulations cannot be disregarded,” he said. And there will be no compensation for delays “caused by regulatory requirements beyond any commercial party’s responsibility.” Given these potential difficulties, Mr Iwamoto said that a retrofit is more complex than a newbuilding installation and, if a retrofitted BWMS does not perform properly, it may also be more difficult to identify the cause. It might be due to unsuitable equipment or design, or poor workmanship, he said, with responsibility lying with the shipowner, engineering company, equipment manufacturer, shipyard or contractor. LEFT: Dave Iwamoto (ASEF) explained how to avoid a catalogue of potential difficulties (Credit: SICC)

Sembcorp fits 12 BWMS in 2017 Singapore yard Sembcorp has carried out ballast water management system (BWMS) retrofits as part of its Green Technology Retrofit (GTR) programme. Starting in February 2017, it fitted BWMSs on all three of ASEAN Cableship’s vessels and in November that year it fitted a UV BWMS on the seismic vessel Ramform Sovereign. Further installations brought the yard’s total number of ballast water-related projects during 2017 to 12. The yard can offer its own unique BWMS, the Semb-Eco L-UV, which was developed jointly with Ecospec. It uses LEDUV irradiation and ultra-low frequency electromagnetic waves in a combination that Ecospec reports “produces a highlyefficient non-chemical treatment system that consumes very low power”. Sembcorp also has co-operation agreements with six other BWMS makers covering a range of technologies. They include Coldharbour Marine of the UK, which offers a gas lift diffusion system, and De Nora of Italy, whose Balpure BWMS uses electrolysis and electrochlorination. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

Sembcorp’s Semb-Eco L-UV system uses a unique combination of treatments (Credit: Sembcorp)


Smaller footprint for a perfect fit

Alfa Laval PureBallast 3.1 Compact Flex Compliance is the goal in ballast water treatment, but the first task is fitting a treatment system on board. Alfa Laval PureBallast 3.1 Compact Flex is the answer to your space and flexibility needs – especially when it comes to retrofits. Based on loose components, it packs the leading ballast water treatment technology into the market’s smallest footprint. And with its plug-and-play design, it substantially reduces installation costs. In fact, the only thing big about PureBallast 3.1 Compact Flex is the peace of mind it offers. To see why, visit www.alfalaval.com/pureballast

48 | BALLAST WATER sampling and testing

Developments in ballast water sampling and testing Port states encourage testing using portable kits As part of IMO’s experiencebuilding phase of implementing its Ballast Water Management Convention (BWMC), ships visiting some ports are being subjected to ballast water checks, although no action is being taken in the event of a deficiency being found. Marine Propulsion is aware of one state that is conducting these tests, Saudi Arabia, and another that is exploring doing so, Canada. But up to six more are understood to be conducting tests. Canada’s Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries

and Aquatic Sciences, in Burlington, Ontario, is assessing a number of kits, although exact details have not been made public. French test kit maker aqua-tools revealed in March that its B-Qua equipment had been added to the programme. The Canadian laboratory plans to carry out ballast water sampling and testing on up to 20 ships during 2018, to assess which tool or tools might provide the best rapid assessment of ballast water compliance, aqua-tools said. Aqua-tools is also involved in testing

It is an eventful time for those involved in ballast water management, with new standards being announced and innovative test kits simplifying the process, writes Paul Gunton

programmes in Saudi Arabia. It supplied the first of 30 of its Rapid ATP ballast water monitoring systems last August to Swiss testing and certification organisation, SGS Group, which has agreements to inspect and monitor treated ballast waters of vessels arriving in certain countries. SGS Group global business development manager Vladimiro Bonamin said that SGS was one of four inspection companies to have been approved as ballast water test providers to the shipping community. “Ships are now obligated, by local regulations, to sample and perform the indicative test while de-ballasting in Saudi Aramco-controlled ports, using

one of the four approved companies,” he said. Another company providing testing services in Saudi Arabia is Global Strategic Alliance (GSA), which uses Chelsea Technologies’ FastBallast portable ballast water analyser. In an exclusive interview with Marine Propulsion, GSA co-founders Adnan Bahamdein and Rajeev Ramachandran stressed that the tests it is conducting are indicative tests and are not the equivalent of a full port state control check. “There are no penalties,” Mr Bahamdein said, but all failures are reported to Saudi Aramco. “No vessel that has failed has ever failed again,” he added.

Tests needed to bring older BWMSs into use

Ankron Water Services began testing a BWMS installation on a large container ship in May (Credit: Ankron Water Services)

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

As implementation dates approach under IMO’s Ballast Water Management Convention (BWMC), it is important for shipowners to carry out recommissioning tests for equipment that has not been used for some time, believes Ankron Water Services’ chief scientific officer Claudia Dreszer. She was speaking to Marine Propulsion soon after presenting a paper at a two-day Ballast Water Workshop organised by the German Shipowners Association (VDR) at the end of May, where she said that many ships are gradually starting to use both new and old systems. “It is useful to run a performance check to know if the system is working or not,” she said. Although the company was only set up in March this year, Dr Dreszer and her chief executive Erik Köster have several years ⊲


sampling and testing BALLAST WATER | 49

⊲ of experience of conducting onboard testing and she expects to see a growing demand for recommissioning tests in the months ahead. The company also carries out type-approval testing. In May it carried out the first of a series of sampling tests on a 10,000+ TEU container ship newbuilding at the start of six months of checks on a UV ballast water management system (BWMS) in different water conditions. At the time of Marine Propulsion’s conversation in early June, testing work was also scheduled on a larger container ship of about 14,000 TEU and a smaller one. From her experience of working with onboard staff, she had told the VDR seminar about some of the challenges she had encountered, which included BWMS and other components not being compliant and installation problems. She also highlighted crew training as a challenge to successful implementation, telling delegates that some crew see BWMSs as “just another burden on [their] already full schedule”. Speaking to Marine Propulsion she said that it is “important that the crew is involved in the whole process” so that they know how the whole treatment system works. It is time-consuming to get them involved in such a complex system, she said, “but in the end it is very helpful for everyone”.

Compliance improves, but sampling standards needed Sample tests show that compliance with ballast water management standards has improved in recent years, according to SGS Group global business development manager Vladimiro Bonamin. Speaking in September 2017. Mr Bonamin said that, based on several hundred sampling events worldwide over a number of years, more than 90% had been compliant with the relevant standards. But over the previous 12 months, he said, compliance had been “very, very close to 100%”. Mr Bonamin was addressing the International BWM Technology and Standardization Forum, organised by the Shipbuilding Information Center of China (SICC) and BIMCO, where he told delegates that most of these tests had been carried out for shipowners or manufacturers seeking information about their systems’ performance, although about 150 of them were carried out to issue official test reports. His experience spanned both IMO and the US, divided almost entirely between electrochlorination- and UV-based systems. Other technologies were “very rare” he said. MP

Standard due on sampling ports A standard that will define a standard sampling port design was due to be published in June, as this issue of Marine Propulsion went to press. In a submission to the fifth meeting of IMO’s Sub-Committee on Pollution Prevention and Response (PPR 5) in February, the International Organization for Standardization

Carolyn Junemann (Marad): ISO’s WG 12 addresses “all matters arising from non-indigenous or invasive species and aquatic nuisances” (Credit: Riviera Maritime Media)


(known as ISO) said that the revision of Part 1 of its standard 11711-1, which addresses ballast water discharge sample ports, was “in the final stages of development.” An opportunity to submit comments on ISO’s draft expired on 12 March. This first part of the standard provides guidance on the materials, design and installation of permanent shipboard fitting, ISO’s submission to PPR 5 said. It also provides guidance on the configuration, tolerances and dimensions of these ports. Parts 2 and 3 of the standard are being developed to address ballast water sample collection and ballast water analysis, respectively. It is ISO’s Technical Committee No 8 (TC8) that addresses ships and marine technology and a working group, No 12 (WG 12), was set up in 2016 to focus specifically on aquatic nuisance species and take on TC8’s work on BWM. Speaking in September 2017, WG 12’s convenor, environmental protection specialist at the US Department of Transportation’s Maritime Administration Carolyn Junemann told the International BWM Technology and Standardization Forum, organised by the Shipbuilding Information Center of China (SICC) and BIMCO, that further standards are being developed. These include one that will establish specifications for electrochlorination systems. That topic has since been taken on by the Chinese BWMS manufacturer SunRui, with backing from a number of international experts. Other companies involved in ISO’s work include French test-kit manufacturer aqua-tools, which is working alongside French standardisation organisation Association Française de Normalisation; Desmi Oceanguard, which is involved in a project to develop a standard for CFD scaling of UV-based BWMSs, and UniBallast, which is part of a working group establishing requirements for a ballast water transfer connection flange.

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

Announcement of selling NEW “Viable Organism Analyzer” MOL Techno-Trade, Ltd. (President: Hirokazu Hatta) sells a new type of “Viable Organism Analyzer (VOA1000K)” that was designed and developed by SATAKE CORPORATION (Chairperson: Toshiko Satake). Viable Organism Analyzer can detect the number of viable organisms in the ballast water and it can be used simply and easily on board. The analyzer can estimate the number of both viable organisms of Large size (Minimum diameter ≧ 50 μm) and Small size (Minimum diameter 10 μm ≦ x < 50 μm) in one unit. It has high correlation for detecting even one individual organism at 100ml, and one of the few analyzers which is possible to analyze both zooplankton and phytoplankton. MOL Techno-Trade will also sell the compact concentrator, which is called the “Viable Organism Sampler (VOS)”, jointly developed by MOL Engineering Co., Ltd. (President: Shuji Miyai) and SATAKE CORPORATION. It allows quick and easy preparation for concentration of sample waters to be used for the inspection of Large size organisms in ballast water. It is a portable design and is easy to operate on board. No power source is required.

Please contact for sales information. MOL Techno-Trade, Ltd. Ship’s Supplies & Machinery Dept. TEL: +81-3-6367-5370 • E-mail: s-voa@motech.co.jp

Retrofit Ready ®

The Ecochlor Ballast Water Treatment System: High ballast water flow rates. Low energy consumption.

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automation and control AUXILIARY SYSTEMS | 51

How to overcome data transmission and network security challenges Vessel networks should use NMEA OneNet standards over Ethernet and have embedded cyber security to enable secure information transmission, says Martyn Wingrove


anufacturers of vessel automation and control systems have to tackle the issues of data transmission and processing restrictions and cyber security. To overcome the first of these challenges, they must consider different types of ship networks and data protocols. Specifically, data restrictions on vessel networks can be overcome by using the National Marine Electronics Association’s (NMEA’s) OneNet data packet standard. OneNet is based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.3 Ethernet standard to complement existing onboard NMEA 2000 networks. It enables bandwidth to be increased to hundreds of mbps, which is needed for transferring unprocessed sensor data and video. NMEA component manufacturer Actisense’s chief executive Phil Whitehurst said OneNet enables data, including video, acoustics and measurements, to be constantly transferred from enginerooms and cargo control to ship bridges where officers can monitor parameters such as pressures, temperatures and tank levels in real time. He said for decades the main specification for communicating marine electronics data has been the NMEA 0183 protocol. However, Mr Whitehurst noted that using this specification “it is rather


complex to transfer measurements of quantities”, adding “a considerable amount of data simply cannot be sent over this standard”. To gather this data successfully, an additional supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system is needed. Data transmission issues can partially be overcome by using the NMEA 2000 protocol for sending much of the information that cannot be sent over NMEA 0183. However, this has not been widely adopted on commercial ships because it has a maximum practical backbone length of 200 m and bandwidth of 250 kbps. To overcome these shortcomings, NMEA 2000 can be used in conjunction with OneNet over Ethernet. Smaller networks can be created with just a few nodes that are connected to a OneNet gateway. “This means that small subnets of self-powered units can gather data from NMEA 2000 sensors and interfaces,” Mr Whitehurst explained. This makes the data available over the ship-wide Ethernet system as OneNet data and means video, audio, radar and high-speed feeds may be transported in a standard format as NMEA 2000-encoded data packets.

Cyber security

Network cyber security is even a problem when ship operators think they are

Phil Whitehurst (Actisense): NMEA 2000 can be used in conjunction with OneNet over Ethernet

separated from the internet, as penetration experts at Naval Dome proved. During tests in 2017, they penetrated a ship’s machinery control system (MCS) by using an infected USB memory stick placed in an input socket. Naval Dome chief technical officer Asaf Shefi said a virus was transferred to the MCS, which started to change the functionality of the auxiliary systems. This virus attacked the ballast system so that the display was presented as normal, although the valves and pumps were disrupted and stopped working. “We could have misled all the auxiliary systems controlled by the MCS, including air-conditioning, generators and fuel systems,” said Mr Shefi. These penetration tests demonstrated how shipboard systems can be infected by hackers using online tools, or using seafarers or service engineers to unwittingly transfer viruses. To counter these security risks, Naval Dome developed a maritime cyber protection system (MCPS). This integrates with existing systems and software, providing real-time cyber alerts and blocking malicious files to prevent unauthorised access to critical systems and data. MCPS software prevented hackers from penetrating these same shipboard systems during a second phase of tests. It won the Marine Intelligence award at Riviera

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

52 | AUXILIARY SYSTEMS automation and control

Maritime Media’s 2018 Marine Propulsion Awards, which were presented during a gala dinner on the first evening of the Sulphur Cap 2020 Conference, Awards and Exhibition, which took place on 17-18 April in Amsterdam.

Contract awards

Several contracts secured by automation suppliers demonstrate the complexity of current projects. Valmet DNA is supplying its latest automation to a cruise ship upgrade that Royal Caribbean International is conducting this year. It is upgrading the Damatic XDi automation systems on its 2003-built cruise ship, Mariner of the Seas, during six weeks in a drydock in Cadiz, Spain, in May and June. This major overhaul includes a suite of new automation, air conditioning and electronic entertainment systems. The upgrade will include new Valmet DNA user interfaces, data storage and analytics and reporting tools. The control room and process controller parts of the system will be transformed to the latest Valmet DNA technology platform. Automation will be based around a new Ethernet-based communication network that will link new DNA operator workstations, including a station for trend analysis, event archiving and reporting applications. There will also be upgraded Valmet application and control nodes (ACN), which support input and output (I/O) units and industrial process controllers. ACN industrial controllers are platforms for all the process controls and connections to external computer equipment on board Mariner of the Seas. The automation controls propulsion systems, which include a diesel-electric powertrain that uses three Azipod azimuth thrusters. ABB is supplying its Ability 800xA automation and power management systems for polar exploration cruise ships, built for Lindblad Expeditions Holdings by Ulstein Verft in Norway. Automation integrates power, propulsion and vessel management systems into one platform. This will display information for both crew and onshore teams to give them a comprehensive overview of data for optimal ship operation. There will be workstations with uniform control and monitoring applications in place. In addition, new passenger ships will be connected to ABB’s collaborative operations centre, which monitors the performance of ABB technology on board and remotely connects operators with ABB experts.

Kongsberg Maritime celebrated completing the testing of its 10,000th AutoChief 600 automation system at Hyundai Mipo Dockyard

Rolls-Royce is supplying a package of power and propulsion, electrical and automation systems for a 70 m long stern trawler, being built by Cemre shipyard in Turkey for Olympic Seafood. The equipment to be delivered includes a B33:45 diesel engine with a hybrid propulsion system that can deliver both mechanical and diesel-electric drive. Automation, power management, hybrid shaft generator and permanent magnet electric motors will be delivered for this newbuilding project. In a different field, Global Maritime and UniSea have gained a contract to provide SolstadFarstad with dynamic positioning (DP) assurance services. This involves using software over the next five years to implement and document DP testing on a fleet of offshore support vessels. Its main purpose is to avoid downtime on vessels while improving the owner’s knowledge and experience. SolstadFarstad has also worked with Yxney Maritime on reducing fuel costs and emissions across its fleet. This involved using the Yxney fuel efficiency software MarESS, which enables charterers to track each vessel working under contract and monitor fuel consumption.

Milestones and agreements

Kongsberg Maritime reached a milestone in April when it completed testing its 10,000th AutoChief 600 automation system. This will be installed on a new gas carrier being built at Hyundai Mipo Dockyard for Solvang. AutoChief 600 manages all control, safety

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

and alarm functions necessary for operating the main engine and all other accessories for propulsion control from a single station on the bridge. It is modular, allowing flexibility in system architecture, covering a range of advanced propulsion control units. The latest generation has touchscreen operation for access to all functions and a GoGreen module, which enables optimal engine operations to reduce a vessel’s environmental footprint. Servowatch Systems has appointed Governor Control Systems in Florida, USA, to service vessel automation and alarm monitoring systems in the Americas. This will include upgrading automation on naval vessels, passenger ferries and superyachts. It will support ServoCore alarm monitoring modules and ServoFusion integrated platform management systems. China E-Tech (Ningbo) Maritime Electronics Research Institute (CETME) has introduced a main engine remote control device for bridge systems. Its VIR01-A engine controls and VIM6-A engineroom monitoring and alarm can be included in an integrated automation system. CETME said these are modular human-computer interfaces that control propulsion and vessel speed. These devices enable operators to monitor main engine and auxiliary engine conditions in real time and will automatically alarm if there is a failure. Clearly innovation is rife in the sector and that has to be good news for all concerned. MP


For more information, please visit our website or email us at ConnectMAI@cat.com




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compressors AUXILIARY SYSTEMS | 55

SBM Offshore‘s FPSO destined for the Liza project offshore Ghana will be fitted with TMC compressor systems (Credit: SBM Offshore)

Compressors are helping the industry clean up its act


hen Symphony of the Seas, the largest passenger ship in the world, made its maiden voyage in April this year, a system from Norway’s Tamrotor Marine Compressors (TMC) helped the vessel get under way. But Oslo-based TMC’s orderbook for 2018 grants the company little time to rest on its laurels, even if it was inclined to do so given the amount of press attention the vessel’s launch garnered. The company has contracts in place across a swath of maritime sectors. The year kicked off with a contract for compressed air systems for four cruise ships being built by Fincantieri for Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings (NCL). These systems will comprise two 44 kW marine water-cooled compressors and two air-cooled air dryers for control and service air. TMC also has an option to deliver similar compressed air systems to the two additional vessels that Fincantieri has an option to build for NCL. Another deal was signed in January with Shanghai Waigaoqiao Shipbuilding Co., Ltd to supply a marine compressed air system for a newbuild floating storage, production and offloading vessel (FPSO). TMC will supply a system comprising four 400 kW service air compressors with air dryers and filters. In February, Netherlands-based shipbuilder IHC signed up TMC to


Compressor systems are being put to efficient use in pursuit of cleaner vessels and energy, writes Ed Martin

deliver a compressed air system for an integrated reel-lay vessel under construction for UK-based Subsea7, comprising two 84 kW water-cooled compressors and three air-cooled air dryers for control and working air. March brought with it a Korean contract and another Dutch deal. Samsung Heavy Industries is building four LNG-fuelled shuttle tankers for Teekay Offshore, each of which will be equipped with a TMC compressed air system, including compressors for service and control air, as well as absorption air dryers. TMC agreed to provide SBM Offshore with three 500 kW frequency-controlled instrument air compressors, two 86 kW feed air compressors and associated driers and filters for installation on an FPSO set for the Liza project offshore Guyana. Another deal landed in April, this time for Norway’s biggest longline fishing company, Ervik Havfiske Group, which chose TMC to provide systems for two longliner vessels under construction

at Tersan Shipyard. Each vessel will be provided with a service air compressor, two refrigerant air driers and one absorption air dryer. Most recently, TMC signed two contracts for a floating storage and regasification unit (FSRU) being built for Swan Energy Ltd. by Hyundai Heavy Industries. One contract sees TMC provide three service and control air compressors to the South Korean shipyard, while the other is for a subcontractor, which will receive two feed air compressors for a nitrogen delivery system. TMC director of sales and business development Hans Petter Tanum said: “To secure one contract for this FSRU is great, and to win two contracts is fantastic. “I believe this confirms that shipyards and subcontractors to the big yards are increasingly moving away from marinised land-based compressors and instead opting for compressed air systems that have been designed and developed solely for offshore and marine applications.”

‘Smart Air’ month

TMC feels strongly enough about its green technologies to declare last November ‘Smart Air’ month, devoting the time to promoting its technology of the same name. The Smart Air range of compressors has a number of features that improve efficiency and (as increasingly seems to go hand-in-hand) are less damaging to the environment. The electrical motor adjusts itself to produce the exact air volume required for the compressed air consumption at all times. This results in less power consumption, while precise speed control means less wear and tear on the compressor system, resulting in longer equipment lifetimes. In environmental terms, TMC estimates that if an 18-vesselstrong LNG fleet was refitted with Smart Air compressors, it could see its emissions reduced by 1,710 tons of CO2 in a year. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

56 | AUXILIARY SYSTEMS compressors

The system uses Microsoft’s HoloLens headset to project an interactive 3D model of a compressor

AUGMENTED REALITY COMPRESSOR TRAINING PROJECT RECEIVES NKR 0.9M BOOST A co-operation between a Norwegian air compressor company and a compatriot augmented reality (AR) developer has been awarded Nkr 0.9m in funding from Innovation Norway, a Norwegian government programme aiming to spur innovation and development. The air compressor company turned to AR developer Fostech, based in Fosnavaag, Norway, who develop software for Microsoft’s HoloLens headset, to produce an air compressor education and service solution. When wearing the HoloLens headset, a holographic

representation of an object is projected in front of a user. This projection will “snap” to flat surfaces such as tabletops, and remains in the same location regardless of the user’s movements, meaning they can walk around the projection to view it from different angles. The projection can be interacted with via a system of hand gestures performed by the user. In the compressor company’s case, an interactive model of one of their compressor systems is projected, with users able to interact with different components by following prompts that appear in the projection.

Burckhardt to overhaul Golar Freeze compressor

Buckhardt will revamp Golar Freeze‘s compressor in preparation for its new role

A decade ago, the first Laby-GI Compressor produced by Burckhardt Compression AG, based in Switzerland, was installed on Golar Management’s FSRU Golar Freeze, for minimum send-out (MSO) use. Norwegian firm Golar is now preparing the 126,000 m³ FSRU for a new function that will require a revamp of the compressor, which was the first of its kind to be installed on an FSRU. New Fortress Energy (NFE) has engaged the vessel for a 15-year charter, which will use the compressor to deliver gas to Jamaican power utility JPS, requiring an increase in the discharge gauge pressure from 45 to 65 barg. This will require an additional compression stage with extra auxiliaries, piping and other modifications, for which Burckhardt has been contracted. Golar vessel manager Gabriele Pipitone said: “Burckhardt Compression was proactive, available at the right time, with the right plan, the right offer and the right team. “We are pleased to have found the perfect solution for revamping

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

the MSO compressor.” Golar Freeze was built in 1977 and spent just over three decades as a conventional LNG carrier before Singapore’s Keppel Shipyard converted it to an FSRU in 2010, following which it served as a receiving terminal for the Dubai Supply Authority in the port of Jebel Ali. If the NFE charter option is taken up, it will extend the working life of Golar Freeze to its 61st year. Burckhardt’s Laby-GI compressor could be part of that life for 28 years, according to sister publication LNG World Shipping. In its Mid-Range Plan, announced in January this year, Burckhardt targeted sales of SFr360M in its services division, with the maritime sector one of the areas picked for expansion. “Servicing the compressors of other manufacturers is a prime growth opportunity in this business,” the plan noted, to which end the company intends to expand local and regional footprints and create service structures specifically geared towards the maritime sector. MP




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filters and separators AUXILIARY SYSTEMS | 59

KEEP A CLEAN BILL OF HEALTH WITH PROPER FILTRATION A well-trained crew following well-established procedures with wellmaintained, up-to-date equipment can help avoid damaging fines - be they court-imposed or catalytic in origin, writes Ed Martin PHOTO: Test kits such as Wilhelmsen's can monitor filter system efficiency as well as test bunker fuel


ith the 2020 low-sulphur fuel requirement looming, it is imperative that readers are aware of issues surrounding cat fines, as Marine Propulsion urged in October last year. At the time we cited reports from ExxonMobil and Fuel Oil Bunkering Analysis and Advisory Services detailing the issues, and since then Wilhelmsen has added its voice to the chorus with a white paper. Cat fines are tiny particles created during the process of catalytic cracking used to make low-sulphur fuels. These tiny, very hard particles can easily embed themselves into engine components, especially in two-stroke engines, increasing wear and tear and leading to costly breakdowns. Filters and purifiers catch a great deal of cat fines before they can


enter an engine, but this assumes filters are correctly operated and maintained. Wilhelmsen says engine manufacturers have deemed 10-15 parts per million (ppm) as an acceptable level of cat fines in fuel entering the engine. It notes that the majority of engine damage from cat fines, some 86%, “will always be there, more or less�, depending on how efficient filtration is, but it notes that bad conditions can lead to more serious damage. Cat fines tend to settle at the bottom of tanks, but in rough seas the sediment is stirred up, increasing the likelihood of them finding their way into the engine. It is possible to monitor cat fine levels on board ships with a range of commercially available test kits. Wilhelmsen produces the Unitor Catalytic Fines Test Kit, which allows for

fuel to be tested on board vessels at sea to identify cat fine content as low as 20 ppm. As well as testing bunker fuel, this kit enables the monitoring of filter system efficiency. It can be used before and after filtration and purification and can be used in rough conditions to determine the effect this is having on the cat fine content of fuel entering the engine. Should high levels of cat fines be detected, Wilhelmsen recommends different courses of action depending on the kind of purifier fitted. Older filters used gravity discs, which could result in poor separation due to interphase levels being too close to the centre of the disk. The advice therefore was to run such purifiers in sequence. However, modern filters that do not use gravity discs always operate at an optimum level. Due to

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

60 | AUXILIARY SYSTEMS filters and separators

this, the working life of filters should be maximised by running them in parallel operation, thereby reducing the throughput of each filter, Wilhelmsen says.

Using a redundant filter

Alfa Laval’s Moatti 290 Hydraulic Control Oil (HCO) filter has been approved by Man Diesel & Turbo for its twostroke engines, following testing on four Stena bulk carriers. The filter is built to MAN’s most recent recommendations, which require an automatic filter and a redundant filter that can retain particles of 6 micrometres and below. Hydraulic control systems, which have replaced camshafts in MAN’s new generation of two-stroke engines, have their valves actuated by a continuous flow of lube oil. To ensure reliable, safe operation, this oil requires fine filtering without creating additional pressure drop. In the Moatti 290 HCO system this is done via continuous backflushing, driven by the pressure of the oil itself and therefore requiring no electricity or air supply. Alfa Laval filters business manager Herve Gourdon explained how the Moatti 290 system differs from those reliant on disposable filters: “Disposable

filter elements add up to a significant cost over time, whereas components in the Alfa Laval Moatti 290 filter can be removed for cleaning and simply put back into operation. Combined with the reliability achieved by continuous backflushing, that means a lower operating cost for the filter overall.” The redundant filter can be used during maintenance, for initial oil cleaning and when new oil is added to the system. It is not used to clean the small flow of backflushing oil, which is cleaned in a diversion chamber. Mr Gourdon said: “The redundant filter is fully separated to ensure it will be fully operational in the case of emergency.” MAN and Alfa Laval started working together on the filter in 2008, with a prototype first presented in 2014. This protoype underwent more than 24,000 hours of testing over almost two years on Stena Suède, a Suezmax crude tanker. Following this, the final design was tested for 3,000 hours on board three Stena Bulk IMOIIMAX vessels. “We are extremely proud to have the Alfa Laval Moatti 290 filter validated for use with HCO systems,” said Mr Gourdon. “This is the culmination of 10 years of intense co-operation, development and testing.”

Counting the costs of oily-water discharge

Components in the Moatti 290 can be removed for cleaning rather than being thrown away after use, reducing operating costs (Credit: Alfa Laval)

As well as the detrimental environmental costs, noncompliant oily water discharge can weigh heavily on the balance books, as Nitta Kisen Kaisha discovered in May. The Japanese company was fined US$1M, placed on probation for three years and ordered to implement a courtapproved environmental compliance plan, after it admitted its engineers had failed to document the illegal discharge of oily waste from the fuel and lubrication purifier systems and bilges of the 33,457 dwt bulk carrier Atlantic Oasis. According to a US Department of Justice press release, during a May 2017 US Coast Guard inspection a junior crew member told officials of the existence of so-called ‘magic pipe’ hoses that the vessel’s chief engineer, Jihnyun Youn, had ordered crew to use to bypass filtering systems. The same chief engineer also misled inspectors regarding the existence of a Sounding Log, used to record engineroom fluid levels. The company was convicted of obstruction of justice and falsification of an oil record book. Along with the sentence

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

Shinya Tanehashi (Alfa Laval): Looking at the huge fines that shipowners are paying for non-compliance, one can certainly see the value in avoiding them

imposed on the company, Mr Youn was put on a year’s probation and fined US$5,500. Alfa Laval is attempting to solve the issue of how to ensure oily water is discharged in a compliant manner with its Bluebox SA system “Filters are expensive and quickly become saturated in rough seas, where they merely compensate for the separator’s lack of performance,” said Alfa Laval’s oily water treatment sales manager Shinya Tanehashi. “When the vessel’s costs become high or large volumes of oily water accumulate because they can’t be processed continuously, it becomes tempting to dump oily water overboard,” he added. Alfa Laval believe it has tamperproofed the Bluebox , an oil content monitor (OCM) and data recorder that can be used with existing filters and separators regardless of manufacturer. “For overboard discharge to take place, a whole range of conditions must be verified, such as the direction of the sample flow through the OCM,” said Mr. Tanehashi. “All key operational data, including GPS position, alarms and any unlocking of the BlueBox SA cover, is logged and stored for 18 months.” The system also aims to make it easier for discharge compliance to be reported, as all data it stores can be exported in PDF format. MP


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62 | AUXILIARY SYSTEMS steering gear and rudders

Becker Marine is often seen as the father of the flap rudder

Incremental gains – rudders at the forefront of design innovation


istorically, most of the developments around rudders and steering systems have occurred through incremental gains, rather than headlinegrabbing breakthroughs. It is an interesting fact that improvements in rudders alone can be measured at a rate of just 1% a year, according to Rolls-Royce. But lately the pressure on operators to run their ships as efficiently as possible has sparked more interest in rudder design and consequent technological innovation. One outcome of this is rudders for all occasions. For instance, Rolls-Royce’s Type CB is designed to improve manoeuvrability at low speeds.

Featuring a bulbous shaped cross section and large end plates, it shares the same profile as the company’s FB flap rudder that is popular with offshore supply vessels, cargo, fishing, seismic and other vessels that are not usually in a hurry. In another slow-speed innovation, Becker Marine has developed the Type SA flap rudder, most suited for small and low-speed vessels such as river boats, supply vessels and tugs among others. In the same vein, MM-Offshore’s Empire rudder matches a flap with a full spade rudder, a package suitable for low- to mediumspeed ships with a lot of port operations, such as feeder

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

vessels or those operating in difficult passage ways, module carriers, ropax and ferries. MM-Offshore might have achieved a record with its flap, which can operate at an angle of up to 100°. In terms of manoeuvrability, most recent progress has been in flap rudders, such as Becker’s FKSR design. Decades in development and refinement, the latest flap design can be pushed to an angle of 65° for the main rudder, plus an extra 45° for the flap. Netherlands-based Van der Velden Marine Systems - a specialist in manoeuvring and propulsion - has developed a high-lift, slim-profile, lowdrag flap rudder called Timon,

Rudder and steering technology tends to evolve gradually, with few big bangs, but commercial pressures are now spurring the pace of development, reports Selwyn Parker

designed for manoeuvrability among higher-speed vessels. Addressing a constant concern of operators, the company has developed a quick-service device on the flap linkage that minimises maintenance time.

Battle of the bulb

Apart from the flap, one of the biggest incremental improvements in rudder design has been in the bulb. Japanese manufacturer Nakashima Propellers claims energy-saving effects of about 6% for its Ultimate Rudder, which includes a bulb. Basically a rounded cap, the bulb is placed on the leading edge of the rudder in line with the propeller. Among other gains, rudder


steering gear and rudders AUXILIARY SYSTEMS | 63

bulbs smooth out the wake and recover the so-called ‘hub vortex’ between the prop and rudder. According to Nakashima, the latter effect “brings an increase in negative pressure at the rudder’s leading edge, leading to reduced rudder resistance, [which] increases hull efficiency.” Rudders operate in one of the most hostile environments, enduring extreme differences in temperature, dangerous proximity to solid objects such as rocks, reefs and floating objects, and huge loads during sharp manoeuvring. But because they are under water, it is difficult and expensive to monitor their condition. To make things easier, Rostock-based Becker Marine has devised a system that measures remotely the wear and tear on the vulnerable rudder neck bearing. Four electrical sensors are mounted on the neck-bearing bush and the readings transmitted to a processing unit in the steeringgear room where the crew can spot any abnormalities. A small touch panel allows the crew to calibrate the system and display the monitored values. The readings can also be hooked up to an alarm system. Similarly, Becker has devised an intelligent monitoring system that directly measures the forces imposed on the rudder so that the crew can avoid putting too much pressure on the steering system and, in extreme circumstances, triggering a failure.

the other with the ship at its deepest seagoing draught. And the rudder must be able to survive the vessel being driven at maximum astern speed. The regulations also impose stringent standards of redundancy. Every ship must, for instance, have an auxiliary steering system that starts up within 45 seconds of the main system’s failure. Not every ship needs a rudder, at least not all the time. For nearly 18 months two sister ferries, the Copenhagen and Berlin, have been working the Gedser-Rostock route between Denmark and Germany. Designed specifically for the shallow waters along the 26-mile route, both vessels feature Rolls-Royce’s integrated CP Promas propeller and rudder, configured with two wing Azipull thrusters that help turn them in Gedser harbour at the Danish end of the route. The props used in Azipull thrusters not only deliver vectored power for quick

turns, they are housed in streamlined underwater bodies that provide a generous rudder-like effect under straight-ahead sailing. Result? No separate rudders are required. On bigger vessels though, it may be necessary to install a conventional rudder, but, as Rolls-Royce pointed out, that would depend on factors such as the properties of the hull and the steering mechanisms employed. Demonstrating the importance of integrating the steering function into hull design according to the operator’s specific needs, the ferries have a designed draught of just 5.5 m, so the underwater equipment can be located at a safe distance from the harbour bottom. A lot of computational fluid dynamics went into these ferries. The Promas system, which combines the propeller, a hubcap, rudder bulb and the rudder into a single unit, has a five-bladed propeller that reduces cavitation, which in


IMO’s regulations recognise the stresses and strains that are routinely imposed on the main steering gear, and the body sets specific tests to ensure they are up to the job. For instance, the system including the rudder stock should be capable of steering 35° on one side to 35° on


Van der Velden Marine Systems designed Timon for manoeuvrability among higher-speed vessels

turn makes the rudder more efficient. And the spade rudder features a Costa bulb and a twisted leading edge so that the energy of swirling water in the propeller’s slipstream is recovered and converted into extra forward thrust. Rolls-Royce claims an increase in propulsive efficiency of up to 8% from the Promas configuration.

Bow power

It is blowing hard and the wind is turning the side of the container ship into a sail as it approaches the berth. The rudder is struggling to counteract the force of the wind. That is when a bowmounted rudder system comes into its own. Developed specifically for vessels with large wind surface areas, it helps greatly in specific situations such as on winding rivers, particularly those passing through flat and exposed country, and in buffeting cross winds. Van der Velden Marine Systems has developed the RMS 2000 rotor bow rudder system for just such occasions. Quick-acting, the system allows the crew to steer from port to starboard in a few seconds. There are other bow rudder systems, but in shallow waters the RMS 2000 has the particular advantage that the rotor automatically retracts if the vessel runs aground. Technically speaking, the rotor bow rudder system is based on the Magnus effect, whereby a pressure differential is generated by placing a rotating cylinder in oncoming water currents. The result is a thrust force that is larger than a conventional rudder, enabling muchimproved manoeuvrability. It may not grab all the headlines, but constant innovation like this is keeping rudder design at the forefront of propulsion technology. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018


HVO biofuel: emissions ‘dramatically reduced’ A reluctance to risk reliability in favour of new technology has not prevented Red Funnel from trialling an exciting new biofuel


Snapshot CV

Kevin George (Red Funnel) Kevin George was appointed chairman of Red Funnel Group in January 2018, having spent the four previous years as the ferry operator’s chief executive. An engineer by training, he has over 30 years of experience in the transport sector. Roles have spanned senior management within companies including British Airways and Monarch Airlines. In December 2015, he was appointed chairman of industry body Discover Ferries.

K ferry operator Red Funnel recently trialled a biofuel consisting of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), and its chairman Kevin George said that the initial results were positive. Mr George noted that the Isle of Wight ferry operator is “actively watching” developments in propulsion and renewable power as its thoughts turn to renewing some of its fleet in the mid-2020s. But despite the push within some parts of the ferry sector to use alternative power, he expressed caution. “We are monitoring [renewable sources of power] closely but because reliability is such a fundamental part of our service offering we are fairly reluctant to get involved with technology that does not have some degree of maturity.” Which in part explains why, when Cammell Laird shipyard started construction in June this year on Red Funnel’s new roro ferry Red Kestrel, the operator chose to stick with conventional diesel, due to emerging technologies being a “long way yet from maturity”. Mr George said “We have no desire to be at the leading edge of technology and reliability is more important to us.” However, despite exercising some caution when it comes to using alternative power, the company has been exploring the use of a biofuel based on HVO. Earlier this year Red Funnel trialled Green Biofuels’ Green D+ fossil-free fuel on its ropax fleet of ships, operating between Southampton and the Isle of Wight. Green D+ fuel is formulated by Green

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

Biofuels using a patented performance additive to HVO renewable diesel. The HVO is produced by Neste in Europe from waste and residue materials (for example, used cooking oil and waste fats from the food processing industry) as well as plant oils such as palm oil and rapeseed oil. The waste oil is recycled back into fuel, eliminating the dangers of inefficient and often dangerous disposal, or its re-use in the food chain. The aim of the trial - which powered the main engines and onboard generators - was to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Mr George explained that the emissions monitoring involved using pure marine gasoil (MGO), a 50:50 mix of MGO and Green D+ and 100% Green D+. He said that the “beauty of HVO is that it is a direct replacement for diesel and can be mixed with diesel.” The trial showed that the use of HVO had led to no degradation in the engines of the ferries. Red Funnel is still analysing the emissions results, but Mr George said “Without question, emissions were dramatically reduced”. He added “It is very early days and HVO is quite expensive at this point, but I think that if there was mass production of it then at that point it would be economically more viable than it is at the moment.” He highlighted the importance of carrying out the trial: “While we had been reassured this fuel would work, we wanted to test it ourselves and initial indications from an emissions perspective are very encouraging. It is now an economic case of how to go forward with it.” MP


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How to prepare for the sulphur cap? ‘Just embrace it’ As the cap on sulphur in fuel draws near, Veritas Petroleum Services (VPS) business development head Paul Parkinson told shipowners to take practical and philosophical steps to prepare for the inevitable challenges


t’s a difficult environment for everybody and I feel the pain too,” Mr Parkinson told the Sulphur Cap 2020 Conference in Amsterdam, talking about the new regulations that are foremost on the minds of almost every industry participant at the moment. “There will be a wider range of fuels and oils and abatement technologies available, so there will be lots of things for you people to think about,” he said. For shipowners trying to decide whether to change the fuel or the equipment on board, Mr Parkinson said he could not provide a “magic bullet” solution and said every shipowner must evaluate the merits of each existing solution based on the criteria of price, availability, and effectiveness. A key challenge for owners involves managing the changing fuels and lubricants market, given many fleets are equipped with engines designed to handle higher-sulphur fuel. Mr Parkinson is concerned that many engines suffer from being too acidic or too alkaline and the requirement to reduce sulphur emissions will have an impact on engine pH in any compliance scenario. “Whatever the [chosen] solution, it will have an effect on the lubricants, and that is

“ Paul Parkinson (VPS): Don’t be frightened [of the sulphur cap], just embrace it

“An organisation’s operating system needs to address the challenges produced by mounting complexity and rapid change”


where I come in,” he said. Most modern, two-stroke engines have been designed to operate on high-sulphur residual fuels. Consequently, the cylinder oils recommended to lubricate those engines have a high base number to counteract the acidity that results from a combustion process that creates sulphuric acid as a by-product. If the base number is too low, that acid is not neutralised, causing added wear for liners and piston rings (from the acid’s corrosive effect on iron). However, a vessel using low or ultra-low sulphur fuel – as many will be when the sulphur cap comes into effect – will produce less sulphuric acid during the combustion process and will need a lubricant with a lower base number. If the base number of the cylinder oil is too high, it could create an alkaline environment, resulting in the formation of alkali metal compounds, such as calcium carbonate, that can also damage engines. Addressing this issue, Mr Parkinson said: “Lubricants can be an aid to identify potential problems and areas to improve and help to formulate a solution... Oil condition monitoring can be a mechanism to help with the challenges of this change.” With so many decisions to

make and so many potential pitfalls to navigate, Mr Parkinson worries that it could be difficult for shipowners to maintain threads of continuity within their respective businesses. Citing change-management guru John Kotter, Mr Parkinson said minimising the negative impacts stemming from the sulphur cap required a management philosophy that addressed both change and continuity. In Harvard Business Review (2012) Mr Kotter wrote “The existing structures and processes that together form an organisation’s operating system need to have an additional element to address the challenges that are produced by mounting complexity and rapid change.” And, according to Mr Parkinson, there is plenty of opportunity for those brave enough to address the challenge head on. “Ultimately, you want to protect your assets, you need to comply with legislation, and you have businesses to run and you have to save money,” he said. “Don’t be frightened, just embrace it. I know that is easy for me to say because I do not manage fleets of vessels, but [the sulphur cap] is happening and I think it is a great opportunity to embrace that change and decide what is best for you.” MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018


Cause and effect When a series of fuel burn issues began affecting vessels, VPS set to work identifying the cause


n 26 April 2018, Veritas Petroleum Services (VPS) issued a fleet-wide Bunker Alert. It had identified multiple vessels that had been affected by sticking fuel plungers, fuel-pump seizures and other failures when burning fuel oil bunkered in Houston, Texas. The problem was known to be widespread and not limited to any particular supplier or barge; rather it was likely a potential upstream production or refinery issue, with the cause unknown. After the initial Alert, the problem grew to affect at least 30 vessels in the VPS Fuel Analysis Programme, making it one of the most widespread fuel quality issues of recent years. Locating the source of the contaminant was a complex issue, with VPS’ statistics showing eight suppliers and 17 bunker tankers in the chain of supply. VPS stationed a task-force across its laboratories, which undertook detailed forensic analysis of numerous samples from a range of vessels. It was critical

The analytical investigation conducted by VPS identified the contaminant and highlighted its potential effect

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | June/July 2018

that VPS identify which components were common to all the fuel samples and which had those physical properties capable of causing the problems experienced on board its clients’ vessels. The standard test methods within the ISO 8217 specification gave no clues to the underlying problem; it was necessary then to utilise additional VPS proprietary test methods to identify the cause. By applying its in-house acid extraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method, phenolic compounds were identified as being present in each of the samples taken from vessels experiencing problems. The phenolic compound of highest concentration in all samples was 4-Cumyl-Phenol (CAS No. 599-64-4) - full name Phenol, 4-(1-methly-1-phenylethyl) - in the concentration range of 300 ppm to 1,000 ppm. VPS also identified high-boiling carboxylic acids (fatty acids) in some samples, but these were present at much lower levels. 4-Cumyl-Phenol has many industrial uses, including the manufacture of epoxy resins and as an emulsifier in pesticides, both of which utilise its adhesive (sticky) qualities.  Historical cross-checking of the VPS database highlighted numerous cases, dating back to 2007, where VPS had identified fuels containing phenolic compounds that had caused damage to fuel pumps and injectors, similar to the problems identified in this recent contamination scenario. The company also noted cases involving increased sediment levels at separators and filters and in some cases completely clogged filters. The presence of this contaminant is in violation of Clause 5 of ISO 8217 which states: “The fuel should not include any added substance or chemical waste which jeopardises the safety or adversely affects the performance of the machinery; or is harmful to personnel; or contributes overall to additional air pollution.” The analytical forensic investigation conducted by VPS will provide shipowners and operators with evidence of the presence and concentration of a phenolic compound within the fuel they bunkered. MP


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Marine Propulsion June/July 2018  

The Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery bi-monthly magazine provides all interested parties with a complete digest of all the latest dev...

Marine Propulsion June/July 2018  

The Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery bi-monthly magazine provides all interested parties with a complete digest of all the latest dev...