ART IS WORK
USA, 1929 -
Ana Rita Lopes Carreira | 24904 | D3-T1
Índice Milton Glaser
3|4|5 Ilustrações 6|7 8 Projectos 9|10 Cartazes 11|12|13|14 Entrevista 16 “10 things I have learned” Logo “I
Milton Glaser Milton Glaser, nascido a 26 de Junho de 1929, em Nova York, é considerado um dos melhores designers do mundo. Tornou-se conhecido pelo logo “I love NY”, pelo cartaz de Bob Dylan entre muitos outros. É uma das grandes influências na área do design gráfico a nível internacional. Glaser esteve sempre envolvido no mundo das artes. Frequentou o Liceu de Música e Arte de Nova York, licenciou-se na Cooper Union em Manhattan no ano de 1951 e após a licenciatura frequentou o Liceu de Música e Arte de Nova York e ainda a Academy of Fine Arts de Bolonha, em Itália onde mais tarde se dedicou aos estudos de litografia. Em 1954 fundou a Push Pin Studios em sociedade com Seymor, Reyonld Ruffins Chwast e Edward Sore, seus colegas da Cooper Union . Nos anos seguintes esteve ainda envolvido em vários outros projectos, entre eles o cargo de co-fundador da NewYork Magazine. Entretanto em 1974, abre o seu próprio escritório na cidade de Manhattan, Milton Glaser Inc . Milton é responsável pelo design e ilustração de mais de 300 cartazes para clientes no ramo da publicidade, música,teatro, cinema e ainda serviços e produtos comerciais.
Obra Em 1975 foi responsável pela criação da imagem e decoração dos restaurantes do World Trade Center, Foi nomeado membro honorário da Royal Society of Arts em 1979 .O seu trabalho foi ainda incluído em museus de vários países como o Museum of Modern Art, o Victoria and Albert Museum, o Israel Museum, o Museu de l’ Affiche de Paris e o Centre Georges Pompidou em Paris. Não estando apenas envolvido na área do design gráfico, Milton Glaser criou ainda vários projectos arquitéctónicos, entre eles o Sesame Place na Pensilvânia. Foi fundador da companhia WBMG em 1983,um estúdio para o design de revistas e jornais.
Durante vinte anos Glaser e Chwast dirigiram a Push Pin Studios, uma referência que guiava o mundo do design gráfico. Em 1974 Glaser montou o seu próprio escritório. Fez posters, revistas, design de jornais, design de interiores, logotipos, discos, ilustrações para revista e jornal, tipografia, desenhos, aguarelas, material impresso, brinquedos. O seu trabalho é fortemente caracterizado por ilustrações feitas à mão, tendo um estilo muito ecléctico. O Push Pin Style tornou-se uma referência do design gráfico, nos anos 60, altura em que o Estilo Internacional suiço dominava o mercado do design gráfico. O Push Pin Style não se prendia apenas ao que era considerado o “bom design”, com um estilo excêntrico muitas vezes inspirado na estética do século XIX e nas tendências da cultura pop. Criou uma linguagem contemporânea, compatível com um design pós-moderno. No Push Pin foram projectados capas de disco, livros, cartazes, identidades visuais, tipografias originais e Revistas.
“Art has a role to pacify humanity, because it makes people share the same cultural experience.” Milton Glaser
Este tão famoso logotipo foi criado por Milton Glaser e Bobby Zarem constituído pela letra “I” maiúsculo, seguido do símbolo do coração vermelho, abaixo da qual estão as capital letras N e Y, definido em um tipo de letra arredondado com serifas chamado “American Typewriter”. Em 1977, William S. Doyle, Comissário Adjunto de “New York State Department of Commerce”, contratou a agência de publicidade Wells Rich Greene a desenvolver uma campanha de marketing para o Estado de Nova Iorque. Doylerecrutou Milton Glaser para trabalhar na campanha, e criou o projeto baseado na campanha. Glaser esperou que a campanha durasse apenas alguns meses e fez o trabalho pro bono. Foi possivelmente inspirado em parte pelo slogan do estado do turismo “Virgínia is for lovers” que destacava o tema “Love” e o coração vermelho desde 1969. Este ícone de estilo pop tornouse um grande sucesso e continuou tornou-
se um grande sucesso e continuou a ser vendido durante anos. Na mente popular (embora esta não fosse a intenção original) o logotipo tornou-se intimamente associado com a Cidade de Nova Iorque, e a colocação do logótipo em t-shirts brancas rapidamente vendidas na cidade tem amplamente divulgado a aparência da imagem, tornando-se um símbolo mundialmente reconhecido. O símbolo é o logotipo da New York Heart Foundation. Esta caridade fornece fundos para vários grupos de trabalho sobre curas para várias doenças do coração.
A campanha foi tão bem sucedida que foi estampado em tudo, desde canecas, pins, adesivos para carros. John Lennon e outros nomes bastante reconhecidos usam a camisola com o slogan, e o estado ainda hoje vende mercadoria oficial "I Love NY".
“Love is the extremely difficult realization that something olher than oneself is real” Iris Murdoch
O logo e o 11 de Setembro A imagem tornou-se especialmente importante após os ataques terroristas do 11 de setembro na cidade, que criou um sentimento de unidade entre o povo. Muitas pessoas que visitaram a cidade após os ataques compravam e usavam as camisolas com o logo “I Love New York” como sinal do seu apoio. Glaser criou uma versão modificada para comemorar os ataques, onde estava escrito "I Love NY More Than Ever", com uma pequena mancha preta no coração, simbolizando o local do World Trade Center. A mancha negra aproxima-se da localização do local na ilha de Manhattan.
“This article offers personal observations of the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral reactions of New Yorkers in the days immediately following the World Trade Center attacks. Social identity theory is used as an interpretive lens through which to understand how a group facing extreme adversity found ways to fortify themselves by marshaling socioemotional, informational, and physical resources. Emphasis is placed on how initial emotional reactions to perceptions of threat in the hours after the attacks prompted people to seek out others to mobilize information and manage emotional distress. This article takes the position that these social gatherings became arenas in which people redefined group boundaries, modified the group’s identity, erected new symbols, and transformed each other’s emotions in ways that triggered actions to protect and restore the group.” Caroline Bartel in Journal of Management Inquiry
Monet e a cobra
Em conjunto com outro tipo de trabalhos, Milton Glaser está tambem envolvido na criação de identidades. Estas são algumas dessas identidades criadas por este prestigiado designer gráfico. É incrível a quantidade de projectos inovadores em que Glaser participa.
Um dos posters mais conhecidos de Milton Glaser. Bob Dylan com o cabelo caleidoscópio. O poster no álbum de greatest hits de Bob Dylan no ano de 1966 .
Este poster retrata Mahalia Jackson, uma das cantoras gospel que mais se destacou nos Estados Unidos no século 20.É inspirado pela Pop e Op Art do final dos anos 60. Pertence á colecção MOMA.
Entrevista Chip Kidd talks with Milton Glaser
“If graphic design has a grand master, then Milton Glaser is Michelangelo”. The Dylan poster. The oh-so-ripped-off “I ‘Heart’ NY” logo. The image for Angels in America. New York magazine. Everything else. Glaser has worked nonstop for over forty-five years, co-founding the revolutionary Pushpin Studios in 1954, launching New York magazine with Clay Felker in 1968, establishing Milton Glaser, Inc. in 1974, and teaming with Walter Bernard in 1983 to form the publication design firm WBMG. Throughout his career, Glaser has created hundreds of posters and prints, and his artwork has been featured in exhibits worldwide, including one-man shows at both the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris and the Museum of Modern Art in New York. In 1973 he published what is widely regarded as the first graphic design monograph, Milton Glaser: Graphic Design, and in 2000 he published Art Is Work—essentially “Episode II” of his professional life. We talked on a stifling July afternoon in the small conference room of his adorable, toylike brownstone in the Murray Hill section of Manhattan. Fun fact: Throughout the interview Mr. Glaser held in either hand (and occasionally waved) a bright piggy-pink colored pencil. —Chip Kidd CHIP KIDD: You write in Art is Work that the very famous “I ‘Heart’ New York” logo you designed was originally proposed as something else. MILTON GLASER: Yes. CK: And what was the something else? MG: It was just a little typographical solution with two lozenges and a word in it, two ovals, and the word inside it; it was not in any way distinguished. But I always thought the whole thing was going to be a three-month campaign. CK: Sheez. MG: It was like one of those things you bang out because it didn’t seem to merit any more attention. CK: [Laughs] MG: But even so, I said, “This [the first solution] isn’t good enough,” And I tell the anecthan. You just never understand what makes certain ideas that you have cling to people. CK: But it saved New York. MG: I have to say that when you do something that you really feel is useful—when you have a positive social effect—it makes you feel great. CK: God, I can’t imagine. At the time you got the assignment, did it really feel like, “Shit, New
MG: Well, it was the mid-seventies, a terrible moment in the city. Morale was at the bottom of the pit. I always say you can tell by the amount of dog shit in the street. CK: Dog shit. MG: Yes. There was so much dog shit because people didn’t feel that they deserved anything else, right? I mean you were just walking through all this dog shit day after day, in this filthy city, garbage, and so on. And then the most extraordinary thing happened: There was a shift in sensibility. One day people said, “I’m tired of stepping in dog shit. Get this fucking stuff out of my way.” And the city began to react. They said, “If you allow your dog to crap on the street, you have to pay a fine of $100,” and within a very short time it became socially untenable to allow your dog to shit on the street. Now, I don’t know what produces those behavioral shifts, right? From one day where it’s OK, and then suddenly the city simultaneously got fed up and said, “It’s our city, we’re going to take it back, we’re not going to allow this stuff to happen.” And part of that moment was this campaign. More than anything else it was a device to encourage tourism. CK: Right. MG: And it was supported by a very clever advertising campaign that Wells, Rich, Greene did, with good music. But I thought it was going to go away after a couple of months, and here it is, thirty or so years later and still kicking around. Selling T-shirts in the street and still making a lot of money. CK: Did you make any money off of it? MG: No. It was all pro bono. CK: Oh my God. “I ‘Heart’ New York” was pro bono! Yikes! Frightening! MG: No, that’s what it should be. You want to do things like that, where you feel you can actually change things. CK: Yes, and affect the culture. Do you mind that the logo is ripped off so much? MG: No. I mean, look, we have such a weird idea of the relationship of design to the culture, but—I believe the best people in the world are involved in making things. There’s this talk I give in which I compare the idea of Thanatos and Eros, the instinct towards death and the instinct towards life. And people who make things are on the side of Eros. For the right project, you can get good people—the best people—to work for nothing, which is one of the characteristics of being in the world of Eros—you don’t work for money, but you certainly work for your peers’ approval. CK: [To microphone] Did you hear that? That’s why I’m in publishing. MG: That’s true of everyone who cares. So I’m very happy when I see an idea that I have enter into the culture, whatever form it takes. The only thing one worries about is when your ideas become repeated sufficiently so your own work looks banal and stupid. CK: Pssssh. I don’t think that would be the case with that logo. MG: Well, that logo has an odd characteristic by now, that it doesn’t look like anybody designed it. CK: No. Exactly. MG: It looks like a weird historical thing. CK: The design itself is invisible. MG: Yes. Basically, you don’t have a concept, “Oh, this is something that was designed.” It just seems so… I guess, inevitable. And the best sort of things you do look inevitable, I suppose. CK: And then the adaptation of it to the 9/11 cause. How did that happen? MG: I woke up one day, a few days after 9/11. I thought, you know, “I love New York” isn’t the story anymore. Something happened. And I realized that what had happened was an injury, like when a friend of yours, somebody you love, gets terribly sick. You suddenly
“you don’t work for money, but you certainly work for your peers’ approval.”
become conscious of how much you care for them. That’s the inevitable consequence of somebody you have affection for. And I realized that my feeling about the city had deepened. CK: I think it did for everybody.
A confident giant is hard to love, but a vulnerable giant is easy to love. All of us became aware that the city was vul-
nerable. Everybody’s heart was bursting with this feeling, “God, I belong here. It’s my city.” And it came to me as an image, you know, it’s a mark, it’s a black mark on the heart. And the result of it was that I found my sense of concern and affection for the city intensify. Which was shared by most people. CK: You could really feel it, just walking down the street. MG: I mean, everybody felt the same way. And so I said, “Gee, I love New York more than ever as a result of this.” So the most difficult thing of course is how to introduce one’s ideas into the bloodstream of the culture. It’s very difficult without money or support or approval, because the nature of institutions is to resist all ideas from the outside. Anything that comes over the transom, throw it into the garbage. So I went to the School [of Visual Arts], and I spoke to Silas Rhodes [founder of SVA]. And I said, “Silas, I’d like to do a poster for the subways with this.” He said, “Great.” And I said, “One more thing: If I get a bunch of these printed out, could we have the kids distribute them around the city?” He said, “Sure.” So I got a printer, and he said, “I’ll do it for nothing.” And so we printed 5,000 small posters. And so the kids divided the city into segments, and overnight, these posters appeared in windows all over town. And then I called Pete Hammill over at the Daily News, an old friend of mine. And I said, “Pete, I have something, and I wonder if you could find some use for it, or run it in the paper, or show it to Ed Kosner [editor in chief of the New York Daily News],” who I also worked with. He said, “Great, send it down,” so I sent it down, and they called me back and said, “We’ll find a way to use it.” And a day later, they used it as a wraparound for that day’s edition of the paper—the whole thing—and there were a million copies of it out there. CK: Which pleased you. MG: Oh, I was thrilled, I couldn’t have been happier. But you see, I realized I had to be resourceful—not just to do the work, but to get it distributed throughout the system. And then somebody from WNYC called, and they said, “Could we use it in a fundraiser?” I said, “Great, and I’ll sign some for you, and you can offer it on the air to raise money.” So they offered it for a hundred dollars unsigned or a thousand signed. That little piece of dreck! CK: [Laughter] MG: And they raised $190,000. CK: God. MG: And of course they publicized that. Then there were articles, and it was picked up, and suddenly I’d found a way to get into the system. CK: A lot of people where I work [Knopf] had it up on the walls of their cubicles and offices, and somebody asked me, “Why is it burnt in the lower-left part?” And I said, “Because that’s where the World Trade Center is.” Now, is that—right? MG: Absolutely. CK: Good. That, to me, was the genius touch of that design. MG: Thank you. I had to explain it to a lot of people who didn’t get it. But that’s par for the course. CK: Naturally. MG: I also have to say that a bureaucrat from the Commerce Department called me and said, “You know, we’d like to use that.” And the irony is, I had sent them the thing at the outset and they didn’t respond at all. So after it came out in the news, a bureaucrat from the Commerce Department called and he said, “We’d like to use the ‘I Love New York,’” I said, “Great.” He said, “But we’re not going to put the black mark on the heart.” CK: What?!
MG: And I said, “Sorry, you can’t do it without the black mark on the heart, because that’s the whole point of it.” CK: [Laughs] MG: And he said, “We’re not going to put any black marks on our heart.” I said, “OK, so you can’t use it.” He said, “You know, you’re in violation of our trademark.” And my heart sank, and I said, “Yeah,” So he said, “So don’t try to use it in any way.” CK: What! Now, wait, who is this? MG: No, I can’t tell you. CK: No, no, no, not names, but what does he do? MG: Let’s just say it’s someone who’s involved with administrating the “I Love New York” logo and making sure that nobody uses it without paying for it, because years after we introduced it the state registered it. So now there’s an agency that gets money for every time “I Love New York” is used anywhere. I’d be very curious to find out how much money they’ve raised. I’d suspect it is significant. So anyhow— CK: So you’re not bitter at all about not seeing any of it? MG: What do you mean? CK: You’re not bitter at all about not seeing any money from it? MG: Oh, no, not at all. CK: OK… MG: Because I have enough money. I don’t have to worry about money in my life, so it’s fine. I mean, I’m not a poor person, so there it is. If I didn’t have any money to live on, maybe I’d be bitter. Anyhow, so the design is in the city, it’s on the street, so sue me. Then I get this very nasty letter from a lawyer who runs this agency as an outside supplier to the state, saying, “I want all your documents, all your papers, saying how much money you’ve made, we’re going to subpoena you, we’re going to take you to court.” I couldn’t believe it. So I sent a letter to [Governor] Pataki, because of course I hadn’t made any money. Every penny that was made on it went to either the firemen’s fund, or to restore the antenna on WNYC or something. So it was clear: There was no documentation, no paper trail, the whole point of it was not to benefit from it. I also didn’t license it to anybody, because I didn’t want anybody else to make money off it, which would be totally inappropriate. And the energy that drives the city is somebody making money on some deal, right? But there was no such thing here. So I sent a letter to Pataki and I said what the New York Times had said, basically, in a story in their Metro section. And a few days later, this bureaucrat calls me back, he says, “Look, it was an over-zealous employee. We shouldn’t have done that. That was really a mistake. We shouldn’t have threatened you. And it was an error. Could we just forget about it?” So I said, “Sure, why don’t we just forget about it.” CK: [Sigh]
BELIEVER MAGAZINE | September 2003
Resolvi anexar aqui parte desta entrevista, pois ao pesquisar sobre o designer Milton Glaser achei que nesta entrevista mostra não só o enormissimo artista que ele é, mas também mostra a sua personalidade completamente descontraida e sem grandes tabus quanto às palavras a usar. É incrível como um artista com reconhecimento mundial desta dimensão pode ser tão simples e tão directo naquilo que diz. Acho fasciante a descontracção com que ele diz “I have enough money. I don’t have to worry about money in my life”, pois é óptimo que tenha feito trabalhos pro bono pois isso só mostra o amor dele à sua pátria.
Frases de referência “We are all born with genius. It’s like our fairy godmother. But what happens in life is that we stop listening to our inner voices, and we no longer have access to this extraordinary ability to create poetry.”
“Computers are to design as microwaves are to cooking.”
“10 things I have learned”
“To design is to communicate clearly by whatever means you can control or master.” “His work had a kind of velocity in the way things were made,” “The real issue is not talent as an independent element, but talent in relationship to will, desire, and persistence. Talent without these things vanishes and even modest talent with those characteristics grows.” “[A long friendship with Milton Glaser resulted in another intense collaboration.] We used to sit together and have long conversations, even though he did not speak English and I do not speak French, ... so we decided to celebrate our misunderstanding and do a book together. The book is a back and forth continuous tableau titled 'The Conversation.' ”
Nesta rica história profissional, Glaser deixou algumas sugestões e dicas que se mostram bastante atuais e podem ser muito úteis para todos os profissionais da área de criação. Eu, como ambiciono um dia vir a ser designer profissinal considero importantissima a dica número 4, pois os profissionais tendem a repetir o sucesso quando acertam. Isso significa reduzir a margem de risco. Porém, uma das coisas mais necessárias no nosso campo é transgredir, e correr o risco de apresentar algo novo, aceitar a possibilidade de falhar ou ouvir alguns ‘nãos’.
Ana Rita Lopes Carreira | 24904 | D3-T1