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No. 120

February 2013

PROGRAMME Wednesday 13th March 2013 at 7.30pm. Phillip Tolley, Internet Sources of Information. Where did you get that map? How did you find that photograph? Answers to these and other questions the speaker (Norfolk Industrial Archaeology Society Chairman) is asked. A non-technical guide. Saturday 16th March 2013. Suffolk Local History Council’s ‘Societies Day’ from 0930 to 1600 at Blackbourne Hall, Elmswell, IP30 9UH. Local history societies, including the SIAS, will be in attendance. Talks on local history topics will be given – see programme elsewhere in this Newsletter. As the SIAS are affiliated to the SLHC, SIAS members are welcome to attend this event. Wednesday 10th April 2013 at 7.30pm. Tony Broster. The Early Years of the Gas Industry in Suffolk. The gas industry developed on a piecemeal basis, individual towns providing their own gas works and mains. Only much later was a national grid created. Tony will reveal the different ideas found in the early days. Venue: All indoor meetings are held at the Ipswich Transport Museum, Cobham Road, Ipswich. Parking and access is via the rear of the museum. Wednesday 8th May 2013 at 7.30pm. Visit to Stanton Upthorpe post mill. (OS map ref. TL971733). A rare opportunity to visit this mill located off the Bury St Edmunds – Diss road. Wednesday 12th June 2013. To be arranged. Wednesday 17th July 2013. To be arranged. APOLOGIES Apologies to all members who needlessly turned out for the January meeting. Arrangements had been made with the Ipswich Transport Museum for one of their members to open the venue for us, but unfortunately the person deputed to do this forgot all about it until the following morning. The meeting has been re-scheduled for September.


RECENT PLANNING APPLICATIONS

Babergh District Council B/12/01461/LBC/NC Internal alterations at The Old Forge, Church Street, Boxford. Mid Suffolk District Council 2700/12/FUL Partial demolition of Grade II listed North Warehouse and 2701/12/LBC refurbishment of remaining warehouse for mixed commercial and residential uses. Former Scott’s/Fison’s site, Paper Mill Lane, Bramford. 3394/12/LBC Installation of wi-fi antennas at Stowmarket Railway Station, Station Road East, Stowmarket. 3756/12/FUL Demolition of industrial storage buildings at 19 – 21 Violet 3757/12/CAC Hill Road, Stowmarket, and erection of 13 dwellings. Suffolk Coastal District Council C/12/2395 Proposed redevelopment of former railway sidings off Railway Approach & High Road West, Felixstowe, as convenience goods foodstore. C/12/2573 Proposed redevelopment of former brickworks including demolition of existing buildings and erection of 15 dwellings at Aldeburgh Brickworks, Saxmundham Road, Aldeburgh. C/12/2586 Change of use to provide two new residential dwellings at Earl Soham Brewery, The Street, Earl Soham. THE NEWSLETTER The Newsletter is produced four times a year by Suffolk Industrial Archaeology Society. Contributions from members are welcomed. Chairman: S.Worsley, 24 Abbotsbury Close, Ipswich, IP2 9SD (01473 405116). Secretary: Position currently vacant. Treasurer: Position currently vacant. Newsletter distributor: John Jones. Those wishing to receive the Newsletter electronically are urged to contact John at joneshines@btinternet.com. To cut costs, all who are able to receive their Newsletters in this way are encouraged to make arrangements to do so. Website: We do not presently have our own website, but we do have a presence on the River Gipping Trust’s site (www.rivergippingtrust.org.uk). ABSTRACTS Journals of other Societies frequently arrive on your Chairman’s doormat; in order to give members some idea of what these contain, we reproduce the contents below. If anything sounds to be of interest, please contact the Chairman and he will arrange for photocopies of the relevant article to be made. . The Local Historian, Vol. 42 No. 4 November 2012. The Local and the Everyday: Interwar Women’s Politics, by Karen Hunt. First World War Conscientious Objection in South Warwickshire, by Philip Spinks. The Management of the Harbord Family’s Estate at Gunton in Norfolk, by Peter


Monteith Rethinking the English Village, by John Beckett. Bedfordshire Historical Record Society and Bedfordshire Record Office: Their Contribution to Local History over a Hundred Years, by James Collett-White. Local History Internet Sites: An Update for 2012, by Jacqueline Fillmore. Industrial Archaeology Review, Vol. 34, No. 1, May 2012. A Long and Winding Road – Access to Grey Literature, by Helen Gomersall. Dams and Damages: Controversies over Waterpower in Lowell, by Patrick M. Malone. An Introduction to the Archaeology of the Glass Industry: The Monument Protection Programme Step 1 Report, by David Crossley. Three and a Half Centuries of Bottle Manufacture, by David Dungworth. Glass Recipes and the Output from a 19th-Century Glass Works: Examples from Percival, Vickers & Co. Ltd., Manchester, by Hugh Willmott, Ian Miller and Caroline Jackson. Suffolk Mills Group Newsletter No.110, November 2012. The Erection and Dismantling of Post Windmills, by Stanley Freese. Mills on The Map – Ilketshall St. Lawrence. News from various Suffolk Mills.

SUFFOLK LOCAL HISTORY COUNCIL SOCIETIES DAY 2013 Blackbourne Hall, Elmswell, IP30 9UH. Programme 0930 Coffee and Biscuits. 0955 Welcome. Dr. Margaret Thomas, Chairman, Suffolk Local History Council. 1000 Violet Jessup: A Titanic Survivor from Great Ashfield. Peter Lester, Elmswell Millennium History Group. 1030 Haverhill, a Company Town. Dr. Patrick Crouch, Haverhill & District Local History Society. 1100 Recent Acquisitions and Achievements. John Carver, Nayland with Wissington Conservation Society. 1130 Schools in the Rickinghall Area. Sarah Doig, Quatrefoil/Rickinghall Heritage Circle. 1200 – 1400 Viewing of Exhibitions and sale of publications. Lunch. Tea and coffee available. It is suggested participants bring their own packed lunch. 1400 The Role of Women in Radar in World War Two. Mary Wain, Bawdsey Radar Trust. 1430 Digitalisation: An Introduction. Lynn Gash, Museum Development Manager. 1500 Discussion and Update. Dr. Margaret Thomas. Tea and Cakes. The Venue: is located immediately to the north of the level crossing adjacent to Elmswell Station. Car parking is available at the site.


MARITIME NORFOLK Maritime Norfolk, Part One is the title of a newly-published book from SIAS member Robert Malster. The area covered by the book is the Norfolk coast from the Wash in the west to Caister in the east, including Wisbech, King’s Lynn, Hunstanton, Wells, Sheringham and Cromer plus many smaller ports. Trades ranging from the carriage of emigrants to the New World through to whaling in Icelandic waters are covered, whilst the lives of the beachmen and lifeboat crews are not forgotten. The interaction between inland waterways and maritime trade is highlighted with sections dealing with both the Fenland and the Broadland waterways. Maritime Norfolk, Part One is published by Poppyland Publishing with an ISBN of 978 0 946148 97 4 at a cover price of £19.99. It is available from all good booksellers, including Claude Cox on Silent Street in Ipswich. The companion volume on the Port of Great Yarmouth is anticipated in the autumn.

IPSWICH TOWN LECTURES This long-running series of lunchtime (1.00pm – 1.50pm) lectures are held at Museum Street Methodist Church, as several members will be aware, your Chairman having bumped into them on previous occasions. This year’s programme includes Alison Morris speaking on the history of Cowell’s Printers, an Ipswich firm which commenced in business in 1818. The lecture takes place on 14 March 2013. Later in the year (on 11 July 2013), military historian Taff Gillingham will look at The Military Presence in Ipswich 1859 – 1959.

HERITAGE NEWS Excavation began in January of the Victorian icehouse in Ipswich’s Holywells Park. Although not featured on any maps or plans, its existence was suspected, and confirmed by conversation with long-term residents of the area. If a bid for Heritage Lottery Funding is successful, the excavation will be completed and the icehouse opened to the public. The Grade II* listed Kersey watermill, mill house and maltings complex was sold in June to Steve and Alison de Lara-Bell. They hope to return the mill to working order and to this end organised an open day in January with the hope of attracting potential volunteers. The public enquiry into the proposed housing development adjacent to Stanton mill concluded with the inspector deciding that the development will be allowed to proceed. Concessions gained, however, include a reduction in the number of dwellings, the massing of some dwellings being reduced and others being relocated, and landscaping being modified to screen the development. You can come and gauge the impact for yourself during our May meeting, when we will be the guests of the owners, Dominic and Linda Grixti.


CENTENARIES 2013

1613 The rights of the Merchant Adventurers, a medieval trading company specialising in woollen cloth, were suspended under the ‘Cockayne Scheme’. Badly damaged the East Anglian cloth industry. James I banned the export of unfinished cloth to encourage the English dyeing and finishing industries. The Myddleton Canal, aka The New River, opened. This 40 mile long aqueduct supplied drinking water to London from Hertfordshire, under the direction and finance of Hugh Myddleton (1560? – 1631).

1713 Death of Ambrose Crowley III (born 1658). Founded the Crowley Ironworks in Sunderland.

1813 Birth of Frederick Scott Archer (died 1857). In 1848 invented the wet collodian process used to make photographic images. Birth of (Sir) Henry Bessemer (died 1898). His development of the Bessemer Converter in 1856 allowed for the production of steel in hitherto undreamt of quantities at economic rates. Birth of Edward Cardwell (died 1886). Member of Parliament. President of the Board of Trade 1852 – 1855, and responsible for the Railway and Canal Traffic Act, 1854, forbidding companies from giving undue preference to any customer. Birth of William Colchester (died 1898). Ipswich shipowner, shipbuilder, and chemical manure manufacturer. Birth of Matthew Kirtley (died 1873). Locomotive Engineer, (Locomotive Superintendent of the Midland Railway from 1841). He was the first to fit a locomotive firebox with a brick arch to allow it to burn coal instead of coke. Birth of John Robinson McClean (died 1873). Ulster-born engineer, best known for his work at Barrow docks. President of the Institute of Civil Engineers, 1864 - 1865. Birth of William McNaught (died 1881). Glasgow-born steam engine manufacturer of Rochdale. In 1845 added an additional (high pressure) cylinder to a Boulton & Watt beam engine to produce a compound engine, a process known as ‘McNaughting’.


Birth of Alexander Parkes (died 1890). Chemist and inventor of ‘Parkesine’, a nitrocellulose material. The Parkesine company was wound up in 1868, but Parkes’ associate, Daniel Spill, acquired the physical assets and registered the Xylonite Company Ltd. the following year. Xylonite moved from London to Brantham in 1887. Parkes also patented a process for waterproofing fabric which he sold to Charles MacIntosh. Death of John Pinkerton. With his brother James ran a large civil engineering contracting company, undertaking many waterways projects. The East India Company’s trade monopoly in India was abolished, but its monopoly in China continued. Robert Owen’s A New View of Society was published. John Leslie’s Experiments and Instruments Depending on the Relations of Air to Heat and Moisture was published. Acts of Parliament permitting the construction of the Wey and Arun Junction Canal and the North Wilts Canal were passed. The Ellesmere Canal and the Chester Canal merged as the Ellesmere & Chester Canal. The Lydney Canal in Gloucestershire opened for traffic. William Hedley’s Puffing Billy, one of the first successful railway locomotives, entered service at Wylam Colliery near Newcastle. It survives in the Science Museum, South Kensington. George Clymer’s Columbia printing press eliminated the screw process. Jeremiah Homfray, a partner in the Ebbw Vale Ironworks, was declared bankrupt. The Nantgarw Porcelain Factory was set up. The Society for Preventing Accidents in Coal Mines was formed in Sunderland. Capt. Samuel Brown, RN, (1776 – 1852) built an iron chain cable testing machine to measure the breaking stress of ship’s anchor cable. Cast iron bridges at Clare (Priory Bridge) and Brent Eleigh were erected, designed by William Cubitt and cast by Ransome & Son in Ipswich. Both remain in situ. The first steam vessel on the east coast of England, the Experiment, was converted from a captured French privateer, L’Actif, which, fitted with a Fenton, Murray & Wood steam engine was placed into service between Norwich and Yarmouth.


1913 Birth of Richard Beeching (died 1985). Technical Director of ICI, 1957 – 1961, and Chairman of the British Railways Board, 1961 – 1965. His report The Re-shaping of Britain’s Railways in 1963 (this year achieving its half century) led to the closure of many miles of railway. Death of Sir William Arrol (born 1839). Civil engineering contractor. His firm, Tancred Arrol, built the Forth Bridge. Death of Colonel Samuel Franklin Cody (born c1861). US citizen who in 1908 built the first aeroplane to fly in England. Death of Rudolph Diesel (born 1858). Associated with the oil engine which bears his name, he was on his way to his new factory in Ipswich (off the Hadleigh Road) when he boarded the Antwerp – Harwich ferry on 29.9.13, but was lost overboard en route. Death of Thaddeus Lowe (born 1832). US balloonist who pioneered the use of the balloon for military observation duties for the Union during the US Civil War. Death of Christie Edwin Mauldon, Ballingdon brewer. Irish Home Rule Bill passed by the House of Commons, 16.1.13, but defeated in the Lords 30.1.13. Again passed 7.7.13 and rejected 22.7.13. Women’s Franchise Bill rejected by the House of Commons, 6.5.13. The House of Commons debated the Marconi Report which acquitted David Lloyd George of corruption in assigning the Imperial Wireless contract to the Marconi Company. Henry Ford pioneered the progressive assembly technique by means of conveyor belts for the manufacture of magnetos in Detroit. The first vessel passed through the Panama Canal on 17 November. The Lotschberg Tunnel beneath the Alps between Switzerland and Italy (commenced 1906) was completed. Grand Central Station in New York opened. The world’s first large multi-engined aircraft, Igor Sikorsky’s four-engined Le Grand, made its first flight on 13 May. Noel Pemberton-Billing began the building of flying boats at Woolston, Southampton, under the name Supermarine. Incorporated into a company under this title, they were to build the Schneider Trophy racers and the Spitfire. Stainless steel, an alloy with 12.68% chromium content and 0.24% carbon, was first made by Harry Brearley of Sheffield.


Britain’s first roadside petrol pump was installed at Shrewsbury. Malsters R. Peach & Sons of Burton on Trent were registered as a private company. 439 lives were lost in the Senghenydd mining disaster in South Wales. The worst coal mining disaster in British history. The Admiralty issued an instruction for the establishment of a Naval Air Station on Harwich harbour. The result was the Felixstowe seaplane station, opened 5 August. The Great Eastern Railway’s Cromer Express collided with a light engine at Colchester on 12 July. Driver Bill Barnard and Fireman Sid Keeble of Ipswich perished in the accident. The Elsenham and Thaxted Light Railway opened in Essex, one of the last railways to be opened in the eastern counties. Stowmarket engineers Woods & Company entered receivership; their manager, Louis Tibbenham, was able to set up Suffolk Iron Founders from the wreckage. This in turn was liquidated following World War I but was re-established in 1920, and survives as Bosch, still active in Stowmarket. William Colchester & Company, chemical manure and bone crushers on Griffin Wharf, Ipswich, were wound up. By this time they were being run by Valentine Desborough Colchester. On the night of 12 – 13 March, the Thresher department of Leiston agricultural engineer Garrett’s burnt down. Lowestoft’s Palace Cinema on Royal Terrace opened. Burnt down 1966. Orford post mill demolished. F.C.Christmas of the Haverhill Brewery acquired the brewery and five tied houses of William Wootten of Great Thurlow. It is believed that J.W.Brooke & Co. Ltd. of Lowestoft produced their last motor car, production of which had commenced in 1900. The marine side of the business continued for many years.


SIAS Newsletter No 120 Feb 2013