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2nd Quarter 2018 www.marinemec.com

“Autonomous shipping is just one aspect of a maritime technology revolution that has the potential to radically transform the industry� Chris Grayling, UK secretary of state for transport, see page 8


contents

2nd Quarter 2018 volume 12 issue 2

18

06

Regulars 5 COMMENT 6 ON THE AGENDA 48 FORESIGHT

News focus 8 Autonomous vessels will revolutionise shipping and cargo transportation 9 Study proves that autonomous vessels can follow Colregs

Digitalisation

15

11 Investment in the digital revolution needs a pay-off in terms of profits and lower operating costs that could come from virtual arrival technology

Special report: Greek shipowners & managers 14 Athens-based shipowners tackle IT and communications challenges to increase profits and improve cyber security 15 Andriaki Shipping IT manager Dimitris Makris explains his top 10 requirements of maritime software

Automation & control

33

17 Royal Caribbean upgrades cruise ship automation; Lindblad orders new automation for polar cruise ship newbuilding 18 Bourbon vice president for innovation Frederic Moulin explains how â‚Ź75M will be spent to upgrade offshore vessels with DP remote monitoring

E-navigation 21 Partnership will develop AI route planning; Thome overcomes ECDIS challenges 22 Update on the latest efforts to implement IMO’s e-navigation strategy and harmonise navigation data and ECDIS standards

Remote monitoring & diagnostics 25 Data monitoring can lower fuel and insurance costs 26 How to develop a voyage intelligence platform

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Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


contents Cyber security 28 Penetration tests underscore shipping security holes 29 The 10 top cyber security hints and tips for shipowners 30 Blockchain is not the silver bullet for cyber security 31 Guidance published to help shipowners become cyber compliant

Training systems 33 Bridge simulation has been developed for training fishing vessel captains

Tankers & gas carriers 34 Diamond S Shipping is replacing voyage data recorders across its entire fleet 35 Teekay is upgrading email services for crew serving on up to 160 vessels

Offshore vessels 36 SolstadFarstad, Topaz Energy and Anglo Eastern discuss the benefits of IT platforms and communications upgrades

Unmanned aerial vehicles 38 UAVs are more than just survey drones

Bridge systems 40 Ship data transmission challenges can be overcome by implementing different networks and protocols 41 Manufacturers reveal new bridge displays, extreme monitors, upgraded operating software and applications for navigation and system monitoring

Blockchain 42 Container shipping is entering the blockchain era as owners work with IT

2nd Quarter 2018 volume 12 issue 2 Editor: Martyn Wingrove t: +44 20 8370 1736 e: martyn.wingrove@rivieramm.com Sales Manager: Paul Dowling t: +44 20 8370 7014 e: paul.dowling@rivieramm.com Sales: Jo Lewis t: +44 20 8370 7793 e: jo.lewis@rivieramm.com Head of Sales – Asia: Kym Tan t: +65 6809 1278 e: kym.tan@rivieramm.com Group Production Manager: Mark Lukmanji t: +44 20 8370 7019 e: mark.lukmanji@rivieramm.com Subscriptions: Sally Church t: +44 20 8370 7018 e: sally.church@rivieramm.com Chairman: John Labdon Managing Director: Steve Labdon Finance Director: Cathy Labdon Operations Director: Graham Harman Head of Content: Edwin Lampert Executive Editor: Paul Gunton Head of Production: Hamish Dickie Published by: Riviera Maritime Media Ltd Mitre House 66 Abbey Road Enfield EN1 2QN UK

companies on software developments

Port digitalisation 45 European ports eye a digital and an autonomous future

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46 A system for integrating tank monitoring, control and automation on tankers

ISSN 1756-0373 (Print) ISSN 2051-0586 (Online)

Cargo control

Next issue Main features include: Special report: German shipowners; Crew welfare; Bridge systems/radar; Wireless & wifi; Vessel monitoring; Vessel tracking; Cyber security; Ship type: container ships; Supplement: Complete Guide to ECDIS

Subscribe from just £199 Subscribe now and receive four issues of Marine Electronics & Communications every year and get even more: • supplements: The Complete Guide to ECDIS and The Complete Guide to VSAT • access the latest issue content via your digital device • access to www.marinemec.com and its searchable archive. Subscribe online: www.marinemec.com

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018

©2018 Riviera Maritime Media Ltd

Total average net circulation: 4,200 Period: January-December 2017

Disclaimer: Although every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this publication is correct, the Author and Publisher accept no liability to any party for any inaccuracies that may occur. Any third party material included with the publication is supplied in good faith and the Publisher accepts no liability in respect of content. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, reprinted or stored in any electronic medium or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission of the copyright owner.

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COMMENT | 5

Do not ignore warnings that radar can be cyber breached

N Martyn Wingrove, Editor

“SHIPPING COMPANIES AND REGULATORS NEED TO HEED THE WORK OF THESE ETHICAL HACKERS”

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ightmare scenarios of radar hacking cannot be ignored for the sake of ship safety. Ethical hackers have now proven radar and other bridge systems are vulnerable. Contrary to popular belief, no bridge system is truly safe from hackers. Over the last few months, I have spoken to several radar manufacturers, software suppliers and end-users about the security of radar. Their responses reverberated like an industry echo chamber; “radar is cyber secure because it is physically separated from the internet”. While true, this separation does not mean radar and other bridge systems are protected. In a recent penetration test, Naval Dome’s ethical hacking experts demonstrated just how vulnerable radar and other bridge systems actually are. Although some systems required a bit of determination to break, the Naval Dome team hacked its way into ECDIS, voyage data recorders and radar systems in separate, simulated cyber attacks, all in quick succession. So how did they breach these systems? During an initial probe, Naval Dome sent a virusladen email over the ship’s satellite link to the captain’s computer, which is regularly connected to ECDIS for chart updates. During the very next chart update, the virus transferred itself to ECDIS where it immediately installed itself and began to go to work. Once in place, the virus altered the vessel’s position during a night voyage, deceiving the officer of the watch. Crucial parameters involving the vessel’s position, heading, depth and speed were manipulated subtly enough so as not to arouse suspicion. Even with the subtlety, if unscrupulous individuals had been behind a similar attack, they could have easily grounded the vessel, initiated a collision or held the ship to ransom. Of late, ECDIS vulnerabilities to malware and viruses have taken a greater share of discussions around cyber threats and so-called ‘cyber hygiene’. Many manufacturers and shipping companies have sought to counteract the cyber threat

by blocking ECDIS ports and introducing firewalls between ECDIS and other onboard IT. Nevertheless, as the attack showed, determined attackers can still get through. Naval Dome's second cyber attack during its penetration tests was even more worrying. In this attack, its experts used the local Ethernet switch interface that connects radar to ECDIS, the voyage data recorder and bridge alert system to successfully enter the radar workstation. After doing so, Naval Dome succeeded in deleting radar targets from the vessel’s bridge radar screen, effectively blindfolding the vessel. This attack, too, was completed without raising suspicion from the officer of the watch. The system display showed the radar to be working correctly, including detection thresholds, which were presented as perfectly normal throughout the duration of the attack. This is what frightens me most about the attack. The ship was blindfolded, and no suspicions were aroused. But why would they be in an industry that is effectively blind to this cyber threat? The potential loss of life and environmental harm that could come if ill-meaning hackers were in control here instead of an ethical hacker is, again, devastating to imagine. Shipmanagers must ensure that precautions are put in place and shipping companies and regulators need to heed the work of these ethical hackers. The vulnerabilities these groups reveal must take priority and be addressed in order that more secure links and better standards can be applied to protect these vital components and systems of safe navigation. And to avoid being blindsided, the same type of work is needed to assess vulnerabilities on other bridge systems that may – at first glance – appear to be cyber safe. MEC Vulnerabilities of bridge systems will be discussed at Riviera Maritime Media's European Maritime Cyber Risk Management Summit, which will be held in London on 15 June. For more information on this event go to: www.shipcybersecurity.com

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


6 | ON THE AGENDA

IMO IS DIVIDED OVER GMDSS RECOGNITION OF IRIDIUM Maritime lawmakers face stiff challenges in their work on the future of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System, writes Aline de Bièvre

LEFT: Sub-Committee on Navigation, Communications and Search and Rescue discusses GMDSS modernisation

I

n May, IMO’s Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) will need to tackle the question of whether to incorporate Iridium’s mobile satellite system into discussions about the future of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS). MSC’s Sub-Committee on Navigation, Communications and Search and Rescue, which held its fifth meeting (NCSR 5) in February, reached a stalemate on the issue. As submitter of Iridium’s application, the US authorities deplored what it called a lack of due process and the inconsistent application of the required assessment procedures. These are stipulated in IMO Assembly Resolution A.1001(25), which effectively provides the regulatory compliance framework for recognising and operating mobile satellite communication systems in the GMDSS. The current legacy systems are all Inmarsat devices (such as Inmarsat-C, SafetyNet and Fleet77). NCSR 5 completed its positive consideration of the UK’s application for the additional incorporation of Inmarsat’s FleetBroadband maritime safety data service, Fleet Safety, into GMDSS and prepared a draft MSC resolution concerning a statement of recognition for adoption in May by MSC 99. Recognition will be limited to the coverage area under the Inmarsat-4 Middle East and Asia (MEAS) region satellite that overlaps with other 1-4 constellation satellites. To address the anticipated future use of mobile satellite services for the GMDSS,

MSC 98, in June 2017, adopted a resolution recommending generic performance standards for every ship Earth station that operates on a future IMO-recognised mobile satellite service. In addition, MSC 99 is expected to consider for adoption draft amendments to SOLAS chapter IV, together with revised equipment certificates. The committee has the prerogative to decide on the entry-into-force date of SOLAS amendments. There is growing support within IMO for opening up the GMDSS to additional service providers on grounds that this would provide welcome extra protection for seafarers and passengers at sea. The assessment of Iridium went ahead following the decision of MSC 96 in May 2016 that Iridium could be granted recognition, subject to fulfilment of the Resolution A.1001(25) requirements. The International Mobile Satellite Organization (IMSO) carried out two assessments and presented its second report at NCSR 5. Many delegations expressed their satisfaction with it and some, including The Marshall Islands and Norway, stated their outright support for the US proposal to recommend Iridium’s recognition to MSC 99 for its approval. However, NCSR 5 reached an impasse on Iridium’s recognition as a number of delegations raised concerns that went beyond Resolution A.1001(25) that, in their view, should be addressed first. These included, among others, type-approval of equipment,

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018

guidance on the provision of maritime safety information and regulatory protection of frequency bands under the International Telecommunication Union’s (ITU’s) Radio Regulations. NCSR 5 decided to request guidance from MSC 99 on the next course of action. Comprehensive updating of the GMDSS, first adopted 30 years ago, represents a mammoth task that goes to the heart of IMO’s mission to save lives at sea. It involves the development of amendments to SOLAS chapters III and IV and a host of related and consequential amendments to other existing IMO instruments. All this work must be completed by 2022 if the agreed timeline for entry into force of the modernised GMDSS in 2024 is to be met. Additional work concerns the development of new instruments, guidance, recommendations or performance standards related to the amended SOLAS provisions. There also needs to be alignment of the GMDSS revision with IMO’s ongoing e-navigation work as there are implications for both radio and satellite communications. IMO established a correspondence group outside NCSR’s scheduled annual meetings. The group’s involvement will also help the necessary liaison work with ITU by submitting an interim report to the joint IMO/ITU experts group in September of this year. The ITU’s next World Radiocommunication Conference is scheduled for November 2019. MEC

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ON THE AGENDA | 7

NEW ARCTIC ENTRY SHIPPING ROUTES TO BE ESTABLISHED I

MO will establish new shipping routes in the Bering Strait and Bering Sea to reduce the risks of incidents and protect the marine environment. Precautionary areas and six two-way routes will be created in a region that is a vital approach to the Arctic Ocean at a time when ship traffic is expected to rise. These routes were agreed during the fifth meeting of IMO’s Sub-Committee on Navigation, Communications and Search and Rescue (NCSR 5) in February. This followed proposals by the Russian Federation and the US for routes and areas to avoid in the Bering Sea and between the Chukotskiy Peninsula, Russia and Alaska. These would be voluntary and concern vessels that are more than 400 gt. NCSR 5 agreed to forward these measures for adoption at the 99th session of IMO’s Maritime Safety Committee (MSC 99), which is expected to approve them in May. The sub-committee members agreed that vessel traffic through the Bering Strait will increase as more ships use northern sea routes across Siberia and around North America. US and Russian proposals also took into account forecasts of rising economic activity, such as fishing and offshore oil and gas operations, in the Arctic and in the Bering Sea. NCSR 5 also agreed to establish three areas to be avoided in the Bering Sea to protect the fragile marine environment. These are the first ship routeing

measures to be agreed at IMO for the Arctic region since the Polar Code entered into force on 1 January 2017. This code sets additional safety and environment protection measures for ships trading in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Polar Code was discussed at NCSR 5, which re-established a correspondence group to develop general guidance for navigation and communication equipment intended for use on ships operating in polar waters. Other ship routeing systems were also approved at NCSR 5 for submission to MSC for adoption. These included a traffic separation scheme and other routeing measures in Dangan Channel, China, and a separation scheme in the vicinity of Kattegat between Denmark and Sweden. NCSR 5 also amended an area to be avoided off the coast of Ghana. There were also discussions covering additions to the worldwide ship positioning and navigation satellite systems. In particular, NCSR 5 invited India to submit further information on the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) so that it could be considered for recognition as a component of the World-Wide Radionavigation System. The sub-committee also agreed to submit draft performance standards for shipborne IRNSS receiver equipment for adoption at MSC 99. MEC

Chukchi Sea

Bering Sea

Maritime Safety Committee (MSC 99) 16-25 May Facilitation Committee (FAL 42) 4-8 June Technical Co-operation Committee (TC 68) 18-20 June IMO Council: 120th session 2-6 July Sub-Committee on Human Element, Training and Watchkeeping (HTW 5) 16-20 July Sub-Committee on Carriage of Cargoes and Containers (CCC 5) 10-14 September Sub-Committee on Implementation of IMO Instruments (III 5) 24-28 September Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC 73) 22-26 October

RUSSIA Bering Strait

NEXT IMO MEETINGS 2018

ALASKA

IMO Council: 121st session 19-23 November Maritime Safety Committee (MSC 100) 3-7 December

NCSR 5 approved new vessel traffic routes through the Bering Strait

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Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


8 | NEWS FOCUS

Autonomous vessels will revolutionise shipping UK transport secretary Chris Grayling outlined his vision for unmanned shipping and Kongsberg Maritime presents its remote control vessels

“PAVING THE WAY FOR THIS NEW ERA OF SHIPPING”

Chris Grayling: “Autonomous shipping is just one aspect of a maritime technology revolution”

A

utonomous vessels and artificial intelligence are some of the technologies that will revolutionise shipping and the British Government wants to be at the forefront of these developments. These are the thoughts of the UK transport secretary Chris Grayling, who outlined his vision for the UK at a smart shipping conference in February. There are a number of technologies that are shaping maritime, or will do in the future. These include: • Augmented reality. • Artificial intelligence. • Hybrid propulsion. • Autonomous surface vessels. • Magnetic berthing. Mr Grayling expects these will make shipping safer and more environmentally friendly. “Autonomous shipping is just one aspect of a maritime technology revolution which has the potential to radically transform the industry, making it safer, cleaner and faster than ever,” he said, adding that the UK should be driving these changes in the maritime industry. UK Government ministers

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018

are working with IMO for “paving the way for this new era of shipping”, said Mr Grayling, adding that “we want to work closely with the industry to ensure we are doing everything possible to allow this new technology to thrive.” Augmented reality could be used to train new seafaring cadets and familiarise them with vessels operations, which would improve safety, he said, while artificial intelligence will enable navigators to plot more efficient routes and avoid severe weather. It could also be used to highlight disruption at ports and diagnose mechanical problems on ships. Mr Grayling expects autonomous vessels would improve safety at sea because they help reduce the risks that seafarers can be exposed to. They could also reduce the potential for accidents by partially removing the potential for human error. There could also be national economic reasons for developing autonomous shipping as Mr Grayling thinks there could be a change in the way freight is transported around the UK. He envisions fleets of coastal ships, with electric or hybrid propulsion, replacing heavy goods vehicles, which would reduce road congestion. This is part of the UK Government’s Maritime 2050 project, which was announced in February. Part of the voyage towards autonomous shipping involves developing class society documentation

and operating them safely. For the latter, Maritime UK* published a code of practice for autonomous vessels in November 2017. In that same month, C-Worker 7 became the first semi-autonomous vessel to join the UK ship register. It is a multipurpose work-class vessel that was developed by Autonomous Marine Systems for a variety of offshore and coastal engineering work. It can be used for tasks such as subsea positioning, surveying and environmental monitoring.

Remote control fireboat

Another application for an unmanned and remotelycontrolled vessel would be fire-fighting in ports or at sea. With this in mind, naval architect Robert Allan has collaborated with Kongsberg Maritime to develop a remotely-operated fireboat that could be used to tackle dangerous port fires without putting lives at risk. Robert Allan is using its experience of tugboat design to develop the RALamander uncrewed fireboat. Kongsberg would provide the remote control technology, including control systems, battery packs, vessel automation and navigation systems, said Kongsberg sales manager for autonomy and offshore Sondre Larsson. RALamander would be linked to a remote control centre using Kongsberg’s maritime broadband radio communications, he explained.

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NEWS FOCUS | 9

mobilised for tackling maritime fires during salvage projects. Mr Larsson told delegates that remote-control vessels could also be used for standby and emergency response operations offshore. “This all depends on the regulations and market needs.” A fire-fighting vessel could be controlled from an offshore installation or master vessel using broadband communications. MEC

Sondre Larsson (Kongsberg): Remote-control vessels could be used for offshore emergency response operations

This vessel “can work with other unmanned fire-fighting vessels or alone”, he said at the annual Offshore Support Journal Conference in London in February. Robert Allan has designed the vessel to have a FiFi 1 fire-

fighting module with a 2,400 m3/hr capacity, with pump and monitors supplied by Fire Fighting Systems. This vessel could be directed to tackle marine and port fires involving containers or petrochemicals, both on ships and shoreside

structures, said Mr Larsson. RALamander could operate in toxic smoke and areas of explosion risk instead of sending manned fireboats. Facilities on board mean it could also be used for towing vessels to safe areas or it could be

*Maritime UK brings together the UK’s shipping, ports, services, engineering and leisure marine industries to promote the sector, influence government and drive growth

Atlas Elektronik’s unmanned surface vessel, Arcims, was used for sea trials with the collision avoidance system

AUTONOMOUS SHIPS CAN FOLLOW COLREGS

A £1.3M (US$1.85M) research project has demonstrated that autonomous vessels would comply with the current IMO collision avoidance Colregs regulations*. Rolls-Royce led the Machine Executable Collision Regulations for Marine Autonomous Systems (MAXCMAS) project, which confirmed that unmanned vessels can even exceed the existing requirements from manned ships. Partners in this project developed and tested a collision avoidance system using algorithms developed by Queen’s University Belfast, in Northern Ireland, to enable crewless vessels to comply with existing Colregs. A key aspect of the research was the use of Warsash Maritime Academy’s (WMA’s) networked bridge simulators. These were used to analyse reactions from the crew when faced with a range of real-world situations and subsequently adapt the MAXCMAS algorithms accordingly.

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Various simulator-based scenarios were enacted with these algorithms installed in one of WMA’s conventional bridge simulators at the academy’s base near Southampton in the UK. These also had Rolls-Royce interfaces and Atlas Elektronik’s Autonomy Engine mission manager. Collision avoidance was successfully demonstrated during sea trials in different environmental conditions on unmanned surface vessel, Arcims, which was developed by Atlas Elektronik. Sea trial and simulation testing was witnessed by classification society Lloyd’s Register. This project demonstrated that unmanned vessels could use artificial intelligence-based navigation systems to enact the rules to avoid collisions, even when approaching manned vessels that were interpreting the rules differently. *Colregs – Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972, amended 2007

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


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DIGITALISATION | 11

INVESTMENT IN THE DIGITAL REVOLUTION NEEDS A PAY-OFF D

igitalisation-induced change in shipping has to be effective and result in practical benefits and higher profitability believes V.Ships, which has adapted its strategy and is using fleetwide data to harness this digital revolution. V.Ships information systems director Stephen Macfarlane presented this strategy during this year’s Connecticut Maritime Association (CMA) exhibition and conference in Stamford, US, in March. He said shipping is “in the grip of the growing pains of a fourth revolution” with internet of things (IoT) and digital platforms generating operational benefits. Satellite connectivity has enabled data to be transferred from ships managed by V.Ships to its ShipSure 2.0 digital platform. Mr Macfarlane said this encompasses employees, partners, customers and IoT

V.Ships is helping to turn the digital revolution into reality to deliver higher profits, writes Craig Jallal from the Connecticut Maritime Association conference in Stamford, USA

Voyage profile analysis

networks on ships. The aim is to fit V.Ships and ship operations more closely into the needs of the supply chain. “Predictability, traceability and certainty will drive the design of shipping operations,” he said. In the process, V.Ships has moved all its core business functions onto this open cloud-based platform linked by a common taxonomy. As part of the digitalisation strategy, V.Ships gave itself 50 days to develop an innovation centre into which staff and clients can send ideas. According to Mr Macfarlane, V.Ships currently has 45 initiatives from internal and external sources under development. He expected a success rate of 20 ideas or less from these 45, but sees this as part of the learning curve required in the digital revolution. “Learn, improve; learn, improve. That is the way we have to work as an

Anchorage time = 20% Sea time = 56% Port time = 20% Pilot time= 4%

Anchorage time (%) Sea time (%) Port time (%) Pilot time (%)

All voyages 100 90 80 70

% time

60 50 40 30 20

Graph shows 20% of the voyage time is spent waiting

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10 0

0

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25 Voyage #

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Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


12 | DIGITALISATION

“PREDICTABILITY, TRACEABILITY AND CERTAINTY WILL DRIVE THE DESIGN OF SHIPPING OPERATIONS”

organisation,” he said. Wärtsilä has also developed an innovation centre, but from a different angle. Wärtsilä’s business development manager for merchant ships and gas carriers in North America, Kevin Humphreys, described to CMA delegates the way his company has moved from being an engineering company into a technology group. He said its engine sales now only represent 18% of its global business. Wärtsilä was looking for ways to change its business model to use data

analytics. One approach was to buy technology instead of investing time and money in developing internal models and the purchase of Eniram Mobile in 2017 and this year’s acquisition of Transas, points to one direction the company has gone. “But there are probably solutions that we have never even heard of before,” said Mr Humphreys. Wärtsilä has opened digital acceleration centres in Helsinki, Finland and in Singapore. He explained that anyone internally or externally can offer an idea to these centres and these would then be presented to a group of managers who would analyse the concept to see if it is viable. Wärtsilä has also hosted a SparkUp Challenge event in Helsinki where 18,000 start-ups pitched for the €50,000 (US$61,200) prize fund and six-months development time in the Wärtsilä digital acceleration centres.

VIRTUAL ARRIVAL

Andreas Stasinopoulos: Virtual arrival manages the vessel’s passage speed

The aim of V.Ships’ innovation centre and of Wärtsilä’s start-up event and digital acceleration centres, is to produce disruptive concepts and products that deliver tangible profits or savings. Ultimately, their shareholders need to see a return for the investment in innovation. One such concept that seems to have real-world potential to produce substantial savings is Virtual Arrival, which was presented at CMA by Andreas Stasinopoulos, a student at the State University of New York Maritime College. Using actual voyage data, Mr Stasinopoulos had analysed the activity of vessels arriving at ports. He noted that most bulk ports operate a first-come, first-served policy. This means that often a bulk carrier arrived at a port and then had to wait three or four days at anchor before reaching the head of the queue. He analysed voyages of different day lengths and found that the average anchorage time was consistently around 20% of the voyage, no matter how long

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018

the voyage took. His virtual arrival concept identifies the delay at the next port and manages the vessel’s passage speed to arrive without having to anchor. He suggested using digital data to queue ships during their voyage so that they arrive at port, without having to wait for a berth. The time spent from berth to berth (the total voyage length) would be the same. Mr Stasinopoulos' analysis shows that virtual arrival would lower fuel consumption because, on average, the vessel would be steaming at a steady rate, rather than travelling faster to reach the port, only to wait at anchor. The lower fuel consumption also reduces CO2 emissions, by as much as 50% in some cases. Mr Stasinopoulos presented a case where a ship saved US$213,000 on a voyage. MEC

MEC COMMENT: RETURNS AND PAY-OFF To reduce the average voyage speed to say 7-8 knots, as proposed in Andreas Stasinopoulos’ CMA presentation (see main article), would be a challenge for current engines. Lower cylinder speed affects lubrication, soot build-up and, with it, the inherent danger of engineroom fires. Also, the efficiency of the engine would be compromised by the lower energy passing to the turbochargers, just to mention a few issues. But these are solutions that could be found in the innovation centres of V.Ships, Wärtsilä and others. The delays in the port and slot availability is data that has already been discovered in the digital revolution. To turn this into fuel and emissions savings would require a holistic management of the data from ports, operators, weather routers, owners, charterers and the IoT of the vessels. As a worthy application of the digital revolution, this would generate the returns required from the investment in innovation. That would be the payoff, but for change to be effective, it needs to be done in practice.

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14 | SPECIAL REPORT Greek shipowners & managers

SHIPPING TACKLES IT, CYBER AND COMMUNICATIONS CHALLENGES

G

reek shipowners have tackled challenges in adopting digitalisation while adapting ship communications to enable remote IT management and improve crew welfare and cyber security. Navios Group IT director Katerina Raptaki told Marine Electronics & Communications that advances in digitalisation technology had opened new opportunities to improve operating profits but shipping companies need to enhance their cyber security. Shipmanagement is based on experience and intuition of operators but there is also great importance in data analytics and maintaining onboard IT systems. “Digital technology rules everything and data is generated by almost every system on board,” said Ms Raptaki.

Katerina Raptaki (Navios): “Digital technology rules everything”

Managers from Navios Group and Andriaki Shipping explain their IT challenges, issues and solutions for improving crew welfare and remote software management

Collecting the correct data and using data analytics can lead to shipping companies becoming more competitive, efficient and safe for seafarers. “Charter rates during the last six years have dropped and shipping companies are searching for new ways of improving margins and making extra profits,” she said, adding that “without deep knowledge of the exact figures, this is not possible.” Navios is using digitalisation and data analytics for reducing fuel costs and improving voyage planning and on board machinery maintenance. “Even the slightest deviations on a vessel’s route can make a huge difference in bunkers consumption and hull fatigue,” Ms Raptaki explained. “Modern systems used in bunkering operations can result to tremendous savings through the accuracy in bunker supply and invoicing.” With a fleet of more than 200 ships, Navios uses performance and condition data from its ships’ main engines and auxiliary systems to prevent failures. “Use of preventive digital technologies in planned maintenance systems can save money from reducing the frequency of unneeded maintenance of non-critical systems,” said Ms Raptaki. Another development for this Greeceheadquartered shipmanager is the deployment of Inmarsat’s Fleet Xpress hybrid VSAT system across the fleet.

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018

This involves Ka-band VSAT with L-band terminals for back-up. These systems “provide seamless connectivity at a fixed monthly rate, so that the managing companies can dedicate a large amount of bandwidth to their crew members,” said Ms Raptaki. Providing "effective internet use, not only at reasonable prices but also at acceptable speeds, so that seafarers can use it also for fast browsing, streaming and entertainment is a challenge,” she said. “Our IT operators log on remotely and perform all installations, updates, troubleshooting and even resolve security issues, without the need of physical attendance” Navios started deploying Fleet Xpress in 2017 on board tankers that it manages. This year, it is extending this to container ships and bulk carriers in its fleet. Ms Raptaki said Fleet Xpress enables remote ICT operations without any intervention by the crew. “Our IT operators log on remotely and perform all installations, updates, troubleshooting and even resolve security issues, without the need of physical attendance,” she explained. Having access to faster internet, messaging and email services is a boost to crew morale. They also help Navios exceed requirements of the ILO Maritime Labour Convention, which requires shipping companies to provide

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Greek shipowners & managers SPECIAL REPORT | 15

communications facilities to seafarers on board their ships. Navios is also deploying better broadband communications to help retain its well trained and competent seafarers, said Ms Raptaki. “From a practical aspect, a happy crew means better performance and a more relaxed personality,” she said, along with “higher retention rate and a more professional and personalised approach to the company policies.” She added that seafarers “tend to consider the company as family and give their utmost potential and capacity” if they have internet access for social media and remaining in contact with friends ashore.

DIMITRIS MAKRIS:

REQUIREMENTS OF SEAWORTHY MARITIME SOFTWARE

CYBER THREATS AND SECURITY ISSUES

Internet access and digitalisation come with security challenges that shipping companies need to overcome. Ms Raptaki thinks that most of the large shipping companies are aware of the importance of effectively dealing with cyber threats. This will be an important topic of discussion at management level for years. “However, given the complexity and diversity of the IT systems on board vessels, this is not always easy to deploy,” she said. Some of the issues in deploying cyber security across fleets include variations in the IT, bridge and automation systems on board ships and the minimum amount of training that seafarers have been given on these systems and on cyber security. Furthermore, the lack of immediate local support “sometimes results in weak controls and loose policies to avoid frequent blocking of IT operations,” said Ms Raptaki as she sees these weak controls and loose policies as blockages to cyber security. “A vessel’s IT environment is not the ideal field for deploying very strict cyber security solutions,” she said. For this reason, “emphasis is given to the data availability by ensuring that frequent backups will be intact in case of a cyber attack.” It is also important that shipping companies back-up data for critical operations, such as vessel navigation and safety systems, “in case some or all of the vessels ICT systems become unavailable.” Regular risk assessments are also required to “ensure that any vessel operation that strongly depends on IT has well defined and assessed IT risks and that remediating actions are also well defined and frequently tested,” said Ms Raptaki.

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Dimitris Makris (Andriaki): Maritime software is a “key factor and differentiator”

Andriaki Shipping IT manager Dimitris Makris sees cyber security and software as holding the keys to improving seafarers’ working lives at sea. He told Marine Electronics & Communications that the quality of maritime and shipping software is a “key factor and differentiator” for those working on board Andriaki’s ships. “Our need to control operating costs, the growing complexity of shipping operations and the constant inflow of data require the use of flexible and efficient software,” he explained. Efficient software is also required for shipping companies and seafarers to adapt to “major or minor technological changes and regulatory frameworks.” There are IT challenges that seafarers face in their daily operations, such as communications between ships and shore and complexity of onboard computer systems, said Mr Makris. Shore-based IT managers also have issues to overcome, including shore-to-ship communications and “technical difficulties to providing remote technical assistance”. There are also non-IT challenges such as complexity of seafarer work, time zone differences between shore bases and ships, differences in culture, language and religion. “This all makes up a highly demanding business environment,” said Mr Makris. He provided Marine Electronics & Communications with a top-10 list of requirements for seaworthy maritime software. MEC

1. The design and functionality of the software should fully comply with the requirements and specifications set by the shipping industry. 2. The software application or platform should be able to adapt to the policies and procedures of the shipping company. 3. Unified user experience: The user interface of the software should follow the same rules, modes and logic of operation throughout all its modules and submodules. 4. Easy and targeted access to online help, software documentation, frequently asked questions and video tutorials should be in place. Ideally, the user interface or experience should be simple and explanatory so that there is no need to access online help, documentation or video tutorials. 5. There should be flexibility so that expanding and modifying the software does not affect existing processes, workflow and algorithms. Effective management of software versions and customisations on the part of the software provider is considered as mandatory. 6. Privacy, security and integrity of processed information should be embedded into the analysis and deployment stages. 7. Encryption and data loss prevention functionalities during processing, storing and transferring of data are much appreciated. 8. Centralised information management between the different departments and points of presence of the company. 9. Software should promote and adopt a single-source-of-truth culture, not allowing multiple entries of the same information. 10. Maintenance and service contracts should contain clear terms and commitments regarding the level of support provided, services offered, pricing policy for updates, upgrades and technical support.

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


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AUTOMATION & CONTROL | 17

ROYAL CARIBBEAN TO UPGRADE CRUISE SHIP AUTOMATION M

ariner of the Seas’ will spend six weeks in a drydock in Cadiz, Spain, starting in May this year, for a major overhaul, which will include a suite of new automation, air conditioning and electronic entertainment systems. This upgrade will include new Valmet DNA user interfaces, data storage and analytics and reporting tools. Valmet senior technical manager for marine automation applications Per Syvertsen said the “control room and process controller parts of the system will be transformed to the latest Valmet DNA technology platform.” This upgrade will be based around a new Ethernet-based communication network that will link new DNA operator workstations, including a station for trend analysis, event archiving and reporting applications. There will also be upgraded Valmet application and control nodes (ACN), which support input and output (I/O)

Royal Caribbean International has chosen to upgrade the Damatic XDi automation systems on its 2003-built cruise ship, Mariner of the Seas, with Valmet DNA

Mariner of the Seas will be upgraded during a six-week drydocking in Cadiz, Spain in May-June

units and industrial process controllers. ACN industrial controllers are platforms for all the process controls and connections to external computer equipment on board this Voyager-class, 138,279 gt and 311 m cruise ship. Mr Syvertsen said a major

benefit of the upgrade is that the I/O side of the Damatic XDi system will remain unchanged as this part of the technology will still be supported for several years. Mariner of the Seas is expected to return to service before the end of June, after

which crew on board will be able to use a service called Valmet DNA Operate Trend and Event Archive as a functional extension to the control room. This provides users with access to trend and event history from the DNA Operate interface. “This gives a whole new dimension to process operations, since a user can utilise collected process history with trends, replay and alarm and event analysing tools,” said Mr Syvertsen. Mariner of the Seas’ automation controls its propulsion systems, which include a diesel-electric powertrain that uses three Azipod azimuth thrusters. Each propeller is driven by a double-wound three-phase synchronous motor with fourbladed fixed pitch propellers. These 14,000 kW motors are mounted directly on the propeller shaft inside the pod. There are also four 3,000 kW Kamewa bow thrusters.

Lindblad orders ABB automation for new polar cruise ship Lindblad Expeditions Holdings has ordered automation and power management systems for its new polar exploration cruise ship from ABB. This contract also involves supplying propulsion and digital systems. This ship will be constructed by Ulstein Verft in Norway for delivery in Q1 2020. Its automation will be based on ABB Ability 800xA, which integrates power, propulsion and vessel management systems into one platform. This will display information for both crew and onshore teams to give them a comprehensive overview of data

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for optimal ship operation. There will be workstations with uniform control and monitoring applications. In addition, this new passenger ship will be connected to ABB’s collaborative operations centre, which monitors the performance of ABB technology on board and remotely connects operators with ABB experts. There are likely to be more orders for ABB automation and power control systems as Ulstein holds options to build two additional ships for Lindblad Expeditions to the same design. MEC

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


18 | AUTOMATION & CONTROL

Bourbon to invest €75M to upgrade fleet IT French shipowner Bourbon plans to upgrade a fleet of 132 offshore support vessels with remotely-monitored DP and better connectivity

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Frederic Moulin (Bourbon): “We are looking to convert Bourbon Explorer 508’s 20 sister ships”

rench offshore support vessel operator Bourbon Corp will invest €75M (US$92M) to upgrade a fleet of 132 ships into smart ships, starting this year. This three-year investment is part of Bourbon’s strategy to split its huge fleet into those that can be improved with better connectivity and remote monitoring and a division that holds 65 vessels that are too old to have their IT updated. This corporate strategy will involve restructuring the entire organisation into three distinct affiliates – Bourbon Marine & Logistics, Bourbon Subsea Services and Bourbon Mobility. This will be completed this year in reaction to falling demand for ageing platform supply vessels and growing requirements for Bourbon to capitalise on digitalisation by creating a smart fleet of modern supply vessels. Bourbon then expects to dispose of the oldest 41 nonsmart vessels (leaving 24 still operating) and expects this will result in an impairment loss of around €170M in its 2017 financial statements. The 132 vessels that Bourbon Marine & Logistics is upgrading will receive improvements to VSAT

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018

connectivity and bridge systems. Part of this investment will involve upgrading vessel dynamic positioning (DP) for more automated control and remote monitoring. Bourbon vice president of operation standards and innovation Frederic Moulin spoke exclusively to Marine Electronics & Communications about these plans and the benefits. Bourbon worked with class society Bureau Veritas, technology supplier Kongsberg Maritime and Airbus subsidiary Apsys on a DP remote monitoring pilot project using platform supply vessel (PSV) Bourbon Explorer 508, Mr Moulin explained. This

vessel operates on a long-term charter to BP in Trinidad, where it is supplying cargo to gas platforms that supply the Atlantic LNG production centre. Mr Moulin said the “payback from this investment is at least one year and Bourbon Explorer 508 is on contract until 2019.” This monitoring technology was developed by Kongsberg Maritime. It collects data from the DP system that can be used on board and by onshore support teams to improve DP operations. Mr Moulin expects this to improve safety and reduce fuel and DP maintenance costs, adding that “remote monitoring will become an automatic function of DP.” Apsys is helping the partners to identify and mitigate cyber security risks linked to data collection and communication between Bourbon’s vessels and onshore infrastructure. “It is important to ensure that the protocols

“IT IS IMPORTANT TO ENSURE THAT THE PROTOCOLS FOR DATA TRANSMISSION AND REMOTE ACCESS ARE SECURE” involved updating Kongsberg DP systems on this PSV for remote monitoring and verifying DP operations. This pilot project, which started this year, is being conducted while the 3,600 dwt

for data transmission and remote access are secure,” said Mr Moulin. Apsys will also help Bureau Veritas create certification and class notations covering cyber security. Kongsberg provided a

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AUTOMATION & CONTROL | 19

Master DP2 control system, which is linked to two 2,000 kW azimuthing Z-drive thrusters with fixed pitch propellers and two 1,000 kW controllable pitch bow thrusters. Bourbon also invested in the people that will be using this upgraded DP to teach and test them on the new procedures, said Mr Moulin. One of the benefits of this upgrade for remote monitoring is that Bourbon can train up bridge officers instead of hiring specialised DP operators. “Our bridge engineer goes through DP training and gains sea time,” he explained. Other benefits to Bourbon from DP monitoring includes using the collected data as an advisory tool for DP management to “optimise DP configuration for the best fuel consumption.” Mr Moulin continued “We have been able to modify and upgrade bridge electronics with specialised systems for one engineer so we could eventually reduce crew by one person.” It is important that DP can be handled by a bridge officer as Bourbon Explorer 508 spends around 8-10 hours, representing less than about 20% of a cargo run on DP . The rest of the time this PSV sails using its main engines and only does one or two cargo runs to BP platforms each week. Mr Moulin stressed that DP monitoring is not in realtime and data transmissions to shore were in bandwidthoptimised packages over Bourbon Explorer 508’s VSAT

Kongsberg DP was upgraded on Bourbon Explorer 508 under a remote monitoring pilot project

satellite communications. This is managed by Inmarsat over Ku-band and with FleetBroadband L-band for back-up. This provides this 79 m PSV with bandwidth of 512 kbps, which Mr Moulin said was sufficient to meet data transmission requirements and crew welfare services.

Fleet-wide upgrades

With this pilot test underway, Bourbon is considering how to replicate this technology on other vessels. “We are looking to convert Bourbon Explorer 508’s sister ships,” he said, of which there are 20, operating in Africa, Caribbean and Asia. “Eventually we could have more vessels with DP monitoring,” said Mr Moulin. During the pilot project and the first of these vessel upgrades, DP is, and will be,

BOURBON EXPLORER 508 PARTICULARS Built: 2014

Depth: 7.8 m

Type: Medium PSV

Top speed: 14.2 knots

Operations: Trinidad

DP: Kongsberg Master DP2

Charterer: BP to 2019

Sensors: 3 DGPS, 1 radius

Flag: France

Main propulsion: 2x 2,000 kW

Class: Bureau Veritas

azimuth Z-drive FPP

Deadweight: 3,600 dwt

Bow thrusters: 2x 1,000 kW CPP

Length oa: 79 m

Cargo deck: 720 m2

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monitored 24 hours a day in Kongsberg Maritime’s offices in Norway. However, as more vessels are added to the programme, Bourbon will “reach a critical size and we can remotely watch DP on our vessels ourselves,” he explained. “We are planning to build a remote monitoring centre; it is yet to be decided where.” Once this facility is built, Bourbon intends to extend its remote management capabilities to monitor engineroom machinery and maintain bridge systems. “We see opportunities to support crew with task control, advice and processing and for planned maintenance monitoring.”

A matter of class

Conversion of the fleet will involve replacing the bridge and DP hardware and reassessing class with perhaps new notations. “Bureau Veritas provides us with support and regulatory analysis as we need to present to flag states and clients and ensure that it meets regulatory requirements,” said Mr Moulin. Bureau Veritas global market leader for tugs and offshore support vessels Eva Peño told MEC that the agreement with Bourbon

was just the beginning of digitalisation of offshore support vessels. “The aim of this smart shipping programme is to develop and deploy automation and real-time fleet monitoring applications,” she said. This is “to optimise the safety and reliability of vessel operations and reduce operating expenditure.” Ms Peño believes that expansion of computerised control systems and increasing levels of connectivity is pushing shipping towards operating autonomous vessels, including tugs and fire-fighting vessels. Bureau Veritas published guidelines for autonomous shipping in December 2017* to support and assist shipyards and owners to enhance the autonomy of vessels. It is probable that autonomous offshore vessels and tugs will be developed in the future. “Tugs are a vessel type whose function, operational parameters and cost base may be well suited to autonomous operations,” said Ms Peño. “At Bureau Veritas we are ready to take it to the next level.” MEC *To read Bureau Veritas’ guidelines for autonomous shipping, use this link bit.ly/MEC_BVauto

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


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E-NAVIGATION | 21

Thome overcomes ECDIS challenges Singapore-based shipmanagement group Thome overcame the challenge of having to update all shipboard ECDIS across the fleet to the latest International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) standards. Thome president and chief commercial officer Claes Eek Thorstensen told Marine Electronics & Communications that the variety of systems on board, the “intense trading patterns” and schedules of the ships meant that it was not possible to update all onboard systems to IHO standard version 4.0 in time. IMO required all onboard ECDIS to be operating with software that complied with this IHO standard by September 2017, unless given dispensation. Which is what Thome had to do. “ECDIS could not be updated on every single vessel straightaway so we sought dispensation from the relevant classification societies for the few vessels that were not updated initially, to avoid any issues with port state control,” Mr Thorstensen explained. Thome’s fleet has ECDIS supplied by Furuno Electric, Headway Technology, Japan Radio Co and Kongsberg Maritime. Verification was needed to show that each navigation device was operating on the latest compliant software, or was being updated. “The upgrading process involved physical attendance from the service technician,” said Mr Thorstensen. “After the system has been updated, the master of the vessel was required to send a screen shot of the ECDIS screen to confirm the software update.” For the vessels where an upgrade

was not completed in time, dispensation was taken and hard copies of Admiralty navigation charts were supplied “after carrying out a thorough risk assessment” he added. Thome had upgraded all ECDIS across its fleet by the end of 2017. Training is as important an aspect of ECDIS operations as having the latest software installed. Thome did not have a centralised training centre, but it did have online and computer-based training (CBT) tools. It also used accredited training centres around the world that have knowledge of different ECDIS systems to ensure its bridge teams were taught how to operate these devices. Mr Thorstensen said the group uses Safebridge online tools to conduct ECDIS training as Safebridge has programs covering the major brands and models and can be accessed wherever there is internet connection. He explained that Furuno’s and Kongsberg’s own CBT programs were used and some classroom training was provided in Singapore by Star Centurion. Thome’s recently opened operations hub is also used for ECDIS training, and can be used for extending elements of e-navigation to the fleet. “Our operations hub is a state-of-the-art system that enables situational awareness for both duty personnel and Thome’s crisis teams,” Mr Thorstensen explained. “It provides high-tech systems allowing remote tracking of individual ships in the fleet, passage planning, security risk assessment and weather routeing, all essential to help with navigation.”

Claes Eek Thorstensen: Thome had upgraded all ECDIS across its fleet by the end of 2017

Collaboration will develop AI route planning Norwegian and Japanese companies have collaborated to develop intelligent ship routeing services. Norway-headquartered Navtor and Japanese company Weathernews Inc (WNI) have started working together to incorporate weather information in ship voyage planning. Navtor will start using WNI information within its software on route planning workstation, NavStation. Navtor said it would also work with WNI “to develop a ground-breaking artificial intelligence (AI) routeing service, which could revolutionise route planning, efficiency and safety within the maritime industry”. Initially, WNI will provide an enhanced resolution of weather data to Navtor NavStation users. The next stage is to integrate WNI’s shipping weather service and fleet management platform

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into NavStation. Navtor said this would offer “a host of benefits including optimum ship routeing to save fuel and reduce costs, optimise for route safety and speed, and fleet monitoring with daily analysis of ship efficiency alongside detailed auditing capabilities”. Following this, the two companies will work together to develop an AI route planning service combining weather information, electronic chart information and navigation knowledge. This AI system would learn to perceive its environment and recommend optimal actions that support onboard crew and onshore control management, said Navtor chief executive Tor Svanes. Navtor unveiled the prototype of the WNI integrated NavStation at the Sea Japan exhibition in April and will release this product in June. MEC

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


22 | E-NAVIGATION

E-navigation: search for standardisation continues

There can be no smart implementation of e-navigation without harmonised standards that meet user needs, writes Aline de Bièvre

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egulators and shipping industry stakeholders still have much to do to ensure that e-navigation technology can be adopted globally to improve ship safety. Rapid technological advances in maritime navigation bring new opportunities for supporting human endeavours to reduce collisions and groundings, but they can also hinder them through lack of understanding of user needs. These challenges dominated discussions at this year’s “e-Navigation Underway” (ENUW) International Conference that was held in January on board the DFDS ferry Pearl Seaways for the duration of its two-day roundtrip between Copenhagen and Oslo. The general view of the near 150 participants from 29 countries and seven international organisations was that neither stakeholder nor regulatory responses are fast enough to ensure that the benefits of new technology made a real difference for people at sea. Danish Maritime Authority (DMA) director general Andreas Nordseth was a strong advocate of the efficiency benefits of e-navigation. He highlighted the amount of reports that ships still need to provide, citing the dismal case of a ship that had to report the same information 158 times while trading between just a few European ports. DFDS president and chief executive officer Niels Smedegaard warned that “the exponential speed of digitalisation”, which had already revolutionised the way people lead their daily lives, could overwhelm the traditionally conservative maritime industry. “Unless a company like ours recognises the

Real-life route exchange display on ECDIS (credit: Sea Traffic Management)

[technological] changes, we will not survive beyond the next 15 to 20 years,” he said. Commenting on ongoing efforts in Denmark to establish a single, standardised electronic platform (single window) at the national level as a smart and practical solution for relaying ship reports, Mr Smedegaard deplored the lack of progress as “a nightmare”. Bureaucratic intransigencies and connectivity problems meant that the intended enhanced efficiency gains have not been realised. Both speakers expressed concern over complacency with regard to cyber security risks, which posed a danger to safety of life at sea. Mr Nordseth, a former ship master, said that the danger is comparable to that posed by marine accidents. Yet procedures

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018

and standards for dealing with cyber threats lag far behind those in place for the prevention of and response to accidents.

AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS’ CHALLENGE

Discussions also pinpointed the emerging reality of business case-driven autonomous systems. These are becoming operational and authorities and organisations must prepare urgently for their emergence in the maritime domain. Legal aspects, including liability implications, have hardly received any attention. IMO's planned scoping exercise is intended to provide direction to the regulatory debate on maritime autonomous surface ships, but its outcome is not due until 2020.

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E-NAVIGATION | 23

The conference programme benefited once again from the close co-operation of the International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA), which is concerned with the, equally important, shore-based aspects of e-navigation. IALA secretary-general Francis Zachariae said that the harmonised provision of shore-based maritime information services for shipping, using a common maritime data structure and standardised communications, was vital for the successful implementation of e-navigation. IALA’s technical development programme for 2018-2022 includes priority work on data modelling and on digital communications technologies, in particular the VHF Data Exchange System (VDES). IALA is working closely with the harmonisation group on data modelling, a joint initiative of IMO and the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO). The group’s work is based on IHO’s S-100 data exchange standard (also known as the Universal Hydrographic Data Model). This is widely recognised as a baseline standard with inherent flexibility to support a wide variety of digital data sources, products and services. Delegates received updated reports from several major projects and global test beds on encouraging results obtained from ship-based and shore-side VDES prototype trials that used both terrestrial and satellite platforms for data transmissions. A major attraction of the VDES concerns its ability to cope with increasing volumes of data and high data transmission rates required by some of the moredemanding applications. Furthermore, it incorporates the Automatic Identification System (AIS), protecting the AIS very high frequency data link from overload and thereby ensuring that the AIS transmission of critical safety information, which is a SOLAS requirement, is not jeopardised.

a former deck officer, said that seafarers wished to be able to access easily and fast any additional information they liked to have. They regarded user-selectable information as a welcome element of ECDIS but were frustrated that the system’s features to improve safety were often buried under several layers of data. Various presentations highlighted growing collaboration between e-navigation testbed operators, aided by the overlap of partners in different projects. Outstanding examples included the DMA-co-ordinated EfficienSea2 demonstration project, the Swedenled Sea Traffic Management validation project – which draws on the results of the European Commission part-funded MonaLisa testbeds – and South Korea’s SMART-Navigation initiative. Project leaders said that sharing of and building on each other’s results not only optimised the use of limited resources but also stimulated the development of new maritime services, a shared maritime connectivity infrastructure and common standards for a globally harmonised implementation of e-navigation.

ECDIS S-MODE

Representing marine equipment manufacturers and professional mariners, respectively, the Comité International Radio-Maritime (CIRM) and the Nautical Institute (NI) reported on their successful collaborative work to develop a more usable and standardised mode of operation (S-mode) and display of information on navigation systems and equipment, such as ECDIS, integrated navigation systems and radar. Australia and South Korea had provided support by sponsoring workshops

and input from academic research. In addition, BIMCO, Intermanager, the International Association of Institutes of Navigation and the International Electrotechnical Commission had made valuable contributions. CIRM deputy secretary-general Richard Doherty explained that the resulting draft guidelines focused on core functions that must always be available by a simple operation – which he described as an “always-on” form of standardisation. The original intent to require navigation equipment to have an inbuilt facility to revert automatically to a fully standardised mode of operation had been abandoned. Instead, a more flexible approach had been adopted to safeguard technology innovation, without jeopardising legitimate user needs to locate and interpret essential information quickly and react decisively, which is crucial to safe navigation. Mr Doherty said he was confident that the draft guidelines would receive a positive response at IMO’s Sub-Committee on Safety of Navigation, Communications, and Search and Rescue (NCSR). This met in February 2018 (NCSR 5) and decided to establish a correspondence group to continue the development of the draft guidelines, with the aim to have them finalised at NCSR 6 next January and approved by the Maritime Safety Committee in June 2019 (MSC 101). NCSR 5 completed updating work on IMO’s Strategy Implementation Plan for e-navigation. It also finalised draft interim guidelines for the harmonised display of navigation information received via communications equipment. In December, MSC 100 is expected to approve both documents for immediate distribution through MSC circulars. MEC

ECDIS CHANGES

Mr Zachariae said that ECDIS manufacturers should act fast in ensuring that their systems can handle increasing volumes of data. Failure to do so risked opening the floodgates to external solutions, with users resorting to smartphones and other personalised electronic devices. This would further complicate interoperability issues and aggravate concerns over lack of maritime standardisation. IMO technical officer Sascha Pristrom,

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Discussions on Pearl Seaways covered IHO S-100 standard and e-navigation trials

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


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REMOTE MONITORING & DIAGNOSTICS | 25

Data monitoring can lower fuel and insurance costs Real-time, datadriven decision making will decide shipping’s winners and losers

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hipowners can reduce fuel costs and insurance premiums by adopting more vessel performance technology. They can cut their decision-making time by having greater integration between ships in their fleets and shore-based managers, said Marorka director of sales Martin Penney. Improvements in ship-toshore connectivity through VSAT, enhancements in vessel tracking through the automatic identification system (AIS) and the installation of more onboard sensors is enabling shipping to adopt the internet

Snapshot CV

Martin Penney

Martin Penney: “Some shipping companies are starting to adopt true data-driven decision-making practices“

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Martin Penney joined Marorka as sales director in December 2017 after 18 years of experience in software and company development. He has previously held positions of responsibility at Eniram, INTTRA, Datix, Global Freight Exchange and BMT Smart. He has a masters’ degree in industrial engineering from Cambridge University and was a director of the board at the Institute of Directors in 2015.

“DATA WILL BECOME A SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE DIFFERENTIATION”

of things (IoT). Shipowners’ interest in these innovations is driven by the need for realtime performance data. “Already some shipping companies are starting to adopt true data-driven decision-making practices,” Mr Penney told Marine Electronics & Communications. For these companies, data is a unifier. “It brings together previously siloed departments on a single, holistic platform,” he explained. In many shipping companies, the commercial and operational arms are in different locations, or could be in different divisions. In these instances, shipowners should consider combining real-time performance data with commercial information to improve their profitability, said Mr Penney. IoT and real-time data monitoring technology go beyond just vessel operations as they will also impact logistic chains. He anticipates that this will be supported by blockchain processes “to ensure the veracity of each and every transaction.” He added that trading companies will use maritime transport “more as a weapon in their trading arsenal” as they could combine real-time and predictive performance with opportunities for commodity arbitrage. “This data will become a source of competitive differentiation,” Mr Penney

said, adding that data-driven companies are overtaking those that have invested less in technology in the container ship sector. He predicts this will reach all areas of shipping soon. Mr Penney expects real-time performance monitoring, combined with AIS information, will enable shipping companies to reduce their insurance premiums, just as vehicle owners are able to do. This is because “real-time performance data can track safety as well as fuel issues,” he said. For example, Marorka’s performance team is already checking that vessels stay within the scantling draught and do not suffer damage from excessive heeling in port due to asymmetric gantry crane loading. By using these types of service, Mr Penney explained, “shipowners can gain peace of mind and may also see their insurance premiums reduce in the future.” Marorka provides predictions to both ship and shore, for estimated time of arrival and performance, based on fuel budgets, engine revolution settings and expected weather and vessel conditions. It provides real-time alerts on the use of all consumers on the vessel, including the main engines, diesel generators, auxiliary engines, boilers, lube oil pumps and cargo pumps. MEC

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


26 | REMOTE MONITORING & DIAGNOSTICS

Predictive models can be adapted for route planning Machine learning is being adopted for voyage planning and anti-piracy to reduce risks and improve vessel performance

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tratumFive has developed machinelearning for its ship online tracking and information system (OTIS) to improve data analytics for voyage planning. This is ahead of the company introducing a voyage intelligence platform. OTIS provides weather, security and navigational data to more than 9,000 vessels. Its shore centre also receives data about these ship locations every day. This data is sent to owners, operators and shore crew to provide them with an “accurate picture of where their ship is, and what it is doing”, said StratumFive chief operating officer Ross Martin. “This minimises the risk to ships and crew from adverse situations, such as weather or piracy, and makes sure the voyage is as efficient and safe as possible,” he explained to Marine Electronics & Communications. However, StratumFive wanted to go further with its voyage information by introducing machine-learning techniques to build predictive models that are based on analysis of data from past voyages. “We can already see the examples of this analytical ability in the field of security,”

“IF A PIRATE ATTACK OCCURS ON A FRIDAY, IT IS MORE LIKELY TO RESULT IN A HIJACKING”

said Mr Martin, who offered by example an interactive heat map that highlights the relative risks of piracy in different areas. Many of the influential factors to piracy risk are included in this heat map, such as wind speed, direction and wave height, swell direction and light levels. However, Mr Martin also thinks the day of the week has a role in piracy risk. “On the face of it, this may seem illogical,” he said. “Why is a risk of piracy really worse on a given day of the week?” The answer is that there is evidence that the day of the week is important in both risk of attack and the experience of one. This insight can be learned from experience and data analytics. “In Somalia, Fridays are days of prayer,” said Mr Martin, and pirates can be divided into two groups – the less experienced, opportunistic part-time’ pirates, and the hardened ‘professional’ pirates. The former group will observe their holy days, while the latter will venture out regardless, he continued. Because of this, “if a pirate attack occurs on a Friday, it is more likely to result in a hijacking”. This demonstrates the “kind of insights that are available when we use machine learning to help identify causes and effects,” he said. It would help shipowners “to avoid some of the pitfalls that can emerge when they rely on conventional wisdom and assumption.” These machine learning techniques are being developed as groundwork for the expected launch of StratumFive’s voyage intelligence platform later this year, Mr Martin said. This platform will combine

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018

varied datasets from different sources “to provide our customers with a scalable range of voyage monitoring applications.” These will include insights into vessel performance and efficiencies and this intelligence platform will “generate informed predictions based on advanced data analysis of every aspect of a voyage, powered by machine learning,” he explained. It will be scalable with human-machine interfaces and the ability to share knowledge between teams. “At the same time it must be flexible, searchable, and powerful enough to answer the questions that owners, operators and seafarers want answering,” said Mr Martin. He expects shipowners and operators will gain more value from the data analytics “to give users the biggest bangfor-their-buck”. He added that much of the current digitalisation trend has been focused on improving ship performance through accurate monitoring and analysis. However, he thinks owners should not ignore the voyage performance. “In the grand scheme of things, no matter how well optimised a vessel’s engine or trim might be, if it cannot avoid adverse weather then this just becomes obsolete,” Mr Martin explained to MEC. “Digitalisation is like a strong tide, which shipping should use to its advantage by focusing on the big-ticket datasets that will make the most difference in keeping ships safe, secure and efficient.” He thinks ship operators can use data analytics as “something that can augment good seamanship” to prioritise the factors that will have the greatest and most positive impact on the voyage. MEC

Heatmap shows the risk of ships being attacked by pirates in the Middle East

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28 | CYBER SECURITY

Penetration tests underscore shipping security holes Naval Dome has demonstrated cyber vulnerabilities with penetration tests on systems in common use aboard tankers, container ships and cruise ships

Asaf Shefi (Naval Dome): “During the attack, the system’s display looked normal, but it was deceiving the officer of the watch”

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yber security flaws were demonstrated through penetration tests conducted by Naval Dome in 2017 on a number of ship systems. These results revealed the ease with which hackers can access and override ship-critical systems, including those controlling navigation, radar, engines, pumps and machinery. For example, Naval Dome experts were able to shift a vessel’s reported position and mislead the radar display, disable machinery, manipulate steering gear controls and override signals to fuel and ballast pumps. During the first wave of penetration tests, a ship’s ECDIS was infiltrated through an email sent to the captain’s computer. Naval Dome’s chief technical officer Asaf Shefi said this hack was designed to “alter the vessel’s position at a critical point during an intended voyage,” which was during a night passage through a narrow canal. “During the attack, the system’s display looked normal, but it was deceiving the officer of the watch,” said Mr Shefi. “The actual situation was completely different to the one on screen. If the vessel had been operational, it would have almost certainly run aground.” Naval Dome was able to alter draught and water depth details in line with the spurious position data displayed on screen. “The vessel’s crucial parameters of

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018

position, heading, depth and speed were manipulated in a way that the navigation picture made sense and did not arouse suspicion,” he said. This was possible because the master’s computer was regularly connected to the internet through a satellite link, which was used for electronic navigational chart updates. Naval Dome’s attacking file was transferred to ECDIS during a chart update so once the watch officer updated ECDIS, Naval Dome’s attack file immediately installed itself on to the system. A second cyber penetration test affected the ship’s radar, which was considered an impregnable and standalone system. Mr Shefi said Naval Dome used the local Ethernet switch interface that connects the radar to the ECDIS, bridge alert system and voyage data recorder to hack the system. “We succeeded in eliminating radar targets by deleting them from the screen,” Mr Shefi said. “At the same time, the system display showed that the radar was working perfectly, including detection thresholds, which were presented on the radar as perfectly normal.” Naval Dome’s third penetration test was performed on the machinery control system (MCS) by using an infected USB memory stick placed in an input socket. A virus was transferred to the MCS, which started to change

the functionality of auxiliary engineroom systems. This virus attacked the ballast system so that the display was presented as normal although the valves and pumps were disrupted and stopped working. “We could have misled all the auxiliary systems controlled by the MCS, including airconditioning, generators and fuel systems,” said Mr Shefi. These penetration tests demonstrated how shipboard systems can be infected by hackers using online tools, or using seafarers or service engineers to unwittingly transfer viruses. To counter these security risks, Naval Dome developed a maritime cyber protection system (MCPS). This integrates with existing systems and software, providing real-time cyber alerts and blocking malicious files to prevent unauthorised access to critical systems and data. MCPS software prevented hackers from penetrating these same shipboard systems during a second phase of tests. Naval Dome won the Marine Intelligence award at Riviera Maritime Media’s 2018 Marine Propulsion Awards, which were presented during a gala dinner on the first evening of the Sulphur Cap 2020 conference and exhibition, which took place on 17-18 April in Amsterdam. MEC For more details visit www.sulphurcap2020.com

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TACTICAL TIPS TO REDUCE THE RISKS OF CYBER HACKING

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01110101 01101100 00100000 01100011 01111001 01100010 01100101 01110010 00100000 01100001 01110100 01110100 0110000 With increasing risks from hackers here are 10 top tips that shipowners,

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GET A SIMPLE

provided cyber security consultancy for a decade. “Developing a security

AUDIT CARRIED OUT

00100000 01110100 01101000 01100101 01110011 01110101 VESSEL01110011 SECURITY 01110100 0110100 suggestions from Pen Test Partners00100000 senior partner Ken Munro, who has 01100111 01100111 01100101

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changes are required.” However, these tactical tips can be put into practice

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01110000 01100001 01110010 01110100 01101001 01100011 01110101 01101100 01100001 01110010 01101100 01111001 0010000 www.marinemec.com

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018

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30 | CYBER SECURITY

Blockchain is not the silver bullet for cyber security Blockchain processes could be hacked by experts who have demonstrated ways to compromise this transaction technology’s security

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lockchain technology is not as secure as people anticipate and can be hacked, believes Pen Test Partners senior partner Ken Munro. Blockchain is an online trading system that enables several companies and organisations to track and enact financial transactions in shipping. It is thought to be a ‘silver bullet’ for secure transactions but Mr Munro thinks there are ways to hack it. “Blockchain solves some security issues but also opens up new and concerning security problems,” he told Marine Electronics & Communications. Its security is assumed because of consensus algorithms, “which most people probably do not understand” he explained. To

demonstrate this, Mr Munro described some hacking methods that might be used to break into a maritime transaction blockchain.

Private key compromise

This is also known as hacking an organisation’s 'wallet'. Permissions to use a blockchain are governed by each user’s private key address, more commonly known as their wallet, he explained. Therefore, if someone gains access to a user’s private key, they would control their wallet and transactions. These wallets are protected with a password, which may not be secure. “Consider someone in your supply chain using a tablet to manage container movements at a terminal,” Mr

Munro suggested. “Have they set a strong password for their wallet?” If the tablet is stolen and the password is easily cracked, then there would be a problem. “Even though blockchain may be secured by consensus, if a genuine account is compromised there is no stopping illegitimate use,” Mr Munro warned.

Broken cryptography

Cryptography can be, and has been in the past, broken because of computing advances. A next-generation technology in computing, also known as quantum computing, has the potential processing power to crack cryptography that secures a blockchain. “Once cracked, all trust in the blockchain is lost,” said Mr Munro. “If cracked, an

Five ways to hack a blockchain They are not as secure as people think Private key compromise – hacking your wallet Broken cryptography in future Smart contracts Mining nodes Scalability

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018

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CYBER SECURITY | 31

“ONCE CRACKED, ALL TRUST IN THE BLOCKCHAIN IS LOST” immediate switch to stronger encryption would be required.” All old transactions and wallets would be frozen and the new blockchain would begin from the last frozen block. “The cost of such a change could be enormous, potentially eclipsing the cost savings from the blockchain itself,” he added.

Mining nodes

Miners are the security of a network. They implement the blockchain by supplying the ledger and work together to ensure consensus. “The amount of mining nodes you have on a network determines how secure the network will be,” Mr Munro explained. The design of a maritime blockchain is important in this respect. If one organisation controls the majority of the miners, they control the whole network. “If an attacker can gain control of 51% of all mining nodes, they can control the network and can change historical data,” he explained. Another vulnerability of the scale of 2017 cyber attacks that involved WannaCry or NotPetya and affected shipping companies, “could be the one that destroys a blockchain by deleting the ledger on all nodes, thus deleting all historical data for shipping,” Mr Munro explained. As an example of where blockchain technology could be useful, he referred to the global stock of more than 40M shipping containers. Keeping track of all their movements is going to significantly increase the scale of blockchain in maritime “and the amount of disk space

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needed for a miner to keep the ledger could become so large that it would become unmanageable,” he said. If a miner is not under constant supervision, hard disk space could be filled and prevent the ledger being updated, he said. “Hard drive space of this scale will be expensive” so “one might decide to have fewer miners on the blockchain to keep down hard disc storage costs. Fewer miners leads to less consensus, less distribution and less security.”

Smart contracts

Some blockchains support smart contracts, also known as decentralised applications, which are coded programs that can be run within the blockchain. “This brings a whole new chapter of vulnerabilities into the mix,” said Mr Munro. “Already blockchain applications have had flaws abused.” For example in one 2017 hack, an attacker ran a coded function before a transaction should

Ken Munroe (Pen Test Partners): “Already blockchain applications have had flaws abused by hackers"

have been executed “and ended up stealing millions of dollars by becoming the very wallets which the program was in the process of creating”. “They effectively jumped the gun,” he continued. “This type of hack is just as real in the maritime environment. Many blockchain exchanges and wallets have been hacked in a similar fashion.” With these security flaws in mind, Mr Munro asks whether the maritime industry will get security of the blockchain

100% right first time. He said that more thought needs to be given to the structure of maritime blockchains and the interfaces with other systems. “It is clear to us that blockchain has a purpose in the maritime industry and could generate significant cost savings,” said Mr Munro “But it is not a silver bullet for security – your security problems will not go away if you implement a blockchain; they will just be very different and potentially rather more complex,” he concluded.

GUIDANCE ENSURES SHIPS ARE CYBER COMPLIANT Guidance has been published that will ensure shipowners can meet IMO’s cyber risk management requirements. Flag state, Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI), has issued guidance notes for owners of its flagged vessels to appropriately address cyber security elements of safety management systems. Owners must be in compliance with IMO resolution MSC.428 (98) that covers having maritime cyber risk management in safety management systems after 1 January 2021. RMI provides guidance for identifying information sources to assist shipowners in establishing policies, procedures and actions to maintain the security of cyber systems on board their ships. These sources can include IMO circular MSC-FAL.1/Circ.3, which contains recommendations and functional elements for effective maritime cyber risk management. RMI also recommended that shipowners should consult Guidelines on Cyber Security Onboard Ships, published in 2017 by a consortium of shipping industry associations. These are aligned to IMO guidelines and address managing ship-to-shore interfaces, network segregation, port risks and maritime cyber insurance coverage. In addition, RMI has included a maritime cyber risk management resources list compiled from different sources which will be updated on a regular basis. RMI is one of the sponsors of Riviera Maritime Media’s European Cyber Risk Management Summit, which will be held in association with Norton Rose Fulbright in London on 15 June. Other sponsors of this event are currently class societies ABS, DNV GL and Lloyd's Register and cyber security experts Naval Dome, Darktrace Industrial and ENSCO-RA. Key speakers already lined up for this seminar include DNV GL maritime cyber security service manager Patrick Rossi, Lloyd's Register product manager for cyber security in marine and offshore Elisa Cassi, Naval Dome chief executive Itai Sela and Norton Rose Fulbright partner Philip Roche. MEC For more information on the European Maritime Cyber Risk Management Summit go to: www.shipcybersecurity.com

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


TRAINING SYSTEMS | 33

BRIDGE SIMULATOR UNVEILED FOR FISHING VESSELS

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ongsberg Digital has developed a simulator to help train the growing number of professional fishermen in vessel operations and fish finding. The fishermen will be taught to use navigation devices including radar and electronic charts. It teamed up with another Norwegian company, Kongsberg Maritime, for the installation and training on Simrad fishery equipment, including echo sounders, sonar and trawl monitoring systems. This simulator package is based on Kongsberg Digital’s K-Sim technology and integrates the key operations on board the latest fishing vessels. It fulfils DNV GL’s certification standards, and course models and hardware follow the new standards for training, certification and watchkeeping for advanced fish finding and catching, STCW-F. K-Sim Fishery is designed as a fishing vessel bridge with different vessel models and sizes available. It has all necessary bridge and navigation equipment for vessel voyages, shiphandling and fish catching. This includes controls for winches used for handling fishing equipment such as purse seine, trawl and long line. Kongsberg Digital said both the vessel and equipment will behave as in real-life due to the simulator's advanced physical engine. Students will practice fishery exercises where they will learn to use the vessel's equipment and optimise working hours and fuel consumption. They can choose the best routes and vessel position, and carry out appropriate manoeuvres to control the fishing gear to ensure quantity and quality of the catch. Lofoten Vocational School, Norway, was the first to order a K-Sim fishing simulator when it signed the contract on 29 January this year. This marine school is upgrading its existing Kongsberg Polaris bridge simulator with K-Sim technology as it moves to a new location and opens modern training facilities in Leknes, Lofoten in 2019. Visual systems of a K-Sim fishery simulator include a forward bridge with 135° of displays and an aft bridge with 40° of visualisation using light emitting diode

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Simulator hardware follows new standards for training, certification and watchkeeping for advanced fish finding and catching – STCW-F

and liquid crystal display screens. Other main components are: • K-Sim navigation instructor station. • K-Sim navigation server and student station. • Simrad fish school simulation server. • Simrad beam echo sounder. • Simrad omnidirectional sonar. • Simrad catch monitor. • K-Sim offshore generic winch unit. • Simulation software. • Ship models and exercise areas. Kongsberg Digital has won a contract to provide simulation services involving cloud-based training from the British Columbia Institute of Technology, offering simulation-as-a-service by integrating K-Sim modules with Kongsberg’s Kognifai digital platform. This will involve training engineroom operations using the Kognifai cloud environment. Students will be able to access this simulation program using their own devices. Instructors can assign exercises

to students who can complete training in self-study time. Kognifai enables portfolios of exercises to be downloaded and shared within the training organisation.

ONBOARD E-LEARNING

Simulation-as-a-service could be extended to seafarers when they are operating on ships. This could be similar to the existing e-learning and computer-based training already used extensively on ships, with the addition of desktop simulation. Seagull Maritime has expanded its ability to provide e-learning courses on ships through a partnership with satellite communications provider Marlink, by installing Seagull software on Marlink’s XChange centralised IT and communications management platform on vessels. This would host Seagull’s training programs and qualification software. Updates and new e-learning courses would be downloaded on to XChange devices on ships using Marlink’s Sealink VSAT services. In March, Seagull also started collaborating with Sea Health & Welfare, which is responsible for ensuring that content of e-learning modules and practical tasks fulfil Danish Maritime Authority’s legislative requirements. Together they have created an occupational health and safety e-learning course with 14 modules for onboard safety representatives and supervisors on Danish-flagged ships. MEC

Kongsberg‘s K-Sim Fishery simulator includes a forward bridge with 135° of visualisation

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


34 | TANKERS & GAS CARRIERS

Retrofitting VDRs across a whole tanker fleet Tanker operators may need to follow Diamond S Shipping’s lead and replace voyage data recorders that have exceeded their service life, writes Craig Jallal

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iamond S Shipping is replacing voyage data recorders (VDRs) across its fleet of product tankers after routine maintenance revealed that existing data recorders were operating beyond their service life. This tanker group appointed Mackay World Service, a division of Mackay Communications, to rectify the situation. During regular bridge equipment servicing, engineers identified that the original VDRs on 30 of these tankers were reaching the end of their service lives and therefore it would not be possible to fix

problems they might have. One challenge was finding a suitable replacement system and retrofit Diamond S Shipping’s fleet with minimal loss of sea time. Mackay decided to install Danelec Marine’s DM100 VDRs on the ships as replacements for the existing ones. Danelec Marine chief executive Hans Ottosen said that other tanker operators may also need to consider replacing VDRs that were installed to meet the original IMO carriage requirements that came into force in 2002. “VDRs may have met or exceeded their design service life,” he explained to

Marine Electronics and Communications. “They are becoming expensive to maintain and service. Many of these products are no longer supported by their manufacturers, and in some cases the supplier is no longer in business.” When replacing an older VDR, the new installation must meet the new IMO specification, which came into effect in July 2014. Danelec Marine’s DM100 VDR is fully type-approved to this 2014 standard. Mr Ottosen said a type-approved DM100 VDR exceeds the regulatory requirements and incorporates new features that were not previously available in marine VDR systems. It has Danelec’s exclusive SoftWare Advanced Protection (SWAP) technology, which is built into the system architecture for serviceability, and the DanelecConnect remote data gateway for ship-to-shore transfer. “All system programming and

Danelec Marine supplies fullyintegrated, data transferrable VDRs

Anemometer Inclinometer Gyro compass Radar ECDIS

Bridge audio Main alarms GPS AIS VHF

Radar

Hull openings Engine/propeller Watertight & fire doors Rudder

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018

Echo sounder Thrusters Speed log

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TANKERS & GAS CARRIERS | 35

“We have been able to accelerate the installation process with zero equipment failures, ensuring that ships’ schedules were not disrupted”

configurations are stored on a hotswappable memory card,” he explained. When the unit requires servicing, a technician removes this card and re-inserts it into a new VDR unit. “Instantly, the replacement unit is fully functional and the technician can take the old one away for repair ashore without delaying the ship’s departure,” said Mr Ottosen. By the beginning of April, 26 of the 30 tankers had been retrofitted by Mackay Marine India in Mumbai. Mr Ottosen described the process: “Normally, removing an obsolete VDR and replacing it with a new unit would involve many hours of labour for the installing technician, since the existing

Hans Ottosen (Danelec): New installations must meet the new IMO specifications

components are often not compatible with the new technology." To solve this problem, Danelec Marine developed a range of conversion kits to replace more than 45 different models of VDRs and simplified VDRs (S-VDRs), including all major existing and legacy brands. “The conversion kits provide specific sets of hardware, software and data interfaces tailored to each VDR model,” he said. The mechanical kits include pre-drilled adaptor plates and mounting brackets for the main unit, memory capsule and bridge microphones. They also include remote data interfaces for serial, analogue and digital connections and a software tool for converting old configuration files. In many cases, existing sensor modules and cables can be reused, saving extensive time and effort on the part of installing technicians. “By conducting pre-install site surveys on each class of vessel and using the Danelec Marine conversion kits, we have been able to accelerate the installation process with zero equipment failures, ensuring that ships’ schedules were not disrupted,” said Mackay Marine India managing director Ram Sitaraman. “The typical installation time was 18-24 hours per ship.” According to Danelec Marine, this is a reduction in installation time of 25-50%, compared with conventional VDR installations, saving time and money and minimising downtime for the ship. By streamlining a fleet-wide VDR retrofit, Diamond S Shipping has been able to minimise downtime and gain significantly enhanced features and operational efficiencies, said Mr Ottosen.

Teekay deploys email platform on 160 ships Teekay Shipping is upgrading email services for crew serving on up to 160 vessels worldwide with a platform developed by Dualog. During Q1 2018, these email platforms were installed on more than 100 ships in that fleet. With more than three-fifths of the installation project completed, Teekay has seen improvements in cyber security and uptime from these ships’ email communications, said Dualog international sales manager Thomas Heide. By the end of Q2 2018, all of Teekay’s ships will have this updated email platform. Mr Heide said that planning and pilot trials of Dualog’s email system enabled quicker upgrades on the rest of the ships. “Teekay ships are starting to see strong operational benefits from what is a web-based email system,” he said. Teekay regional and vessel systems IT manager Stuart Mackenzie said “a lot of planning was carried out across a number of our network of offices.” These included Glasgow, Scotland, Manila in the Philippines, Vancouver, Canada and Singapore. “After some fine-tuning of the systems following the results of the pilot project, we began the process of upgrading the email systems on the fleet,” Mr Mackenzie said. “We saw the need for a more modern and proven maritime email solution, which included a file transfer solution built in.”

Diamond S Shipping operates US$1.1Bn fleet According to VesselsValue, the total value of the Diamond S Shipping fleet is US$1.1Bn, and the average age is eight years old. Diamond S Shipping burst onto the product tanker scene in 2010 when its founder, Craig Stevenson, raised US$1Bn through equity capital and a further US$1Bn of debt financing to purchase 30 recently-delivered product tankers en bloc from Hong Kong owner Cido Shipping. Among the investors was WL Ross & Co, the private equity fund

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that is managed by the famed distressed assets investor, Wilbur Ross, who is currently US president Donald Trump’s commerce secretary. Fast-forward to 2012 and the fleet had grown to 33 tankers, with an average age of three years, with thoughts of retrofitting communications equipment a distant cell on a spreadsheet. The group’s fleet has grown to 45 vessels this year, with the purchase of two more product tankers and the addition of a fleet of crude oil tankers. MEC

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


36 | OFFSHORE VESSELS

OFFSHORE VESSEL OPERATORS PREPARE THEIR IT FOR A MARKET UPTURN SolstadFarstad, Topaz Energy & Marine and Anglo Eastern discussed the benefits of IT platforms and communications at this year’s Offshore Support Journal conference

Lars Peder Solstad addressed the Offshore Support Journal conference in February

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ffshore support vessel markets have been in the worst downturn for 30 years and owners need to embrace technology changes to survive. As the market begins to recover, which is expected to happen in 2018, vessel owners need to be prepared to use IT, communications and online technology to create competitive advantages. With this in mind, SolstadFarstad has used IT and software to reduce administration and operational costs across its fleet of offshore support vessels. The company was formed in 2017 by the merger of four Norwegian family-run vessel owners – Solstad Offshore, Farstad Shipping, Deep Sea Supply and REM Offshore. This created one of the world’s largest owners of advanced vessels in the supply, anchor handling, subsea construction and renewable segments, with 147 vessels in total. Consolidation of this scale has led to synergies in fleet management and administrative resources. However, there is “huge potential for more cost savings,”

SolstadFarstad chief executive Lars Peder Solstad said at the annual Offshore Support Journal (OSJ) conference in London in February. The new structure included centralising key management functions and reducing the number of offices from 17 to 11, he added. SolstadFarstad has reduced annual costs by around 15% through centralising fleet and crew management, renegotiating terms with suppliers and improving procurement and Mr Solstad expects more will come from introducing new IT and fleet management software. He told delegates that this puts the vessel operating group in a better position as offshore support vessel markets begin to recover. “Activity will start to pick up in 2018,” he said. “Oil companies are starting to invest again. We have seen large contract awards for subsea work, which is positive.” However, Mr Solstad said this was from “the worst market downturn for 30 years” and that charter rates for offshore vessels are unsustainable. “As the market recovers, we have to make sure we get rates back to sustainable levels,” he said. To improve sustainability of fleet operations, SolstadFarstad worked with Yxney Maritime on reducing fuel costs and emissions. This involved using the Yxney fuel efficiency software MarESS, which enables charterers to track each vessel working under contract and monitor fuel consumption. MarESS also enables charterers to communicate with shipmanagers to suggest methods of reducing fuel costs. Yxney can also use MarESS to identify efficiency gaps and recommend ways to achieve lower consumption and emission

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018

levels, said Yxney chief executive Gjord Simen Sanna. “We can recommend targeted fuel saving measures related to vessel positioning,” he explained. This project with Yxney is part of SolstadFarstad’s green operations campaign on reducing emissions, said SolstadFarstad chief operating officer Tor Inge Dale. “MarESS also reduces emissions, helping us contribute to reaching UN sustainable development goals 12 and 13,” he said, adding that this covers responsible energy production and consumption. SolstadFarstad completed a MarESS pilot project in 2017, with finance from Innovation Norway, and this led to a contract announced in February 2018 for deploying this software across the fleet and introducing it to charterers. It expects to identify the best performing ships across the fleet and transfer their practice to other vessels. Mr Dale wants to achieve fuel consumption savings of between 8.7% and 11.4%. Topaz Energy & Marine has introduced digitalisation and offshore communications technology on its vessels to improve business operations. This involved providing all vessel masters with mobile devices for digital reporting, data analytics and communication with shore managers, said Topaz chief executive René Kofod-Olsen. He highlighted how this type of IT initiative helped vessel operations and achieve cost efficiencies at the OSJ conference. He told Marine Electronics & Communications that vessel crew use onboard wifi and VSAT to communicate with the office. This is through Orange Business Services’ Maritime Connect digital platform that connects vessels in the Topaz

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OFFSHORE VESSELS | 37

fleet using Ku-band when available. It also uses L-band satellite communications and any accessible coastal cellular networks for routeing voice and data transmissions. Mr Kofod-Olsen, who was awarded this year’s OSJ Industry Leader award, explained that Topaz’s investment in IT demonstrates how offshore vessel operators need to “embrace technology advances that are coming”. By enhancing the communications capabilities on Topaz vessels, “we are able to synchronise and manage our integrated business operations more effectively and ensure our crew can easily access the internet for all their business communication needs,” he said. Topaz is able to integrate ships into its corporate network and use the digital platform to distribute business-critical and fleet management applications on mobile devices. It means managers and vessel captains can detect ships that are deviating from the average standard in terms of fuel consumption and speed and warn of any maintenance issues. Maritime Connect manages satellite communications bandwidth, voice, video and data transmissions and prevents cyber attacks through an integrated suite of security features. Topaz operates its fleet in the Caspian, the Middle East and West Africa.

Predictive maintenance

Anglo-Eastern Group is developing processes for monitoring onboard equipment and predictive maintenance on offshore vessels as part of its technical management services. It

René Kofod-Olsen (Topaz) was awarded this year’s OSJ Industry Leader award

is looking to work with classification societies and equipment manufacturers to ensure that a condition-based maintenance strategy is correct for its own processes. Anglo-Eastern managing director for offshore Douglas Lang told Marine Electronics & Communications at the OSJ conference that manufacturers have condition information on enough systems “to have a proper sample size”, but his

organisation does not yet have enough data to replace existing maintenance programmes, which are based on the calendar and running hours. “Although I would like to do more [predictive maintenance] and do this in an intuitive way, I cannot do it sufficiently and vigorously enough that I can say to my engineers to substitute my process for what they do at present,” he said. “It is difficult to argue that my inventories will be any less because my sample size is not big enough to do that.” Mr Lang expects equipment monitoring and data analytics technology will evolve rapidly, led by manufacturers and class, which “have their toolbox of toys and are plugging these in now, but they do not quite see where it will all lead to.” He added that any move towards manufacturer-controlled diagnostics, maintenance and repair “requires a re-evaluation of the roles and responsibilities” of onboard and shore-based staff. This is where technical managers can help, he added, by being “part of their decision making process so that we remain in control and driving this process, not just allowing them to wash over us.” Technology advancements are leading to greater levels of digitalisation, more remote access and diagnostics, said Mr Lang. “The impact of artificial intelligence and robotics will largely determine the speed of change.” This will lead to seafarers becoming more than just operations monitors, while decisions are made ashore and based on manufacturers’ diagnostics information. MEC

Changing onboard and onshore operational trends Anglo-Eastern managing director for offshore Douglas Lang listed changing trends on board vessels and in shipmanagement offices as: ONBOARD • Navigation/collision avoidance/routeing can all be automated. • Blackboxes and fault reporting is replacing intervention. • Electronics and control system technicians are becoming essential. • Moving to first-line maintenance only strategies. • Reducing onboard manpower.

Douglas Lang (Anglo-Eastern): Manufacturers “have their toolbox of toys and are plugging these in now”

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ONSHORE • Superintendent role is diminishing as ability to intervene is reduced. • Data streamed to manufacturer rather than to vessel supremo. • Logistics planning for manufacturers' service technicians increasing. • Port call maintenance planning and scheduling increasing. • Replacement rather than onboard overhaul.

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


ClassNK has started using drones for surveys on tankers

UAVs are more than just survey drones F

lying drones are being introduced by classification societies for surveying ships as a method of accessing areas of vessels that are difficult for surveyors to get to. Several class societies have tested unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as remote inspection devices and have started introducing them into surveying fuel and cargo tanks and cargo holds on bulk carriers and container ships. The International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) has revised its Guidelines for Use of Remote Inspection Techniques for Surveys and completed its related unified requirements, which are scheduled to take effect in January 2019. In January 2017, Japanese society ClassNK began a fullscale study of the use of drones in class surveys and conducted various types of verifications by

Unmanned aerial vehicles are used for class surveys and are now being considered for offshore parcel supply, oil spill response and towline transfer

carrying out basic performance experiments including test flights inside ship tanks and cargo holds. It released Guidelines for Use of Drones in Class Surveys in March 2018, which address the sort of use that it had tested. They combine the technical knowledge of drones accumulated by these efforts – such as the applicable range and procedures for applying them to class surveys – along with considerations for safe operation and the requirements

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018

for drone service suppliers. Using drones for ship surveys does have challenges, such as training surveyors to pilot these remote inspection units in tight spaces and optimising the balance between battery life and weight. ClassNK’s guidelines also take into consideration the possibility that the drone may not function properly due to being in a closed space surrounded by magnetic material, which may interfere with some of the drone’s

sensors (which typically rely on GPS and a magnetic compass) which are closely related to flight stability.

OIL SPILL RESPONSE

There are also other potential uses for drones in maritime operations. For example, they could be used for surveying and tackling oil pollution. IMarEST’s chairman of a marine pollution group, Matthew Sommerville, summarised the latest developments in pollution control at the International Salvage Union conference in London in March. He explained that UAVs with cameras can be used for counter pollution surveys and to provide advanced imagery of spills. “They can land on moving platforms and operate in cold and hot conditions,” said Mr Sommerville. He also outlined

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UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES | 39

how balloons that are tethered to vessels and have multiple cameras on board are being used to provide imagery of spillages. “They provide a live feed of oil recovery operations,” he said, “but they are not ahead of a vessel.” Suppliers of oil spill response equipment have started to develop drones for surveillance of oil pollution and to transfer a device to help burn it off. DESMI is testing a UAV that can do both: it could have a camera for remote imagery of an oil slick or carry an ignition source, said sales manager Mehdi Banisi. Oil can be burnt as a method of removing it from the sea. For this approach, DESMI’s drone could be flown remotely up to 1 km from a vessel responding to the pollution, Mr Banisi told Marine Electronics & Communications. “By administering an igniter, a person does not need to be in a dangerous position,” he explained. The same UAV could be used for watching the progress of the oil burn from further away, or provide the camera feed to managers and clients on shore. Autonomous surface vessels can also be used for surveying oil pollution, deploying booms or fire ignition.

a messenger line to a predetermined location using object recognition software. The tug’s messenger line is then brought to the assisted ship in a controlled process. The crew on the assisted ship can heave in the heavy duty mooring line instead of the tug having to sail close to the ship to deliver the heavy mooring line. This will allow the tug to safely sail beside the assisted ship instead of in front of it. In current operations, a tugboat crew has the challenge of keeping a tug out of danger when delivering a towline to a ship that is arriving into a port. The tug needs to be positioned in front of and close to the assisted vessel in order for deck crew to grab the heaving line by hand. By doing so, the tug and crew position themselves in the danger zone, close and even under the flared bow of a vessel. Any minor flaw in the operation can result in major injuries to the deck crew and/or damage to the tug and the assisted vessel.

OFFSHORE SURVEY

UAVs can also be used for delivering cargo to offshore vessels and platforms. Four Norwegian companies are

collaborating to investigate the use of unmanned aerial vehicles or drones to transport cargo between offshore vessels and offshore installations. Partners in the Safer Logistics from Unmanned Logistics Helicopter research project include offshore support vessel operator Olympic Subsea, Griff Aviation, Norut (the Northern Research Institute) and Stable, which specialises in motioncompensation technology. Norut is leading the project and has experience in developing autonomous control systems for unmanned air vehicles and of operating them in challenging weather conditions in northern waters. Griff Aviation develops and manufactures drones that have capacity to carry heavy cargo. The project is drawing on expertise from the research community at the faculty of engineering and technology at the Arctic University of Norway in Narvik, which has extensive experience in automated drone operations. Stable’s role is to develop a control system so that drones can operate from a moving platform. To begin this, it is developing a stable platform for take-off and landing of the

drone. The platform would be placed in a container on a ship’s deck, which would also act as a hangar for the drone. Olympic Subsea is an active development partner in the project, which is supported financially by the Research Council of Norway. Another drone application has been to remotely inspect offshore facilities. This happened in the North Sea in March when Fletcher Group was contracted by Spirit Energy to provide visual and thermographic surveys of Spirit’s ST-1 platform. Fletcher used its platform supply vessel, Standard Supplier, to transfer the UAV and two Inspect Hire technicians to survey the platform, which is being prepared for decommissioning. Spirit Energy needed to confirm there were no gas leaks and it would be safe to plug the associated wells. It decided to confirm this by visual inspection – meaning the inspection either had to be carried out using a handheld camera or by a drone. A Skyeye UAV was used for the project, flown from the dynamic positioning class 2 vessel, which was able to work safely within the 500 m zone. MEC

TUG OPERATIONS

Drones could be used for transferring towing lines between tugs and ships. This is an application that tug operator Kotug International is considering. It plans to become the first company to use drone technology to assist in towage operations. Kotug has applied for a patent to use UAV technology in its tug operations for what it expects will lead to safer and more efficient working conditions. It will test remotecontrolled flying devices to connect the towline to an assisted vessel by delivering

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Kotug intends to use a drone to deliver a messenger line from a tug to an assisted vessel for towing operations

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


40 | BRIDGE SYSTEMS

Ship data transmission challenges can be overcome Commercial ship networks should be based on NMEA OneNet, which standardises the method of transmitting and receiving NMEA 2000 protocol messages over Ethernet

Snapshot CV

Phil Whitehurst Phil Whitehurst sits on the NMEA OneNet steering committee and is a member of the International Marine Electronics Alliance, which works to improve marine electronics interface standards and other marine safety initiatives. He is chief executive of Actisense, which manufactures NMEA 0183 and NMEA 2000 network components and devices, including engine monitoring units, multiplexers, conversion gateways, controller interfaces and network blocks and software.

L

imitations in the types of data that can be transmitted around an integrated bridge system can be overcome by using the National Marine Electronics Association’s (NMEA’s) OneNet data packet standard. Network standards and software commonly found on commercial ships can be based on 40-year-old technology that can limit the types of information transmissions. This can prevent feeds from engineroom and cargo control systems from being viewed on ship bridges. On merchant ships, the main specification for communicating marine electronics data is the NMEA 0183* protocol. NMEA component manufacturer Actisense’s chief executive, Phil Whitehurst, said this “allows good navigation of the ship, but a considerable amount of data simply cannot be sent over this standard.” This includes video, audio, security data, radar and sonar data. “It is also rather complex to transfer measurements of quantities such as cargo tank levels, temperatures and pressures,” he told Marine Electronics & Communications. To gather this data successfully, an additional supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system is needed. This means a ship can easily navigate using NMEA 0183 but, “for full situational awareness, additional systems are required that may or may not work well together,” said Mr Whitehurst. These issues can partially be overcome by using the NMEA 2000** protocol for sending much of the information that cannot be sent over NMEA 0183. However, this has not been widely adopted on commercial ships because it has a maximum practical backbone length of 200 m and bandwidth of 250 kbps. “This is great for small boats, but not enough for a system with many sensors,” said Mr Whitehurst. NMEA 2000 also has no standard mode of redundancy, which can pose security concerns. To overcome these shortcomings,

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018

NMEA 2000 can be used in conjunction with OneNet, which standardises the method of transmitting and receiving NMEA 2000 messages over Ethernet. Smaller networks can be created with just a few nodes that are connected to a OneNet gateway. “This means that small subnets of self-powered units can gather data from IP68 waterproof-certified NMEA 2000 sensors and interfaces,” Mr Whitehurst explained. This makes the data available over the ship-wide Ethernet system as OneNet data and means video, audio, radar and high-speed feeds may be transported in a standard format as NMEA 2000 encoded data packets. “This standard format will simplify the software used for bridge systems and allow for additional integration of common reusable code between the leisure and commercial market,” said Mr Whitehurst. There are additional advantages, as an Ethernet network can have many layers of redundancy and internet level security applied to it. OneNet is based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.3 Ethernet standard to complement existing onboard NMEA 2000 networks. It enables bandwidth to be increased to hundreds of Mbps, which is needed for transferring unprocessed sensor data and video. MEC

*NMEA 0183 was the first marine electronics protocol to be created that is still widely in use. Since its inception in 1987 there have been many updates. **NMEA 2000 is based on a CAN Bus system built with DeviceNet standard cables and connectors. Unlike NMEA 0183, devices cannot be connected directly together. Instead, each network must be built around a ‘backbone’ which is the main trunking cable that devices then plug in to. A minimum NMEA 2000 network requires at least two NMEA 2000-certified devices, two T-pieces, two terminating resistors, a 12 V power source and one www.marinemec.com power tap.


BRIDGE SYSTEMS | 41

Next level of bridge electronics unveiled

E

uropean manufacturers have introduced new bridge electronics, software and applications for commercial shipping, workboats, naval and leisure vessels since the start of this year. The latest announcement came in April from Hatteland Display, which unveiled a new suite of bridge displays for multifunctional workstations and navigation planning tables on ships. Its most recent addition is an extreme rugged marine display (XRD) with a 20-in screen. HM 20T22 XRD can withstand shock to levels required for use on naval vessels, has a touchscreen that enables multiple-touch controls, can be calibrated for ECDIS and can come with optical bonding for a longer service life. These displays can be installed in a console or can be rack-mounted and ordered with foldable or fixed handles, depending on user requirements. Hatteland also introduced ultra-high definition Series X monitors for route planning tables, ECDIS and radar. These come in two sizes, 55-in and 32-in. Series X 55-in displays are for voyage planning on commercial ships and tactical tables on naval vessels. They have 40-point touchscreen controls, brightness and contrast controls that enable multiple data types to be easily viewed under all conditions, according to Hatteland. Series X 32-in multi vision display also has a touchscreen that can be visually split to allow users to monitor and control different aspects of onboard equipment, including navigation, automation and strategic systems. Beijer Electronics started rolling out its new X2 extreme family of rugged human-machine interfaces for tough environments in January. These panels are designed to perform in rugged environments and in hazardous areas where gases, vapours and dust are present. Extended environmental capabilities include operating

www.marinemec.com

temperatures from -30°C to +70°C, high vibrations and high-pressure washdowns. X2 extreme panels are available in 7-in, 12-in and 15-in sizes in standard, highperformance and fully-sealed versions. They are certified by classification societies DNV GL, Lloyd’s Register, ABS and Korean Register. X2 extreme panels are certified to meet two EU directives about explosive atmospheres (atmosphères explosibles, or ATEX Zone 2 and Zone 22), and are verified by the International Electrotechnical Commission to operate in extreme environments. For workboats and leisure vessels, Flir Systems subsidiary Raymarine has introduced new applications in its Axiom line of multifunction navigation displays (MFD). Together with Axiom Innovations, Raymarine has developed the LightHouse 3 operating software for Axiom MFDs with a series of applications for vessel navigation and remote monitoring. These include Raymarine’s own Android-compatible mobile applications and those developed by other companies for the MFDs. This incorporate access to the Theyr GRIB* global weather forecast and tide apps for route planning. Another LightHouse application enables vessel users to stream onboard entertainment, such as films and music. Some of the third-party applications available include the Seakeeper gyro stabiliser control and Mazu mSeries global satellite communications, which allows users to send messages, receive weather forecasts, and monitor their vessel from anywhere in the world. For workboats and leisure vessels, SevenCs released an online tile map service, ChartServer, as a software tool. This can be used by fleet monitoring, vessel tracking and surveying applications on mobile devices to display maritime navigation charts of International Hydrographic Organization standards S-57 and S-63. It has access to maritime

Manufacturers reveal new bridge displays, extreme monitors, upgraded operating software and applications for navigation and system monitoring

charts for those needing full global chart coverage or those interested in small marine areas. For offshore vessels, Dutch start-up MO4 has developed a vessel motion forecasting tool. This includes an onboard motion monitoring device and weather forecast software. MO4 accurately and clearly shows how the incoming weather will impact an offshore operation. MEC *GRIB is GRIdded Binary or General Regularly-distributed Information in Binary form. It is a concise data format commonly used in meteorology to store historical and forecast weather data.

Hatteland’s HM 20T22 XRD has a 20-in screen for radar display

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


42 | BLOCKCHAIN

Box industry enters the blockchain era T

here has been plenty of talk about blockchain in the industry but until recently little sign that any fullyformed concrete solution has been applied. Alphaliner highlighted that while a number of blockchain initiatives involving container shipping were launched in 2017, “the actual application of this new technology remains limited.” It added “while several potential blockchain applications have been identified, none of these products has been released so far. Marine Electronics & Communications spoke to the vice president of marketing of the business software company Infor, Greg Kefer, who also highlighted that blockchain had not properly entered the container shipping market yet. He said that blockchain is something that Infor is focused on but pointed out the ‘hype’ surrounding it. “Blockchain is white-hot

and everybody is talking about it,” he said. “We think it has great potential in the supply chain and are investing in it.” Infor is working with cloudbased platform GT Nexus Commerce Network to provide blockchain processes to container liners. Mr Kefer explained “We believe that blockchain is not a fad and it will be part of supply chain innovation in some form, the question is, what form?” He thinks there are interesting innovation opportunities in the areas of trade finance, traceability and visibility. Looking at the impact it might have on the container shipping industry, he said “What we will see over the next five or six years are new-use cases around how blockchain is fused into global logistics management. I don’t see companies dumping current technology and just moving to blockchain.” However, this is changing in 2018. In January, Maersk and IBM announced a joint

Maersk is working with IBM to develop a blockchain platform for container trade

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018

venture that will provide more efficient and secure methods for conducting global trade using blockchain technology. This could open the doors to the widespread use of blockchain in box shipping because the global trade digitisation platform that Maersk and IBM are developing is being developed for the whole container shipping industry.

After all the publicity surrounding blockchain technology, it could soon become a reality in the container shipping market, writes Rebecca Moore

venture Vincent Clerc. The new company initially plans to commercialise two core capabilities aimed at digitalising the global supply chain from end-to-end: • A shipping information pipeline will provide end-toend supply chain visibility to enable all actors involved in managing a supply chain to exchange information about shipment events in real time.

“What we will see over the next five or six years are new-use cases around how blockchain is fused into global logistics management” As Maersk explained, the aim is to offer a jointlydeveloped global platform that will address the need to provide more transparency and simplicity in the movement of goods across borders and trading zones. Maersk and IBM will use blockchain technology to power the new platform alongside other cloud-based open source technologies including artificial intelligence (AI), internet of things and analytics. This will be delivered via IBM Services to help companies move and track goods. “The potential from offering a neutral, open digital platform for safe and easy ways of exchanging information is huge and all players across the supply chain stand to benefit,” said Maersk chief commercial officer and future chairman of the board of the new joint

• Paperless trade will digitise and automate paperwork filings by enabling end-users to securely submit, validate and approve documents across organisational boundaries. Upon regulatory clearance, solutions from the joint venture are expected to become available within six months. Another company that also has a concrete plan to roll out its blockchain solution is 300cubits, a start-up company launched in July 2017. It will be the first to roll out a blockchain solution for the container shipping market with a booking deposit system that is due to start 15 June 2018. This system will deploy blockchain technology and a crypto-currency to address the problem of cargo ‘no-shows’ and ‘rollovers’ that 300cubits said are key challenges in the container shipping industry. MEC

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PORT DIGITALISATION | 45

Port of Rotterdam Authority is working on a digital and renewables future

European ports eye digital and autonomous future P

ort of Rotterdam Authority and IBM have announced their collaboration on a multi-year digitalisation initiative to transform the port’s operational environment using internet of things (IoT) technologies in the cloud. The initiative will also prepare the Port of Rotterdam’s entire site to host connected ships in the future. The port said that this would begin with the development of a centralised dashboard application that will collect and process real-time water and weather sensor and communications data, analysed through the IBM IoT platform. “Here in Rotterdam, we are taking action to become the smartest port in the world,” said chief financial officer of the Port of Rotterdam Authority Paul Smits. “Speed and efficiency is essential to our business and requires us to use all of the data available to us. Thanks to real-time information about infrastructure, water, air, etc, we can enormously improve the service we provide to everyone who uses the port, and prepare to embrace the connected, autonomous shipping of the future.” Previously the port relied on traditional radio and radar communication between captains, pilots, terminal operators, tugboats and more to make key decision on port operations. Now, as the Port of Rotterdam begins its digital transformation, sensors are being installed across 42 km of land and sea – spanning from the City of Rotterdam into the North Sea – along the Port’s quay walls, mooring posts and roads. These sensors will gather multiple data streams including water and weather data about tides and currents, temperature, wind speed and direction, water levels, berth availability and visibility.

www.marinemec.com

European ports are preparing for a digital and semiautonomous future with technology development programmes that tackle the technical challenges of the future, writes Rebecca Moore

This data will be analysed by IBM’s cloud-based IoT technologies and turned into information that the Port of Rotterdam can use to make decisions that reduce wait times, determine optimal times for ships to dock, load and unload, and enable more ships into the available space. For example, the Port of Rotterdam will now be able to predict the best time based on water level to have a ship arrive and depart Rotterdam, ensuring that the maximum amount of cargo is loaded on board. With the new initiative, Port of Rotterdam operators will also be able to view the operations of all the different parties at the same time, making that process more efficient. In fact, shipping companies and the port stand to save up to one hour in berthing time which can amount to about US$80,000 in savings. The Port of Rotterdam’s digital transformation project is enabled by IBM’s cloud-based IoT technologies and will see that Port of Rotterdam and IBM are working together long term to uncover other innovative applications of IoT and artificial intelligence. Cisco and Axians are

also involved in the project. Rotterdam is not the only authority thinking about technology of the future. British Ports Association (BPA) has announced a new Port Futures project to examine emerging threats and opportunities for British ports. The rolling programme of activity – labelled Horizon – will address key issues for ports over the next 50 years, including infrastructure and skills, grouped around four key drivers of change: • Technology and automation. • Climate change and the environment. • Politics, regulation and the law. • Social and economic change. Individual projects around key emerging challenges for ports will be launched under each theme, drawing in experts from industry and academia. The outcome will be a rolling programme of recommendations for government, feeding into initiatives such as Maritime 2050 and the Industrial Strategy. British Ports Association policy manager Mark Simmonds said “Today’s world is marked by rapid and at times unpredictable change, and as an industry we are keen to play our part in shaping that change as much as possible and being ready to meet tomorrow’s challenges. “This exciting programme will focus minds across industry and government on key long-term challenges, such as what port infrastructure will be needed to accommodate the vessels of the future. Will the current trend towards ever-larger ships continue? Or will autonomous vessels herald more but more numerous traffic into our ports?” Maritime UK, an umbrella group representing industry, recently launched its own futures plan and will be closely tied in with the BPA’s Port Horizon programme. MEC

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


46 | CARGO CONTROL

Integrating tank monitoring, control and automation Scanjet’s ITAMA system is an integrated cargo tank monitoring and automated control system for chemical, product and crude oil tankers

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canjet developed the intelligent tank management system, ITAMA, with integrated cargo tank monitoring and automated controls, in 2017. It is intended for tankers with complex cargo tank configurations. A new addition, introduced this year, is a wireless tank monitoring and alarm unit that is certified to meet two EU directives about explosive atmospheres (atmosphères explosibles, or ATEX) that crew can use to keep track of tank levels and operations. Managing director Niklas Falkmer explained to Marine Electronics & Communications that ITAMA was required because shipowners were under greater pressures than before to protect high-value cargoes and comply with increasingly stringent safety and environmental regulations. He said ITAMA was scalable and could be adapted by shipyards for different owner requirements, reducing newbuilding costs. For tanker owners, he said “the synergies among the related products are key to achieving operating economies and maintaining vessel compliance with new regulations as they emerge.” ITAMA incorporates automatic and realtime tank monitoring alarm and control and remote valve and pump controls. These are linked to: • Fixed and portable tank cleaners. • Pressure valves. • Gas-freeing equipment. • Inert gas system. • Oil-discharge monitor. • Vapour emission control. ITAMA has been designed as a modular platform, said Mr Falkmer. This brings together “embedded proprietary software, an operating system and hardware in an integrated system.” It has flexibility

ITAMA is an integrated tank monitoring and control

Electropneumatic gauging

Oil discharge monitoring and control system

Tank pressure Line pressure Pump pressure Sensor with enclosure

Uninterruptible power supply

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018

Draft gauging

Various tanks

Temperature compensated hydrostatic pressure sensor

Microwave radar level gauging

Electric pressure sensors

www.marinemec.com


CARGO CONTROL | 47

in input and output (I/O) connections for different tanker configurations. ITAMA can “accommodate virtually unlimited numbers and types of instruments with more than 3,000 I/O connections,” he said. It can also communicate with non-Scanjet equipment and can be “upgraded to meet new standards, regulations and changing requirements,” he added. Scanjet has avoided multiplexing signals to simplify installation, commissioning and diagnostics. It incorporated multiple workstations with touchscreens that display tank levels and a link to a tanker’s satellite communications network so managers can provide crew with remote support.

“ITAMA can accommodate virtually unlimited numbers and types of instruments with more than 3,000 I/O connections” ITAMA has its own power supply, voltage, cabling and sensors. There is also redundancy as it can switch to alternate power supplies and system settings are kept in multiple locations within the electronics. There is no hard disc or moving parts

system that connects a whole ship‘s network Tank cleaning Inert gas system NEW

Portable tank cleaning

Gas freeing fan

Air driven

Anti-pirate water cannon Independent overfill alarms Vapour emission control

SCANVENT P/V valves

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Temperature element

and battery-powered memory backup ensures data preservation. “Critical settings protection, local and remote trouble-shooting and watchdog functions have been built into the system for absolute reliability,” said Mr Falkmer. ITAMA tank level and liquid density measurement technology is based on high-frequency radar and temperaturecompensated absolute pressure sensors. “Proprietary mathematical algorithms filter out instrument fluctuations and compensate for the effects of tank liquid movement arising from pitch and roll, additionally avoiding false alarms,” said Mr Falkmer. Temperatures are measured at multiple points, with readings used to recalculate the specific gravity of a liquid automatically as a function of the temperature. ITAMA can also have an electro-pneumatic system for tank level gauging and submersed pressure sensors. There is a system control panel with a digital readout of each measuring point and user-defined visual and audible alarms. This can be connected to other onboard monitoring and alarm systems and the tanker’s loading computer through serial line communications. ITAMA continuously corrects level readings to compensate for the vessel’s trim and list. It automatically monitors oil discharge and controls the overboard and slop tank valves. It has a single- or dual-point high-level and overfill alarm that displays on the alarm panel and is linked to external lights and siren. Scanjet has also included a sensor pack for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as liquefied petroleum gases, and controlling pressure release valves. “This ensures ullage space pressure does not drop below the VOC valve’s opening pressure,” said Mr Falkmer. “During loading, the main valve opens to provide full capacity but during a voyage it is only the thermal variations valve that works,” he explained. This improves VOC handling and optimises use of inert gas plant. All this is integrated with tank management and cleaning controls. MEC

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018


48 | FORESIGHT

IT and communications trends to impact shipping Thuraya chief commercial officer Rashid Baba lists the trending technology that will have an effect on maritime industries in the long-term

Rashid Baba: “Shipping has joined the era of the IT platform”

“AR COMBINES THE PRACTICAL BENEFIT OF BETTER COMMUNICATIONS WITH THE NEED TO PROVIDE SUPPORT TO REMOTE WORKERS”

S

ome of the biggest technical trends in IT, communications and remote monitoring will have considerable impact on maritime industries. Some are already being deployed with success, such as container monitoring and tracking and advanced condition-based monitoring. Others are still to be introduced to shipping, in more than just test projects. For example, 3D printing will increasingly find its way into vessel component manufacture, onboard repairs and spare parts, Thuraya chief commercial officer Rashid Baba told Marine Electronics & Communications. However, the milestones to date have been about proof of concept rather than any business case. “3D printing is neither quick nor cheap at present, but we will see a continued trickle down of the technology until it is both,” he said. Unlike 3D printing, artificial intelligence (AI) is a concept that has already had an impact in shipping. Industrial users are taking advantage of learning algorithms, automated reporting systems and more risk-based predictive operations, said Mr Baba. “In the shipping industry, applications are planned or already in operation that use AI to analyse behaviours in the logistic chain and risk scenarios, enabling better planning and contingency measures,” he explained. Augmented reality (AR) will also have positive impact on maritime industries, sooner than 3D printing. “Because AR combines the practical benefit of better communications with the need to provide support to remote workers,” that can benefit directly from the input of specialists in tackling complex technical challenges said Mr Baba. Likewise, IT platforms and blockchain technology is being developed for shipping and maritime logistics chains. “Shipping has joined the era of the IT platform,” said Mr Baba. “Those already established include the many vessel tracking services, class society initiatives and the numerous blockchain partnerships.” He added that blockchain provides a means of securing digital information flow “in an industry that is still awash with paper shipping documents”. However, blockchain technology

Marine Electronics & Communications | 2nd Quarter 2018

still has challenges to overcome, including issues with using crypto-currencies and the computing power it requires. Another technology that poses practical challenges in shipping is big data analytics because of the “issues of gathering and working successfully with large data volumes,” Mr Baba said. He thinks data that could potentially be collected on vessel performance would be “more than enough to overwhelm the recipient.” A solution could be to just “focus on the outliers and exceptions” within the data. He noted that many software vendors have begun to capitalise on the need for regulatory reporting and performance data analysis. This has its benefits to shipping as analysis “enables owners to concentrate on the issues that need most attention rather than wade through lakes of data in the hope of catching something,” Mr Baba explained. One example of how this can improve ship operations is condition monitoring. It is already being used by manufacturers to assess hull and machinery, but it is now being extended to other areas of technology across the whole ship. Mr Baba expects the digital twin concept – which uses a digital model of a ship to assess situations and remedies – to “radically alter the process of shipmanagement and operations, with data streaming to dashboards that enable a more holistic analysis of the vessel’s condition.” Another application of data processing is container monitoring and tracking. Maersk Line, for example, is tracking 270,000 refrigerated containers fitted with sensors and transceivers for two-way communications through cellular and satellite networks. “Maersk set up the project for its own needs and used it to monitor the temperature of each box, make adjustments depending on the vessel schedule, track maintenance and schedule repairs,” said Mr Baba. “It saved millions of dollars in cargo claims, despite the data required being comparatively small, relying as it does on a hybrid shipboard network and satellite connectivity.” Mr Baba said this technical concept demonstrates that “the simplest ideas can have the biggest impact” on shipping. MEC

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Marine Electronics and Communications 2nd Quarter 2018  

Marine Electronics & Communications is dedicated to coverage of IT and electronics across the shipping industry and is committed to providin...

Marine Electronics and Communications 2nd Quarter 2018  

Marine Electronics & Communications is dedicated to coverage of IT and electronics across the shipping industry and is committed to providin...

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