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Lasearch Basilica diand Rimini In ofCattedrale art, history, culture

© DiskArt™ 1988

Museums in the Province of Rimini

I - 47900 Rimini, piazza Malatesta 28 tel. +39 0541 716371 - fax +39 0541 783808


Provincia di Rimini Assessorato alla Cultura Assessorato al Turismo

Provincia di Rimini Assessorato alla Cultura Assessorato al Turismo

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© DiskArt™ 1988

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Riviera di Rimini Travel Notes

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Cattolica Regina Museum Gemmano Onferno Guided Nature Reserve Mondaino Municipal Museum Montegridolfo Gothic Line Museum Montescudo Valliano Ethnography Museum Riccione Villa Franceschi Modern and Contemporary Art Gallery Local History Museum

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Rimini Municipal Museum Fellini Museum Museum of Looking, Ethnography Collections Museum of Offshore Fishing and Shells Saludecio Museum of Saludecio and of the Blessed Amato Santarcangelo di Romagna History and Archaeology Museum Museum of Rural Life in Romagna Verucchio Municipal Archaeology Museum







Provincia di Rimini Assessorato alla Cultura Assessorato al Turismo Agenzia marketing turistico Riviera di Rimini

Pier Giorgio Pasini Museums in the Province of Rimini In search of art, history, and culture

Coordination: Valerio Lessi, Sonia Vico, Marino Campana Graphic design: Relè - Tassinari/Vetta Photography: Photo Library, Assessorato al Turismo della Provincia di Rimini (Provincial Department of Tourism) L. Bottaro, S. Di Bartolo, T. Mosconi; photo libraries of the Museums presented in this guide Translation: Gillian Forlivesi Heywood Link-Up, Rimini Page Layout: Litoincisa87, Rimini Licia Romani First Edition 2007 Reprinted 2008


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Museums in the Province

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1. The World of Nature - Mondaino, Musei di Mondaino (Municipal Museum), Palaeontology Section - Gemmano, Museo Naturalistico della Riserva Naturale Orientata di Onferno (Onferno Guided Nature Reserve)

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2. The World of Archaeology - Riccione, Museo del Territorio (Local History Museum) - Verucchio, Museo Civico Archeologico (Municipal Archaeology Museum) - Rimini, Museo della CittĂ (Municipal Museum), Archaeology Section - Cattolica, Museo della Regina (Regina Museum), Archaeology Section - Santarcangelo, Museo Storico Archeologico (History and Archaeology Museum), Archaeology Section

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3. Art and History - Rimini, Museo della CittĂ (Municipal Museum), Art and History Section - Saludecio, Museo di Saludecio e del Beato Amato (Museum of Saludecio and of the Blessed Amato) - Santarcangelo, MUSAS, Museo Storico Archeologico (History and Archaeology Museum) Art Section - Mondaino, Musei di Mondaino (Municipal Museum), Majolica Section

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4. Local Life - Santarcangelo, Museo degli Usi e Costumi della Gente di Romagna (Museum of Rural Life in Romagna) - Montescudo, Museo Etnografico di Valliano (Valliano Ethnography Museum) - Cattolica, Museo della Regina (Regina Museum) Marine Section - Viserbella di Rimini, Museo della Piccola Pesca e delle Conchiglie (Museum of Offshore Fishing and Shells)

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5. The Modern World - Montegridolfo, Museo della Linea dei Goti (Gothic Line Museum) - Riccione, Galleria d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea Villa Franceschi (Villa Franceschi Modern and Contemporary Art Gallery) - Rimini, Museo Fellini (Fellini Museum) - Rimini, Museo degli Sguardi (Museum of Looking), Ethnography Collections


Further information: a brief bibliography

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Museums in the Province

Rimini, Museo della Città (Municipal Museum): majolica stove decorated with a representation of dexterarum iunctio, early nineteenth century. 5

History has left many signs and traces in the territory of Rimini: in its buildings, streets, urban layout, and art; and equally in its customs, language, literary culture, and agriculture. The tokens of this history, now scattered and divorced of context, have been collected with love and patience, and are now displayed in a number of museums, large and small, of ancient or recent foundation. These museums should not be seen as mere anthologies of “beautiful” or “curious” objects, but as places where we can experience the culture, the way of life, and the human events of this land, the furthest corner of the Romagna region, so gaining an insight into the numerous different roles it has played over the centuries. These collections bear witness to the high degree of civilisation, explain the relative originality, and account for the open hospitable nature of the people in this region. The territory of Rimini owes its complex and eventful history to its geographical location. As is immediately evident, the area acts as a “hinge” between northern Italy, characterised by the great Po Valley Plain, and central Italy, delineated by the Apennine mountains. At the same time, it is in a sense the “terminal” for connections between the north and the centre of the country and a transit centre for maritime links with the countries along the Adriatic coast and with the eastern Mediterranean. Rimini is the focal point where numerous roads begin, leading to Lombardy and the Veneto region, to Apulia and Tuscany, to Umbria and to Rome; and its harbour on the mouth of the river Marecchia is the point of departure for sea routes to Dalmatia and to Greece. These sea routes were much used by both merchants and pirates; while the overland routes were traversed by merchants from the Baltic countries following the amber road and by the Etruscans in search of new contacts; by the Roman Legions who invaded the Po Valley Plain in order to enlarge the dominions of Rome; by invading hordes of barbarians hoping to conquer Italy, pitted against the “Romans” of Byzantium; and subsequently by Longobards eager to find new lands; by German emperors intent upon reasserting their rights against those of the Papacy, and by bands of mercenaries in search of a secure position; and finally by the armies involved in that latest, most terrible struggle which was World War Two; for it was here, on the furthest tip of the Gothic Line, that one of the last great battles of the “Italian campaign” was fought. The territory of Rimini is on the edge of the Po Valley Plain and is bordered by the sea and by the foothills of the Apennine

Mountains and by Mount Titano. These are by no means impassable barriers or borders; however, they do invite travellers to halt and to change step, and so are to some extent a limitation and a filter, a place of passage and also a land of expectations and contentions. Here are found fragments of cultures and civilisations which over the course of time have settled into the territory and amalgamated. These numerous erratic tokens, material and artistic, are mainly collected in fifteen local museums, linked into a network by a provincial “system� which supports and promotes them, enabling them to integrate with one another to offer opportunities and incentives for discovering the territory and its culture. In this brief guide the museums are grouped according to type: first those which illustrate the geological formation, the conformation and the nature of the territory; then those relative to its early populations and ancient civilisations, notably the Villanovan and Roman; then the museums of objects and works of art produced from the Middle Ages to the Modern Era. Then there are the museums which illustrate rural life and life at sea, and those dealing with the past century and the Second World War, which in causing so many deaths and so much damage in the area has left indelible marks on its history and appearance. This grouping prompts itineraries through the evolving ages of history, rather than through space; but the space covered by the territory of Rimini is small, and both easy and pleasant to visit, especially inland, where you will find a great variety of landscape and a dense network of roads. It may seem obvious, but it is worth noting that all the museums in the Province of Rimini have strong links to the territory, to its history, and to its people, and should therefore be seen, understood, and enjoyed in connection with the places which they illustrate; this increases their charm and makes them unique, original, and very much alive.

Rimini, Museo della CittĂ (Municipal Museum), room with seventeenth-century tapestry hangings. 6

1. The World of Nature

There is no Natural History Museum in the Province of Rimini; there is, however, a Nature Reserve and a network of nature centres where it is possible to observe and study marine life and the wildlife of the hill country; these centres carry out many environmental education activities. The nature centres are partly in the public and partly in the private sector; they are normally under mixed management and are promoted by municipalities, voluntary associations, and socially useful nonprofit organisations. In the middle Marecchia valley are found the Osservatorio Naturalistico Valmarecchia (Marecchia Valley Nature Observatory), close to the wildlife protection oasis in Torriana Montebello, and the outstation of the Rimini WWF Environmental Education Centre, Oasi di Ca’ Brigida at Verucchio. In the Conca Valley is the Riserva Naturale Orientata di Onferno (Onferno Guided Nature Reserve) in the municipality of Gemmano. Marine life is covered by the Fondazione Cetacea (Cetacean Study Centre) in Riccione, by the Osservatorio Ambientale Comunale (Municipal Environment Observatory) in Cattolica and by Parco Le Navi Aquarium, also in Cattolica. The museums of Mondaino and Gemmano (Onferno) deal with the formation and conformation of the territory, references to which are also found in museums devoted primarily to archaeology. For a general overview, see especially the museum of Riccione, which is here included in the chapter on archaeology. Palaeontology specimens (including a fine collection of fossils from the river Marecchia) awaiting classification in a separate section are to be found at the Museo della Città (Municipal Museum) in Rimini. Further material is on display in the fortress of Montefiore, but this is not easily accessible and is awaiting reorganisation. There is also a significant collection of Mediterranean seashells in the Museum of Viserbella (see), and another in the Tower of Bellaria.

Gemmano, young people visiting the Riserva Naturale Orientata di Onferno (Onferno Guided Nature Reserve). 9

Mondaino: Municipal Museum, Palaeontology Section

Mondaino Musei di Mondaino piazza Maggiore, 1 tel. 0541 981674 fax 0541 982060 • summer opening times (1st June to 15th September): Monday to Saturday 9:0012:00; Sunday 17:00-21:00; Tuesday closed • winter opening times (16th September to 31st May): Monday to Saturday 9:0012:00; Sunday 10:00-13:00/ 15:00-18:00; Tuesday closed • entrance free of charge

Fossil remains of a fish and of leaves in tripoli stone from Mondaino. 11

This museum is specifically devoted to fossils, specially ichthyoids found in the municipality of Mondaino; but its main aim is didactic, an introduction to the earth’s most ancient history, covering a long period which scholars place between the Miocene and Pleistocene periods, in the Messinian period, about six million years ago. The Mondaino area (like nearby Montefiore and Saludecio) was then covered by a great lake of salt water, between one hundred and two hundred metres deep at least, which evaporation gradually dried out. This is why the area is so rich in fossils, which were already recorded in the nineteenth century, but have been a subject for study only since 1983, when a landslide led to a programme of organised excavation. The museum exhibits, scientifically classified, a great quantity of fossils found during these excavations together with others discovered at various times in other areas of the territory: there are many species of fossil fish, some of them very rare, and also molluscs, echinoderms and vegetable specimens. One species of fossil found here seems to have no parallels in other areas: this is the lantern fish denominated Ceratoscopoles miocenicus. It was of course the particular nature of the sediments which filled the great lake, and which were formed when the sea evaporated, which allowed the fossilisation of the remains of the organisms living there. Besides medium and small fish there were also some large species in the Messinian basin, such as Procacharodon megalodo, a giant shark which could be as much as thirty metres long and which was widespread during the Miocene period: some teeth of this species have been found. A diorama in the Museum recalls its presence in a reconstruction of the marine environment during the Messinian period. The Museum is situated on the ground floor of the fourteenth century Malatesta fortress which also houses the Town Hall. Next to it is a splendid little circular piazza with a portico, built in the nineteenth century. This piazza is the point of departure for the long straight main street of the village, along which are found the eighteenth-century parish church dedicated to Saint Michael Archangel and the seventeenth-century former convent of Santa Chiara (Saint Clare).

Gemmano: Onferno Guided Nature Reserve

Gemmano Museo Naturalistico della Riserva Naturale Orientata di Onferno via Provinciale Onferno tel. 0541 854060 tel/fax 0541 984694 www.regione.emiliaromagna/parchi/onferno • summer opening times (15th June to 15th September): 9:30-12:30/15:00-18:00 • winter opening times: Sunday 15:00-17:30 • groups and school parties: by prior arrangement • entrance fee payable

Above: left, panel illustrating the Messinian period; right, bat (Blyth’s Horseshoe bat, Myotis blythii). Below, the Onferno cave. 13

This museum too is partly devoted to the history of the earth. It was opened in 1995 by the Municipality of Gemmano in the Onferno Guided Nature Reserve (274 hectares) next to a well-known natural cavern over 700 metres long and over 70 deep. It is located in an area of outstanding natural beauty in the rebuilt and especially re-planned historic parish church dedicated to Saint Columba (documents exist from 1136), which suffered severe damage during World War Two. First the museum exhibits a collection of rock samples, with special attention to various types of chalk which often surfaces in this area, in layers or in blocks. Together with eloquent graphic items, there is a large three-dimensional model of a chalk molecule enlarged about 3500 times. That so much attention is paid to this mineral and this rock is owing to the fact that the fortified village of Onferno, the small mediaeval nucleus where the museum is situated, is built on a large block of chalk, in which the waters of a seasonal torrential stream have hollowed out - over the course of thousands of years - a cavern, explored and scientifically documented only in 1916. This cavern, underneath the village and the museum, is illustrated by means of a large model created in accordance with the findings of explorations carried out in the 1960s. In the Museum, ideally linked to the cavern, are found two sections: one is devoted to speleology and another to chiropters, better known as bats. The bat colony resident in the cavern is one of the largest in Italy, numbering about six thousand specimens of seven different species. The flora and fauna peculiar to the area also have their place in the museum, with display cases, explanatory placards and multimedia points, and a diorama evidences the species of amphibians, reptiles and mammals which still populate the area. There is a section devoted to the birds which nest here, including especially perching birds and diurnal raptors. A visit to the Museum should be the prelude to visiting the nature reserve, the garden of flora from the hills, and the cavern itself, a visit requiring the presence of the specialised guides available. These guides are especially competent and expert in presenting the environment to school parties and in environmental education.

2. The World of Archaeology

Riccione, Museo del Territorio (Local History Museum), clay statuette, 1st century B.C. 15

The territory of Rimini has been inhabited by Man since Palaeolithic times: that is, for over two hundred thousand years. His traces are everywhere; those of the earliest times are weaker, but there are frequent and even “monumental” remains from Roman times. So it should come as no surprise that there are so many archaeology museums, or museums with significant archaeology sections, in the Rimini area. The oldest archaeology museum is in Rimini itself, a collection built by a local scholar and excellent historian: Luigi Tonini. It was he who in 1871 formed the Rimini “Archaeology Gallery”, the first real museum to cover the entire territory, since it brought together finds and manufactured objects from the area between the Uso and Conca rivers. These exhibits concern pre-history and ancient history, and the museum became a “propeller” for research and archaeological study. World War Two brought about its destruction, and now it is being painstakingly rebuilt so as to favour the optimum display and enhancement of the numerous exhibits in its keeping, many of which have been studied in greater depth during recent decades, leading to a better understanding of their significance. Only a century after Tonini’s Gallery did other museums open in the Rimini area, each with an archaeology section exhibiting manufactured objects originating from a small geographical area, making it possible to develop and explore in depth particular themes connected with the territory and with human habitation there. Thus we find the Villanovan civilisation in Verucchio, pottery production in Santarcangelo, and relations with the major consular roads in Cattolica. This brief guide can offer only a small sample of the riches to be found in these museums: an abundance not only of manufactured goods but also of information and suggestions, enhanced by optimum installation and assiduous attention to permanent education and didactic activity. Small collections of archaeological finds are also to be found outside the museums of the provincial network: for example in the municipal libraries of San Giovanni in Marignano and Morciano. Furthermore, in Rimini the remains of a domus with a mosaic pavement have been incorporated into the museum while remaining in loco, in via Sigismondo, at the Camera di Commercio (Chamber of Commerce), and in via Tempio Malatestiano, in the offices of the Prefettura.

Riccione: Local History Museum

Riccione Museo del Territorio Centro Culturale della Pesa viale Lazio, 10 tel. 0541 600113 • summer opening times (21st June to 31st August): Tuesday to Saturday 9:0012:00; open Tuesday evening, Wednesday and Friday 21:0023:00; every Wednesday at 21:00 laboratory for young people and free guided visit (in Other languages by prior arrangement minimum 10 people; Sunday and Monday closed • winter opening times: Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday 9:00-12:00/15:00-18:00; Thursday and Saturday 9:0012:00; closed Monday and Sunday • entrance free of charge

Above, reconstructed skeleton of a bison (Bison priscus from the Pleistocene era, found in the river Conca. Below: left, tomb from the burial area along the Via Flaminia (1st century A.D.); right, fragment of an amphora, small pots, lachrymators, lamps from the same necropolis. 17

This museum is the ideal starting place for visiting the provincial archaeology museums, because at present it is the only one to supply those elements essential to understanding the evolution of the territory of Rimini and in particular the Conca Valley, on the northern edge of which stands Riccione. This museum was opened in the Municipal Library during the 1960s through the research and study of a group of dedicated people, and was organised definitively in 1990 in the “Centro della Pesa” multi-function centre. Since 1998 it has been named for the archaeologist Luigi Ghirotti, Honorary Inspector of Antiquities, who was one of the principal founders of the museum. The Museum has a very modern layout and is organised with exemplary didactic clarity in six sections which contain interesting paleoethnology and archaeology exhibits. First there is a general introduction concerning the origin and evolution of the earth, followed by a section illustrating the local geological situation by means of graphics and a model of the Conca Valley and neighbouring areas. Its complicated geological history explains the present conformation of the territory, shaped tens of millions of years ago by the superimposition of rocks which emerged from the sea bed and then slid along the clay, by fractures in these rocks, and by the changing flow of the rivers which eroded and shaped the uneven surface of the land which emerged. Specimens of rocks, minerals and fossils both animal and vegetable bear witness to thousands of years of evolution, up to the appearance of large mammals such as the elephant (or mammoth), which is recorded in the large molars and a fragment of a tusk; the prehistoric bison, of which have been found a piece of a skull, a jawbone, and several bones, making possible the reconstruction of a half-skeleton; a giant deer, and other minor animals (bear, rhinoceros, beaver, rat etc.). A diorama reconstructs the environment of the Conca basin as it must have been during a period lasting from 200,000 to 100,000 years ago, with a great lake and many marshes, but already long frequented by Man. Surface archaeological research and casual finds have made it possible to document the earliest traces of mankind in the area from the inferior Palaeolithic period: pebbles first rough-hewn in a very rudimentary fashion, then chipped into shape with some skill, bear witness to the presence of mankind in an environment which must have been very different from that of the present day: stretches of water, marshland, and

dense wild vegetation. The museum has a good collection of stone exhibits from the Palaeolithic and Neolithic ages found in various places in the valley (municipalities of Riccione, Misano, Morciano and Montefiore). The fifth section of the museum is devoted to the Neolithic and Aeneolithic ages, and to the Copper, Bronze, and Iron Ages. There are exhibits of stone, metal, and pottery (axes, daggers, mattocks, arrow tips, brooches, various kinds of vessels) from settlements in and around Riccione. Tokens of the Villanovan civilisation are few in this area, but there is an abundance in the nearby Marecchia valley (these can be found in the Museo archeologico di Verucchio, Municipal Archaeology Museum: see). There are exhibits from the successive period, including some fragments of rare Greek pottery dating from the fifth century found in Morciano and Misano, which suggests that there was contact and perhaps trade with Greece, and other exhibits from a Gallic tomb of the third century B.C. found in Misano, which suggests, according to R. Bambini, that there may have been some survival of Celtic culture in an age in which the territory was almost wholly Romanised. The last section of the Museum covers the Roman conquest and colonisation of the territory; the display cases here contain objects dating from the third century B.C. to the third century A.D. It should also be noted that the archaeological material found in the area during the nineteenth century (partly recorded here in photographs) is now in the archaeology section of the Museo della CittĂ (Municipal Museum) of Rimini. The Romans appeared in this area after the battle of Sentinum (295 B.C.), but only after the founding of the Latin colony Ariminum (268 B.C.) and the consequent granting of land to settlers were they able to make serious headway against the Gallic population. This was a frontier area, soon served by the Via Flaminia (220 B.C.) linking Rimini to Rome. In the area there were certainly scattered farms and country houses, of which traces remain in about fifty sites and from which come the exhibits on display here: fragments of crockery, pieces of pavement in terracotta and mosaic, fragments of painted plaster, elements of suspensurae (proving the existence of domestic bath-houses), stamped tiles. A number of small and medium-size kilns were built to support local building and agriculture; these produced bricks, tiles, crockery, wine jars and oil-lamps, of which many traces have been found. It appears that the only inhabited area of any significant 18

size was located on the Via Flaminia at San Lorenzo in Strada. Recent excavations (1995-2001) have revealed traces of dwellings and of industries (the remains are preserved in situ), a necropolis, a kiln, and perhaps a religious building. From San Lorenzo in Strada come decorative architectural elements of great beauty (from the second-first century B.C.), some of which are now in the Museum in Rimini, and from the tombs in the necropolis come funerary objects including objects in glass and bone, coins, and pottery. Close to the Roman settlement, which it served, there stood in very ancient times - although documents exist only from 997 - the parish church of San Lorenzo in Strada (rebuilt after the Second World War). The maps displayed near the exit illustrate the urban development of Riccione from the eighteenth century to the present day.


Verucchio: Municipal Archaeology Museum

Verucchio Museo Civico Archeologico via Sant’Agostino, 14 tel. 0541 670222 fax 0541 673266 • open April/September: daily 9:30-12:30/14:30-19:30 • open October/March: Saturday 14:30-18:30; Sunday 10:00-13:00/14:30-18:00 • open at other times for groups and school parties by prior arrangement • entrance fee payable

Above: left, visitors in the Ancestors’ room; right, crested clay helmet. Centre: left, “Throne” in carved wood, from tomb Lippi 89; right, gold buckles and ornaments in gold and amber. Below: left, carved wooden fan handle; right, biconical ossuary with open-work handle. 21

The Museum of Riccione gives an overview of the Conca valley and much of the territory of Rimini from its origins to Roman times, and thus refers to an area vast in both geographical and temporal terms, while the exhibits in the Museum of Verucchio refer to a single culture, which flourished in the Marecchia valley and especially in the Verucchio area during the Iron Age, over a period of time between the ninth and seventh centuries B.C. This was a mysterious and fascinating culture, known from the late nineteenth century as “Villanovan”, because the exhibits which illustrate it were comparable with those found in 1858 at Villanova near Bologna. Finds of “very ancient” materials in the area around Verucchio are noted from the seventeenth century, when they aroused considerable interest. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries a number of collections had already been formed from these materials, but only at the end of the nineteenth century (1893) did the first real excavations take place, revealing tombs rich in funerary objects (acquired by the Museum of Rimini). Exploration of the territory, still in progress, began again in the early 1960s; to date, four distinct burial zones have been identified on the slopes and at the foot of the hill where Verucchio stands, and over five hundred tombs have been excavated, yielding splendid funerary objects including some very rare pieces. A selection of these is on display in the present Museum, which was opened in 1985 and completely reorganised in 1995 through the combined efforts of the Soprintendenza Archeologica dell’Emilia (Regional Archaeology Department) and by the civic administration of Verucchio, in accordance with a convention stipulated in 1993 between the Ministry and the Municipality. The Villanovan culture is the expression of a population probably of Etruscan origin, or strongly influenced by the Etruscans, who in the ninth century settled on this hill (altitude 296mt) in the Marecchia valley, the closest to the sea. This was a place easy to defend, situated on the rudimentary road which led across the Viamaggio pass into Tuscany, following the route of the amber traders who came south from the Baltic countries; and it was close to the sea, facilitating trade with the coastal towns of the Adriatic and Aegean seas. The exact location of the settlement is still unknown: it may correspond to the spur of rock where the present town stands, dominating the lower course of the river Marecchia and the entire plain as far as the Adriatic. The location of the burial grounds, however, is partly known, and the

funerary objects found there give an idea of the way of life of this ancient population, whose economy was based on agriculture, handicrafts, and trade, and who dominated the territory between the rivers Conca and Uso, as far as the sea. The typical Villanovan funeral rite was cremation. Tombs are usually pits containing a biconical terracotta ossuary, often richly decorated, sealed with an upturned bowl; or pits in which besides the ossuary there is a large dolium containing funerary objects; or sometimes rectangular graves in which is placed a large chest containing an urn, wound in a mantle, holding the ashes of the deceased, and household vessels, furniture, utensils, arms, and textiles. The museum occupies three floors of a seventeenth-century former Augustinian convent. The first room, called “the Ancestors’ Room”, has eight display cases containing exhibits found in tombs dating from the ninth to the eighth century B.C. Many of these come from the so-called “Campo del Tesoro” (the Treasure Field), the oldest of the Verucchio necropolises, where there are very rich tombs of both men and women: outstanding exhibits include clasps in bronze and amber, jewellery (some made of gold), spindles and bobbins, and ceramics. Proceeding to the lower ground floor, we find the “Room of the Men at Arms” with display cases exhibiting mainly tombs of warriors with equipment including horses’ bits, swords, spear-heads, axes, knives, ornaments, and bronze or ceramic vessels. Next is the “Mantle Room” where there is a display case showing precious textile specimens from various tombs, and a large semi-circular woollen mantle. The historian Patrizia von Eles has noted that Verucchio is the only example in proto-historic Italy of garments preserved almost integrally, making it possible to decipher the shape, the raw materials used for weaving and dyeing, and the weaving techniques employed. Other display cases contain instruments for spinning and weaving; female tombs with ossuaries entirely covered in fabric; jewellery; banqueting vessels; vegetable fibre containers; and other objects. The most significant room on the first floor is the “Throne Room”, dominated by a large display case where can be seen tomb 89 of the Lippi necropolis (under the fortress) excavated in 1972. In the tomb was found a large wooden chest with a very rich collection of objects: textiles; arms (of especial note are two helmets, one with a tall bronze crest and the other with a bristle crest); brooches of bronze, silver and gold; and wooden artefacts. On the cover of the chest stood a wooden throne, with 22

bronze bosses and with carvings illustrating scenes from daily life, outstandingly well preserved. According to Patrizia von Eles, this must have been the tomb of one of the foremost members of the Verucchio aristocracy of the late eighth century B.C., a man who played complex roles in his community, a warrior invested with responsibilities which extended beyond the military sphere to include the social and religious spheres. There is also a female tomb (tomb 47) also excavated in 1972 in the same area. This appears to have been the tomb of a woman of high rank, as can be inferred from the quantity of amber clasps and from their quality, and from the beautiful woven fabrics. The richness of the objects found, and the fact that the funerary urn is of bronze and not - as was common - of terracotta, confirm this hypothesis. And finally, there is a room devoted to the sacred site identified on the plateau known as Pian del Monte, partly excavated in 1963 and 1971, where there is a pit from which come ceramic and bronze materials which can be dated between the thirteenth and fifth centuries B.C. These include fragments of small bronze sculptures of excellent quality Etruscan manufacture. Near this pit were found a number of bronze shields which had been placed one on top of another; three of them have been reconstructed. Regular excavation continues on the slopes of the hill where Verucchio stands (in the burial-ground under the fortress, from 2005); and study and classification of the abundant material brought to light also continues. The museum is thus in a continual state of evolution, receiving these finds and enhancing them by means of study days, conferences and themed exhibitions of outstanding interest: in 1994 an exhibition entitled “Il dono delle Eliadi. Ambra, e oreficerie dei principi etruschi di Verucchio” (The gift of the Heliades: amber, and jewellery of the Etruscan princes of Verucchio) and in 2006 “Il potere e la morte” (Power and Death).


Rimini: Municipal Museum, Archaeology Section

Rimini Museo della Città via Luigi Tonini, 1 tel. 0541 21482 fax 0541 704410 for teaching activities tel. 0541 704421/26 • summer opening times (16th June to 15th September): Tuesday to Saturday 10:3012:30/16:30-19:30; JulyAugust also Tuesday 21:0023:00; Sundays and public holidays 16:30-19:30; Monday closed (except public holidays) • winter opening times (16th September to 15th June): Tuesday to Saturday 8:3012:30/17:00-19:00; Sundays and public holidays 16:0019:00; Monday closed (except public holidays) • entrance fee payable; Sunday entrance free of charge

Above: left, part of the Roman epigraphy collection; right, display relating to imperial cults. Below, detail of the “ships” mosaic. 25

The archaeology section of Rimini Municipal Museum is essential to an overview of ancient history and archaeology throughout the territory of the Province of Rimini. (This section is still being re-arranged, and should be complete by the end of 2008). Here are found thousands of exhibits covering periods ranging from pre-history to the late Roman empire, which document and illustrate - making them “real” - the vicissitudes of population and civilisation of the territory from the Palaeolithic era to the Middle Ages. Needless to say, all or nearly all the Museum’s collection comes from local sources; however, its significance is not confined to a purely local context, as the visitor may discover from the exhibits already on display. A rich variety of sculptures, mosaics and ceramics illustrate life in the city during the second and third centuries A.D., reconstructing many aspects of the civilisation which grew up in the Roman world of that time. The Museum of Rimini is a very old foundation and has a wealth of exhibits. It was founded in 1871-72 by the historian and archaeologist Luigi Tonini, who gave it the name of “Galleria Archeologica” - an Archaeology Gallery. Here were brought together exhibits from all over the territory between the Rubicon and Conca rivers. It was located in the left portico of the courtyard of the Gambalunga Library and was almost an “afterthought” to the municipal library; it was then rearranged in 1931, with special attention to Roman exhibits, on the ground floor of the former Franciscan convent next to the Malatesta Temple, subsequently destroyed altogether by bombing in 194344. Fortunately almost all the exhibits had been removed to a place of safety and so survived, and are at present to be found in the former Jesuit college now home to the Museo della Città (Municipal Museum), which brings together the entire historic and artistic patrimony belonging to the Municipality and the State. The archaeology section of the museum has more than doubled over the last fifty years, partly owing to continuing research and partly because so much material has come to light during excavations for widespread building work throughout the city centre, almost completely destroyed by bombing during World War Two. Since the end of the war, and most especially during the 1980s, besides organising a number of temporary exhibitions, the Museum has carried out much-appreciated training sessions for teachers and educational activities for schools, popularising activities for a wider public, and has participated in nationwide

exhibitions and events which have all served to draw attention to the archaeological heritage of Rimini. Since 1981 a Roman epigraphy collection has been open to the public in the inner courtyard of the museum. Here are to be found about seventy inscriptions dating from the first century B.C. to the fifth century A.D., providing documentary evidence of forms of epigraphic communication in Roman Rimini and supplying much information on many aspects of public and private life from the first century B.C. to the fourth century A.D. From the time of the Roman republic onwards the city of Rimini, founded in 268 B.C. as a colonia latina and promoted to municipality in about 90 B.C., played a very important role both in trade and in the military and political spheres. This was fully recognised at the time of Augustus, as can clearly be seen from the existence of two major monuments famous both for their size and their beauty: the Augustus Arch (27 B.C.) and the Tiberius Bridge (14-21 A.D.), which the inhabitants of Rimini have always considered emblematic of their city: so much so, that from the Middle Ages onwards these have figured in the city’s coat of arms. The richness of Roman Rimini’s civic buildings is amply illustrated by the many exceptionally fine mosaic pavements, mostly from Imperial times, now in the museum; however, many of these are still in store awaiting exhibition space. At present, in addition to the epigraphy collection, the only section on display is that relating to the second and third centuries A.D., the height of the Imperial Age; this section was opened in 2003. Exhibits include bronze and ceramic domestic vessels, coins, painted plaster, mosaics, marble statues and bronze statuettes, and fragments of architectural elements and sculpture. Together they give interesting insights into city life and its trading activities. Aspects illustrated here include the amphitheatre, built during the second century A.D. on the beach next to the harbour; the cults of Imperial Rome; and relations between the city and the sea. Above all, there is information about a number of splendid exemplars of domus: for example, that under Palazzo Diotallevi, which had a huge mosaic pavement with the figure of Hercules at its centre and to one side an original scene showing three ships entering harbour (dating from the mid-second century A.D.), and the domus known as the Surgeon’s House (second-third century A.D.), where excavations have recently brought to light, among other things, an exceptional collection of surgical and pharmaceutical 26

material comprising over 150 pieces, defined by Ortalli as the most extensive and complete set of ancient Roman medical equipment still in existence. These finds have been restored and are all on display. The cubicle and the surgery of the medical man who lived and practised in this house have been reconstructed in the museum for teaching purposes. The house was probably destroyed by fire during one of the first barbarian raids, about the middle of the third century A.D. The remains of this domus, including its mosaic pavements, are in Piazza Ferrari, close to the Museum; work is in progress to provide a suitable protective structure, after which visitors will be able to view the domus in loco. Many small exhibits are on display to give an idea of the way of life in Roman households, from elements of furniture to amulets; from lamps to bronze and terracotta vessels for table and kitchen; from amphorae to glass artefacts to objects for personal adornment and images of the guardian deities of the household. Concerning religious beliefs, especially “privateâ€? worship, it appears that in Rimini the Dionysian cults were fairly popular, as images have been found of Dionysus, Eros, Priapus and Silenus. On the first and second floors of the same building are the mediaeval and modern sections of the Museo della CittĂ (Municipal Museum) (see).


Cattolica: Regina Museum, Archaeology Section

Cattolica Museo della Regina via Pascoli, 23 tel. 0541 966577 fax 0541 967803 • summer opening times: Tuesday 9:30-12:30; Wednesday to Sunday 16:3019:00/20:30-23:00; Monday closed • winter opening times: Tuesday to Thursday 9:3012:30; Friday and Saturday 9:3012:30/15:30-19:00; Sunday 15:30-19:00; Monday closed • entrance free of charge

Above, display case with materials found in the well of the former market place. Below: left, clay lamps; Right, fragments of amphorae and amphorae found in the sea off Cattolica and towards the promontory of Focara. 29

In Roman times there was a settlement in Cattolica of which only recently (1966) have traces begun to be identified. This settlement was located on the Via Flaminia, exactly halfway between Rimini and Pesaro, and is though to have been a small urban centre which grew up around a mansio or stopping place for travellers - a sort of “post house” equipped for offering hospitality to travellers and for changing and stabling horses. The theory is an attractive one, especially if one considers the recent history of Cattolica, already described by Leandro Alberti in the sixteenth century as a place full of inns for travellers. The materials found during the excavations of 1966 and successively in 1969, 1975, and 1997-98 have been collected in a new museum built in the year 2000, very well equipped and with good explanatory panels which make it very eloquent. The museum opens with the necessary considerations concerning the Roman Via Flaminia and on the organisation and typology of the mansio, and illustrates the excavations in Cattolica and the materials found, identified chronologically and by typology . There is a very interesting display, organised so as to respect the various archaeological strata, of material from a Roman well explored in 1997-98 in the area of the market place, offering some coins and a rich sample collection of household ceramic vessels dating from the first century B.C. to the ninth century A.D. One room is devoted to the domus, illustrating its layout and the building systems and materials employed, decoration and furnishings; another room deals with daily life and personal care and hygiene; and another with trade. Exhibits of note include a collection of lamps and one of amphorae, some of which were found in the sea. Also found in the sea, in 1967, is a collection of majolica drinking vessels all similar in type, dating from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, part of the cargo of a ship which foundered between Gabicce and Cattolica. The last room houses more recently-acquired collections. The explanatory panels give information also about the more recent history of Cattolica, from the legend of the “sunken city” to the foundation of the modern town (1271), from the origins of the present name of the town to the network of tunnels underneath the streets. The upper floor of the building, once a Pilgrim Hospice founded in 1584 and rebuilt in the 1930s as a barracks for the Carabinieri, houses the Adriatic marine section (see).

Santarcangelo: Museum of History and Archaeology, Archaeology Section

Santarcangelo di Romagna MUSAS - Museo Storico Archeologico via della Costa, 26 tel/fax 0541 625212 • summer opening times (June-August): Tuesday to Sunday 10:30-12:30/16:3019:00; Monday closed • winter opening times: Tuesday to Saturday 10:3012:30; Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday and Sunday 15:3017:30; Monday closed • entrance fee payable

Above, the farmhouse room. Below: left, clay lamps; right, bronze statuette of Harpocras, second century A.D. 31

This museum, devoted to the art and archaeology of the territory of Santarcangelo, was opened in 2005, and is one of the most recent museums in the Province of Rimini. It occupies five different levels of a historic building (Palazzo Cenci) especially restored in the 1980s and 90s, located in the characteristic and picturesque upper part of the beautiful historic core of this little town. The archaeology section of the Museum is largely devoted to an activity which, favoured by the abundance of clay and wood, has undoubtedly had great influence in this area: kilns and the articles produced therein; partly bricks, but chiefly containers for domestic use and above all for use in farming. Roman kilns with settling tanks and firing chambers have been found (and others continue to be noted and brought to light) in the southern part of the territory of Santarcangelo, suggesting highly-developed artisan activity, almost an “industrial estate” or specialised “craft centre”. Given the importance of this activity, the Museum opens with a large model of a kiln which illustrates a construction typology recurring almost unchanged over the centuries, and the display cases exhibit the most significant sample objects of local production, including urns, amphorae, jars and lamps. As Maria Luisa Stoppioni has pointed out, during the fifth and sixth centuries A.D. lamps began to be adorned with attractive original decorations, and for this reason a separate space is accorded to them. The pottery industry in Santarcangelo seems to have been especially well organised in relation to local production of cereals and above all wine, which was certainly abundant in the lower Marecchia valley, intensively cultivated and dotted with scattered farmhouses. From these farmhouses come many of the exhibits displayed in the glass cases on the second floor, objects illustrating daily life, the home, religious beliefs, and the cult of the dead. Certainly the territory was inhabited and cultivated long before the Romans colonised it: and there are many exhibits which tell us of these long-ago ancestors. These items, arranged according to origin and chronology, are displayed in a small room devoted to Pre-history and Proto-history. The visit to the Museum continues on the upper floor in the section dealing with the Middle Ages and the history of the Modern Era (see).

3. Art and History

Rimini, Museo della CittĂ (Municipal Museum), Malatesta altar-piece showing St Vincent Ferrer, by Domenico Ghirlandaio and workshop (1493-96). 33

The greatest period of the Middle Ages in Rimini coincided with the coming to power of the Malatesta family. The art world at this time saw the fourteenth-century Rimini School flourish, and Humanism has left us, in the shape of the Malatesta Temple, one of its earliest, most complex and most splendid monuments, commissioned by the Malatestas. In the two hundred years of their rule (fourteenth and fifteenth centuries) they built or re-built almost all of the fortresses which still dominate the hills around Rimini and in places the hills of Le Marche too. They also established a literary court able to hold its own with those of northern Italy and of Tuscany. Rimini was the capital of the Malatesta state and the Museum of Rimini has in its possession various rare artefacts from this period, together with masterpieces by great artists of the following period, by famous local artists such as Cagnacci and Il Centino, and great Bolognese painters including Guercino and Cantarini. In this area, it was Bolognese culture which was the protagonist of the art world from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries; but the vitality of the territory in these centuries is evident most of all in the new urban layouts of the period and in the many building erected, especially churches and theatres, which are plentiful throughout the territory. The Middle Ages and the eighteenth century have provided the museum with many works of art, through which we are able to gain a sense of the cultural climate and reconstruct the history of the territory down to the present day. The richest and most complete Museum is of course that of Rimini, which has major works of art from every century. The museum of Santarcangelo too has mediaeval and Renaissance masterpieces, while that of Saludecio has important seventeenth-century paintings and precious church furnishings from the eighteenth century. A visit to these three museums will be a rewarding experience for several reasons - quality of the exhibits, up-to-date layout, and efficient management - and will suggest a number of ways in which to appreciate more fully the territory. Also of notable interest is the permanent collection of Majolica exhibits on display in Mondaino (fourteenth-seventeenth centuries), a collection inaugurated in 2004 when fragments and reject pieces of locally-produced ceramics were found in Mondaino. There is also a collection of mediaeval and Renaissance ceramics on view in the offices of the Province of Rimini, located on the site of the historic Misericordia hospital. The ceramics come from a “dump� belonging to the hospital itself.

Rimini: Municipal Museum, Art and History Section

Rimini Museo della Città via Luigi Tonini, 1 tel. 0541 21482 fax 0541 704410 for teaching activities tel. 0541 704421/26 • summer opening times (16th June to 15th September): Tuesday to Saturday 10:3012:30/16:30-19:30; JulyAugust also Tuesday 21:0023:00; Sundays and public holidays 16:30-19:30; Monday closed (except public holidays) • winter opening times (16th September to 15th June): Tuesday to Saturday 8:3012:30/17:00-19:00; Sundays and public holidays 16:0019:00; Monday closed (except public holidays) • entrance fee payable; Sunday entrance free of charge

Above, Giuliano da Rimini, polyptych showing the Coronation of the Virgin, circa 1315. Below, Giovanni Bellini, Pietà, circa 1470. 35

Thirty-six rooms occupying two floors of the eighteenthcentury “palazzo” which was the college of the Jesuits in Rimini (and subsequently the city hospital): the “post-classic” section of Rimini Museum constitutes the largest and most significant art and history collection in the Province and one of the foremost in the Region. Here are gathered paintings and sculptures, ceramics and medals, engravings and architectural fragments from the city and surrounding territory. As long ago as the early nineteenth century the Palazzo Comunale (Town Hall) boasted a number of reception rooms adorned with paintings and tapestries, but the first real museum set-up arrived only in 1924 on the first floor of the former San Francesco convent. This building was destroyed by bombing in 1943-44, and after a number of temporary seats in which much of the collection could not be shown, the museum was moved to its present location, purchased expressly for this purpose and restored from 1990. Work is now in progress to complete the archaeology section (see) and the rooms pertaining to the Middle Ages, and restoration work is being undertaken on an adjoining building which will be devoted to contemporary art. Meanwhile, the mediaeval and Renaissance sections are awaiting a definitive arrangement; but already much of the collection is on display in a rational layout which seeks to bring together in one harmonious whole the different requirements of chronology and typology. The first exhibits are a collection of mediaeval architectural fragments (including pieces of a huge Romanesque portal), ceramics and coins from the period of the “comune” (mediaeval city-state), and a huge fourteenth-century fresco showing The Last Judgement. This fresco, exhibited in a large room equipped for conferences and known as the “Judgement Room”, comes from the Augustinian church of San Giovanni Evangelista, where it was located at the front of the nave. Dating from about 1310, it is one of the oldest and most important works of the fourteenthcentury Rimini School of painting, which operated in the first half of that century throughout the Emilia Romagna region, in Le Marche and in the Veneto region. It was influenced and in a sense shaped by the example of Giotto, who in the late thirteenth century worked in Rimini for the Franciscans: there is still a splendid Giotto Crucifix in the Malatesta Temple. The Rimini School produced excellent works of art now scattered through all the major museums worldwide. The Museum of Rimini has works by Giovanni, Giuliano and Pietro da Rimini,

the three greatest painters of this school. The development of the Rimini School coincided with the coming to power of the Malatestas, a family which from the beginning of the fourteenth to the end of the fifteenth century ruled the city and extended its dominions into Le Marche and much of Romagna. Coats of arms and stone engravings concerning this family abound, especially relating to Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta (1417-1468), to whom we owe Castel Sismondo fortress and the renowned Malatesta Temple. In the Museum is the almost complete series of Malatesta medals struck for Sigismondo by Pisanello and by Matteo de’ Pasti, and these are among the greatest masterpieces of this art form, which can be considered an invention of the Renaissance. There is also a Young Coat-of-Arms Bearer by Agostino di Duccio from the Malatesta Temple, and from the Malatesta Temple too comes the the Museum’s greatest jewel, the Pietà painted by Giovanni Bellini in about 1470. Pandolfo IV Malatesta, a nephew of Sigismondo and the last Lord of Rimini, commissioned Domenico Ghirlandaio to paint the great altarpiece depicting saints Vincent, Rock and Sebastian being venerated by members of the Malatesta family (1493-96). This was the last major masterpiece to be painted in the city. The Museum has a few works by that small number of Rimini artists working elsewhere in this century, such as Giovan Francesco and Lattanzio da Rimini, and some paintings by other Romagna artists. In the sixteenth century Rimini lost much of its prestige and was ruled by Duke Valentino and by the Venetians before coming once more under the direct rule of the Papal State (1509). Nevertheless, the sixteenth century saw the realisation of a number of significant works in the fields of architecture and town planning and the arrival of various masterpieces by Giorgio Vasari (at the Abbey of Scolca and in San Francesco church, 1547 and 1548) and by Paolo Veronese (in San Giuliano church, 1587-88), and also by minor artists such as Marco Marchetti and Nicolò Frangipane (the Museum has some works). In terms of art, the seventeenth century is more interesting, not only because many works of art now in the Museum were imported from the Veneto region (such as two outstanding small paintings by Francesco Maffei) and from Bologna (including masterpieces by Simone Cantarini and Guercino), but also because of the presence in Rimini of two great local artists: 36

Guido Cagnacci (1601-1663) and Giovan Francesco Nagli, known as Il Centino (c. 1605-1675). The Museum has a number of early works by Cagnacci, of great charm (such as St Antony Abbot and Vocation of St Matthew) and some works from the period of his maturity (Cleopatra and a fine Portrait of a Monk and Doctor, both recent purchases); Il Centino is represented by a number of medium-size paintings and some altarpieces, which well illustrate his ascetic, devout style. Also dating from the midseventeenth century is an exceptional series of tapestries from Palazzo Comunale illustrating Stories of Semiramis, woven in the workshop of Michiel Wouters at Antwerp. Also displayed in the Tapestry Room is a collection of fifty-four ceramic exhibits deposited by the Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Rimini (a local bank), most of which were produced locally between the fourteenth and nineteenth centuries. One room is entirely devoted to still-life paintings, including some outstanding works by the Rimini friar-painter Nicola Levoli (1729-1801) and by Giovanni Rivalta of Faenza (1756-1832). The eighteenth century has bequeathed many works by artists from Bologna and Rimini: especially of note are four frescos showing Angel musicians by Vittorio M. Bigari (1722), detached in 1917 from the vault of the presbytery of San Giovanni Evangelista church, known as Sant’Agostino. Nineteenth-century works in the Museum include works by the painter Guglielmo Bilancioni, the sculptor Romeo Pazzini and other local artists; and the twentieth is represented by a temporary display of numerous self-portraits by modest local painters. Finally, there is a small room exhibiting prints of the city from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century, and two spacious galleries, one known as the “Portrait Gallery”, and the other as the “Coats of Arms Gallery”. On the ground floor of the Museum are found lecture rooms and a section for temporary exhibitions, and two rooms with graphic works and posters by the famous René Gruau, pseudonym of the Rimini artist Renato Zavagli Ricciardelli (1909-2004).


Saludecio: Museum of Saludecio and of the Blessed Amato

Saludecio Museo di Saludecio e del Beato Amato piazza Beato Amato, 2 tel. 0541 982100 • annual opening: Sunday 15:00-19:00 • entrance free of charge

Top: left, the room of the Blessed Amato; right, Guido Cagnacci, The procession of the Most Holy Sacrament (1628). Below: left, coat of arms of Saludecio embroidered on an eighteenth-century liturgical vestment; right, Antonio Trentanove, Drapery with Cherubs, stucco work in the crypt (1798-1800). 39

This is a small museum, but very interesting for the quality and typology of the works exhibited, all from the Saludecio area and almost all the property of the adjacent parish church, dedicated to St Blaise. The vestibule with archaeological finds gives access to a room where are exhibited paintings, statues, reli quaries, liturgical furnishings, lamps and processional maces from the parish church and from historic lay confraternities. These well express the religious climate of the area and at the same time highlight the great importance of the village in the Conca valley in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. There are numerous beautiful silver chalices and fine paintings, some of them masterpieces, such as St Sixtus Pope and The procession of the Most Holy Sacrament by Guido Cagnacci (1628), Saints Antony Abbot and Antony of Padua by Giovan Francesco Nagli known as Il Centino (c. 1650), and The Beheading of St John the Baptist by Claudio Ridolfi (c. 1630). The second room is wholly devoted to the cult of the protector of the village, the Blessed Amato (thirteenth century), whose body, the object of veneration, lies in the large righthand chapel of the parish church. Pieces of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century silver, most of it produced in Rome, fill the main display case in this room, which also houses a large collection of “historic” ex voto offerings. The third room is the crypt of the parish church, an attractive setting for a collection of antique liturgical hangings, devotional statues produced in Faenza, and paintings. The “drapery” supported by angels, positioned on the High Altar of the crypt is the work of the Rimini sculptor Antonio Trentanove, who between 1798 and 1800 produced all the stucco work in the church. This last is the work of the architect Giuseppe Achilli from Cesena, and was built between 1794 and 1803. There are major works of art in the church too: The Martyrdom of St Blaise on the High Altar, a documented work by the friar minor Atanasio da Coriano (1800), and Our Lady of Mercy by Claudio Ridolfi (c. 1620) in the large chapel on the left, part of an imposing Baroque ancona in gilded wood from the suppressed Oratorio of the Rosary.

Santarcangelo: History and Archaeology Museum, Art Section

Santarcangelo di Romagna MUSAS - Museo Storico Archeologico via della Costa, 26 tel/fax 0541 625212 • summer opening times (June-August): Tuesday to Sunday 10:30-12:30/16:3019:00; Monday closed • winter opening times: Tuesday to Saturday 10:3012:30; Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday and Sunday 15:3017:30; Monday closed • entrance fee payable

Above, Jacobello di Bonomo, Polyptych (1385). Below: left, Clement XIV room; right, elements of fourteenthcentury architecture. 41

While the archaeology section of the Museum (see) documents life in Roman Santarcangelo, this section is mostly concerned with mediaeval and modern Santarcangelo, a small town standing on a hill next to a fortress of which there is documentary evidence from the twelfth century and which was enlarged and strengthened by the Malatestas, who for so long ruled the town as papal vicars. At the entrance is a model of the town, showing present-day Santarcangelo, while a number of panels illustrate its development and surrounding territory, and others offer a brief introduction to its chief monuments, from the sixth-century parish church still standing on the flat land near the river to the Malatesta fortress and the mysterious, attractive tufaceous limestone caves which honeycomb the hill. The five rooms which follow exhibit many works of art and furnishings of local origin, some of them very fine, such as those saved from the now-destroyed San Francesco church, a huge Gothic edifice which stood just outside the town From this church come the Museum’s two foremost paintings: the polyptych by the Venetian artist Jacobello di Bonomo dated 1385, in perfect condition and complete with all its beautiful carpentry details, and the panel painting of the Madonna and Child with St Francis and St George by the Ravenna painter Luca Longhi dated 1531 and commissioned by Antonello Zampeschi (who for some years held Santarcangelo in fief), shown in an attitude of devotion at the feet of Our Lady. The seventeenth-century room presents paintings from various places of origin and an early work by Guido Cagnacci (who was born in Santarcangelo in 1601 and died in Vienna in 1663) showing the Madonna and Child, recently deposited by a private collector (L. Koelliker, 2006). The following room is devoted to Pope Clement XIV, born in Santarcangelo in 1705: here are depicted, with three portraits, some of the gifts he presented to the Convent of Santarcangelo, including a fine silver-gilt chalice. Next to these are the original model (on loan from the Museum of Imola) of the arch built in Santarcangelo in his honour, and a modern model of the projected square - never realised - designed, like the arch, by the architect Cosimo Morelli in 1777. The last room, which still has the original nineteenth-century wall paintings, contains craft articles and nineteenth-century portraits of Santarcangelo personages.

Mondaino: Municipal Museum, Majolica Section

Mondaino Musei di Mondaino piazza Maggiore, 1 tel. 0541 981674 fax 0541 982060 • summer opening times (1st June to 15th September): Monday to Saturday 9:0012:00; Sunday 17:00-21:00; Tuesday closed • winter opening times (16th September to 31st May): Monday to Saturday 9:0012:00; Sunday 10:00-13:00/ 15:00-18:00; Tuesday closed • entrance free of charge

Above, reconstruction of a sixteenth-century ceramist’s workshop. Below: left, sixteenth-century majolica and glass wares from Mondaino. 43

Following the discovery of the remains of a mediaeval tower, excavations were carried out in 1995 and numerous ceramic fragments were found; according to Maria Grazia Maioli these proved to be mainly scrap from the working and firing of majolica, confirming what had previously been merely a theory: that ceramic wares were produced here. Research was developed and extended, with the aid of volunteers under the guidance of the regional department responsible, and further similar material was found, all of good quality: a representative sample is on display in this small new Museum opened in 2004. There are many very fine examples of majolica ware, both whole pieces and fragments, all found in Mondaino and all produced locally between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries. Scrap pieces and remains of first and second firings are placed next to finished pieces, and there are explanatory panels; all these elements together illustrate the main stages in the production of majolica. The display of accessories for stacking pieces in the firing stove (spacers) and of ceramists’ tools help to illustrate a meticulous and most evocative reconstruction of a sixteenth-century ceramist’s workshop. Majolica production in Mondaino flourished during the fifteenth century and reached its height during the sixteenth, both in typology and in style, and seems to have contributed to the style of ceramics produced in Le Marche and to a lesser extent in Romagna. The plates, bowls and dishes produced in Mondaino are decorated in strong, warm colours. As S. Nepoti has pointed out, these finds demonstrate that majolica was produced here on a large scale until about the mid-seventeenth century, making it possible to identify as Mondaino ware numerous pieces in both public and private collections previously attributed to Pesaro, Casteldurante, or even Venice.

4. Local Life

There are four museums in the territory of Rimini devoted to the local way of life, two illustrating the rural world and two the world of seafaring: almost a symbolic comparison between the life and work of farmers and the life and work of fisher folk, and their customs and traditions. These museums enable us to catch a glimpse of a world which has now almost completely disappeared, discovering at least in part the significance of actions and labours, beliefs and customs, which until very recently were our way of life, but which are now wholly extraneous to the modern world. A world which in this area has been profoundly changed in a very short time not only by the progress of technology, but also by the huge changes made to the economy, to local customs, and to the prevailing mentality by the rapid development of the seaside holiday industry, which has had great influence also on agriculture, since so much farmland was abandoned in favour of migration towards the coast. The foremost of these museums, the oldest and most complete, is in Santarcangelo. It deals with all the agricultural land in the Rimini area and much of the Romagna region. However, the other museums detailed here are also of great interest, all different in character and in some cases still being put in order. There is also another ethnology museum, similar to these but devoted to worlds far from our own and very different (Africa, Oceania, the East and the Americas). This is Museo degli Sguardi (Museum of Looking), in Rimini, and it is described in the chapter on the modern world.

Santarcangelo, Museo degli Usi e Costumi della Gente di Romagna (Museum of Rural Life in Romagna), St Antony Abbot, detail of a blanket for oxen. 45

Santarcangelo: Museum of Rural Life in Romagna

Santarcangelo di Romagna MET - Museo degli Usi e Costumi della Gente di Romagna via Montevecchi, 41 tel. 0541 624703 fax 0541 622074 • summer opening times (June-August): Tuesday to Sunday 10:30-12:30/16:3019:00; Monday closed • winter opening times: Tuesday to Saturday 10:3012:30; Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday and Sunday 15:3017:30; Monday closed • entrance fee payable

Above, Spinning and Weaving section: loom. Below: left, antique ploughs; right, the “caveja” wall. 47

In this ethnography museum is collected and preserved material illustrating the way of life of the people of Romagna, especially in the Rimini and Cesena area. It was opened in 1981, the fruit of almost ten years’ research and preparation, in a building erected in 1924 for use as the municipal slaughterhouse. The layout was updated in 2005, and the collection was enriched by the addition of further exhibits and new ideas. Exhibited here are objects and instruments which were a part of rural life and work, especially faming and crafts, arranged and connected so as to reawaken the memory and the history of activities and actions (both material and symbolic) and of traditional skills and knowledge which are in danger of disappearing for ever. The museum has ten sections, covering work on the land, the grain cycle, milling, weaving and decorating cloth, winemaking, the country house, and a number of craft industries, such as the production of griddles for cooking “piada” bread, and the work of the shoemaker, the blacksmith, and the farrier. One of the most captivating displays is the hundred or so “caveja” produced at various times from the sixteenth to the twentieth century. The “caveja” is a wrought-iron pin which served to lock the oxen’s yoke to the shaft of the cart; in Romagna one or two rings were attached to the upper part, which jingled at every movement. These are decorated with open-work designs often of great beauty and craftsmanship. There are objects and instruments ranging in size from small to medium: from spades to ploughs, from looms to puppets; and as well as these the museum has large carts of various types and large agricultural machinery. Explanatory cards and photographs, models and graphics, accompany visitors and help to capture and explain the function and the significance of the exhibits. A good specialised library and a considerable photo library complete the collection. The Museum has ample outdoor spaces for various entertainment activities and for workshops for cultivation, aimed mainly at teaching, which receives special attention, with many original initiatives.

Montescudo: Valliano Ethnography Museum

Montescudo Museo Etnografico di Valliano via Valliano, 23 tel. 0541 864010 fax 0541 984455 • open all year: Wednesday and Friday 9:00-12:00; Sundays and public holidays 15:00-18:30 • entrance free of charge

Above: left, a corner of the museum showing a bread chest; right, children’s toys. Below: left, ex voto offerings to Our Lady of the Rosary, in the church adjacent to the museum; right, fifteenthcentury frescos in the presbytery of the church. 49

This small museum, opened in 2003, is devoted to the rural way of life and to work on the land. It is located in the former rectory adjacent to the ancient church, once the parish church, dedicated to Our Lady of Succour. The museum owes its origins to the work begun in the 1970s by a group of teachers of Montescudo secondary school, coordinated by Mr. Gino Valeriani, and to the collaboration of the local inhabitants whose interest was caught by the teachers’ initiative. All the exhibits collected here come from the area of Montescudo and Montecolombo, and have been arranged to highlight especially the theme of the farmhouse and the various activities which centred on it. The museum is arranged in themed sections and there are explanatory panels to accompany the exhibits. It is run by volunteers who illustrate the wide variety of objects and photographs on display. The main themes revolve around life in the farmhouse: the family; food and drink; spinning and weaving, pig-killing; the cellar; children’s toys; and also crafts such as pottery and carpentry. A shelter has been specially built for large agricultural machinery, partly below ground level to avoid disfiguring the beautiful rustic environment of the place. The church to which the museum is attached gives an excellent idea of popular rural religious devotion, especially devotion to the Virgin. It has good fifteenth-century frescos, some of them votive, a much-venerated image of Our Lady of the Rosary, sixteenth- and seventeenth-century paintings, and ex voto offerings.

Cattolica: Regina Museum, Marine Section

Cattolica Museo della Regina via Pascoli, 23 tel. 0541 966577 fax 0541 967803 • summer opening times: Tuesday 9:30-12:30; Wednesday to Sunday 16:3019:00/20:30-23:00; Monday closed • winter opening times: Tuesday and Thursday 9:3012:30; Friday and Saturday 9:30-12:30/15:30-19:00; Sunday 15:30-19:00; Monday closed • entrance free of charge

Above, models of Adriatic boats. Below, entrance to the marine section. 51

While the museums of Santarcangelo and Valliano illustrate country life, this museum deals with life on the sea and in the sea, with special reference to Cattolica. Its origins date from 1985, when the Cattolica Multi-function Culture Centre together with IBC organised an exhibition of Boats and Peoples of the Adriatic: 1400-1900. The early nucleus in the Culture Centre has been extended over the years by the addition of many new exhibits, iconographic and material: photographs, drawings, models large and small, instruments, parts of boats and equipment; and in the year 2000 these were collected together in an ideal space, on the second floor of the Museo della Regina (Regina Museum), near to the section devoted to Cattolica in Roman times (on the floor below: see) The first of the five rooms in this section illustrates the problem of Cattolica harbour, which - despite a long-standing local tradition of fishing - was built only in 1853, because its existence was for so long opposed by the city of Rimini (in whose territory Cattolica was), hostile to the idea of a rival harbour so close to home. The other rooms are devoted to the characteristic boats of the Adriatic: to their design and construction; to the equipment used in boat-building and on board the boats themselves; to various methods of fishing and to the instruments in use before the advent of motor-boats; to the problems inherent in fishing and in trade; and to the life of fishermen and their womenfolk, and to their religious and social beliefs, with special reference to local history and situations.

Viserbella di Rimini: Museum of Offshore Fishing and Shells

Viserbella di Rimini Museo della Piccola Pesca e delle Conchiglie via Minguzzi, 7 tel/fax 0541 721060 • summer opening times (1/06-31/08): Tuesday, Friday and Saturday 21:00-23:00 • winter opening times: by prior arrangement • entrance free of charge

Above, equipment for offshore fishing on the Riviera. Below: left, part of the sea-shell collection; right, fishing nets and cordage. 53

The local cultural association E scaion (a dialect word for an instrument used in clam fishing), set up in 1995, was the prime mover for this museum, which grew out of the passion and commitment of its members. Here are gathered together boats and parts of boats; instruments for fishing and ship-building tools; sundry elements for the crew of the boats; objects of daily use; models, photographs and films: in short everything which can help to keep alive the memory of a historic local community whose existence, until the Second World War and the advent of tourism, depended for the most part on offshore fishing close to the coast. The space available in the former school which houses the museum is not sufficient for the large quantity of exhibits to be displayed in differentiated sections. The exhibits are usually illustrated “live” by one or other of the volunteers who staff and care for the museum, and who wondrously succeed in bringing to life the exhibits which they describe in thrilling and fascinating stories: their aim is to teach young visitors, above all, that “the seaside is not just having fun on the beach”, or at any rate it was not for previous generations. The present museum, opened in 1999, is still, so to speak, “in the making”; but it already has its own well-defined and original character, and is continually enriched with new exhibits and documents, and does its best to bring order to the vast collection in its possession. A significant section of the museum is its collection of shells (the property of Mr. Andrea Capici of Ancona): over eight thousand specimens, some very rare, including many species of shells from all the Mediterranean basin. The classification of the shells has been made by the Zoology Department of Bologna University, making this collection a major point of reference for scholars and enthusiasts. Outside the museum cam be seen a number of boats typical of this area: the “battana”, “battanino”, and “beccaccino”; and a couple of “moscone”.

5. The Modern World

Riccione, Galleria d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea Villa Franceschi (Villa Franceschi Modern and Contemporary Art Gallery, detail of a sketch for a tapestry by Alberto Burri (1986). 55

This chapter opens with the Montegridolfo Gothic Line Museum because the Second World War left an indelible mark on the territory of Rimini and all but destroyed the city, bombarded in the course of 396 raids from air and sea which together demolished 82% of its buildings. Understandably, rebuilding was carried out hastily and haphazardly, for after spending the war years on the front, people urgently needed shelter and work. And so the ruins were quickly tidied away, although Rimini still bears a very prominent scar: the remains of the nineteenth-century Municipal Theatre, which should perhaps not be rebuilt “as it was, where it was”, but left in its present state in order to leave at least one eloquent witness to such great tragedy. As regards modern art, at present the only museum to house works of contemporary art is the very new Villa Franceschi in Riccione, opened in 2005. The Museo della Città (Municipal Museum) in Rimini has many contemporary works in its possession, but there is as yet no section devoted to them, and it will probably be some years before this becomes a reality. There are two rooms wholly devoted to graphic works and posters by René Gruau (the pseudonym of the Rimini artist Renato Zavagli Ricciardelli, 1909-2004), and there is an exhibition hall at the Museo Fellini (Fellini Museum) at the Foundation which bears his name, devoted to the great director and, of course, to the cinema. Small collections of some interest can be found in a number of municipalities throughout the territory (for example, there is a notable collection in Verucchio) but there are no suitable spaces available and the works are found in various offices or are kept in store-rooms. Included in this chapter, rather than in the chapter on ethnography museums, is a very particular ethnography collection, the only one not concerned with the territory and with local history. This is Museo degli Sguardi (Museum of Looking) in Rimini. Opened in 2005, this museum has an extensive collection of exhibits from extra-European cultures, and derives its name because it is concerned especially with the way in which these cultures were “looked at” or seen by the Western world. Sad to say, none of the museums in the territory - not even those most concerned with the sea (Cattolica and Viserbella) have taken into consideration the event which during the last two centuries has had the greatest impact on the history, customs, and economy not only of the coastal areas but of the entire territory: the advent of seaside tourism.

Montegridolfo: Gothic Line Museum

Montegridolfo Museo della Linea dei Goti via Roma, 2 tel. 0541 855054/855320 fax 0541 855042 montegridolfo@provincia.rimi • summer opening times: Monday to Saturday by prior arrangement 9:00-12:00; Sunday 16:00-19:00 • winter opening times: by prior arrangement; Sunday 10:00-12:00/15:00-18:00 • entrance fee payable; school groups free of charge • mornings, by prior arrangement: guided visits to air-raid shelters

Above, item of German artillery; in the background the Foglia valley. Below: left, German, English and Italian arms in use during World War Two; right, metal boxes and tins for cigarettes and condensed milk. 57

Planned by the Municipality of Montegridolfo in 1985, this museum was opened only in 2002, almost twenty years later. It is housed in a reinforced concrete building, much of it underground, specially built in 1990 outside the village walls to simulate a wartime bunker. From the path leading to the museum much of the Foglia valley can be seen: in the year 1944 this was the setting for bitter fighting, after which British troops captured Montegridolfo (31st August 1944) after overcoming fierce resistance from the German troops stationed on the strongly fortified “Gothic Line”. The museum has a section reserved for wartime memorabilia and for arms used during the conflict, and a vast collection of wartime propaganda and specimens of the press of the period 1943- 1945. There is also a notable photo library documenting wartime events in the territory of Montegridolfo, and a film and video collection. The entire population of the area contributed to the collection of memorabilia, while the model arms come from the Malizia collection and printed materials are from the Terzo Maffei collection. The objective of the museum is to keep alive the memory of the vicissitudes of World War Two and the crossing of the front in the territory of Montegridolfo, which together with nearby Gemmano was one of the last strongholds to the east in the Gothic Line, and to reconstruct the terrible wartime living conditions for military and civilians alike. The museum offers lectures, laboratories and guided visits for teaching purposes. In the same area, though in the Municipality of Montescudo, is another notable and deeply evocative token of the crossing of the front in 1944: the ancient parish church of Trarivi, destroyed by shelling. The ruins have been strengthened and partly restored, and there are a number of rooms containing photographs and memorabilia. It has been named “The Church of Peace”.

Riccione: Villa Franceschi Modern and Contemporary Art Gallery

Riccione Galleria d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea Villa Franceschi via Gorizia, 2 tel. 0541 693534 • summer opening times (21st June to 31st August): Monday to Sunday 20:0023:00; Tuesday and Thursday 9:00-12:00 • winter opening times: Tuesday and Thursday 9:0012:00/16:00-19:00; Wednesday and Friday 9:0012:00; Saturday and Sunday 16:00-19:00; closed Monday • entrance fee payable

Above, a room in the Gallery. Below: left, Enrico Baj, Untitled; right, detail of Villa Franceschi (1910-1920). 59

This Gallery, opened at the end of 2005, has two distinct core collections of contemporary works of art; the first is the property of the Municipality of Riccione and consists of paintings collected mainly through painting prizes sponsored by the Azienda di Soggiorno (Local Tourist Office) between 1947 and 1955 together with a donation from the Forlì painter Maceo Casadei (1975); the second is the property of the Emilia Romagna Region, and has been in the care of the Municipality of Riccione since 1998. It consists of fifty-nine works purchased in 1973, following an exhibition held in Bologna two years earlier in support of the foundation named for the writer Gaetano Arcangeli. The collection includes paintings, sculpture, and drawings, all of notable interest, by artists who for the most part come from the Emilia Romagna region, such as Carlo Corsi (1948), Andrea Raccagni (1950), Ennio Morlotti (1962), Bruno Saetti (1970), Virgilio Guidi (1970), Mattia Moreni (1970), Enrico Baj (c. 1995), Alberto Burri (c. 1986), Alberto Sughi (1969-1985), Maceo Casadei (1965-1968), Osvaldo Piraccini (c. 2000), Renato Birolli (1947), Vittorio Tavernari (1970). The exhibits are displayed in an early twentieth-century villa once the property of the Franceschi family from Bologna, a villa which became the property of the Municipality of Riccione in 1953 when Clementina Franceschi née Zugno willed it to Riccione at her death. During the years 1997 to 2005 the villa was carefully restored for use as an Art Gallery, while maintaining the original layout and decoration; it is a good example of the type of holiday home characteristic of Riccione during the first half of the twentieth century, in a very middle-class and academically correct “art deco” style, complete with the customary eclectic concrete decorations. Some paintings and prints and a few pieces of furniture from the original furnishings of the villa still remain.

Rimini: Fellini Museum

Rimini Museo Fellini via Oberdan, 1 tel. 0541 50085 fax 0541 57378 • annual opening: Tuesday to Friday 16:30-19:30; Saturday and Sunday 10:00-12:00/ 16:30-19:30; closed Monday • entrance free of charge

Various exhibits at the Museo Fellini (Fellini Museum). 61

This Museum exhibits temporarily and periodically part of the documents belonging to the attached Fondazione Fellini (Fellini Foundation) and/or others: writings and drawings by the director himself; film stills, photographic and graphic documents, sketches for film sets, costumes etc. In recent years a number of very attractive and successful exhibitions have been held, including the following: “Eight and a Half, Fellini’s Journey” (2003), with photographs by Gideon Bachmann, “Giulietta, portrait of an actress” (2004), “Cinema on Paper. Fellini’s Legacy on Display” (2004), “Fellini and his Films in the Drawings of the Renzi Collection” (2004), “Amarcord. Fantastic Rimini” (2005), “The Art of Fellini in the Gèleng Collection and in the Costumes by D. Donati” (2005), “Tazio Secchiaroli. G. Mastorna, Unfinished Work” (2006). The archive of the Fellini Foundation is being continually enlarged with the addition of graphic and photographic documents, films and books, and memorabilia. Recently (2006) the Foundation acquired a famous autograph document by Fellini, “Libro dei sogni”, the Book of Dreams, containing twenty years’ dream production by the famous director, illustrated by him with text and drawings. Material belonging to the Foundation has featured in a number of exhibitions in Italy and elsewhere: Seattle, New York, Stockholm, Oslo, Barcelona, Copenhagen, Warsaw, etc. The Fellini Museum is situated on the ground floor of what was Fellini’s family home.

Rimini: Museum of Looking, Ethnography Collections

Rimini Museo degli Sguardi Covignano di Rimini - Villa Alvarado, via delle Grazie, 12 tel. 0541 751224 fax 0541 704410 For teaching activities tel. 0541 704421-26 • annual opening: Tuesday to Friday 9:00-12:00; Saturday, Sunday and public holidays 10:00-13:00/16:00-19:00; Closed Mondays except public holidays • entrance fee payable; Sunday entrance free of charge

Above, one of the two rooms devoted to Africa. Below: left, exhibits from New Guinea; right, the elegant staircase of Villa Alvarado, seat of the Museum. 63

This Museum has inherited the ethnography collection of the Dinz Rialto Museum of Extra-European Cultures founded by the Padua explorer Delfino Dinz Rialto in 1972, a museum which was then purchased by the Municipality of Rimini between 1975 and 1979. To this collection have been added a number of other collections: those of Ugo Canepa of Biella, Bruno Fusconi of Cesena, and of the Friars Minor Conventual of Rimini. The Museum was completely reorganised in December 2005 and given a completely new layout, which takes into account the inevitable gaps in the abundant materials available (over 3,000 exhibits). The theme of the Museum is no longer Extra-European Cultures in themselves, but an investigation into the way the Western world has viewed these cultures: sometimes shocked and scandalised, sometimes surprised and curious, sometimes fascinated by perceived or pretended beauty. The Museum thus invites the visitor to make a modern-style “historic” evaluation, which may be an aid to greater understanding of the world of “others”, of “different civilisations”, once far distant from our world but now very much a part of it. For this reason it was considered more suitable to include this museum in the chapter on the Modern World rather than in the chapter devoted to Ethnography collections. The Museum is housed in an eighteenth-century building restored especially for this purpose, once the seat of the Missionary Museum of the Convent of Le Grazie, on Covignano Hill, opposite the church of Madonna delle Grazie. It has ten rooms with exhibits from China, Oceania, Africa, and America. Outstanding exhibits include a most elegant seventeenthcentury Chinese painting, African masks and fetishes, Maya sculptures, and fabrics from pre-Columbian America. On the ground floor is a space equipped for temporary exhibitions.

Further information: a brief bibliography

1. The World of Nature V. Morosini, A. Sistri, Le vie verdi della Valconca, Rimini 1984 W. Landini, Museo Paleontologico, Mondaino, Rimini 1995 D. Scaravelli, Museo naturalistico della Riserva naturale orientata di Onferno, Gemmano, Rimini 2001 L. Bagli, Natura e paesaggio nella Valle del Conca, Bologna 2002 L. Bagli, Fossili, siti paleontologici e musei di geologia tra Romagna e Marche, Villa Verucchio 2004 L. Casini, Educazione Ambientale in Provincia di Rimini, Guida alla Rete dei Centri di Educazione Ambientale INFEA, Rimini 2006 2. The World of Archaeology Rimini, Museo Archeologico, Rimini imperiale II-III secolo, Rimini 2003 C. Giovagnetti (editor), Museo del Territorio, Riccione, Rimini 1995 P. Von Eles (editor), Verucchio, Museo Civico Archeologico, Rimini 2005 Comune di Riccione, Tracce di storia, Riccione 1997 M.L. Stoppioni (editor), Museo della Regina, Cattolica, Rimini 2001 J. Ortalli, C. Ravara Montebelli, Rimini, lo scavo archeologico di palazzo Massani, Rimini 2004 3. Art and History P.G. Pasini, Museo della Città, Rimini, Rimini 1995 P.G. Pasini, Museo di Saludecio e del Beato Amato, Rimini 2003 S. Nepoti (editor), Maioliche di Mondaino, Cesena 2004 M. Cartoceti, S. De Carolis (editors), Rimini, Misericordia e Soccorso, Rimini 2003 4. Local Life M. Turci, M. Ricci, Museo degli usi e costumi della gente di Romagna, Rimini 1995 M.L. Stoppioni (editor), Museo della Regina, Cattolica, Rimini 2001 S. Migani (editor), Guida ai Musei Etnografici dell’EmiliaRomagna, Reggio Emilia 2006 5. The Modern World T. Maffei, Museo della Linea dei Goti 1943-44, Rimini 2005 M. Biordi (editor), Museo degli Sguardi, Raccolte Etnografiche di Rimini, Rimini 2005 D. Grossi, O. Piraccini, C. Spadoni (editors), Villafranceschi, Le collezioni permanenti della Galleria d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea di Riccione, Cinisello Balsamo, Milano 2005 64


Riviera di Rimini Travel Notes La Basilica Cattedrale di Rimini In search of art, history, and culture Provincia di Rimini Assessorato alla...

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