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contents

February/March 2018 volume 40 issue 1

5 COMMENT 7 ON THE AGENDA 8 BRIEFING 69 POWERTALK 72 BUNKER BULLETIN

Ship type: Container Ships

11

11 Vessel Profile: MOL’s design Triumph 15 Box ship charterers and 2020 drive scrubber surge 16 Scrubbers pose corrosion concerns 17 Class societies push digitisation

Yard profile 19 Containership trio highlight upturn in activity at Gibdock

Enginebuilder profile 20 Yanmar launches world’s smallest CR inboard diesel

Container handling equipment 33

23 Strainstall weighs in on contract; New lift creates new possibilities 24 Could hackers sink container vessels? 25 MacGregor to optimise container stowage efficiency on MSC vessels 26 Composites cover new ground

OEM profile 28 MAN embraces change 33 Conversions dominate LNG strategy; Part-load optimisation delivers fuel savings

Two-stroke engines 39 Laser technology dramatically increases piston life 40 Wärtsilä extends its service agreement with WinGD; PrimeServ Signs maintenance agreement with Arkas

55

Four-stroke engines 43 MaK M 25 E receives IMO Tier III certification

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Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


contents Trouble Spot 44 Poor maintenance poses greatest engine threat

Propulsion Packages 46 Technology unveiled for cleaner and optimised propulsion

Gearboxes

February/March 2018 volume 40 issue 1 Editor: Paul Fanning t: +44 20 8370 1737 e: paul.fanning@rivieramm.com Brand Manager – Sales: Tom Kenny t: +44 7432 156 339 e: tom.kenny@rivieramm.com

49 Workboats drive gearbox development 50 Gearboxes notch up three decades of continuous use

Sales Manager: Rob Gore t: +44 20 8370 7007 e: rob.gore@rivieramm.com

Shafting, Couplings & Dampers

Sales: Paul Dowling t: +44 20 8370 7014 e: paul.dowling@rivieramm.com

52 Alignment technology keeps research vessel straight

Seals & Bearings 55 EALs come under scrutiny for sterntube bearing failures

Remote Monitoring 58 Monitoring drives push for autonomy

Condition & Performance Monitoring 60 Hull data analysis pushes up performance 62 Monitoring technology gains ground 65 ABB opens first Chinese Collaborative Operation Center

Next issue Market analysis: Gas carriers Alternative & secondary propulsion: Waterjets; Thrusters Electric & Hybrid systems: Switchboards; Energy storage Also: Gas turbines LNG: Cryogenic engineering & equipment; Fuelling & bunkering Auxiliary systems: Emissions control; Heat exchangers; Generators

Sales: Jo Lewis t: +44 20 8370 7793 e: jo.lewis@rivieramm.com Head of Sales – Asia: Kym Tan t: +65 9456 3165 e: kym.tan@rivieramm.com Group Production Manager: Mark Lukmanji t: +44 20 8370 7019 e: mark.lukmanji@rivieramm.com Chairman: John Labdon Managing Director: Steve Labdon Finance Director: Cathy Labdon Operations Director: Graham Harman Head of Content: Edwin Lampert Executive Editor: Paul Gunton Head of Production: Hamish Dickie Business Development Manager: Steve Edwards Published by: Riviera Maritime Media Ltd Mitre House 66 Abbey Road Enfield EN1 2QN UK

www.rivieramm.com ISSN 1742-2825 (Print) ISSN 2051-056X (Online) ©2018 Riviera Maritime Media Ltd

Subscribe from just £299 Subscribe now and receive six issues of Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery every year and get even more: • supplements: Marine Propulsion Product Guide, Worldwide Turbocharger Guide, Fuels, Lubes and Emissions Technology and Ballast Water Treatment Technology • access the latest issue content via your digital device • free industry yearplanner including key dates • access to www.mpropulsion.com and its searchable archive. Subscribe online: www.mpropulsion.com

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Total average net circulation: 11,000 Period: January-December 2018

Disclaimer: Although every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this publication is correct, the Author and Publisher accept no liability to any party for any inaccuracies that may occur. Any third party material included with the publication is supplied in good faith and the Publisher accepts no liability in respect of content. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, reprinted or stored in any electronic medium or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission of the copyright owner.

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COMMENT | 5

CARRIAGE BAN BOOSTS CASE FOR SCRUBBERS I Paul Fanning, Editor

n February, IMO agreed draft amendments to MARPOL Annex VI that would prohibit the carriage of fuel oil “used or carried for use on board ships” when that fuel oil is not compliant with the 0.5% global sulphur limit that comes into force from 2020. The move, which has been taken with the intention of making non-compliance with the regulations more difficult to get away with, has generally been welcomed by the shipping industry, who see it as supporting reputable operators and ensuring a level playing field. However, the other implications of this move are made apparent by the fact that the draft amendments include an exception

for ships fitted with an approved “equivalent arrangement” to meet the sulphur limit – such as an exhaust gas cleaning system or ‘scrubber’.” On the face of it, this gives a major boost to the argument in favour of installing scrubbers, since it will mean demand for non-compliant fuel will be strictly limited to those vessels fitted with scrubbers. This in turn may mean an even lower price for residual fuel and potentially even greater savings for those with scrubbers. What cannot be in any doubt is that this move puts the ball firmly in the court of fuel producers to offer compliant fuels at prices that can compete with the potential dividends offered by scrubbers.

Shipping’s digital skills challenge The unstoppable march of digitalisation has been a subject I have consistently returned to in my comments as editor of Marine Propulsion. The reasons for this are clear. Digitalisation, automation and other ‘smart’ technologies are having – and will continue to have – a profound effect on the shipping industry. As such, they cannot be overemphasised in any serious discussion of the modern marine sphere. Most agree that, within a few short years, we will see remote monitoring, diagnostics

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and operation becoming the norm, while the advent of autonomous commercial vessels won’t be far behind. All these technologies exist and their existence is already changing how shipping works. This is accepted – albeit grudgingly in some quarters – by the industry as a whole. Indeed, shipowners are starting to invest in these technologies with a view to keeping up with the pace of change. Where there is often a lack of investment, however, is in the personnel who will

be needed to co-ordinate this aspect of shipowners’ operations in the coming years and decades. How many shipowners have a team – or even an individual – dedicated to the digital aspect of their operations and with the expertise to understand and exploit the possibilities offered by these technologies? As stated before, digitalisation is changing shipping – and that means that the skills the industry requires are changing, too. Shipowners need to recognise this or risk falling behind. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


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ON THE AGENDA | 7

IMO TO PROHIBIT ‘NON-COMPLIANT’ FUEL POST-2020

I

MO agreed draft amendments on 9 February to MARPOL Annex VI that would prohibit the carriage of fuel oil “used or carried for use on board ships” when that fuel oil is not compliant with the 0.5% global sulphur limit that comes into force from 2020. But there will be an exception for ships fitted with an approved “equivalent arrangement” to meet the sulphur limit – such as an exhaust gas cleaning system (EGCS) or ‘scrubber’. The agreement came at the end of the fifth meeting of IMO’s Sub-Committee on Pollution Prevention and Response (PPR 5) but the clause’s final wording was yet to be finalised as the meeting came to a close. Some national delegations and the representative from the International Bunker Industry Association commented on the potential confusion for tankers, such as bunker barges, that carry fuel oil as cargo, rather than for their own use. Subcommittee chairman Sveinung Oftedal closed the discussion saying that IMO’s secretariat would “clean up” the text to resolve that point. The proposed draft amendments will be passed to the Marine Environment

Protection Committee’s 72nd meeting (MEPC 72) in April for its urgent consideration and, if the text is approved by that meeting, the guidelines could be adopted at MEPC 73 in October and could enter into force on 1 March 2020, two months after the 0.50% limit comes into effect. The sulphur limit within emission control areas remains at 0.1%. It is Regulation 14.1.3 of Annex VI that sets out the 0.50% regulation and PPR 5’s Working Group on Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships had been tasked

with developing guidelines for consistent implementation of that regulation. In its report to the sub-committee, the working group presented draft guidelines and proposed that they be developed further at an intercessional meeting for finalisation at PPR 6 and approval by MEPC 74 in the first half of 2019. Some delegations suggested that this would be too late for the guidelines to have any practical value and asked that the draft guidelines go direct to MEPC 73 instead of returning to PPR. IMO’s assistant secretary-general, Dr Stefan Micallef – appointed at the start of this year – advised that a clause in IMO’s guidelines covering how the MEPC and its subsidiary bodies, such as PPR, work allows that “if circumstances and time constraints so dictate, [working groups] may submit their reports direct to committees if authorised to do so by the parent body.” As a result, and subject to approval by MEPC 72, the draft guidelines will, unusually, be sent direct to MEPC 73 for review and adoption.

IMO’s PPR 5 sub-committee agreed to prohibit carriage of non-compliant fuel, unless a ship is fitted with a scrubber (credit: IMO)

Ballast type-approvals to list design limitations Draft guidance on system design limitations (SDLs) of ballast water management systems (BWMSs) was agreed on 9 February by IMO’s Sub-Committee on Pollution Prevention and Response (PPR 5). It will now be submitted to the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) at its 73rd meeting, scheduled for 22-26 October. The guidance establishes a common approach to describing operational limitations “with a view to increasing global consistency in the application of SDL and the implementation of self-monitoring,” according to its preamble. It is set out in an annex to a report prepared while PPR 5 was in session by its working group on Ballast Water Management and Anti-fouling Systems. If the guidance is approved by MEPC 73, administrations will include a system’s SDLs on its type-approval certificate, listed

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under the heading “This equipment has been designed for operation in the following conditions.” The manufacturer would have to integrate the SDLs into the self-monitoring system of the BWMS “where appropriate and practical”. The guidance defines SDLs as “the physical and/or operational limitations inherent in the design of the BWMS itself, as opposed to the minimum criteria within the 2016 Guidelines (G8).” It clarifies that “the term does not refer to regulatory restrictions on when the BWMS may or may not be used.” It explains that an approved BWMS “might not be appropriate for all ships or all situations” and notes that “some ships need assurances that BWMS will be capable of operating in conditions that are more challenging than those included in the standardised tests.” MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


8 | BRIEFING

Harnessing digitalisation to ease MRV reporting What does EU MRV mean for the industry?

EU MRV is one of the major environmental regulations currently facing the marine industry, applying to merchant ships larger than 5,000 gt. All shipowners and operators will have to monitor and report the verified amount of CO2 emitted by their vessels on voyages to, from and between EU ports. Furthermore, the monitored emissions must be reported to the European Commission (EC), which will make reported and verified emissions along with related data on energy efficiency publicly available for the first monitoring period on 30 June, 2019. Ships will also be required to carry a statement of compliance confirming that data for the preceding year was reported and verified. EU MRV should be considered just the first step of regulation. In recent years IMO member states have made significant progress towards addressing emissions from international shipping. Using data from the IMO CO2 data collection system, which is expected to record CO2 emissions data across the global fleet, IMO plans to institute CO2 reduction objectives for the entire shipping sector. This change will introduce a whole new set of data gathering and reporting needs.

With the MRV deadline in June 2019, Eniram offers some ways in which digitalisation can be used to ease the process

What other effects will be seen?

enforcing compliance. At a minimum, any service for MRV reporting should simplify the process for users of entering data and forwarding it to verifiers and ultimately the EC. Ultimately, such a service would automate as many functions as possible in order to limit workload and remove the potential for human error. All information should be stored and available for checking.

How can a digital reporting system improve performance?

Currently, regulation and reporting is largely viewed in terms of cost as at the very minimum, personnel must be assigned to gather and process the required information. However, putting systems in

place to automatically gather data for MRV reporting can also be seen as a first step towards digitalisation, allowing industry players to achieve new levels of performance. Furthermore, the monitored emissions must be reported to the EC, which will make reported and verified emissions along with related data on energy efficiency publicly available for the first monitoring period. Transparency of information has historically been lacking in the marine industry. Requests for information can take days as they travel up and down the chain, even in emergency situations. With digitalisation, the information gathered for reporting – at a minimum, ship location, speed, and fuel

Digitalisation allows operators to benchmark performance across the fleet and take action where needed to optimise a vessel’s speed against its fuel consumption. This optimisation can lead to fuel consumption savings of as much as 10% while also reducing CO2 emissions. Increased transparency also helps increase asset reliability. On a practical level this means that tasks like hull cleaning can be optimised based on actual vessel performance and maintenance can be carried out at the optimal time. With the ability to monitor fuel consumption, speed, and real-time weather conditions against the charter party agreement for the entire duration of the voyage, charterers and owners are able to create better agreements based on actual data. MP

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Automating as much of the MRV monitoring and reporting process as possible will be a leap forward not just in reducing the administrative burden, but also in avoiding red tape in monitoring and

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Knowledge grows

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VESSEL PROFILE | 11

MOL’s design

Triumph MOL Triumph is one of the largest box ships ever built but it has much more to boast about than that

ABOVE: MOL Triumph shares the same overall dimensions as a standard 18,000 TEU ship, despite having capacity for 20,170 TEU

www.mpropulsion.com

W

hen MOL Triumph, was named on 15 March last year, during a ceremony held at the Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI) Shipyard, it became the first in a series of four 20,000 TEU container ships for Japanese line Mitsui OSK Lines (MOL). It has since been deployed on The Alliance FE2 service and calls at Dalian, Qingdao, Shanghai, Ningbo, Hong Kong, Yantian, Singapore, Tangier Med,

Southampton, Hamburg, Rotterdam and Le Havre. Its building contract, announced in March 2015, had followed a flurry of new box ship orders from the world’s top container lines and the industry was rife with speculation about a major order from MOL. Its president Koti Muto had announced during a New Year message that the line had already taken steps to begin operating a 20,000 TEU ship

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


12 | VESSEL PROFILE

and, less than three months later, the company revealed its deal for four of them – the largest ever ordered at that time. It also signed an MOU for a long-term charter for two more with Shoei Kisen Kaisha. These additional two vessels will be built in Japan by Imabari Shipbuilding. According to SHI, when the ship was delivered MOL hailed its performance for zeroincident construction during the 15 months since steel cutting began in January 2016.

EFFICIENT LOADING

MOL Triumph’s precise capacity is 20,170 TEU, yet it shares the same overall

dimensions as a standard 18,000 TEU ship. It has an overall length of 400 m, which – when space for the accommodation, funnel casing and lashing bridges is taken into account – allows for 24 x 40 ft container bays, which are divided into eight bays forward of the bridge, 11 bays between accommodation and funnel and five aft of the funnel. It is 58.8 m wide, allowing 23 rows of containers to be loaded across the deck. A maximum of nine tiers can be loaded forward of the bridge, with 11 tiers possible on all bays behind the bridge due to the installation of four high lashing gantries.

MAIN SUPPLIERS

MOL Triumph

Ade Valve Boll & Kirch Filterbau Doosan Engine Furuno German Lashing Hi Air Korea Hisaka Works

20,170 containership Full spade twisted rudder - The adoption of the twisted leading edge and the bulb with round-shaped centre front, placed in front of the rudder ensures vortex energy recovery of the propeller slipstream

Highly efficient propellers - Optimised angle of the propeller blade tips increases propeller efficiency by about 1%

Easy-to-retrofit SOx scrubber - Other than allowing the option of using LNG as a fuel, MOL is carrying out a feasibility study to allow retrofitting of an SOx scrubber

Rectifier fin - By optimising the flow of the water coming into the propellers, energy savings of 1.52% are expected

All lashing gantries and container securing equipment are supplied by German Lashing. Below deck, its depth of 32.8 m makes MOL Triumph the first ultra large container ship (ULCS) able to load 12 tiers of containers below deck. In line with MOL’s EcoSailing Initiative MOL Triumph has been designed to be more fuel efficient and has been equipped with an array of highly advanced energysaving technology developed by SHI (see box). Main propulsion is provided by an electronically controlled MAN Diesel & Turbo 12-cylinder G95MEC9.2-TII engine, which has

KTMI Kuraray LEMAG MAN B&W MAN SE Nabtesco NK Co OSRAM

Fixed water monitor for On-deck container firefighting - Big water cannons are equipped on the bridge and each of the funnel tops for on-deck firefighting

Ballast water treatment system - The system meets the requirements of the Ballast Water Management Convention

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

a maximum power output of 81,310 kW. This engine is the largest and most powerful engine that MAN Diesel & Turbo has designed and built and was manufactured under license by Doosan Engine in South Korea. It has been specified to give MOL the option of converting the ship to LNG fuel in the future and, ahead of its delivery in April, MOL announced that DNV GL had issued an Approval In Principle for the design of an LNG-powered 20,000 TEU container ship. It drives a single 10 m fivebladed fixed pitch propeller giving a maximum speed of 24 kts. To assist with manoeuvring

A retrofit option for LNG fuel - MOL is carrying out a feasibility study to allow the ship to run on LNG fuel so as to limit SOx emissions

Stromag Survitec Task Force Tips Tokyo Keiki Towimor Ushio Reinetso Co WISKA Yone Corporation

Low friction hull paint - The paint significantly reduces drag and improves fuel efficiency

Optimised hull form - Design refinements in the bow and stern of the hull, and the optimised bulbous bow shape are expected to realise a 4.5% boost in fuel efficiency

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VESSEL PROFILE | 13

in port, two tunnel thrusters with controllable pitch propellers are installed in the bow with a maximum output of 2,500 kW each. During construction, MOL and SHI developed a basic plan to evaluate the ship’s performance when in service and jointly carry out a hazard identification study to check its compliance with IMO’s new regulations which seek to limit SOx emission from marine fuels and which will come into effect in 2020. MOL has carried out a feasibility study into retrofitting an SOx scrubber and its funnel has been designed to allow that to be easily done. Fire originating from a

container is a serious risk facing modern container ships – the most recent indecent was in April 2017 on board MSC Daniella, showed how quickly a fire can can get out of control – and MOL has clearly taken this risk into account. MOL Triumph is unique in that it has two fixed water monitors supplied by Task Force Tips installed for on-deck container firefighting. One unit is fitted to a specially-built platform installed on the port side of the funnel and the second is on the top of the bridge island facing forward. The monitors each have a 360° movement with a maximum operating pressure of 28 bar.

PRINCIPAL PARTICULARS

Length: 399.8 m Beam: 58.8 m Draught: 16 m Gross register: 210,678 gt Main engine: MAN B&W G95ME-C9.2-TII Bow thrusters: 2 x 2,500 kW Container Capacity: 20,170 TEU

MOL TRIUMPH’S ENERGYSAVING FEATURES Samsung Heavy Industries has included some energy-saving features into MOL Triumph, which MOL said are designed to achieve more efficient fuel consumption and an improved eco-environment balance. Their combined effect can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions per container moved by about 25-30%, compared to 14,000 TEU class container ships. These include the Saver stator. Specially developed by SHI, these fins located ahead of the propeller are designed to improve the flow of water coming into the propeller by generating a reverse-direction circular flow. MOL Triumph is the first vessel to have this installed and SHI is measuring its effectiveness to extend the usage of Saver Stator. MP

Reefer Capacity 1,500 Flag state: Marshall Islands IMO No 9769271 Classification Society: Lloyd’s Register Builder: Samsung Heavy Industries, South Korea Hull No 2167 Delivered: 15 March 2017

MOL’s vessels compared MOL TRIUMPH

400m

Over 20,000 TEU • Year built: 2017

MOL QUEST

368m

Over 14,000 TEU • Year built: 2013

MOL CELEBRATION

316m

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Over 8,000 TEU • Year built: 2008

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


CONTAINER SHIPS | 15

Box ship charterers and 2020 drive scrubber surge Suppliers see the container ship sector as where the next surge of orders will come from. Rebecca Moore speaks to key manufacturers to find out why

C

Yara Marine Technologies chief executive Peter Strandberg (left) and Jüngerhans fleet engineering manager Olrik Wöhlert announce a scrubber contract for four feeder vessels

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ontainer shipping is the next large vessel segment expected to experience a large take-up of scrubbers (following the cruise sector), Yara Marine Technologies chief sales and marketing officer Kai Latun told Marine Propulsion. He said the drivers for this include IMO’s confirmation last October to implement 2020 as the date for its 0.5% global sulphur cap as well as a desire to be environmentally friendly. “Some container ship operators are really willing and have the ability to look at quite significant investments in the interest of the environment,” he said. In particular, several of the larger container owners “are not just driven by IMO [requirements] but by a genuine interest in protecting the environment.” Mr Latun said that competition was tough in the industry and that many shipowners have a challenge in funding a scrubber investment. “However at some point soon the charterers will

realise the fuel cost savings scrubber systems generate and start giving preference to vessels with scrubbers. This will be a market driver and can also generate new funding models for shipowners.” Yara Marine is working on projects for several ultra large container owners but at the time of writing in late September was unable to give names. In November last year it announced that it had scooped a contract for the supply of scrubber systems on four container feeder vessels that will be operated by German ship manager Jüngerhans Maritime Services. Those four newbuilds, currently under construction at Zhoushan Changhong International Shipyard in Zhoushan China, will have scrubber systems installed in full compliance with IMO’s new SOx regulation that will be implemented from 2020. With Yara Marine scrubber systems installed, the container feeders can operate on heavy fuel oil with a sulphur

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


16 | CONTAINER SHIPS

content up to 3.5%. They will be delivered from Q4 this year. Mr Latun said that the smaller container feeder vessel segment was a good fit for scrubbers as in many cases they are “small vessels that are running fast with large engines.” He commented that this made a “good business case”. CR Ocean Engineering (CROE) is also targeting the container sector. CROE president and chief operating officer Nicholas Confuorto told Marine Propulsion “Last year was very quiet in terms of scrubber orders. But once the IMO decision was made, people started to take action.” He warned that operators need to act now if they want to have a scrubber installed in time for January 2020 “If they don’t have a shipyard visit booked before then, they need to act fast.” He said that the company was seeing a number of proposals to combine a scrubber retrofit into alreadyplanned work to complete all

the work in a single drydocking. He said that it made “all the sense in the world” for container ships to deploy scrubbers due to the economics of their size, but there are some challenges. “The size of the scrubber is very large because the engines are very large, so there is more complexity in terms of installation and how to get them board.” For the past few years, CROE has dedicated a team to focus on its scrubbing system’s automating and controls. “It is already significantly automated but we are looking at making it even more automated. We want to make it simpler for operators” explained Mr Confuorto. He singled out one example: the company is considering a request from a vessel operator to connect the scrubbers’ start-up and shut-down directly to the main engines’ operation so that operators do not have to initiate its start/stop routine by pressing additional buttons.

Snapshot CV Nick Confuorto (CROE)

Nicholas Confuorto is the president and chief operations officer for CR Ocean Engineering. He is also a founding member and the chairman of the Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems Association. Since receiving his engineering degree from Columbia University in 1976, Mr Confuorto has focused his career in the field of environmental controls and has held high level positions at some of the most respected corporate names in the global air pollution controls industry.

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

The large size of scrubber needed for a boxship makes the installation more complex (Credit: CR Ocean Engineering)

Mr Confuorto commented “This is doable, the automation already exists in our system and registers the engine signals, we just have to make the connection active so that the scrubbers start and stop based on these signals.” This will take away the risk of someone forgetting to turn

on the scrubber (leading to illegal exhaust gas emissions) and could lead to wasted energy by continuing to pump water through a scrubber that should have been turned off. “It takes the decision from a person’s hands and means that it will run at optimal performance,” he said.

Scrubbers pose corrosion concerns Scrubbers “face extremely harsh conditions” when it comes to corrosion, Yara Marine Technologies chief sales and marketing officer Kai Latun told Marine Propulsion. “Some of the earlier scrubbers may not be up to the corrosion challenges and I am afraid that the scrubber industry may see some noise around that,” he commented. Those early installations may have used cheaper materials that were more susceptible to corrosion, he explained. Highlighting the challenge, he said that in 2012 Yara placed test strips of “even quite sophisticated” materials in the scrubber system installed on Royal Caribbean’s Liberty of the Seas. After only a few thousand operating hours, the strips were sent off for corrosion testing and traces of corrosion were found. The system itself has been working fine with no corrosion damage since the installation, he added. “The basis for us is not to compromise on materials,” Mr Latun said, pointing out that a scrubber needs to last the lifetime of the ship so Yara’s scrubbers are made from a very tough high nickel alloy that won’t corrode. MP

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CONTAINER SHIPS | 17

Class societies push digitisation C

lass societies have increasingly focused on digitisation and there is now a range of new digital solutions that will benefit container ship operators. Among the technologies they cover are the EU’s MRV regulation, streamlining hulls and monitoring vessel performance. First up, NYK and DNV GL have unveiled the first results of an ongoing maritime data centre pilot project. Their collaboration, which is supported by engine manufacturer MAN Diesel & Turbo, started in November 2015. Since then, four NYK container vessels have been uploading operational data to DNV GL’s Veracity platform, which was created to track vessel performance and support condition-based monitoring. An extensive amount of engine data has been collected for use in vessel performance analysis and in a condition-based maintenance and survey scheme. This pilot project was run in several phases. The first phase was to build the required components, such as those needed for data collection and data management. The second phase focuses on testing data quality, security, access rights and collection of data for applications such as predictive maintenance and vessel performance. And the third phase is piloting new digital business models. DNV GL maritime chief executive Knut Ørbeck-Nilssen said that the pilot project has also been a “valuable test bed” for data standardisation and data quality, including collection of the data for further use. As part of the pilot project, a hierarchical data model was developed, creating a digital twin – a cloud-based virtual image of a physical asset – which links sensor signals from equipment on board the vessels to support both simple queries and advanced analytics. Machine-learning algorithms evaluate the data quality in terms of its uniqueness, completeness and a variety of other parameters. By drilling down into the data,

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Knut Ørbeck-Nilssen (DNV GL): The pilot project has also been a “valuable test bed“

a ship manager can see if all sensors on board are working properly and easily identify non-performing sensors which may lead to low data quality or missing data during a voyage. NYK Group technology division senior general manager Hideyuki Ando told Marine Propulsion “We believe that our data will drive innovative research and with DNV GL’s platform we hope to work with universities and maritime institutes [on the data].” He expects it will reveal that some ships are more efficient than others and help NYK bring them into line. Mr Ando added: “The data will also help NYK optimise fleet operations, including looking at [fleet] scheduling and at which vessels to put in which services.” Elsewhere, ClassNK has released a new version of PrimeShip-Hull for container carriers. As a design support tool, this greatly benefits shipyards and designers by streamlining their design process and ensuring that designs are structurally sound. It was launched to support shipyards and designers as they are burdened with ever more complex designs and

The digitisation trend has strengthened with a raft of new software launched by class societies that helps box ship operators to increase operational efficiency and meet new environmental legislation

calculations due to advances in container ship structures. The PrimeShip-Hull consists of two kinds of software: prescriptive calculation software and direct strength assessment software. The former enables designers to assess structural strength requirements such as yield and fatigue strength, along with longitudinal strength requirements. These enable yield strength and buckling strength assessments to be made, based on a finite-element (FE) model of a hold, and for the torsional strength on an entire ship to be discovered, based on its FE model. It makes the design process more efficient, contributes to reductions in design hours and minimises human error, ClassNK believes. As the shipping industry gears up for the start of the European Union’s MRV regulation, ABS is supporting compliance with the launch of ABS Nautical Systems Voyage Manager. It forms part of NS Enterprise, a comprehensive fleet management solution that covers assets, compliance, performance and workforce management. Voyage Manager is configured to suit a client’s EU MRV monitoring plan so that data can be submitted to a third-party verifier before the verified compliance data is automatically reported directly to flag state and EU authorities. This cloud-based subscription module also supports compliance with other environmental regulations. Chief operating officer and vice president of ABS Nautical Systems Stephen Schwarz told Marine Propulsion: “Client feedback has consistently indicated a mismatch between the desire to improve data quality from the ship and the availability of a single platform that can be used to analyse and deliver information for practical decision support.” He said that many owners and operators are collecting data but not all have the tools or in-house knowledge needed to analyse it or make informed decisions. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


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YARD PROFILE | 19

Containership trio highlight upturn in activity at Gibdock

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ibdock’s success in attracting German shipowners to its facilities for shiprepair work continues to grow, with three German containerships docking at the Gibraltar yard within a six-week period during the last quarter of 2017. The Peter Döhle-owned, 2,785 teu Rita, Ahrenkiel Steamship’s 1,300 TEU AS Fatima and the 3,091 TEU Louis S, owned by Schepers Rudolf Reederei, all spent time in drydock in the fourth quarter for varying maintenance and repair programmes. The 206 m long Rita was docked for 14 days in October, for a drydocking schedule that included a total of 11,000 m2 of hull treatment, with blasting over an area of 5,000 m2; repairs to the sea chests, tailshaft and liferaft cradles; and the removal of the vessel’s propellers and bow thrusters for overhauling in Gibdock’s well-equipped workshops. Shiprepair manager for the project Philip Tsankov said such extensive hull treatment work

The Gibraltar yard’s location and expertise are seeing it enjoy an upturn in repair work on container vessels

alongside other repairs needed careful planning. “The owner required a lot of work in a fairly short time scale and this was a challenge; we knew from the start there was no scope for delay. We planned the work around the hull treatment and the vessel was redelivered as agreed on time.” The 166 m long AS Fatima arrived in Gibraltar in late October and was primarily docked for work to address a stern tube issue. This required the yard to dismantle and remove the tailshaft and transport it to the workshop, where the propeller blades and blade carriers, as well as the propeller hub itself, were completely overhauled. During AS Fatima’s 21 day stay at the yard Gibdock also conducted a complete overhaul of the vessel’s

main engines. Schepers’ 220 m long Louis S was drydocked in the yard’s dock No 1 for around a week. The container vessel also came in with a stern tube issue, requiring the propeller unit to be dismantled. Ship manager, Juan Pinero, said “Gibdock needed to manufacture the specific tooling required for the dismantling work so the repairs could be undertaken.” Inside the workshop the Gibdock team worked on the propeller and overhauled the seals, and then re-fitted components before reinstallation onboard. The yard also washed and painted the vessel’s underwater hull. The visit of the three German owned containerships has been part of an encouraging general upturn in activity at the Gibraltar yard. John

Taylor, operations director, said “Business has been picking up and container vessel owners and operators have been attracted to the yard by our location, close to key trade lanes, as well as by our reputation for quality work and on-time delivery. Our regular ferry refit season starts soon, and we are getting more enquiries from the offshore market, so the first quarter of 2018 is already looking promising.” Gibdock can accommodate most vessel types trading in the Mediterranean and Atlantic regions. Facilities include three drydocks, with lengths of 154 m x 29 m, 184 m x 29 m and 272 m x 38 m. These are equipped with a total of 10 dock cranes with lift capacities up to 45 tonnes. The yard can also utilise its 300 m long Main Wharf quay and the 435 m long South Mole for alongside repairs. Its purpose-built fabrication area, Pad 1, is also in demand for retrofit scrubber installations, ballast water treatment retrofits and vessel modifications. MP

Gibdock can accommodate most vessel types trading in the Mediterranean and Atlantic regions

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Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


20 | ENGINEBUILDER PROFILE

Yanmar launches world’s smallest CR inboard diesel Japanese engine manufacturer Yanmar began 2018 by launching the latest addition to its family of new-generation common rail (CR) diesel engines, the compact Yanmar 3JH40 inboard engine

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anmar’s three-cylinder 3JH40 has been developed as the marine industry’s smallest common rail (CR) inboard diesel engine. It will enable a whole new category of commercial vessel operators to benefit for the first time from electronically managed CR fuel-injection technology. Offering minimal fuel consumption and exceptionally low noise and emission levels, the new Yanmar 3JH40 propulsion engine surpasses EPA Tier 3 emission regulations for virtually smokeand odour-free operation. The four-stroke, watercooled 3JH40 is described as an ideal solution for newbuilds and repowering applications, including lightduty commercial craft. Weighing 192 kg and with 1.642 litre displacement, the engine can be operated by either standard mechanical cable controls or the Yanmar VC10 electronic control system. Yanmar Marine International senior global sales manager

Floris Lettinga said “We have launched the new Yanmar 3JH40 to answer the demand for a smaller common rail engine suitable for a wide range of commercial and leisure applications. By strengthening our JH-CR range of models, we are very pleased to introduce the significant benefits associated with common rail technology to more owners and operators. It is clear from the extensive variety of new customers recently acquired that the Yanmar JH common rail range from 40 to 110 mhp has become the new global standard in sailboat propulsion.” Following the 2017 introduction of the 150, 170 and 195 mhp units in its new 4LV Series of CR engines, Yanmar is introducing two highest-power engines, the 230 and 250 mhp versions, to complete the fiveengine range. The 3,800 rpm 230 and 250 mhp models feature an increase in output and different turbo models from the first three 3,500 rpm units in Yanmar’s mid-section range of

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

leading diesels. Harnessing fuelinjection technology and demonstrating the Yanmar 5x best-in-class features, the new 4LV higher power engines have been designed for power recreational boating and small commercial craft applications. The engines incorporate the latest technology to enable extremely low vibration and noise levels for a smooth and quiet running engine. These include a counterbalance shaft and refined component design. Featuring a highlycompetitive power-to-weight ratio, the 4LV delivers a powerful low-end torque performance. The resulting acceleration, the company claims, sets these engines apart from others in their power range. Yanmar’s common rail engine range is complemented by a choice of controls, including the new JC20 joystick system for innovative manoeuvring solutions.

Yanmar is introducing the addition of the two highest power engines, the 230 and 250 mhp versions, to complete the five-engine range.

The JC20 has been available since February. It enables precise joystick manoeuvring for twin straight shaft-drive engine installations in combination with a bow thruster. The introduction of the JC20 completes Yanmar’s joystick control line up, which already features the 4JH80 SPP (steerable propulsion pod) joystick manoeuvring system for large sailing yachts, and the JC10 Joystick for twin sterndrive, all of which integrate directly with Yanmar engines. MP

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CONTAINER HANDLING EQUIPMENT | 23

CWS helps ensure compliance with IMO’s SOLAS amendment for the verification of container weights

Strainstall weighs in on contract Strainstall has secured a significant contract for its Container Weight System (CWS) with reach stacker original equipment manufacturer (OEM) Kalmar (part of Cargotec). Strainstall said that the contract cements its position in the container weighing systems market, which has been estimated to reach US$3.95Bn by 2022. The Kalmar reach stacker contract gives customers the choice of installing Strainstall’s CWS to ensure compliance with IMO’s Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) amendment for the verification of container weights, as a fully certified solution. Installing CWS during production helps to ensure SOLAS compliance and provides operators with a means of providing the verified gross mass (VGM) of containers. Kalmar Mobile Equipment product manager Mikael Andersson explained: "We’re pleased to be able to offer our customers a fully certified solution to determine container VGM for SOLAS compliance. Strainstall’s solution has demonstrated

high accuracy and is easily to install, providing useable VGM information as well identifying overloaded containers for the safety of operators.” Strainstall’s CWS integrates load monitoring technology onto container-handling equipment, such as reach stackers, delivering accurate weight verification data in real-time, as part of the regular lifting cycle, with no driver intervention required. Permanently installed on the reach stacker equipment, CWS has no consumable parts, ensuring minimal wear to help reduce operating costs, its manufacturer said. Strainstall managing director Simon Everett said: “We’re extremely pleased to have secured a major contract with a reach stacker OEM, in quick succession to EU approval for our container weighing system. This contract will give end users the choice to be able to provide VGM for their customers with no impact on their lifting operations.” CWS was specifically developed to meet the SOLAS container weight verification regulations, and has been successfully installed at a number of international container terminals, where the system has demonstrated its high accuracy.

New lift creates new possibilities Bison has launched the C-Lift P32, a portable container lift system that equips shipping, logistics and military operators to lift containers in any location. P32 is easily transported between sites, sets up in minutes and allows containers of all sizes and weights up to 32 tonnes to be lifted on and off trailers safely and efficiently. “A big challenge if you want to lift containers outside of a freight hub is finding suitable equipment to do the job,”

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said Bison chief executive Greg Fahey. “So often the size or weight of the container, space restrictions on site, or simply a lack of suitable equipment in the area mean that cargo movements are compromised or costs are unreasonably high.” Bison developed the P32 to solve these problems and sees the P32 as opening up a range of new possibilities for container freight and logistics. Importers and exporters can lift and ground containers more economically

P32 allows weights up to 32 tonnes to be lifted on and off trailers safely and efficiently

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


24 | CONTAINER HANDLING EQUIPMENT

in factories or warehouses. This can allow container stuffing or unloading in better locations, or ease the pressure of live loading and chassis detention costs. Military, aid and project logistics operators can use the P32 to get containers in and out of remote locations more easily, avoiding reliance on local infrastructure. 2_Tanker-Sea ver_W124xH190_EN.pdf 1 2018/02/13 A key part of the P32 design 14:51:29 is Bison’s patent pending lift and lock

mechanism, which reduces the size of the hydraulic system considerably, but still enables heavy containers to be elevated 1.65 m off the ground. This in turn reduces the size, weight and cost of the system. “The novelty of the P32 is its unique combination of portability, lift capacity and price”, said Mr Fahey. “In these respects, it’s a world first for containerhandling equipment.”

Could hackers sink container vessels? Poor security protocols in the use of container loading information could have potentially disastrous consequences, a leading security company has warned Loading software is used to ensure efficient transfer and storage of containers on board vessels, as well as to ensure even distribution and good trim for the vessel. Given which, it is a frightening thought that hackers might easily interfere with this process. This is the scenario that security company Pen Test Partners has outlined, pointing out that a lack of security in the way in which ship stowage plans are transferred could leave the vessels vulnerable to hackers. The company warns of using USB sticks to transfer data between terminal and ship. There is a chance that the computer with the load-planning software is also used for email or web browsing, opening the potential for malware. “Interoperability between the ship load plan and the hundreds of ports it may visit is essential – this leads to a race to the bottom in terms of securing and transmitting the load plan to the port. Simple = USB = vulnerable,” states the blog. “This is ripe for attack. The consequences are financial, environmental and possibly even fatal.” The potential implications of such an attack, it makes clear, are huge. Disruption to the load plan creates chaos, with no one knowing what container is where. It could potentially mean that, instead of taking 24-48 hours to load and unload, it could take weeks to manually re-inventory the ship. This would, of course, be a particular problem in the case of reefers requiring cabling, potentially meaning spoiled cargo. But the potential for economic damage is a relatively minor consideration given that load-planning software is used to place heavier containers toward the bottom of container stacks, and to prevent a stack from being overweight. This keeps the centre of gravity low and maintains stability. Further, the need for balance or trim of the ship means that heavy containers have to be distributed evenly. ‘Metacentric height’ is a calculation of the distance between the CoG and the metacentre. It is a little like a pendulum – a bigger distance gives a slower but bigger

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CONTAINER HANDLING EQUIPMENT | 25

roll, more comfortable for passengers but more prone to overturning. A short distance gives a shorter but faster roll, which is less prone to upsets. A too-fast roll puts undue stress on the container, but rolling too far does as well. The metacentric height needs to be carefully controlled through loading. Clearly, being out of balance represents a significant threat to the overall seaworthiness of the vessel. Incorrectly loaded containers could potentially be disastrous. The company encourages all operators, ports and terminals to carry out a thorough review of their messaging systems to ensure that tampering is not possible, pointing out: “Already there is evidence of theft of valuable items from containers in port, potentially through insider access by criminals to load information. It doesn’t take much imagination to see some far more serious attacks.” The company concludes that ship security has a long way to go to catch up with the level of security that is expected in corporate networks. They are remote, difficult to update and often offline for long periods, while IT hardware is often old and not well maintained.

MacGregor to optimise container stowage efficiency on MSC vessels MacGregor has received orders to optimise the container-carrying capabilities of 31 Mediterranean Shipping Company (MSC) vessels from six different ship series. The work is designed to optimise ships’ cargo system productivity and earning potential. The orders were booked into Cargotec’s third and fourth quarter 2017 order intakes, and deliveries are planned for completion toward the end of 2018. “Container vessels are an integral part of the whole transportation value chain, and maximising their cargo system flexibility makes optimum use of available cargo space with any given cargo mix. This ensures that the greatest payload can be carried,” said MacGregor senior vice president for cargo handling Leif Byström. “Filling empty slots increases revenue for shipowners and operators, and reduces emissions per transported

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cargo unit,” he added. Upgrade work on the vessels will be carried out under a MacGregor Cargo Boost service, part of its PlusPartner concept, which is designed to improve the earning potential of existing container ships. The upgrades include an individual plan for each vessel, with a focus on improving earning potential and efficiency. “Each cargo system upgrade has been carefully designed with MSC,” explained

MacGregor naval architect Atte Virta. “The vessel type and their service deployment have been considered in detail. This ensures optimum cargo system flexibility and efficiency, which maximises the return on investment.” MSC and MacGregor have agreed not to disclose the contract value or other contractual details. Work will be carried out on a rolling schedule, with all vessels expected to return to service by the end of 2018. MP


26 | CONTAINER HANDLING EQUIPMENT

Composites cover new ground The weight- and fuel-saving possibilities of composite materials mean they have potential for use in hatch covers

Oshima Shipbuilding and DNV GL‘s new, open-hatch, general cargo carrier design can be fitted with composite hatch covers

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omposite materials are lightweight, have excellent fatigue properties and do not corrode as steel does. Through-life maintenance costs can be significantly reduced where steel is replaced with composite material. This has made them particularly of interest as a material for hatch covers. In 2011, composite hatch covers were first developed and introduced by Oshima and DNV for the Oshima ECO-Ship 2020 concept design. A similar design for a Panamax bulk carrier was awarded an AiP from DNV in 2013, followed by Panama flag approval for fire safety in 2013. Composite hatch covers were first approved for fitting to a 225 m bulk carrier in 2014. The concept was developed by Hansen Engineering. The design for the 17 m x 8 m FRP hatch covers has several benefits. It reduces weight (typically 35-40% of steel), resulting in fuel saving and/or increased cargo, as well as easier crane handling and lighter motors. No corrosion means better seal performance, reducing the risk of damage to cargo. Approval for conversion was given for a 225 m x 32 m cargo vessel owned by Danish shipping company Nordic Bulk Carriers AS. Hansen worked with classification society DNV GL and fire experts at SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden to provide the design and risk assessment for the conversion project specification developed by Oshima Shipbuilding. The IMO SOLAS regulations are based on steel and require structural materials to be non-combustible. Although an alternative design approach with risk analysis has been possible since 2002, this was the first time a composite part has been approved using the

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

alternative design approach. A 2016 study by the Society of Naval Architects of Korea titled Weight reduction and strengthening of marine hatch covers by using composite materials found that a vessel can load more cargo while using the same draught it was using before converting its hatch covers to composite material. In this study, steel hatch covers of a bulk carrier were replaced by composite covers and a weight reduction of 44.32% was achieved, leading to many benefits including fuel savings. Equally, because the materials are so much lighter than steel, composite hatch covers are easier to handle using the ship’s own cargo gear or using smaller port facilities. As a matter of fact, vessels equipped with composite hatch covers can be designed with smaller and lighter cargo-handling equipment, which will lead to more weight savings and additional cargo capacity. Furthermore, basic lifecycle cost analysis proved that composite hatch covers are economically competitive through their economic life time. This is because, while steel hatch cover acquisition costs are less expensive than those for a composite cover, the extra payload and reduced maintenance costs through time will compensate for the difference in initial cost until a break-even point occurs where the cost of the two design alternatives (steel and composites) are equal. Most recently (in May 2017), Oshima Shipbuilding and DNV GL returned to the theme, launching a new open-hatch general cargo carrier design, which includes composite tween decks to save weight. This design can also be fitted with composite hatch covers, which offer similar advantages to tween decks. MP

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28 | OEM PROFILE

MAN embraces change B

jarne Foldager began the second job he’s ever had in September 2016. The first one lasted 25 years and involved a variety of roles at shipping giant Maersk, culminating in the post of global head of operations for Maersk Tankers, a position he held until August 2016. His ‘second job’ is as vice president for two-stroke sales and promotion at MAN Diesel & Turbo. This in itself might seem daunting enough. It becomes even more so when one realises that he replaced

MAN Diesel & Turbo’s new two-stroke supremo has strong ideas about the company’s direction for 2020 and beyond. Marine Propulsion met him and found out just where the engine giant is heading

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

Ole Grøne, the man styled ‘Mr Diesel,’ who has been such a fixture of MAN for so many years. Mr Foldager joined at a difficult time in terms of twostroke diesel sales, with orders for 2016 at a minimal level. Mr Foldager smiles when asked about this, saying “I like to think of it as an interesting time to have started. Actually, it helped me when I joined that the newbuilding market for merchant ships with two-stroke engines was so quiet. There weren’t a lot of new projects.

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OEM PROFILE | 29

The Wes Amelie was the world’s first container ship retrofitted with an LNG engine

That helped me because it gave me time to learn the ropes and really get into the detail of every business project we had – because we had so few!” Since then, though, things have picked up. “It’s almost getting back to normal, with activity increasing every month – sometimes every week,” said Mr Foldager. “It started in the third week of January [2017] with the ordering of VLCCs in Korea and continued spreading into China. In April or May, in the space of two or three weeks I think Letters of Intent were signed for something like 130 standard-size bulkers. These are 64,000 and 82,000 dwt bulkers and the LOIs are now turning into shipbuilding contracts.” In addition, MAN is seeing

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increased activity in the bigger bulker market, and increasingly in the previously beleaguered container ship sector. Mr Foldager ascribes this activity to the hard times that preceded it, saying “There are probably several reasons why we are seeing this spate of ordering. One is that the shipyards are hungry. For the shipyards in Japan and Korea, their orderbooks are very low and they can see that 2018 and 2019 are going to be difficult. So at the beginning of 2017, a contributing factor to these orders was greatly reduced newbuilding prices. Shipowners always like the opportunity for a good deal, so they took it.” This is not the only reason for the upswing of orders,

though. “Upcoming regulations are the other big factor in investment,” he said. “With the 2020 sulphur cap, shipowners are now pondering the best means of meeting these requirements. That has spurred some newbuilding activities. No one knows what bunker prices will do in 2020, but it’s a fair bet they will go up. That means that a ship with the right fuel efficiency technologies could have a real competitive advantage. A slightly older ship with higher fuel consumption will face a disadvantage.” The need to comply with the Ballast Water Management Convention is also helping to improve the newbuilding outlook. “Shipowners are also thinking that it may not be worth investing in ballast water

equipment, and that could also drive newbuildings,” explained Mr Foldager. The final element driving newbuildings, he believes, is Tier III. Ships built today have to meet the Tier III regulations, which means investing in Tier III equipment. That will apply in January 2021, and will make a huge difference. “I think a lot of shipowners are going to have to commit to laying keels before 2021, and that’s bound to spur investment,” Mr Foldager remarked. Tier III has long been a source of irritation for OEMs in general and MAN in particular. They feel that they have had to absorb the burden of research, development and investment without seeing the financial returns to balance

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


30 | OEM PROFILE

The MAN B&W G70ME-GI engine

Snapshot CV Bjarne Foldager (MAN Diesel & Turbo)

Before joining MAN, Bjarne Foldager was global head of operations for Maersk Tankers. Prior to this, he held posts as managing director of Maersk Malaysia and managing director of AP Møller Singapore and head of Maersk crew management. Now, his direct area of responsibility is sales and promotion of two-stroke engines (for marine and power plants) and marine gensets. His headquarters is in Copenhagen, but he travels regularly to all of the big shipbuilding countries such as South Korea, Japan and China.

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

these out. Mr Foldager, though, believes the figures show this is changing at last. “If you look at the orders for 2017, about 50% of the orders for newbuildings have Tier III equipment and engines. That’s a major increase on 2016, when it was 5 or 10%,” he pointed out. This, he feels, is particularly good news for MAN given that its product offering covers the two key means of meeting the requirements of Tier III in EGR and SCR. In terms of which technology is being chosen, “it’s been pretty evenly split between the two. Of course, our advantage is that we have both technologies available.” Mr Foldager sees one of MAN’s main roles at the moment as helping to steer its customers through the difficult waters created by regulation. “Our biggest job is to help and guide the shipowners into making the best possible decision. If the decision goes in our favour, then we’re very happy,” he said. One of the ways in which the company is achieving this is through what it calls its ‘Maritime Energy Transition’ initiative. This encapsulates MAN Diesel & Turbo’s call to action to reduce emissions and establish natural gas as the fuel of choice in global shipping. It promotes a global ‘turn to gas,’ driven by IMO, and a common approach by the shipping industry and politics to invest in infrastructure development and retrofits. “We’re investing a lot in this area because for us, the long-term solution has to be the best one,” Mr Foldager explained. “We have to turn away from the use of fossil fuels, and LNG is the obvious solution at the moment.” He continued: “I think it’s different solutions for different types. At the moment, LNG looks like the most prevalent

solution. We have more than 200 ships running on LNG today. It’s too early to say that’s the winner, but it’s certainly one we support.” This support has come in the form of a €2M (US$2.5M) pledge by MAN to subsidise the retrofitting of vessels to operate on gas, as well as high-profile retrofitting projects such as that on the Wes Amelie. Mr Foldager pointed out that MAN also has an ongoing project retrofitting two US container ships with fourstroke engines. LNG is far from being the only game in town when it comes to alternative fuels, as Mr Foldager acknowledges. “Next year we will be launching our LPG engine. We call it the LG-IP [liquid gas injection propane]," he revealed. This will be launched in the second half of 2018 as a two-stroke engine, and MAN expects the first ships to be on the water by the end of 2019. “We’ve had the first orders even though the engine hasn’t even been released yet,” Mr Foldager stated. Whatever happens, Mr Foldager is clear that the post2020 fuel picture will be highly complex. “We have to cover all the possibilities. It’s not necessarily one solution that’s going to be best for everyone. When it comes to fuel there are two main factors: price and availability. One of the advantages of LNG is that availability is coming. It’s still a little unclear what the price will be as a bunker [fuel]. But, as things stand, the US price is considerably lower than MGO.” Nonetheless, he acknowledged that the continued use of heavy fuel oil with scrubbers does represent a strong business case at the moment – albeit with certain caveats. “Bunker [fuel] is currently very cheap, and if that price falls, it will make it very attractive and offer very good

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OEM PROFILE | 31

payback. A lot of owners today are thinking about scrubbers. I think it’s a good solution, but – and I might make myself unpopular with scrubber manufacturers saying this – I think scrubbers are a technology that has a specific window. That window is clearly open now. How long it stays open will depend on what happens in the refineries and whether they invest in the Cat crackers that will reduce the sulphur to the right level,” he explained. The suitability of scrubbers as a long-term solution is something on which Mr Foldager clearly harbours some doubts. “When I meet shipowners at the moment, they can see the financial business case. But the joke I make about it is that the CFO likes the idea of scrubbers, but the CTO has his concerns.” This comes down to some key factors: cost-effectiveness and future regulation. “A scrubber is a big investment,” he said. “If you look at a big scrubber on a big container ship, tanker or bulker, it’s a very big piece of equipment and it’s still not a proven technology on such big ships. Then you also have the question of future regulations, so there are definitely some uncertainties. For instance,

today you’re allowed to use open-loop scrubbers, but will that always be case?” Overall, Mr Foldager sees IMO’s decision to implement the sulphur cap in 2020 as positive. “We are very happy that IMO stayed with the 2020 deadline,” he asserted. “This transition needs to happen as soon as possible so that we can move on to new technologies and fuels. This is a really important step for the maritime world, and I’m very happy IMO chose not to delay.” But asked whether he believes the transition into 2020 will be a smooth one, he responded: “What is a smooth transition? We can help prepare the shipowners from a technical point of view, and we are very active in organisations like CIMAC where work has already started on specifications on lube oils. “But we can’t guarantee a smooth transition because we don’t know what the fuel prices or availability will be. We don’t know what the strategies of the oil refiners or the fuel traders or bunker barge operators will be. There are too many variables.” In particular, he suggested, owners have to take care over fuel variability. “If it’s a blended fuel and you

Martime Energy Transition The term ‘Maritime Energy Transition’ stems from the German expression ‘Energiewende.’ It encapsulates MAN Diesel & Turbo’s call to action to reduce emissions and establish natural gas as the fuel of choice in global shipping. It promotes a global ‘turn to gas,’ driven by IMO, and a common approach by the shipping industry and politics to invest in infrastructure development and retrofits. Launched in 2016 after COP 21, the initiative has since found broad support in the shipping industry and German politics. The Maritime Energy Transition is also an umbrella covering all MAN Diesel & Turbo activities in regard to supporting a climateneutral shipping industry, including: • The retrofitting of the Wes Amelie feeder containership’s engine

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DIGITALISATION Digitalisation is another area where MAN is building up its expertise, said Mr Foldager. “We are working on several things in the digital areas. We are working on algorithms to allow shipowners to make better decisions and reduce the cost through condition-based maintenance, predictive maintenance and the optimal running of the engine to achieve better fuel consumption and lower emissions.” In the light of the Maersk cyber attack in particular, there is also an emphasis on security. “We are also working separately on the whole technology platform,” Mr Foldager said. “In the industry today, we need a platform that allows us to securely and reliably transfer and exchange data.” In fact, though, he believes that the Maersk attack may have had some positives as far as the industry’s atttitide is concerned. He explained: “When Maersk suffered the cyber attack over the summer, it made it easier for our leaders to get the message across to shipowners that data security is really important. It’s crucial that the industry understands how important security is, and we now have an accord with the industry that we need to have the highest possible standards when we transfer data. That’s a huge area for us.”

blend 2.6% sulphur with 0.1% sulphur, you can calculate the 80:20 ratio blend, but will that fuel remain stable? And if so, for how long? If you keep it in the bunker tanks for six months, will it stay stable? If it starts to stratify in the tank, then you have different problems not just technically with pumps, etc,

but with compliance. If it’s layered and you’re using the non-compliant part of the fuel, then you could be in trouble.” He continued: “Realistically, we anticipate that there will be technical problems that we have to deal with. Our job is to keep this stuff on the agenda, keep people informed, and stay by the phone.”

to dual-fuel gas operation – the first such conversion of its type in the world. • Based on the success of the Wes Amelie project, in December 2017, the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure published a public state-aid programme for new LNG vessels and retrofits for €30M (US$37M) a year until 2021. • The development of MAN Diesel & Turbo’s two-stroke ME-GI/ ME-LGI engine portfolio to enable dual-fuel operation on, primarily, natural gas but also on alternative gaseous and liquid fuels such as LNG, methane, ethane, methanol and ethanol. • The development of synthetic fuels created with renewable energy (ie, power to gas), another technology with great CO2-reduction potential. Here, MAN Diesel & Turbo is closely collaborating with the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy to create a research programme. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


Authorized service stations:

Unauthorized service stations:


OEM PROFILE | 33

Conversions dominate

LNG strategy A

huge area of focus for MAN Diesel & Turbo is converting existing vessels to run on LNG. In August 2017, this process saw the world’s first container ship retrofitted with an LNG engine being successfully launched when Wes Amelie (owned by Wessels Reederei) underwent an LNG engine conversion at the German Dry Docks in Bremerhaven. The project involved retrofitting the 1,036 TEU feeder container ship’s MAN 8L48/60B main engine to a multi-fuel, four-stroke MAN 51/60DF unit that enables dual-fuel operation. This was the first such conversion of its type the world had ever seen. This move formed one part of MAN’s new ‘maritime energy transition,’ as MAN Diesel & Turbo chief executive Dr Uwe Lauber made clear. “By providing customers with the technology to retrofit their existing fleet, we are driving what we call the maritime energy transition,” he said. “There are roughly 40,000 cargo vessels in operation worldwide. If we are serious about decarbonisation and want the shipping industry to be climate neutral by 2050, we need to take action today,” Dr Lauber explained. The dual-fuel conversion has enabled Wes Amelie to significantly reduce its SOx emissions by more than 99%, NOx by approximately 90% and CO2 by up to 20%. This was only one step on this journey, though. In October 2017, MAN pledged a €2M (US$2.3M) discount to convert 10 HFO engines into gas engines. Speaking at the Ocean 2017 Conference in Malta, MAN chief sales officer Wayne Jones said: “We clearly recognise that our interests are best served by ensuring that the world’s oceans remain in robust, good health. MAN Diesel & Turbo believes that it is time for what we call a ‘maritime energy

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Rendering of SCR-HP reactor with a host two-stroke engine

transition’ to find clean solutions for seaborne trade and transportation.” In no small part, this effort is intended to help encourage the development of increased LNG bunkering infrastructure worldwide. As Mr Jones put it, “We hope to play our part in moving the world’s fleet toward the clean technology our industry and our oceans deserve.” This drive toward conversion developed further in November 2017 with the announcement that MAN Diesel & Turbo had signed a letter of intent with Wessels Reederei to supply the materials to convert three 1,000 TEU container vessels to operate using LNG fuel. The deal follows MAN’s pivotal role in engineering the world’s first conversion of a container ship’s propulsion system from heavy fuel oil (HFO) to LNG with Wessels

Reederei’s Wes Amelie. Speaking to Marine Propulsion, MAN project engineer for upgrades and retrofits Marcel Lodder, who oversaw the Wes Amelie project, explained: “In June we converted the engine, and the ship has been running fine since September on LNG and bunkering in Rotterdam. It’s pointing in the right direction, so we signed a letter of intent for three further vessels.” MAN intends to supply the material to convert the main engines from the current 8L48/60B to 51/60DF, and Mr Lodder believes the final steps to confirm the project will take place this year. Wes Amelie has 23 sister vessels that are almost identical, meaning that the conversions should be relatively simple. Some of the funding for this project is from the German Government, which

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


34 | OEM PROFILE

helped to make it economically feasible. Mr Lodder said this project is also “very likely” to qualify for MAN’s subsidy. “The subsidy is made for sustainable access into the LNG market. That’s the idea behind it,” said Mr Lodder. “The more ships use LNG as a fuel for propulsion, the more you will see that the logistics for LNG improve.” In a further development, TOTE Maritime Alaska also contracted MAN PrimeServ (MAN Diesel & Turbo’s aftersales division) to convert North Star and Midnight Sun to dual-fuel operation on LNG. The roro vessels will be retrofitted to MAN 58/64 retrofit units. The contract was signed in April 2017, and announced during the High Horsepower Summit, a

conference and expo on the use of natural gas. The contract covers the design, development and testing of a first-ofits-kind dual-fuel kit, which will serve as foundation for the largest LNG conversion in North America. A key influence in TOTE’s decision to retrofit the vessels to LNG is to significantly reduce the most harmful emissions that result from burning diesel. “TOTE Maritime Alaska is excited to convert its fleet to LNG power, which will result in a significant reduction in air emissions including particulate matter, sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide. This significant investment of time and money is a reflection of our commitment to the environment, our customers and the state

Technology Showcase

of Alaska,” noted TOTE Maritime Alaska president Michael Noone. MAN PrimeServ Augsburg head of upgrades and retrofits Thomas Spindler explained: “To meet TOTE’s requirements, we have developed a solution based on our well-proven 51/60DF retrofit. Accordingly, the engineering approach to the 58/64 retrofit is very familiar to us, and this project represents a straightforward conversion procedure.” Dr Spindler added, “The investment will be of huge benefit to the customer on several fronts: not only will the retrofitted engines meet all new emission standards, but the new components they receive during conversion will significantly extend their working life.”

as well as an integrated mixing unit, the overall size of the reactor has been drastically reduced compared with typical market designs and its medium-speed counterpart. Finally, the MAN B&W ME-LGI dual-fuel engine expands MAN Diesel & Turbo’s dual-fuel portfolio, enabling the use of more sustainable, low-flash-point fuels such as methanol, ethanol, dimethyl-ether (DME) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). With the designation LGI (liquid gas injection), all existing MAN B&W ME/ME-C/ME-B engines are available for operation on low-flash-point liquid (LFL) fuels like methanol, ethanol, LPG and DME. The engines are operated as dual-fuel engines with high-pressure injection. These engines have the same fuel consumption as similar diesel engines, and the same tuning methods can be applied. MP

MAN used the Marintec exhibition in December 2017 to showcase a number of its most recent technical developments, with pride of place naturally going to models of the company’s new 45/60CR and ME-LGI engines, as well as its innovative HP-SCR emissionsreduction technology. Launched in September 2017, the 45/60CR was described by the company as a ‘gamechanger’ due to its outstanding fuel consumption and resultant reduction in operating expenses and positive environmental impact. Speaking to Marine Propulsion at the engine’s launch, MAN head of sales for cruise and ferry Sokrates Tolgos said of the new engine: “The 45/60CR offers a unique competitive advantage in that when it comes to specific fuel oil consumption (SFOC), it is without competition. This engine is playing in a new league and – for the time being – it is playing entirely on its own.” Another key technology in the achievement of this low SFOC was twostage turbocharging. Alexander Koerber, product manager for the new engine, explained that “two-stage turbocharging draws more energy from the exhaust gas because you’re using the energy twice. Also, two-stage turbochargers can be optimised in terms of adjusting for higher pressure ratios, meaning greater efficiency.” MAN Diesel & Turbo also used Marintec to bring further attention to its new high-pressure selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. MAN SCR-HP is available for two-stroke engines of all bore sizes. It reduces, through internal catalytic reaction, NOx exhaust emissions to IMO Launched in September 2017, the 45/60CR was described by the company as a Tier III limits. With specially developed ‘gamechanger’ due to its outstanding fuel consumption honeycombs and honeycomb materials,

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

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Addressing the operational realities of the 2020 Sulphur Cap From 1 January 2020, shipping will see huge changes in its use of fuel, as the Global Sulphur Cap comes into force, dictating the use of compliant fuel or abatement technologies. With the deadline approaching fast, this issue is dominating discussion in the industry and this is why the Sulphur Cap 2020 Conference in Amsterdam will reflect this by taking the Global Sulphur Cap as its theme, examining all the key issues facing shipping through the lens of the Sulphur Cap.

Issues addressed will include: • What is the right fuel choice? • What role can enginebuilders play in aiding compliance and how are their designs and plans affected by the cap? • What are the technological problems posed by new fuels? • Will there be sufficient compliant fuel available? • Will fuel quality be maintained? • Are scrubbers an efficient and cost-effective solution? • How is lube choice affected by the cap? • Will we see large-scale adoption of LNG post-2020? • How will shipowners’ operations and bottom lines be affected? Get 20/20 vision on your Sulphur Cap options. Join us in Amsterdam in April.

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TWO-STROKE ENGINES | 39

LASER TECHNOLOGY DRAMATICALLY INCREASES PISTON LIFE Q

uantiServ, which offers specialised maintenance and repair services for marine customers, has launched a new robotised laser cladding technology, revolutionising the reconditioning of large-bore pistons in two-stroke engines. The new reconditioning process minimises welding, causes less thermal shock to the base material and replaces the old chromium layer’s galvanic application. Diesel engine pistons usually require replacement or reconditioning at fairly regular intervals even if the engine is operated under near-ideal conditions. Their service life is limited because they are mechanically and thermally highly loaded components. Over time they will suffer from excessive wear of the piston ring grooves and/or hot corrosion at the piston top surface. During full reconditioning, the entire top surface and ring groove area is first machined off and then rebuilt. Thereafter, the piston undergoes final machining before galvanic chromium plating or laser cladding of the ring grooves is carried out. The last step is grinding of the ring grooves, which completes the full reconditioning process. If only the ring grooves are worn and if a piston is in otherwise good condition, then partial reconditioning is possible. A precondition, though, is that none of the ring grooves has worn so much that not only the chromium layer but the steel substrate itself has worn. In this case, partial reconditioning is not possible and full reconditioning is the only remedy. During partial reconditioning, any remaining chromium is removed before the ring grooves are plated anew. The landing surfaces will be skimmed to remove any signs of fretting corrosion. If

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A NEW, ROBOTISED LASER CLADDING PROCESS COULD DOUBLE THE LIFETIME OF TWO-STROKE PISTONS

there are small, internal cracks, then they will be repaired too. Laser-cladded ring grooves are far harder than chromium-plated ones. Accordingly, lifetimes and time between overhauls (TBOs) are achievable today that were far out of reach even one or two years ago. Quantiserv guarantees a ring groove lifetime of up to 24,000 running

The new process minimises welding, causes less thermal shock to the base material and replaces the old chromium layer’s galvanic application

hours on its reconditioned pistons. QuantiServ can also coat the top of the piston with a protective layer of Inconel. This can be a good solution for engines that suffer from rapid hot corrosion at the piston top. QuantiServ director Ole Pyndt Hansen explained: “In addition to its environmental efficiency, the new coating extends the piston head’s lifespan and TBO, compared with conventional chromium layers. We have field-tested the new technology on container vessels, and after 15,000 running hours, the results are very promising, showing excellent running behaviour and very low piston wear rates. Based on these tests, we predict that reconditioning the piston by using the new laser-cladding process can almost double its lifespan.” Wärtsilä Services vice president for emerging businesses Guido Barbazza said “This new technology is one of several innovative steps that can bring the traditional reconditioning processes into the digitalised 21st century, while ensuring the predictability of assets for our customers and supporting the Wärtsilä and QuantiServ vision for setting industry standards for smart and sustainable solutions.” The new robotised laser-cladding technology was developed in QuantiServ’s reconditioning knowledge centre in Kruiningen, The Netherlands. In 2018, this technology will be cloned and available for customers in selected QuantiServ remanufacturing workshops globally. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


40 | TWO-STROKE ENGINES

Wärtsilä extends its service agreement with WinGD Wärtsilä has signed a 10-year service partnership agreement with the Swiss company Winterthur Gas & Diesel (WinGD), a leading developer of two-stroke low-speed gas and diesel engines used for propulsion power in merchant shipping. The new partnership agreement appoints Wärtsilä as an authorised global service provider for all WinGD products, and provides WinGD and its customers continued access to Wärtsilä’s worldwide service network and comprehensive services offering. It also enhances the opportunity for Wärtsilä to provide integrated smart solutions and smart services to the merchant shipping industry. In 2015 WinGD was established by Wärtsilä and China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC) as a joint venture for research and development (R&D), design, operational and manufacturing support, and the marketing and sales of two-stroke lowspeed gas and diesel engines. Wärtsilä’s minority stake in the joint venture was transferred to CSSC in 2016.

Through Wärtsilä’s and WinGD’s service partnership agreement signed in December 2017, Wärtsilä continues to provide extensive customer support and services to the end users of WinGD’s products, to WinGD as well as to its licensed engine builders. Along with the agreement, Wärtsilä Services continues to have access to WinGD’s intellectual property rights and technical specifications, and is appointed Authorised Global Service Provider for WinGD products. The agreement includes services conducted for two-stroke engines delivered under Wärtsilä, Sulzer and WinGD brands. Wärtsilä Services supports WinGD customers with a global network of services, including availability and delivery of parts, global logistics services, remanufacturing, overhauling, repair workshops, field service engineers, and high competence for twostroke engine maintenance and the development of beneficial upgrade solutions. The availability of Wärtsilä’s skilled engineers, located in key

PrimeServ Signs maintenance agreement with Arkas MAN PrimeServ, MAN Diesel & Turbo’s after-sales division, has signed an EMC maintenance contract with Arkas Shipping and Transport, operator of Turkey’s largest container fleet (50 vessels). The new agreement is for the maintenance of the 2,586 TEU container carrier, MCC Mandalay. It covers the provision of spare parts, maintenance management and the servicing of the vessel’s MAN B&W 6G60ME main engine, in collaboration with Arkas’ onboard crew. According to the terms of the contract, MAN Diesel & Turbo, Copenhagen, will deliver maintenance management and spare parts, while other MAN PrimeServ hubs will take care of the service provision for the engines. Arkas fleet general manager Ali Ibrahim Kontaytekin and Jens

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

Wärtsilä and WinGD will continue to deliver continuous product and services improvements, based on customer needs and feedback

shipping hubs across the globe, supports the safe and reliable operations of installations and fast response times. The agreement will also make Wärtsilä’s integrated lifecycle solutions available to all WinGD-powered vessels, including the development of new digital solutions for performance management, ship management and energyefficiency optimisation. Wärtsilä and WinGD will continue to deliver continuous product and services improvements, based on customer needs and feedback. “The service agreement between Wärtsilä and WinGD is an important element in ensuring a competent service

support for WinGD customers and products worldwide,” explained WinGD operations director Dr Rudolf Holtbecker. “In addition to securing topclass services for WinGD and customers of WinGD, Wärtsilä and Sulzer-branded two-stroke engine products on a global level for many years to come, the agreement also supports the promotion of new digital solutions for performance management and ship management. Especially digital solutions that optimise the energy efficiency of two-stroke engines are of great interest to customers in merchant shipping,” said Wärtsilä twostroke engine services’ Ole Pyndt Hansen.

Seeberg, head of retrofit for upgrade & engine management at PrimeServ Copenhagen, praised the co-operation between Arkas Shipping and MAN PrimeServ. They stated that they view the agreement as a step towards an even closer collaboration between the two companies in the future. The EMC is a tailor-made service model that is customised to suit individual customer requirements. Operating on a fixed budget, MAN PrimeServ takes care of equipment, planned and unplanned maintenance, the dispatching of personnel, and the provision of spare parts – a natural task for the engine designer. MAN Diesel & Turbo reports the adoption of EMC by the shipping industry as a paradigm change within maintenance as, traditionally, shipowners have taken care of maintenance themselves in what is generally a conservative industry. The close co-operation in MAN PrimeServ’s global network means that it can pool common resources and exchange knowledge, and is able to offer customers a considerably higher level of service worldwide. MP

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FOUR-STROKE ENGINES | 43

MaK M 25 E receives IMO Tier III certification Caterpillar has announced the Motoren GmbH & Co KG facility has received IMO III notice of compliance from the classification society DNV GL for its M 25 E medium-speed marine engine platform. Caterpillar Motoren is one of the first engine manufacturers to release an IMO III factory-certified medium-speed engine group for main propulsion and auxiliary applications.

The M 25 E utilises selective catalyst reduction (SCR) technology and state of the art exhaust gas temperature management

“Customers seeking an IMO III-certified engine solution now have the choice to select a serialised certified engine product that guarantees safe and reliable vessel operation, while meeting the latest emission standards,” said Caterpillar Marine product definition specialist Detlef Kirste. The M 25 E utilises selective catalystic reduction (SCR) technology and state-of-the-art exhaust gas temperature management. SCR works by injecting urea into the exhaust stream. A catalyst helps convert nitrogen oxide into harmless diatomic nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapour. The Cat SCR technology is a closed-loop system that senses required NOx reduction, adjusting the amount of urea injected appropriately. “This closed-looped control, along with advanced engine combustion calibration, ensures exhaust gas temperatures are in tolerance for the SCR catalyst and for cost-efficient SCR operation,” said Mr Kirste. “This eliminates the risk of catalyst damage that could occur from too high and too low exhaust gas temperatures as well as urea overdosing, seen in many of today’s installations.” The engine also utilises an optimised charge-air system for increased back-pressure capability, allowing for a much smaller SCR system. Caterpillar’s SCR technology minimises total cost of ownership by cutting the diesel and urea expenses by lowering overall fluid consumption. “Our SCR systems are constantly monitored, and require minimal routine maintenance. Most importantly, lifetime is aligned to meet or exceed engine overhaul intervals,” said Mr Kirste. The system approach of SCR technology, with the engine control and monitoring system linked together, make the M 25 E unique in the 1.8–3.15 MW medium-speed marine engine power range. Scheme A pre-certified M 25 E engines can be installed and commissioned without onboard emission verification tests. This allows the shipyard to avoid testing- and certification-related costs, and to plan for the shortest commissioning times.

Part-load optimisation delivers fuel savings MAN Diesel & Turbo has announced that its part-load optimisation initiative has achieved 180 orders since its introduction. Part-load optimisation is a tuning method that optimises fueloil consumption during the part-load operation of four-stroke, small-bore MAN auxiliary engines. MAN Diesel & Turbo head of small-bore, four-stroke engineering Finn Fjeldhøj said: “Part-load optimisation works on the principle that fuel consumption is reduced at low and part-load at the expense of a higher fuel consumption in the high-load range, without exceeding the IMO NOx limit.

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We can deliver new engines pre-optimised, or retrofit as necessary. Both part-load optimisation solutions have proved popular with the market to date, as evidenced by this strong demand.” Part-load optimisation helps shipowners to maintain their auxiliary engines in good working order while reducing fuel oil costs. It is recommended for gensets that often run at part-loads below 75% mcr (especially the load range of approximately 40-65% mcr) and optimises engine performance at 60-65% mcr. It is available for all new Holeby engines and

can be retrofitted on all existing engines. The tailormade retrofit kits cover all components, qualified service fitters and calculations of cost benefit. Engine tuning can be executed with a charge-air blow-off valve or waste gate. Part-load optimisation delivers fuel-oil savings of, typically, up to 5 g/kWh depending on engine type and load point, and improves the condition of key engine components due to its superior combustion process. The same, relative fuelconsumption savings also apply when applied in combination with an SCR system for IMO Tier III compliance. MP

Part-load optimisation is a tuning method that optimises fuel-oil consumption during the part-load operation of four-stroke, small-bore MAN auxiliary engines

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


44 | TROUBLE SPOT

Poor maintenance poses greatest engine threat A report from The Swedish Club has found that the majority of damage to auxiliary engines takes place – ironically enough – immediately after maintenance work

T

The report found that that 55% of casualties occur within the first 100 hours or so of operation after overhaul

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

he findings of an investigation by The Swedish Club into auxiliary engine damage have shown that the majority of all damage takes place immediately after maintenance work. A key finding is that 55% of casualties occur within the first 100 hours or so of operation after overhaul. In most cases the damage occurs only a few hours after start-up. The report, Auxiliary Engine Damage, also finds that container vessels have a significantly higher claims frequency due to the larger number of installed engines on these vessels. In addition, these engines have considerable output, leading to higher repair costs compared with other vessels. This latest report from The Swedish Club has been created in response to the Club’s members’ concerns over damage to auxiliary engines – a significant segment of machinery claims, both in number and in cost. In fact, the period between 2010 and 2016 saw 192 claims, with an average cost of US$344,615.

The Swedish Club senior technical advisor Peter Stålberg explained: “Auxiliary engines run at high revolutions and have a common lubrication system for both cylinder and crank case lubrication. They are not under the same strict regime from the classification society as the main engine, and maintenance is often carried out by the vessel crew." The most common causes of damage have been: • Incorrect maintenance and repairs. • Failure to adhere to repair procedures and use of incorrect tools. • Crew lacking formal enginespecific training. • Inexperienced crew and no expert in attendance. • Failure to detect contamination due to poor lubrication oil management. • Not following up on results from lubrication oil sampling. Mr Stålberg said “We see incorrect maintenance and wrongful repair in all too many cases, and poor lubrication management is also a major contributing factor to auxiliary engine breakdowns. With an average repair cost of

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TROUBLE SPOT | 45

more than US$345,000, we cannot emphasise enough the principle that prevention is better than cure.” Of the cases analysed, four major causes of damage presented themselves. Of these, 58 cases involved the connecting rod bolts. These mainly concerned the wrong assembly of bolts and nuts for main bearings, connecting rod studs etc. The improper tightening of bolts was also a key factor, as was the hydraulic tool/pump not being properly calibrated. Finally, a lack of crew training and adherence to procedures was found to be a significant cause of problems. The second major cause of damage was the contamination of lube oil with water or soot. Twenty-seven such cases were recorded, resulting from improper lube oil management; lube oil filters degraded over time; the introduction of dirt (often via rags) during maintenance; and damage causing lube oil to leak. Incorrect maintenance and procedures also played a significant part in failures. These included problems such as incorrect valve clearance adjustment; pistons installeed incorrectly; the wrong types of plunger being installed; inlet and outlet valves getting mixed up during overhaul; personnel not following the manufacturer’s service letter regarding required modifications; and not installing the correct bearings during crankshaft grinding. Finally, in 16 cases, overspeed proved a contributing factor to failure. Overspeed trips were not in working condition, reassembly was done incorrectly after governor exchange, fuel linkage was incorrectly assembled and drive systems on the governor worn out. On a small number of casualties, latent defects were

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the cause of damage. These were: the wrong material in the flywheel; a connecting rod machined incorrectly by the manufacturer; a cracked piston; and fuel injectors cracked at the newbuilding yard. The common factor in these occurrences in most cases is the incorrect assembly of vital engine parts in connection with regular overhaul. In particular, the assembly of connecting rods, bearings and pistons causes severe and costly accidents. The Swedish Club’s findings from this are clear. Non-adherence to procedures, and lack of training and experience, are clearly major problems. For instance, the connecting rod assembly is a critical and highly stressed joint, and must be re-assembled exactly in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions with proper tools. All too often, though, the club reports seeing insufficient understanding of the importance of the procedures. Equally, according to the report, special hydraulic tools

are often used for the engine assembly. These tools must be treated with care and need to be calibrated and carefully checked before use. Ultimately, the manager has the responsibility to ensure that crew are competent to undertake such repairs/ overhaul. The crew should either be trained on the specific engine types or, alternatively, an expert from the manufacturer should be engaged to attend the overhaul. The Swedish Club’s report characterises poor lubrication as “the root of all evil,” pointing out that poor lubrication oil management is in many cases the predominating factor for an auxiliary engine breakdown. Auxiliary engines are fourstroke engines and, as such, the engine oil is used for cooling of pistons crowns and lubrication of cylinder liners, bearings, etc. There is an apparent risk that the lube oil will be contaminated with soot and combustion particles, especially if the engine has accumulated some running hours. Proper lubrication oil

management is critical for minimising the risk of engine failures. This is essential when operating the engine on heavy fuel oil (HFO). The lubrication oil must be analysed at regular intervals. Detection of water, soot particles, metal particles, etc. will serve as an early warning for engine problems. Negative results from oil analysis must be investigated and addressed promptly. While prevention is always better than cure, steps can be taken to mitigate the damage caused by the failure of the auxiliary engine. Most modern auxiliary engine installations can be started and stopped remotely from the engine control room. It is good practice to always be present at the engine when starting it, especially after longer periods of stand-still and after overhaul. During start-up, if anything goes wrong, it usually happens very quickly. If someone is present at the engine there is at least a chance to intervene and shut down the engine manually. MP

Snapshot CV Peter Stålberg (The Swedish Club)

Peter Stålberg returned to The Swedish Club in 2017 after some nine years working on large technical and engineering projects in the oil and gas industry. Before returning, he was senior contruction manager with Aibel between December 2012 and January 2017. Prior to this, he served stints as project manager for GVA and offshore construction manager for BW. Before that, however, Mr Stålberg worked for 15 years in The Swedish Club in various technical and loss prevention positions, including marine engineer, technical director and area manager.

Peter Stålberg, The Swedish Club: ”We see incorrect maintenance and wrongful repair in all too many cases”

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


46 | PROPULSION PACKAGES

Technology unveiled for cleaner and optimised propulsion C

aterpillar Marine has developed variable drives for hybrid propulsion, a multiengine optimising (MEO) tool and new engines for workboats with selective catalyst reduction (SCR) aftertreatment technology. It has developed an advanced variable drive (AVD) as a patented device that optimises engine performance and can be used with a fully integrated hydro-mechanical propulsion system. Caterpillar is working in collaboration with Sanmar Shipyards in Istanbul, Turkey, to build an innovative tugboat with a hydraulic hybrid propulsion system that includes AVD and other Caterpillar engines and thrusters. AVD incorporates a planetary gear set that enables seamless clutch engagement of either main engines, auxiliary engines or both. It can be scaled for power installations across a range of maximum vessel speeds, powers and bollard pulls. Caterpillar Marine product definition engineer Nathan Kelly explained its benefits at the International Workboat Show in New Orleans in November 2017. He said that AVD allows propellers to rotate at speeds that are independent of engine speed “so optimal engine efficiency can be achieved leading to fuel savings of 15%-20%.” This gives “all the benefits of a variable speed diesel-electric propulsion system at a fraction

Caterpillar revealed advanced variable drives, multiengine optimiser and new engines that meet US Tier 4 and IMO III emission standards in Q4 2017

MEO will enable tug operators to optimise loads on multiple engines (credit: Riviera Maritime Media)

of the cost and size,” he added. Because AVD can accommodate multiple configurations, auxiliary engines or electric motors can be used for low-load and transit operations, reducing the use of a tug’s main engines. For more powerful operations, auxiliary engines can provide supplementary power via the AVD, allowing designers to reduce the size of main engines and incorporate more redundancy into tug propulsion. Sanmar has developed a hydraulic hybrid tug using a Robert Allan RAmparts 2400SX harbour tug design and Caterpillar systems. These include CAT 3512 main engines, a C32 auxiliary

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

engine, Caterpillar MTA 627 fixed pitch thrusters and an AVD system. Multi-engine systems can be optimised using Caterpillar’s new MEO tool. This was introduced in November 2017 at the Europort exhibition in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. MEO is loaded with optimised test data that is used to operate a vessel’s various engines in combination to achieve their optimum performance. MEO uses proprietary performance data and patented control algorithms to provide intelligence to advise power-management systems on which engines to operate, said Caterpillar Marine product

manager Dra Wiersema. It enables the use of dynamic asymmetric loads to drive a combination of engines and loads to create the lowest possible fuel consumption. “MEO allows users to use variable-speed and constantspeed generators on a single bus,” he told Marine Propulsion. “This means that they can leverage the low-load advantages of variable speed with the high-load advantages of constant speed.” The MEO’s simulation tool then allows operators to view the fuel consumption of any combination of power sources. The system has been tested on a number of vessels and has shown fuel economy savings of between 5% and more than 15%, said Mr Wiersema, depending on the engineroom configuration and vessel load profile. By mixing and matching engines and independent load points, he said that MEO allows engines to provide power at their most efficient point. MEO would be most useful for vessels that work with significantly differentiated load characteristics, such as tugs. It can also be used as a design tool. By using an estimate of a proposed vessel’s load profile, MEO can help to design an engineroom that best meets the end user’s requirements. In January 2018, Caterpillar opened its orderbook for C32 marine propulsion engines, which meet the US’ Environmental Protection Agency’s Tier 4 and IMO III emission standards. These engines feature SCR aftertreatment technology with closed loop NOx sensing and applications that optimise their performance. These engines are available with ratings from 750 kW at 1,600-1,800 rpm to 1,080 kW at 2,050-2,150 rpm. They have an optimised turbocharged air system that provides increased back pressure and enables designers to reduce the size of SCRs. MP

www.mpropulsion.com


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GEARBOXES | 49

WORKBOATS DRIVE GEARBOX DEVELOPMENT Innovations in the gearbox sector do not come along too frequently, but two companies in particular have unveiled innovations in the workboat sector

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ZF’s Supershift 2 gearbox

www.mpropulsion.com

arine propulsion specialist ZF has broadened its Supershift 2 electro-hydraulic gear-shifting technology for further gearbox models. The company said this latest shift technology sets a new benchmark in delivering superior performance and comfort to operators, with its quicker shifting and high levels of smoothness and control. Supershift 2 sees transmissions react instantaneously to shift input signals. With a 30% less drop in rpm and peak torque reduced by up to 40%, a smoother shift is generated to deliver the better comfort and control demanded by operators. Unlike other commercially available marine transmissions, the Supershift 2 negates the need for an additional hydraulic circuit through its enhanced clutch pack configuration and efficient hydraulic system, creating a simple and robust design. ZF said extensive research and development were undertaken to create Supershift 2. The company worked closely with vessel builders and operators to further understand requirements, and exerted its world-leading transmission technology knowhow. ZF Services UK business manager for marine Paul Dean said: “ZF identified the need to create a solution that integrates with many of the latest engine control and monitoring systems, as well as one that

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


50 | GEARBOXES

meets the requirements of operators now and in the future.” The Supershift 2 is incorporated as standard equipment on high-horsepower ZF marine transmissions and will now be available from the ZF 280 family up to the ZF 665 family as well. Supershift2 can be combined with ZF’s Autotroll functionality. In another innovation, the German marine propulsion company Reintjes has introduced a down-angle gearbox that it believes has advantages over conventional gearboxes. The company believes the main advantage is that an installation using this new gearbox can save space in the engine compartment because it allows the engine to be mounted lower in the hull. With a straight shaft arrangement using a conventional gearbox combined with an angled shaft and propeller, the engine itself has to be mounted at a matching angle, which means that the forward end of the engine is higher. The horizontal mounting possible with the down-angle gearbox allows the engine to be mounted horizontally and also makes for easier access to the engine for servicing and maintenance. With the new gearbox a horizontal shaft takes the drive from the engine to the gearbox, and then the gearing in the gearbox changes the angle to match the requirements of the propeller shaft. Two angles for this shaft are possible, 8º or 10º. This new gearbox is available in a variety of sizes to meet the requirements of most workboat and passenger ferry installations. The range of power that the gearbox can handle starts at 250 kW and tops out at 3,250 kW. The gear ratio can be anything between 1.5 and 4, which will meet the requirements of both fast and slow vessels. Special attention has been paid in the design of the gearboxes to reduce noise levels. A spokesperson for Reintjes commented: “Compared with commercially available down-angle gearboxes, our noise values were already very satisfying during initial Reintjes measurements. The so-called beveloid gear design represented a special challenge in the design, calculation and manufacturing of the gears, but all were managed effectively.” Reintjes believes that the low operating noise of these new gearboxes is largely due to optimal tooth flank corrections, which is one of the strongest features of these new gearboxes. In fact, Reintjes is increasingly emerging as a major player in the gearbox

The recently-developed product range of down-angle gearboxes enables a smaller engineroom design

and propulsion markets with a range of products that cover many of the requirements of the workboat sector. The company produces gearboxes for both the marine and industrial sectors. In the marine sector it recently moved into the production of pod propulsion units with its Fortjes Drive that comprises a fixeddrive unit with a propeller at each end

of the lower unit. This is said to offer a high-efficiency propulsion unit that is simple to install. By having a fixed-drive unit without steering, the installation is simplified - this allows higher efficiency from the design. Reintjes also believes it has revolutionised the hybrid market with its BAE HybriGen Zero system. This recently developed hybrid step-up gearbox for retrofit offers a range of benefits, including reduced operating costs, reduced emissions and reduced maintenance costs. This product line in Reintjes’ portfolio features a front-engine mounted gearbox combined with a permanent magnetic electric generator up to 300 kWe. With its high torque, this electric motor/ generator can also be used as a starter to substitute the air-starting system. Furthermore, the use of the PTO provides the option of switching off the onboard gensets during operation. The system comes with a BAE Systems electric motor and gearbox, which features an integrated multi-disc clutch; flexible coupling on input side; bell housing for direct generator mount; and a shaft for direct engine connection. Reintjes believes that hybrid solutions will be a common feature in future offshore vessels, so besides its newly-developed step-up gearbox, the company will also expand its existing hybrid system RHS (Reintjes Hybrid System) for newbuildings to include this environmentally friendly option. Battery packs will round off the existing scope of gearbox, electric motor, frequency converter and remote controls.

GEARBOXES NOTCH UP THREE DECADES OF CONTINUOUS USE Twin Disc marine gears has reported over three decades of continuous use from its MG514 marine gears at the UK's Shoreham Port Authority. These particular gears were installed on board the port's vessel Adurni in 1984. With nearly 34 years on the sea, the Adurni, a category 3 workboat owned by Shoreham Port Authority, has been operating out of Shoreham Port since it was built by Delta Shipyard. The vessel provides vital towing and bed levelling services in the harbours and seas surrounding West Sussex, and offers surveying and equipment deployment assignments. The diversity of services offered by the Adurni means that reliability is key – keeping it at sea and at work, while providing smooth and reliable operations for Shoreham Port Authority. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

www.mpropulsion.com


rolls-royce.com

Powered by natural gas Rolls-Royce is widely recognised for its system solutions for a broad range of vessel types. Systems comprising propellers and thrusters, engines, stabilisers, deck machinery, rudders, steering gear, automation and control systems. Rolls-Royce supply gas-powered propulsion solutions that reduce emissions significantly. Compared to diesel engines that meet IMO Tier 2 emission levels, Bergen gas engines give E2 weighted emission reductions of 92% NOx, close to 22% in CO2 and virtually eliminate SOx and particulates, already meeting enforced IMO and EPA Tier 3 requirements and are subject to EPA Tier 4 certification. Clean efficiency by Rolls-Royce.

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52 | SHAFTING, COUPLINGS & DAMPERS

Alignment technology keeps research vessel straight The research vessel RRS Sir David Attenborough makes use of tried-and-tested, highly accurate shaftalignment technology

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hipbuilder Cammell Laird won the £150M (US$209M) contract to build the Sir David Attenborough polar research vessel against fierce international competition.When it came to alignment of the ship's propeller shafts to the marine engine, it turned to UK company Taylor Hobson and used its micro alignment telescope to ensure precision alignment of the propulsion machinery. Shipbuilders and marine engineers are well aware of the problems in verifying that the alignment of a ship’s propulsion machinery is correct. The particular problem is to align the position of a ship's engine in relation to the propeller shafting and stern tube. The principle of the method is to set up a Micro Alignment Telescope coaxial to the engine axis. This is carried out by mounting a mirror target directly on to the engine coupling flange, and checking the concentricity by rotating the crankshaft and sighting the mirror target through the telescope. The Micro Alignment Telescope is fitted with its lamphouse and, using autoreflection, the squareness of the mirror target face with respect to the rotation of

aft of the engineroom bulkhead. Two lines of sight can be used: one from the forward end of the engine sighting aft, and one from the last intermediate shaft bearing sighting forward. These lines of sight overlap between aft of the engine and forward of the shaft tunnel roof. The Taylor Hobson range has been used for applications such as alignment of propulsion machinery since the late 1930s. The range includes micro alignment telescopes (used for checking and setting straightness and alignment), which are typically used to align the position of the ship’s engine in relation to the propeller shafting and stern tube. Other purposes include alignment of the engine to the stern tube and alignment of rudder bearings. Despite the advent of laser techniques, the Taylor Hobson Alignment Telescope remains a popular choice throughout the shipbuilding and repair sector due to its high accuracies and ability to withstand harsh environments. The Alignment Telescope has the advantage of being capable of running entirely without power since it is essentially based on sound mechanical and optical principles. This established technology can be enhanced with the use of new CCTV and CCD technology for enhanced magnification and remote viewing when working in difficult locations. This allows a number of operators to view the image at the same time and to digitise the telescope, permitting computer processing of the measurements. MP

the axis of the crankshaft is measured. Misalignment between propeller shafting and engine can lead to excessive vibration and deflections of the engine and transmission system and of the surrounding structure. The telescope is located concentrically in the aft end of the stern tube using the bore fixture. A target is mounted in an adaptor located at the forward end of the stern tube. The telescope is adjusted vertically and horizontally about its axis until the target is centred with the telescope crosslines. This setting establishes a telescope line of sight coincident with and parallel to the stern-tube axis. The extension of this line should pass through the centres of all the engine bearings. Targets are placed in adaptors located centrally in Engine room bulkhead the forward, middle and aft Telescope bearings, the telescope being Aft peak bulkhead Engine L.O.S. focused on each in turn. Checking the alignment Scale of shafting and engine Target Overlap bearings is relatively Engine L.O.S. fouls straightforward, though bulkhead here alignment of shafting to engine is complicated because the construction of many ships makes a line of sight from the forward end of the engine Telescope through to the tail shaft impossible. A line of sight Datum target over the engine can be Scale measured from a fixed height above the engine, but the Shaft L.O.S sighting is usually impeded by the shaft tunnel roof a few feet

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

ABOVE: The alignment of the propeller shafting to the marine engine


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SEALS & BEARINGS | 55

EALs come under scrutiny for sterntube bearing failures A new joint development project has thrown the spotlight onto environmentally acceptable lubricants (EALs)

Some EALs may impede bearing and seal performance, damaging critical components and compromising oil-tight integrity

www.mpropulsion.com

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lassification society DNV GL has launched a new joint development project (JDP) in co-operation with marine insurers The Swedish Club, Norwegian Hull Club, Gard and Skuld to test the potential influence of environmentally acceptable lubricants (EALs) on failures in stern-tube bearings. DNV GL will oversee detailed laboratory testing of EALs by Leonardo Testing Services Ltd at the University of Sheffield (UoS), UK. The JDP has been prompted by an increase in stern-tube bearing failures over the past few years. This coincides with the increased uptake of EALs after the 2013 introduction of regulations requiring their use in commercial vessels trading in US waters, but also with the introduction of new propulsion system designs such as single stern-tube bearing installations and larger and heavier propellers operating at lower rpm. “Very few studies have been conducted to compare the lubrication performance of EALs with that of traditional mineral oils in stern-tube applications,’’ said DNV GL principal engineer Øystein Åsheim Alnes. “With this new study we hope to gain a better understanding of factors influencing the lubrication performance of EALs.” The test programme will investigate such aspects as hydrodynamic oil-film formation, oil-film thickness under varying loads and temperatures, and potential shear-thinning effects at high shear rates. State-of-theart non-invasive ultrasonic techniques developed by UoS will be utilised to examine lubricant film behaviour in real-time. “DNV GL supports solutions that can reduce the environmental impact of the maritime industry. Our aim

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


56 | SEALS & BEARINGS

in this study is to undertake a first-hand assessment of the performance of EALs in order to guide the further development of the DNV GL Rules,” said Mr Alnes. The first phase of testing will be completed in the first quarter of 2018, with the results scheduled for publication later in the year. While many ship operators consider the rise in use of EALs a cure-all to meet environmental regulations, particularly in waters where the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has regulated the use of mineral oils, their performance as a propeller-shaft bearing lubricant has come under increasing scrutiny. It is thought some EALs may impede bearing and seal performance, damaging critical components and compromising oil-tight integrity. Thordon Bearings president and chief executive Terry McGowan said: “The initiative to verify EAL performance as a bearing lubricant comes at a critical juncture in the maritime industry. Ship operators are beginning to spurn mineral oil-based lubricants in favour of cleaner, more reliable alternatives. But as yet there is little evidence to indicate that EALs can do what they're supposed to do without damaging machinery or the environment. There is a lot of confusion.” However, Phil Cumberlidge, business development manager for Panolin's GreenMarine range, points out that not all EALs are the same. "What is clear is that this is a complex investigation, as – with five base oil types that are generally considered to be ‘biodegradable’ and several ‘blends’ of these lubricants available from many oil companies and many engineered down to a Price/ Performance/Environmental

compromise – identifying those lubricants that do work and those that don’t, is a big job. Mr McGowan suggests that the EPA inadvertently added to this confusion by determining that four major types of lubricants (vegetable oils, synthetic esters, polyethylene glycols or PAGs, and seawater) can meet all the necessary required criteria to be classified as an approved EAL. But satisfactory operational performance is another matter. “Not all of these EALs perform in the same way,” said Mr McGowan, referring to a 2014 paper Understanding Biodegradable Lubricants, in which the International Marine Contractors Association warned that “choosing the correct type of lubricant for a particular application can be problematic, given that most types offer some degree of biodegradability, but differ in performance and regulatory compliance. “While these environmentally friendly lubricants can cost significantly more than mineral oil-based products,” said Mr McGowan, “the real concern is when biodegradable oils mix with water. Their viscosity can deteriorate with water ingress, resulting in reduced lubricating capacity and potential damage to seals and bearings.” According to Mr Cumberlidge "This is history repeating itself….. 30 years ago canola-based ‘biodegradable’ hydraulic oil was thought to be the environmental alternative to mineral oil for large construction machines, but after a year or so, it was found that this bio oil was degrading and equipment transmissions were severely damaged. This refers to the 1999 large canola oil spill in Vancouver Harbour, Canada, which killed thousands of seabirds.

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

There has been a reported increase in sterntube bearing failures following the increased use of EALs

EALS ARE LINKED TO STERN TUBE BEARING DAMAGE Temperature increases in stern tube bearings (STBs) and damage to the bearings when using environmentally-acceptable lubes (EALs) have baffled engineers since EALs became mandatory in US waters in 2013. So Wärtsilä Seals & Bearings has been looking into the causes of the problem and believes that the properties of EALs play a big part in this effect, although other factor also have an impact. Speaking to technical managers invited to a briefing in London in January, Wärtsilä Seals & Bearings engineering manager Mihari Masaki said that the phenomenon was found even when ships were moored or during their sea trials. “After changing the lubricating oil to mineral oil, the temperature of the STBs did not increase again,” he said. He stressed, however, that the number of such cases is small. He displayed illustrations of the damage caused to STBs associated with the temperature rises, which showed apparent plastic flow in the lower part of the white metal bearing surface. In one case, involving a 500 mm diameter shaft, the temperature rise was measured at 68°C when the ship was steered hard to starboard during sea trails, after which the propeller shaft was withdrawn for inspection. Damage was found to extend for about 420 mm, representing 44% of the bearing’s length. One factor that appeared to be relevant was oil viscosity and Wärtsilä Seals & Bearings carried out comparison tests using three EALs and a typical engine oil. In one test, the researchers found that EALs had a lower viscosity than mineral oil at low temperatures while, above about 40°C EALs have a higher viscosity than mineral oils. Other factors that were investigated included propeller shaft roughness and the position of the STBs, so Wärtsilä Seals & Bearings’ advice to counter the problems was a combination of checking the lubricating characteristics of the EAL and the shaft and bearing arrangements. MP

www.mpropulsion.com


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Monitoring drives push for autonomy

As more remote-monitoring solutions are adopted, the move toward autonomous vessels gets closer

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ABOVE: Sunflower operates in some of the most congested waters in the world and will provide an opportunity to test rigorously Rolls-Royce’s intelligent awareness system

s more and more remote monitoring and control technology is being used to help owners and oil companies manage fuel consumption, it is advancing the case for remote and autonomous operation. This technology trend started with monitoring fuel consumption and engine performance on vessels. Within three years it will include unmanned surface vessels being trialled by oil companies for controlling remotely operated vehicles underwater. Miclyn Express Offshore (MEO) fleet manager Sanket Ashok Shukla told Marine Propulsion that his company would be willing to consider remotely controlled or even autonomous vessels in the future. His comments followed a seminar on future-proofing the offshore industry, hosted by the Institute of Marine Engineering, Science and Technology at the Seatrade Offshore Marine & Workboats Middle East event in Abu Dhabi. During that event, Rolls-Royce Marine senior vice president for concepts,

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

innovation and digital systems Oskar Levander said he expected a commercial remote-controlled or autonomous vessel to be operating in 2020. There is a lot of development work to go before the maritime industry gets to that technology level. Capt Sanket is concerned that “autonomous vessels would be exposed to marine environments and operating around platforms,” which means there would be less room to manoeuvre if there were some kind of failure. He added that adoption of autonomous vessel technology would need to be done in steps, starting with controlled operations. “Remotely-operated vessels would be a great advantage,” Capt Sanket added. In the meantime, offshore support vessel operators are reducing costs through adoption of vessel-monitoring technology. MEO Middle East operations manager Ravinder Hoonjan said “oil companies are putting more focus on cutting fuel costs.” This is why he would recommend that “vessel owners need to monitor and manage

www.mpropulsion.com


REMOTE MONITORING | 59

better the fuel consumption” on their ships. Seacor Offshore senior vice president Anthony Weller said his company had invested in fuel monitoring on vessels. He said this technology and remote maintenance had made vessels and engines more efficient. “We can be competitive with more efficient engines and fuel monitoring on our vessels for our clients,” he said. Topaz Energy & Marine has introduced digitalisation and offshore communications technology on its vessels to improve crew welfare and business operations. Topaz is connecting its fleet of up to 110 vessels to this digital platform using Orange Business Services’ Maritime Connect solution, which includes VSAT, L-band backup, onboard wifi and links to coastal cellular networks. It is also working with ABS Nautical Systems on fleet-management programmes. Having been at the forefront of this trend for remotely operated and autonomous vessels for some time, Rolls-Royce has opened a state-of-theart research facility in Turku, Finland, to develop the technologies it and its partners require to shape the future of an increasingly more autonomous global shipping industry. The new Research & Development Centre for Autonomous Ships includes a Remote and Autonomous Experience Space aimed at showcasing the autonomous ship technologies Rolls-Royce has already introduced as well as those in the development stage. The new R&D Centre enables RollsRoyce and its partners to carry out projects focussed on autonomous navigation, the development of land-based control centres, and the use of artificial intelligence in future remote and autonomous shipping operations. Speaking at the official opening, Rolls-Royce president for marine Mikael Makinen said: “I’m proud to say that the R&D centre is now up and running, and that all stakeholders, partners and customers will be able see here what a remote-controlled and autonomous maritime future could look like, and work with us to shape the future. The Experience Space that is part of the centre here in Turku, and a similar one we have in our Technology Centre in Norway, is aimed at demonstrating to our customers the very tangible benefits of what is often considered an intangible technology.” The Experience Space includes several interactive tables on which Rolls-Royce can showcase existing and future technologies while aiding the development and

www.mpropulsion.com

introduction of new rules and standards for autonomous shipping. “The centre allows us to more accurately communicate our capabilities, what we have available today and what will be available tomorrow,” said Rolls-Royce senior vice president for ship intelligence Karno Tenovuo. “It will completely focus on the development of solutions capable of smoothing the maritime industry’s transition to the digital age. An autonomous maritime ecosystem will open up unprecedented opportunities.” As part of its quest for autonomous vessels, Rolls-Royce has signed a deal with Japanese multi-modal transport company Mitsui OSK Lines (MOL) to collaborate in the development of its intelligent awareness system. The collaboration will be on board 165 m passenger ferry Sunflower, which is owned and operated by MOL’s subsidiary. Sunflower operates on a 222-nautical-mile route between Kobe and Oita via the Akashi Kaikyo, Bisan Seto and Kurushima Straits. Rolls-Royce intelligent awareness systems will make vessels safer, easier and more efficient to operate by providing crew with an enhanced understanding of their vessel’s surroundings. This will be achieved by fusing data from a range of sensors with information from existing ship systems such as automatic identification systems and radar. MOL director Kenta Arai said: “Ferry Sunflower operates in some of the most congested waters in the world and will provide an opportunity to rigorously test Rolls-Royce’s intelligent awareness system. We also expect it to provide our crews with a more informed view of a vessel’s

surroundings in an accessible and userfriendly way. This can give our crews an enhanced decision-support tool, increasing their safety and that of our vessels. This is a significant challenge to frontline technology leading to our ultimate goal of autonomous sailing.” Rolls-Royce director for marine digital and systems Asbjørn Skaro said: “We are exploring and testing how to combine sensor technologies effectively and affordably. Pilot projects such as this allow us to see how they can be best adapted to the needs of the customer and their crews so that our product effectively meets the needs of both. Successful pilots and product development programmes are also an important step toward the further development of remote and autonomous vessels, and to meeting our goal of having a remote-controlled ship in commercial use by the end of the decade.” Rolls-Royce expects to be able to undertake an approval of concept and have its intelligent awareness product commercially available in 2018. The system builds on experiences from R&D work worldwide. The intelligent awareness system will benefit from RollsRoyce’s extensive experience in the Tekesfunded project Advanced Autonomous Waterborne Applications Initiative, which has been running since June 2015. The company has been conducting a series of tests of the sensor arrays in a range of operating and climatic conditions on board Finferries’ 65 m double-ended ferry Stella, which operates between Korpo and Houtskär in the Archipelago Sea on the southwest coast of Finland. MP

Many believe unmanned surface vessels will soon be trialled by oil companies for controlling remotely operated vehicles underwater

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


60 | CONDITION & PERFORMANCE MONITORING

HULL DATA ANALYSIS PUSHES UP PERFORMANCE THE USE OF DATA ANALYTICS HAS THE POTENTIAL TO REVOLUTIONISE HULL PERFORMANCE, WITH A NUMBER OF NEW PRODUCTS AVAILABLE TO CAPITALISE ON THIS MARKET

Hempel‘s SHAPE combines elements of hull and propeller efficiency optimisation

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

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he quest to find economies from the use of data and performance monitoring takes many shapes. Although most of the concentration has been on the performance of propulsion systems, this technology has far more potential. One example of this can be seen in the launch in January of coatings manufacturer Hempel’s new Systems for Hull and Propeller Efficiency (SHAPE). The transparent and thorough process of SHAPE is designed to maximise the quality of performance analysis and to offer expert advice for maximising hull efficiency and return on investment. Fouling and mechanical damage to the hull can increase the engine power a vessel needs by up to 20%. By utilising SHAPE in combination with hull coatings, Hempel believes it is able to provide documented fuel savings and a programme of continuous improvement. Users of SHAPE are able to analyse the impact on performance of hull and propeller solutions and drydockings, as well as in-service hull and propeller maintenance, allowing for datadriven decision making. Group segment manager for marine, dry dock, Andreas Glud said: “Hull performance remains a crucial element in understanding fuel performance. At Hempel

www.mpropulsion.com


CONDITION & PERFORMANCE MONITORING | 61

we started focusing on fuel performance over a decade ago when we launched the first fuel savings guarantees in the industry. Our new Hempel SHAPE system allows us to gather high-quality data, provide expert analysis, deliver decisive advice and world-class hull coatings irrespective of the type, age, size and operating patterns of a vessel – making ship operators more efficient and competitive. We are presenting our customers with something beyond performance monitoring. We are offering fuel efficiency intelligence. ” SHAPE is based on the new standard in performance monitoring, the ISO 19030, which was published a year ago. The ISO 19030 methodology describes how to measure changes in ship-specific hull and propeller performance, and defines a set of relevant performance indicators for hull and propeller maintenance, and repair activities. Specifically designed on the principles defined by ISO 19030, SHAPE can monitor the long-term trends via in-service key performance indicators (KPIs) but also short-term trends through the maintenance-trigger KPI. Only 15% of the world’s fleet can currently meet the strict requirements of ISO 19030 part 2, but Hempel’s SHAPE offers a more flexible solution bringing transparent performance monitoring and analysis by combining elements of hull and propeller efficiency optimisation, delivering expert advice and solutions to every ship operator. SHAPE includes a tailored hull performance programme with a dedicated Hempel performance analyst, as well as expert data interpretation and advice from Hempel's team of chemists, physicists and hydrodynamicists. KPIs for the system are based on speed-loss measurements to track performance gains over time.

www.mpropulsion.com

Intertrac Vision Lite has been developed to showcase key features of the full Intertrac Vision tool

Monitored and guaranteed speed loss – directly related to fuel savings – is also applicable for hull coatings specified for up to 60-month drydocking intervals. In addition, transparent cost-effective performance monitoring following the ISO 19030 methodology is available. Another coatings manufacturer that sees a huge opportunity in applying big data to antifouling coating selection and maintenance is AkzoNobel. Due to the huge number of factors involved, using data tools can help owners select the right coatings and then monitor and manage the performance of the coatings selected. AkzoNobel first launched its Intertrac Vision system in 2015. This is a predictive tool designed to help ship operators assess the return on investment resulting from a particular coating specification. The iPad-based system processes individual vessel data and operational parameters that specially trained personnel

enter during a free consultation. Multiple proprietary algorithms and models are then used to provide an accurate assessment of the impact of each potential fouling control coating choice over a ship’s specified in-service period. Outputs include a vessel’s powering requirement, fuel consumption, fuel cost, CO2 emission predictions and a full cost-benefit analysis comparing different coating options and surface preparation options. In May 2017 at Nor Shipping, the company launched Digital Voyage, a suite of digital tools that included Intertrac Perform, a tool that measures and monitors hull-performance data, and validates these against the predictions made by Intertrac Vision using metrics that comply with the ISO 19030 standard on hull- and propellerperformance monitoring. Part of Digital Voyage, Intertrac Vision Lite has been developed to showcase key features of the full Intertrac Vision tool. Users can input data covering a sample selection of vessel

types, fouling routes and generic hull-coating choices to create different coatings scenarios and then compare variations in the effect on power requirements, fuel costs, and CO2 emissions. It also includes tips and commentary to explain the methodology that underpins Intertrac Vision, which includes the full range of parameters, and can be used to make comprehensive economic and environmental decisions. The latest addition to this Intertrac range is Intertrac Perform. Currently being trialled, this software measures and monitors hull-performance data and validates it against predictions made by Intertrac Vision. By analysing power and speed profiles in accordance with the ISO 19030 standard, users can identify whether coatings are performing as they should, and whether extra maintenance or service may be necessary. This means the company can now offer a complete solution for predicting, monitoring and analysing coating performance. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


62 | CONDITION & PERFORMANCE MONITORING

Monitoring technology gains ground

Remote and condition monitoring are gaining ground with shipowners starting to take their first steps into these areas

Bourbon is testing remote monitoring of a DP system on an Explorer 500-series vessel

S

irius Shipping has announced that it is deploying condition monitoring systems on its fleet of 10 tankers to prevent machinery failures and to reduce maintenance costs. It has teamed up with SKF to install sensors on its oil and chemical carriers to remotely monitor machinery performance. Sensors have been deployed on ships to detect machinery operating parameters and transmit signals to SKF’s certified remote diagnostic centre in Hamburg, Germany, where specialists can detect and report machinery deviations to the Sweden-headquartered tanker owner. Sirius technical superintendent Stefan Johansson explained that information from these sensors and reports enable his company to prepare maintenance before there are machinery failures that would lead to an unscheduled stoppage and voyage delays. “It is very costly if something happens, so we want to prevent the risks as much as we can,” he said. On average, a typical shipyard stoppage can take around 6-7 days for routine maintenance, but if there is a major breakdown, repairs can take several months, which Mr Johansson is keen to avoid.

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

A recurring challenge facing Sirius’ maintenance department is to increase the reliability of critical rotating equipment on board. Monitoring the reduction gearbox, which drives the propeller shaft, and the generator, which is also driven by the reduction gearbox, increases the safety and reliability of the system. Sirius is installing online status monitoring with measurement sensors on selected machine components to increase control of rotating equipment. So far it has installed SKF’s IMx-8 system on tankers Nimbus and Marinus. It intends to install IMx-8 aboard Neptunus and Scorpius later this year. The fleet of 10 tankers transports oil and chemicals to ports in northern Europe, particularly Denmark, Norway, Finland and Sweden. Sirius has ordered two chemical tanker newbuildings from AVIC Dingheng shipyard in China and automation systems that will link the power management systems and the cargo systems for these ships from Høglund. Leading offshore vessel operator Bourbon has also taken a first leap into fleet digitalisation through a strategic partnership with classification society Bureau Veritas. With the help of Kongsberg Maritime and Airbus subsidiary Apsys, Bourbon will test digital technology for remote monitoring of offshore support vessels. Bureau Veritas and Bourbon will jointly develop and deploy automation, real-time monitoring applications and developing digital technologies, while mitigating cyber risks. But first, they will test some of these smart-ship technologies for verification of dynamic positioning (DP) operations in real-time. A pilot has been implemented on Bourbon Explorer 508, which is operating in Trinidad waters. This monitoring technology was developed by Kongsberg Maritime, which is already a strategic partner of Bourbon and is certified by Bureau Veritas. It collects data from the DP system that can be used on board and by onshore support teams to improve DP operations. Bourbon expects this to improve safety and reduce fuel and DP maintenance costs. Apsys is helping the partners to identify and mitigate cyber security risks linked to data collection and communication between Bourbon’s vessels and onshore infrastructure. It will also help Bureau Veritas create certification and class notations covering cyber security. MP

www.mpropulsion.com


Safety for you and your engine More than 55.000 engines well protected by Oil Mist Detector VISATRON

Meet us at Asia Pacific Maritime booth number E-L18 Meet us at Seatrade Cruise Global booth number 535

www.schaller-automation.com

Ensure reliable engine performance on board Make sure your crew is equipped to perform maintenance at any time!

Ultrasonic cleaning

Cylinder pressure monitoring

Fuel injector testing

Cylinder liner maintenance

Innovative engineering since 1962 www.chris-marine.com


SOx Scrubbers – for all types of vessels Small size scrubber tower replacing the silencer

Cleaned water discharge fulfils MARPOL Annex VI

Minimal amount of dry sludge waste to be disposed ashore

High energy efficiency through the small scrubbing water flows

No need for sludge tank or holding tank

No chemicals used in the water cleaning phase (membrane filtration)

Langh Tech will be at the Sulphur Cap 2020 Conference 2018 in Amsterdam

Langh Tech Oy Ab | Alaskartano, 21500 Pikis, Finland | +358 2 477 9400 | www.langhtech.com Caring_82x135mm 2.indd 1

12.2.2018 10.57.00

Stormy Waters We cannot rule the waves, but we do control our foundry and machining facilities. For 90 years and 3 generations our company has provided the marine propulsion industry with high integrity castings in Nickel Aluminium Bronze. Our success is built on delicate blending of traditional foundry practice with cutting edge technology. Copperstorm® is a developed product philosophy enabling us to efficiently create the highest quality castings from your designs. We strive to stay in front, our products do the driving.

See us at SMM, Hamburg. 4-7 September 2018

Phone +47 71 20 11 00 - Molde Norway - mail@oshaug.no - www.oshaug.no


PERFORMANCE MONITORING | 65

ABB opens first Chinese Collaborative Operation Center

The new Shanghai centre reinforces ABB’s position as a leading digital solutions supplier to the maritime industry

A

BB has added Shanghai to its global network of ABB Ability Collaborative Operations Centers, after formally opening a new facility to coincide with Marintec 2017. The centre supports the shipping industry’s journey towards digitalisation, and ultimately safer and more efficient vessel operations. The new Shanghai centre will monitor data gathered by sensors on board ships and sent ashore by satellite, allowing ABB experts to remotely analyse equipment performance, troubleshoot, diagnose and work on maintenance planning and fleet benchmarking. It will work in conjunction with Collaborative Operations Centers in Norway (Billingstad), Finland (Helsinki), The Netherlands (Dalfsen), Italy (Genoa), the USA (Miami) and Singapore, to support vessels on a 24/7 basis. This global setup means that ABB specialists are available during their daytime working hours, no matter what the location of the ship or when assistance is sought. The new Shanghai centre is a crucial part of the assistance global map, offering real-time support in both Chinese and English. “We are living through one of the most exciting periods in the history of the maritime industry, where digitalisation and connectivity are becoming predominant. I am delighted to launch our sector-leading solutions for Collaborative Operations in China,” said head of hub business unit marine and ports China Alf-Kåre Ådnanes. “ABB has provided integrated propulsion systems to a wide range of vessels built in China, with both domestic and global operations. The ABB Ability Collaborative Operations Center allows us to better serve these vessels and their operators with the latest digital services, driving further progress for efficient and reliable operations.”

www.mpropulsion.com

The new Shanghai centre reinforces ABB’s position as a leading digital solutions supplier to the maritime industry, offering Chinese customers access to solutions and information that can improve their operational performance. “ABB’s service capabilities reduce unexpected downtime and expensive missed port calls. Sometimes we can even identify onboard issues before the crew are aware of them and make predictive interventions. There are also clear benefits for customers of being able to speak to an engineer with ship data in front of them,” explained ABB Service Center Hub BU Marine and Ports China general manager Roger Xie. In addition to enabling predictive maintenance, ABB’s ability to monitor the performance of ships or whole fleets is longestablished. “The success of this is related to our strong support infrastructure, investment in shore-side analysis expertise, and capability to respond, plan and troubleshoot,” added Mr Xie. Remote monitoring undertaken through ABB’s Collaborative Operations allow owners to pre-survey marine equipment on board ships and collect data in advance of repairs. This can save up to 50% on drydocking ABB equipment. “We believe the next generation of ships will be electric, digital and connected as the industry moves toward the use of new energy sources and automated ship operations,” said ABB Marine and Ports managing director Juha Koskela “The Shanghai ABB Ability Collaborative Operations Center demonstrates ABB’s commitment to invest in shipping’s new digital solutions, providing a common operating platform that will convert big data into smarter services locally in China as well as globally,” he said. ABB is remotely monitoring more than 700 ships, and aims to raise that number to 3,000 by 2020. MP

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


66 | PERFORMANCE MONITORING

WinGD introduces new Integrated Digital Expert system Winterthur Gas & Diesel (WinGD) has launched a new comprehensive, integrated system for creating value from engine and ship data, WiDE (WinGD Integrated Digital Expert). WiDE allows the collection and analysis of ship and machinery data to proactively predict engine component malfunctions and offer support through live troubleshooting and diagnostic advice to the crew. This is done without the need to instal additional sensors. WiDE is based on the data collection monitoring (DCM) unit for collecting and visualising the engine and ship data, as well as the engine diagnostic system (EDS) software. It analyses the data and creates value and insight. These capabilities are integrated into a userfriendly, onboard system comprising state-of-the-art hardware, expert software and efficient data-analytics techniques.

“WiDE forms part of WinGD’s digital solutions that enhance customer benefits”

WinGD integrated Digital Expert WiDE

WinGD general manager for business development Carmelo Cartalemi said: “WiDE forms part of WinGD’s digital solutions that enhance customer benefits. With WiDE we are able to utilise the power of the machinery data in combination with our engine expertise and advanced data-analytics techniques. This allows us to support shipping companies during their day-to-day operations

with valuable insight. We provide live troubleshooting support for engine performance, suggested maintenance and component replacement, reducing operational interruptions.” WiDE collects data via DCM, which is installed as standard on all new engines contracted as of January 2018. DCM can also be retrofitted to older, electronically controlled engines already in operation.

KR launches new version of e-fleet Classification society KR has launched the second edition of its one-stop fleet-management program KR e-fleet. The program is now fully operational and available to all KR’s shipowning and operating customers (potentially 3,032 vessels). Since e-fleet's first launch in March 2011, the program has delivered key information in real-time to shipowners and operators, covering all the necessary preparations for a ship survey and the details of international convention audits. The new KR e-fleet v2 provides a wide range of online application functions, an increased selection of content options and a more user-friendly interface. In addition, KR has now completed the digitisation of all previous paper documents submitted by shipowners. The result is a fully searchable database enabling shipowners to manage their ship survey and audit processes more efficiently. A new management function called Survey Planner now provides survey information covering the company's entire fleet. KR also created a platform for each vessel’s greenhouse gas monitoring plan, allowing verification from KR in accordance with the

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

new EU MRV regulations, which came into force in January 2018. A greenhouse gas monitoring plan is a mandatory report which ships of over 5,000 gt entering and departing from ports in the EU must present. The report will contain all of the monitoring and reporting data relating to that vessel’s CO2 emissions. Shipowners all over the world whose ships are affected by the EU MRV requirements must provide a report for the European Commission, once the data has been verified by an EU-authorised verification body such as KR. KR chairman and CEO Lee Jeong-Kie commented: “The first edition of KR e-fleet was warmly welcomed by our customers, and we are pleased to launch this, the second edition, with enhanced and upgraded functionality that will assist our customers even more.” “Designed for their convenience and to support their efficient fleet management, we are now working to provide a cloud server for our clients in the US and Europe, which should be operational in the first half of 2018,” he added. Any of KR’s customers whose ships are registered with KR can use KR e-fleet free of charge. MP

www.mpropulsion.com


8th AVL LARGE ENGINES TECHDAYS „Electrification, New Fuels and Power Sources: Boom or Doom for Large Engines?“

11th-12th April, 2018 in Graz Global and local emission regulations push the limits of traditional engine development including exhaust gas aftertreatment. Robust solutions are required, with a max fuel flexibility – be it Diesel fuel, natural gas, any kind of alcohols or hydrogen, mainly driven by fuel price. Especially for marine and mobile applications, the challenge will be to intelligently integrate the combustion engine into complex systems side by side with batteries, fuel cells and other power sources. AVL’s 8th Large Engines TechDays will focus on the multitude of challenges of electrification and hybridization, new fuels and competitive power sources. International high-level speakers from OEMs, operators and suppliers will present their solution approaches: Andreas Lippert, GM Product Management & Engineering, GE Distributed Power, GE Jenbacher GmbH & Co OG Leif-Arne Skarbo, Chief Technology Officer, Bergen Engines AS Diethard Plohberger, Liebherr Components Colmar SAS Wolfgang Warnecke, Chief Scientist Mobility, Shell Mikael Wideskog, Director Research & Technology Development, Wärtsilä Brent Ness, Director, Growth Office, Cummins Inc. and many more Information & Registration: www.avl.com/letd-2018


A unique business platform for the global shipping industry 22,000 VISITORS 1,825 EXHIBITING COMPANIES 101 COUNTRIES Welcomed by the owners of a fleet of over 4,000 vessels

4 - 8 June 2018 Metropolitan Expo, Athens Greece

www.posidonia-events.com


POWERTALK | 69

Testing times for ballast water management The drawn-out question of when the Ballast Water Management Convention will be enforced has obscured the equally crucial matter of how, as the managing director of a leading, on board testing company makes clear

Snapshot CV Dr Brian Phillips

(managing director, Chelsea Technologies Group)

Brian Phillips has served as managing director of Chelsea Technologies Group (CTG) for 16 years. The company started life as a spin out from Imperial College. Over the last 50 years, it has developed a reputation as a manufacturer of innovative sensors and systems for the military and civil oceanographic, environmental, acoustics and process control markets. CTG’s sensor technology is being pioneered for a range of applications. It is being used to help submariners understand the oceanographic environment within which they operate, monitor water supplies to guard against chemical attack by terrorists and monitor oceanic algae and their response to climate change.

www.mpropulsion.com

C

heslea technologies Managing Director, Brian Phillips, has no doubt of his company’s capabilities: “We know more about photosynthetic activity in algae, as a commercial company, than anyone else in the World”, he asserted. This is no idle boast as the company is the leader in the scientific community when it comes to looking at the reproduction of algae populations in the ocean. Its equipment is in use by most of the worldwide scientific institutes involved

with studying algae behaviour for the purposes of global warming analysis. This expertise made the company’s transition to ballast water testing a fairly natural one. Dr Phillips said “While we were researching the ballast water market, The United States Coast Guard (USCG) issued a request for an input from companies who could offer a technical solution to the problem of carrying out ballast water compliance testing on board vessels, without the need to send water samples to a shore based laboratory. We responded with the design of a device heavily based on our 20 years’ experience with measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, marine algae populations. The final result of this process was development of our FastBallast testing equipment.” This filled

“We know more about photosynthetic activity in algae as a commercial company than anyone else in the world”

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018


70 | POWERTALK

a technology gap to allow a low cost, fast and, most importantly, accurate on-board compliance test. To enable a suitable test to be developed, attention focussed on the D2 standard, 10 to 50 micron range of marine organisms, ie algae.

happening. It’s not that I am particularly clever but it’s obvious that that once ships are in danger of being fined, impounded or told to take their ballast water cargo elsewhere, the first question a captain or shipowner is going to ask is whether the instrument

“To have reached this stage with no accredited means of testing is extraordinary. It astounds me as much as anyone”

Chelsea Technologies did not adopt existing techniques such as PAM fluorometry where assumptions are made about the algal cell biology in order to arrive at a cell count. Instead, a direct method of cell number estimation is employed to produce a result whose accuracy rivals that of laboratory based, cell counts with a microscope. The FastBallast technique is now well established and has been extensively verified, both by in-house testing and by independent, third party testing laboratories. The existence of effective, accurate and meaningful, onboard ballast water testing is increasingly crucial, believes Dr Phillips. “The market wants more than someone to go on board a ship and offer an indication of whether the ballast water has passed a compliance test or not. In Saudi Arabia at the moment, FastBallast is being used extensively by our agents GSA to carry out compliance testing on vessels visiting Saudi Aramco Ports; and what I have predicted is indeed

readings can be trusted: Are they accurate? The problem, as Dr Phillips pointed out, is that other systems rely to some extent on certain assumptions in order to arrive at an algal cell count. He explained: “We are working with a very, very varied biology about which generalised assumptions cannot be made accurately. If you can prove that your a priori estimations are accurate and cover all possible algal populations, then your derived cell count will be accurate. However, we argue that there is no way you can say that and our results prove it. That is why we have gone to the trouble and expense of offering a measurement protocol that completely ignores any a priori assumption and instead measures cell count directly. We require no prior estimation of algal type, differential cell size or population mix – we just count them” Dr Phillips added that “to have reached this stage with no accredited means of testing is extraordinary. It astounds me

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

as much as anyone.” Chelsea Technologies is seeking to change that situation, Dr Phillips explained: “What we’ve been doing in recent times is a lot of work to prove that FastBallast does what it says on the tin. We feel that the industry won’t accept anyone’s test on board a vessel until such time as there are a set of third-party protocols that will allow class societies to accredit the box in question.” This could happen more quickly than people think, as Chelsea Technologies has already initiated discussions with accreditation authorities. These will result in tests putting systems through a process of third-party protocol testing. Dr Phillips stated that “it’s all working in our favour because the question’s now being asked as to why one system works better than others.” Even with agreed-on testing standards, though, Mr Phillips believes it is inevitable

that appeals against onboard tests carried out by port state authorities will be a theme over the next few years. “Appeals are inevitable,” he asserted. “It’s going to lead to situations of tension between port authorities, testing facilities and shipowners because the results are not what they want to hear and the first point of call in any appeal will be to look at the method of testing being used – which I think is very good for us. The spotlight will be on what these onboard tests are actually giving you and how they’re arriving at those conclusions.” Dr Philips believes that there will of necessity be a ‘period of grace’ during which the new regulations will not be stringently enforced. “I think that’s definitely what will have to happen. There is bound to be a period of time during which the meaningfulness and accuracy of these systems is assured before port state authorities can impound and fine vessels,” he concluded. MP

The FastBallast ballast water compliance monitor

www.mpropulsion.com


72 | BUNKER BULLETIN

SEA/LNG launches bunker navigator tool S EA\LNG, the multisector industry coalition aiming to accelerate the widespread adoption of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a marine fuel, has launched a new

free-to-access online tool to improve understanding of the current, and rapidly evolving, LNG bunkering infrastructure landscape. The new Bunker Navigator Tool utilises member-supplied

World bunker prices

information and publicly available data to provide easy access to the latest developments in the global LNG bunkering infrastructure. SEA\LNG’s map-based tool provides an overview of key

(Bunker price indications – Friday 9 February 2018)

Latest prices BRENT WTI MGO NOTES Settle $64,81 -$0,70 $61,15 -$0,64 568,00 -$11,00 FO-380 3.5% MGO 0.1% Rotterdam MTD $344-$349 $540-$546 Antwerp MTD $348-$355 $545-$556 Lisbon MTW $377-$382 $625-$631 Gibraltar MTD $363-$369 $597-$605 Gothenburg MTD $370-$375 $575-$585 Las Palmas MTD $368-$375 $599-$605 Malta MTD $364-$370 $580-$590 Piraeus MTW $368-$374 $598-$610 St. Petersburg MTD $330-$340 $590-$600 Fujairah MTD $365-$370 $660-$670 Durban MTW $423-$429 $649-$655 Barging $11.50pmt Dammam / Ras Tanura MTD $393 $650 PPDD Jeddah/Yanbu/Rabigh MTD $401 $650 PPDD Richards Bay MTW $430-$435 $690-$700 Barging $14.00pmt New York MTW $375-$382 $605-$625 Houston MTW $345-$355 $597-$605 New Orleans MTW $372-$382 $600-$625 Vancouver MTW $388-$400 $682-$695 Panama MTW $348-$359 $620-$630 Santos MTD $365-$366 $745-$746 DMA Hong Kong MTD $375-$380 $588-$605 Singapore MTD $364-$370 $585-$590 Busan MTD $396-$411 $630-$640 Tokyo Bay MTD $410-$420 $585-$600 Diesel LSDMB Shanghai MTW $397-$402 $695-$700 Qingdao MTW $408-$413 $695-$700 *Price not updated from previous report. US Prices are previous day closing levels. MTD = delivered MTW = ex-wharf PP = posted price

Information supplied by WMF brokers: Dave Reid - e: dareid@wfscorp.com Stuart Murray – e: stmurray@wfscorp.com

All prices listed are in US Dollars. These are indicative prices only to be used as a guide, subject to change depending on market conditions, quantity & supply date. DISCLAIMER: Please note that the information provided hereby merely contains observations and forward-looking expectations which are subject to risk and uncertainties related to financial and market conditions in relevant markets and may otherwise be subject to change. The purpose of this information is to share insight, which has been reported through common sources or our network. WMF undertakes no liability and makes no representation or warranty for the information and expectations given in this information or for the consequences of any actions taken on the basis of the information provided.

Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery | February/March 2018

LNG bunkering developments and how this growing infrastructure relates to major global shipping routes, traditional oil bunkering ports, and the bulk LNG infrastructure which will provide the foundation for future bunkering services. As the 2020 0.5% global sulphur cap edges ever closer, shipowners must make decisions that remain viable into the future – and choose between a limited number of options; LNG, scrubbers, or low sulphur fuels. SEA\LNG believes that demonstrating – through the newly launched Bunker Navigator Tool – that LNG bunkering infrastructure is available globally and is continually developing will support shipowners’ investments in LNG-fuelled ships. Peter Keller, executive vice president of Tote and SEA\LNG chairman, said: “The coalition’s mission since inception has been to further the shipping industry’s knowledge of the viability and sustainability of LNG as a marine fuel. A key barrier has been a general lack of understanding of current and forthcoming LNG bunkering infrastructure. What we sought to achieve with the Bunker Navigator Tool is a quick, easy-to-access platform that includes relevant, up-to-date, and free-to-access information on LNG infrastructure and bunker development.” As well as an overview of key LNG bunkering developments, the map-based tool enables access to case studies which describe the bunkering projects being developed by SEA\LNG members at specific locations, with more added as they become available. MP

www.mpropulsion.com


www.v-p-s.com

THE LEADER IN FUEL TESTING & INSPECTION Ver it as Pet ro leu m S e r vice s ( V P S ) prov id e fu e l m a na g e m e nt ser vices to assis t ship owne rs and opera to rs a c hieve i m p rovem en t s in ope rational e fficie nc y, d a m a g e p reve nt io n an d com p liance with marine fu e l re gu la to r y re q u ire m e nt s . Y O U R F U E L M A N A G E M E N T PA R T N E R VERITAS PETROLEUM SERVICES GROUP

Asia, Middle East & Africa Singapore 27 Changi South Street 1 Singapore 486071 T + 65 6779 2475 E singapore@v-p-s.com

Europe Rotterdam Zwolseweg 1 2994 LB Barendrecht The Netherlands T + 31 (0) 180 221 100 E rotterdam@v-p-s.com

Americas Houston 318 North 16th Street La Porte, Texas 77571 USA T + 1 281 470 1030 E houston@v-p-s.com

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Marine Propulsion February/March 2018  

The Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery bi-monthly magazine provides all interested parties with a complete digest of all the latest dev...

Marine Propulsion February/March 2018  

The Marine Propulsion & Auxiliary Machinery bi-monthly magazine provides all interested parties with a complete digest of all the latest dev...