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Moments in Time Contemporary Reproductions of Historic Photographic Processes 1840 – 2011

Imaging Workflows Class Applied Imaging Systems Minor School of Photographic Arts & Sciences, Spring 2011


Moments in Time


Moments in Time Copyright Š 2011 AIS Press. All rights reserved. Contemporary

No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner without written permission,

Reproductions

except in the case of brief quotations.

of Historic Photographic Processes AIS Press

School of Photographic Arts and Sciences

Rochester Institute of Technology

70 Lomb Memorial Drive

Rochester, NY 14623-5604

Content

Color accurate reproductions of historic photographic processes from 1840 to 2000

Production Students in the Imaging Workflows Class, Applied Imaging Systems Minor, Spring 2011 Camera

Betterlight Super 6K digital scanning back, Canon 5D Mark II, Hasselblad H4D-50

Processing

HP Artist, GretagMacbeth Profile Maker 5.0.8, Adobe Photoshop CS5

Book Layout Adobe InDesign CS5 Typefaces Futura, Minion Pro Paper

Mohawk Blue White i-Tone 80 lb.

Mohawk Superfine i-Tone Smooth Ultra White 100 lb.

Mohawk VIA Felt Warm White 100 lb.

Mohawk 50/10 Matte i-Tone Blue White 118 gsm.

Mohawk Kromekote C1S White In-Fusion 100 lb.

Mohawk 50/10 Gloss i-Tone Blue White 100 lb.

Mohawk Pro Photo Medium Luster White 190 gsm.

Mohawk Kromekote C1S True Photo White 100 lb.

Mohawk Beckett Expression Supersmooth i-Tones 118gsm

Printer

Mohawk Superfine i-Tone White 80 lb. HP Indigo 5700 Digital Press, RIT Printing Applications Lab


Moments in Time Contemporary Reproductions of Historic Photographic Processes

By Imaging Workflows class Applied Imaging Systems Minor School of Photographic Arts & Sciences, Spring 2011


What makes Photography a strange invention, with unforseeable consequences, is that its primary raw materials are light and time. John Berger


Salt Prints

pp. 13–17

Albumen

pp. 19–29

Collodion POP

pp. 31–35

Gelatin POP

pp. 37–43

Matte Collodion pp. 45–47

Platinotype

pp. 55–59

Carbon

pp. 61–63

Woodburytype

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pp. 65–67


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Contents

Cyanotype

pp. 49–53

Silver Gelatin DOP

pp. 69–89

Chromogenic

pp. 91–101

Instant

pp. 103–111

Silver-Dye Bleach

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pp. 113–115


Foreword

This publication, Moments in Time, is the product of a dedicated group of undergraduates in Professor Nitin Sampat’s Imaging Workflows class in the College of Imaging arts and Sciences (CIAS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology. The students were faced with a difficult challenge: to capture the look and feel of historical photographic processes and reproduce them as faithfully as possible using the most up-to-date digital imaging technology. The book began when the class toured one of CIAS’ more unique resources, the Image Permanence Institute (IPI). There they encountered IPI’s study and research collection, which contains thousands of images from the entire history of photography. The students were shown a website, www.GraphicsAtlas.org, that IPI created as a teaching and learning resource about the nature of graphic processes. Fascinated with the beauty and variety of historical photographic processes, as well as the historical information about the examples, the students decided to do a project that would show off their imaging skills. With Professor Sampat’s encouragement, they worked to create printed images that mimic the appearance of historical photographic originals in color, texture and sheen as closely as possible. For our part at the Image Permanence Institute, we were delighted to lend our collection and help the students with design advice. It was great example of the creative energy collaborative possibilities here at RIT’s College of Imaging Arts and Sciences. Like the students themselves, we invite you to visit our www.GraphicsAtlas.org website and learn about the history of photographic processes.

James M. Reilly Professor, CIAS Director, Image Permanence Institute


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Preface

RIT’s School of Photographic Arts and Sciences offers a minor in Applied Imaging Systems. The minor is comprised of a year-long sequence of 3 core courses. The last of these courses –IMAGING WORKFLOWS – builds on the foundation knowledge acquired in the previous two quarters and involves a challenging group project that investigates different workflows in imaging systems. This year’s fourteen students embarked upon a very ambitious project to reproduce the various imaging processes used in photography from its inception to present time in the form of a high quality, fine art, digitally produced book. The added challenge of this project was to attempt to reproduce not only the tone and color of the original images but also the “look and feel” of the original photographs, using available modern digital papers, all in the same book. Last but not least, the entire production – paper selection, image capture, processing, book design, researching the processes, developing “copy,” printer characterization, proofing and final binding – was to be completed in a record-setting 5 weeks! Working in teams, while dealing with the demands put on their time by multiple courses, the students produced this one-of-a-kind, industry-first, marvelous piece of work for people to enjoy. What better way can you imagine to be able to appreciate the history of photography than with pictures that simulate the various photographic processes deployed over the last couple of centuries. While all the students will admit the stress and frustration they felt while working on the project (one of them even wanted to name our publishing press as “Distress Press”), I think you will agree that the quality of the end product speaks volumes for their dedication and hard work. Along the way, they learned about imaging workflows in a manner we all know works best – learn by doing! They did it! Enjoy the fruits of their labor. Nitin Sampat Instructor of IMAGING WORKFLOWS Coordinator, Minor in APPLIED IMAGING SYSTEMS


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Salt Prints 1840–1860

The salted paper print process was the first process to create a positive image from a paper negative. Prior to this, positive images were made directly on a sensitized plate and reproduction of the image was therefore impossible. As the first positive-negative

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photographic method, this process established the foundation of photography as we know it.


Salt Prints

Photography can be said to have many origins but one significant thread traces back to William Henry Fox Talbot, a British inventor and photographer, who began searching for a method to permanently fix photographic images on light-sensitive materials. In 1841, he developed the salted paper printing process. The salt print process revolutionized the early years of photography because it introduced a two-step method to print a positive image from a negative, making duplication possible. Salt prints therefore offered an alternative to the daguerreotype process, which required longer exposure times, hazardous chemicals, and could not be reproduced.

The unstable materials used during the light sensitizing process, however, made salt prints prone to deterioration. The reddish-purple warm tones would quickly fade due to the lack of a sufficient fixing solution to stabilize the silver image. The salt print, as the first positive-negative photographic method, nevertheless established the foundation of

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photography as we know it.


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Salt print ca.1860 Portrait of W. J. Richstein


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Salt print ca.1860 Portrait of Howard R. Bittinger Gill (Photographer), Lancaster, PA

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Salt print 1859 Portrait of William Marshall College year book image


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Albumen 1850–1900

The albumen process, commonly found on cartes-de-visite (CDV), offered some technical advantages over its predecessor, the salt print. The improved stability, wide tonal range, and reproduction of fine detail valued by both amateur and professional photographers made albumen the dominant photographic printing process for the second half of the

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19th century.


Albumen

The albumen process, commonly found on cartes-de-visite (CDV), used a simple preparation and developing method involving egg whites, salt, and light-sensitive silver particles. It rose in popularity because of its improved stability over the salt print, wide tonal range, and reproduction of fine detail. Paired with the viewing card format of CDVs, albumen prints changed the way people in the late 1800s experienced photography. The small, mounted prints became a popular collecting craze – one could say the equivalent of the modern day baseball card. Celebrities, political leaders, tourist landscapes, and cultural monuments were all among the subjects featured on these 2 ½ x 4 Ÿ inch cards. In addition to its popularity, albumen prints offered some technical advantages over its predecessor, the salt print. The egg white used as a binder or emulsion layer surrounded the silver particles on the paper surface and, therefore, slowed deterioration. Despite the improved stability of the silver image, the albumen itself was still susceptible to yellowing and cracking over time. This is particularly evident on some CDVs where the poor quality of the cardboard mounts accelerated this natural deterioration of the albumen. Initially, photographers would hand coat their own paper. By the 1890s, companies began marketing pre-coated albumen papers so that photographers need only apply silver nitrate to complete the preparatory stages of printing.

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Photography was evolving from an amateur trial-by-error hobby into a burgeoning industry.


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Albumen, verso ca.1880 Carte-de-visite JM Cappo Photography

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Albumen, recto ca.1880 Tinted carte-de-visite JM Cappo Photography


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Albumen ca.1870 Cartoon carte-de-visite Characteristic albumen deterioration

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Albumen ca.1870 Cartoon carte-de-visite Minimal deterioration


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Albumen ca.1870 Carte-de-visite

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Albumen ca.1880 Carte-de-visite with handcoloring J. Loeffler (Photographer)

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Albumen ca.1860 Carte-de-visite with handcoloring C. Gullmann (Photographer)

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Albumen ca.1860 Carte-de-visite Commercial studio portrait


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Albumen ca.1870 Souvenir carte-de-visite Roberto Rive

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Albumen ca.1870 Souvenir carte-de-visite


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Albumen 1904 Souvenir stereoview card Underwood & Underwood Publishers Yellowstone National Park, USA

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Albumen ca.1900 Souvenir stereoview card J.J.Reilly (Photographer) Niagara Falls, NY


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Collodion Printing–Out Process 1885–1910

The collodion printing-out process utilized the many of the same technologies as the albumen process; silver comprised the image-forming material and the final image was created by exposure to light. With these papers also came the advent of a milestone in the evolution of photographic materials – the baryta layer – which made the prints smoother, whiter,

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and glossier.


Collodion Printing–Out Process

The collodion printing-out process, first introduced by Jean Laurent and José Martinez-Sanchez in the early 1860s, utilized the many of the same technologies as the albumen process; silver comprised the image-forming material and the final image was created entirely by exposure to light. Where albumen used egg white to bind the silver particles to the paper support, this new process used a layer of collodion. With these papers also came the advent of a milestone in the evolution of photographic materials – the baryta layer. This mixture of gelatin and barium sulfate went between the raw paper base and the photosensitive collodion emulsion. The baryta served to create a smoother, whiter, and glossier paper base, which ultimately raised the quality of photographic prints in general. Later, in the 1880s, two German companies, Liesegang and Obernetter, introduced factory-made collodion POP papers to the photography market. The industrialization of paper manufacture made it possible to meet the growing demand for ready-to-use photographic papers, as amateurs wanted a more convenient way to make their own photographs. The mass production and improved technology of these papers also opened the door for creating a variety of surface finishes and tinting techniques. Papers were given base tints, ranging from white to purple, and surface finishes from matte to high gloss. Collodion POPs were also considered to be more stable than albumen prints. Finally, collodion POPs presented improvements over the albumen process because they stayed sensitized for one to two months, had shorter exposure times, and were more aesthetically pleasing. The process’s only disadvantage was its sensitivity to abrasion; the surface of collodion was less resistant to nicks and scratches than gelatin printing-out

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papers, which were introduced at the same time.


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Collodion POP ca.1890 Cabinet card M. M. Melander & Bro., Chicago, IL


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Collodion POP ca.1890 Cabinet card Edwards & Co., England


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Gelatin Printing–Out Process 1885–1910

The gelatin printing-out process was similar to the collodion printing-out process; its only difference being how the image particles were held on the paper. Rather than an emulsion layer of collodion, this process used a gelatin binder layer. Gelatin POPs and collodion POPs are typically found mounted on cabinet cards and were as avidly collected as the

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albumen cartes-de-visite.


Gelatin Printing–Out Process

The gelatin printing-out process was similar to the collodion printing-out process because it also used silver as its image-forming material and the final image was printed out, not developed out. Rather than an emulsion layer of collodion, this process used a gelatin binder layer to hold the image particles on the paper. Gelatin printing-out papers were invented by a British company named Ilford in 1891, under the brand name POP. Like the collodion printing-out paper, the gelatin POP papers had a coating of baryta underneath the emulsion layer. This added smoothness, whiteness, and gloss to the paper base, which were qualities much desired by amateurs at the time. Gelatin POPs also shared the technical advantages of collodion POPs, offering greater photosensitivity, shorter exposure times, and a wider range of finishing techniques than were possible with albumen. Because gelatin does not deteriorate as quickly as albumen, gelatin POPs maintained their original tone longer. They were also more resistant to abrasion than collodion POPs. Gelatin POPs and collodion POPs are typically found on 4Ÿ by 6½ inch cabinet cards that were as avidly collected as the albumen cartes-de-visite. However, while collodion POPs declined by the 1910s, gelatin POPs were used into the

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1940s by studio photographers and amateurs.


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Gelatin POP ca.1890 Cabinet card Jos J. Mackle


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Gelatin POP 1893 Mounted Kodak Brownie print The Chicago World’s Fair: Columbian Exposition

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Gelatin POP 1893 Mounted Kodak Brownie print The Chicago World’s Fair: Columbian Exposition


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Gelatin POP, verso 1893 Mounted Kodak Brownie print The Chicago World’s Fair: Columbian Exposition

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Gelatin POP, recto 1893 Mounted Kodak Brownie print The Chicago World’s Fair: Columbian Exposition


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Matte Collodion 1895–1910

In order to meet changing aesthetic tastes, the collodion printing-out process was modified to imitate the surface and tonal qualities of platinotypes or platinum prints. Toned in gold and platinum, these prints have an appearance distinct from collodion POPs and are known as matte collodion. The smoother surface and neutral tones – ranging from olive-black to brown – made matte collodion the most popular material for portrait

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photography until 1910.


Matte Collodion

In order to meet changing aesthetic tastes, the collodion printing-out process was modified to imitate the surface and tonal qualities of platinotypes or platinum prints. Toned in gold and platinum, these prints have an appearance distinct from collodion POPs and are known as matte collodion. The similarity to platinotypes was no mistake; the matte collodion process provided a cheap alternative to the expensive platinum process. Toned in gold and platinum, matte collodion prints had hues ranging from a brownish to neutral black. The image color was a warm olive-black, tending to bluer shades when the gold toning was strong, and to browner shades when the gold toning was minimal. The smooth surface, neutral tones and low cost enabled matte collodion to be the most popular material for commerical portrait photography through the year 1910. In addition to modifying the image hue, the toning imparted excellent image stability to matte collodion prints. Matte collodion prints therefore do not exhibit as much image fading or loss of detail as other silver-based POPs. However, the platinum used in toning can cause a mirrored transfer image to form via catalytic degradation on a

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material in contact with the print, such as a folio or tissue.


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Matte Collodion ca. 1900 Mounted studio portrait


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Cyanotype 1842–1950

Cyanotypes are perhaps one of the most easily recognizable photographic processes. As the name implies, cyanotypes are characterized by a blue image hue. The process was initially developed in 1842 by an English scientist named Sir John Herschel as a means to

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document his notes and diagrams.


Cyanotype Cyanotypes are perhaps one of the most easily recognizable photographic processes. As the name implies, cyanotypes are characterized by a blue image hue. The process was initially developed in 1842 by an English scientist named Sir John Herschel as a means to document his notes and diagrams. In 1843, Anna Atkins, an English botanist, used cyanotypes to illustrate algae specimens in her book, British Algae: Cyanotype Impressions, transforming Herschel’s copy process into a photographic medium. Cyanotypes were used in the 19th century as an inexpensive and simple printing process for amateur photographers. Unlike many of its contemporaries, the cyanotype process used iron salts rather than silver to create the image. Its characteristic hue came from the iron-based pigment, Prussian Blue, that formed the final image. Using different development techniques, it was possible to achieve varying intensities of the overall hue, tonal range, and contrast.

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Cyanotype prints are generally stable but may nevertheless be adversely affected by pollution and light.


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Cyanotype ca.1910 Souvenir postcard Hartford Bridge at Night

Cyanotype ca.1910 Snapshot portrait


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Cyanotype ca.1900 Group snapshot


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Platinotype 1873–1930

The platinum or platinotype process was patented in 1873 by William Willis, a British inventor, as a photographic system that used exceptionally stable platinum to form the image. Valued for their refined look, the resulting prints have a cool black hue, rich tonal

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range, and matte finish that appealed to the prevailing aesthetic tastes of the time.


Platinotype

The platinum or platinotype process was patented in 1873 by William Willis, a British inventor, as a photographic system that used exceptionally stable platinum to form the image. Valued for their refined look, the resulting prints have a cool black hue, rich tonal range, and matte finish that appealed to the prevailing aesthetic tastes of the time. Thanks to the stability and longevity of the image material, most platinum prints have maintained their original appearance. In fact, it is estimated a properly prepared and developed platinum print can last for up to a 1,000 years. The paper support would deteriorate long before the platinum image.

Despite its popularity among sophisticated amateurs, the platinotype process had limited success. Platinum paper sensitized by hand did not keep well, necessitating immediate exposure and development. Commercially produced papers were available into the 1930s but prevalence and viability of the process declined during WWII when the cost

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of platinum significantly increased.


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Platinotype ca. 1900 Warm tone, mounted studio portrait


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Platinotype ca. 1900 Neutral, mounted studio portrait


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Carbon 1855–1930

When carbon printing was introduced in 1855 by Louis-Alphonse Poitevin, it was the first process that changed the light sensitive component in photographic processes from metals to chemically treated gelatin and pigments. The stability of carbon pigments exponentially reduced the rate of deterioration and created an outstanding image quality with fine detail,

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rich blacks and luminous highlights


Carbon

Carbon printing was introduced in 1855 by Louis-Alphonse Poitevin. It was the first process that changed the light sensitive component in photographic processes from metals to chemically treated gelatin and pigments. Moving away from unstable metallic components gave the process an exceptional permanence and exponentially reduced the rate of deterioration. The pigments also created outstanding image quality, including fine detail, rich blacks and luminous highlights. The unique appearance of carbon prints is directly tied to the technology of the process. Because the thickness of the gelatin layer is proportional to the density of the image, the shadow areas of the print are thickest. In the highlights, the gelatin layer is thinner and the paper surface is visible. This physical variation across the print surface gives the shadows areas a glossier appearance than the highlights, an effect known as differential gloss. While the carbon process offers many advantages, the complexity of the process does impose limitations. For example, the high intensity of light required to expose the sensitized gelatin made enlargements nearly impossible. Considering everything, carbon printing offered an elegant solution to the challenges of image stability. The overall quality and permanence of carbon prints made the process useful for many applications and it is still used today by

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those who desire the carbon print “feel.�


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Carbon print ca.1910 Mounted studio portrait Mrs. Fred Wilkinson and Co., Manchester


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Woodburytype 1864–1900

The woodburytype, a photomechanical printing process, was developed in 1864 by Walter Bentley Woodbury. Like carbon printing, the woodburytype process produced images from pigmented gelatin. Woodburytypes exhibited a similar quality, tone, surface gloss,

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and permanence to the carbon print..


Woodburytype

The woodburytype, a photomechanical printing process, was developed in 1864 by Walter Bentley Woodbury. Like carbon printing, the woodburytype process produced images from pigmented gelatin. Woodburytypes exhibited a similar quality, tone, surface gloss, and permanence to the carbon print. In fact, it is extremely difficult to distinguish a carbon print from a woodburytype. The characteristic warm tone of the woodburytype was reminiscent of other printing-out photographic processes popular at the time, which also contributed to its success. The woodburytype process was used widely for high-end commercial reproductions of paintings and for book illustrations. It was particularly suited to these applications, which required consistent production quality for a large quantity of prints. Unlike other photographic processess, a large number of identical wooburytypes could be made from a durable master printing plate. However, because the creation of the printing plate required five tons of

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pressure per square inch, woodburytypes were seldom produced larger than seven by nine inches.


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Woodburytype 1876 Book illustration Men of Mark by George C. Whitfield

Woodburytype ca.1890 Celebrity carte-de-visite


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Silver Gelatin Developing-Out Process 1880s–2000

The silver gelatin developing-out process (DOP) revolutionized photography from its inception in 1890, culminating in a century-long progression of research and technological advancements by the end of the 20th century. With the establishment of large-scale manufacturing companies in the 1890s, manufacturers could offer consumers

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photographic materials with an infinite range of aesthetic qualities.


Silver Gelatin Developing–Out Process

The silver gelatin developing-out process (DOP) revolutionized photography from its inception in 1890, culminating in a century-long progression of research and technological advancements by the end of the 20th century. Unlike the majority of photographic processes from the 19th century, the silver gelatin developing-out process was the first to not need sunlight to produce an exposure. When the sensitized paper was exposed to a light source through a negative image, a latent positive image would emerge by submerging the paper in a bath of chemical developer. This was followed by a series of baths that progressively stopped development and fixed the image. Chemical development allowed for shorter exposure times and required less light, opening the door for indoor darkroom printing and, ultimately, making enlargement possible. With the establishment of large-scale manufacturing companies in the 1890s, such as the Eastman Kodak Corporation, photography took off as an international, commercial industry. As technology advanced in the 20th century, manufacturers could offer consumers photographic materials with an infinite range of aesthetic qualities. The technology of the process also improved the overall stability of the prints. Because the binder and chemicallydeveloped silver were more stable than in silver-based POPs, deterioration from yellowing and image loss was greatly reduced. The most common form of deterioration in silver-gelatin DOPs is silver mirroring, which appears as bluishmetallic sheen in the shadow areas. However, through proper handling and storage, deterioration can be slowed substantially. The silver gelatin developing-out process was the primary method of photographic printing for over a hundred years; it is only because of the recent “digital age� that its usage eventually declined. To many, it remains the

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quintessential photographic printing process.


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Sulfur–toned silver gelatin DOP ca.1920 Wedding portrait

Sulfur–toned silver gelatin DOP ca.1920 Souvenir photo postcard York Minister Cathedral, York, England


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SIlver gelatin DOP ca.1915 French photo postcard with handcoloring

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SIlver gelatin DOP 1911 Photo postcard Azo paper


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SIlver gelatin DOP ca.1930 French photo postcard with handcoloring


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SIlver gelatin DOP ca.1930 French photo postcard with handcoloring

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SIlver gelatin DOP ca.1930 French photo postcard with handcoloring


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SIlver gelatin DOP ca.1930 Tinted photo postcard

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SIlver gelatin DOP ca.1930 Tinted photo postcard


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SIlver gelatin DOP 1924 Tinted french photo postcard with handcoloring

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SIlver gelatin DOP 1915 French tinted photo postcard


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Silver gelatin DOP ca.1940 WWII–era snapshot

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Silver gelatin DOP ca.1950 Photobooth direct positive (reversal) print


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Silver gelatin DOP ca.1960 Kodak sample book Ektalure Paper E

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Silver gelatin DOP ca.1960 Kodak sample book Medalist Paper J

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Silver gelatin DOP ca.1960 Kodak sample book Polylure Paper Y


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Silver gelatin DOP Resin–Coated (RC) ca.1970 Snapshot Rochester, NY


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Silver gelatin DOP ca.1960 Kodak sample book Mural Paper R

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Silver gelatin DOP ca.1960 Kodak sample book Ektalure Paper X


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Chromogenic 1941–Present

Chromogenic (from the Greek, meaning color-forming) is perhaps the quintessential color process of the 20th century. Although chromogenic results in a full-color image, the initial exposure is a colorless silver image in three emulsion layers that correspond to red, green, and blue light. The advent of dye couplers in the developer made it possible to convert the silver into dyes, producing a color print. Early chromogenic prints were highly unstable, but improvements in technology over the second half of the century made for a more

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stable print.


Chromogenic

Chromogenic (from the Greek, meaning color-forming) is a process that emerged in the 1940s and continues to be a popular color photographic medium. Although it results in a full-color image, the initial exposure is a colorless silver image in three emulsion layers that correspond to red, green, and blue light. The advent of dye couplers in the developer made it possible to convert the silver into dyes. During processing, the dye couplers bonded with the corresponding emulsion layers, forming yellow dye in the blue-sensitive layer, magenta dye in the green-sensitive layer, and cyan dye in the red-sensitive layer. Seen against the white paper base, the layers appear as a single, fullcolor image. Depending on the paper, the process could be used with positive transparency film or color negative film. Originally, chromogenic papers were manufactured with a fiber base. However, in 1968, with the advancement of plastics, papers with a resin-coated base were developed as an alternative. Although some prefer the look and feel of fiber-based papers, resin-coating proved to be beneficial as the processing, washing, and drying times were substantially reduced. Early chromogenic prints were highly unstable but improvements in technology over the second half of the century made for a more stable print. Kodak’s first chromogenic process, created in 1942 with the name Kodacolor, demonstrates this evolution. Early Kodacolor prints would yellow quickly but, when changes to the magenta dye coupler were made, the characteristic deterioration became an overall magenta cast (from fading of cyan and yellow

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dyes).


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Kodachrome enlargement Dec 9, 1952 80% of original size


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Kodachrome print Jan 17,1955

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Kodachrome print June 2, 1952


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Direct positive (reversal) chromogenic print ca.1950 Ansco Printon


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Kodacolor print July 19, 1958 Minimal dye fade & coupler staining

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Kodacolor print October 29,1955 Characteristic dye fade

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Kodacolor print 1948 Characteristic dye fade & coupler staining


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Ektacolor Resin–Coated (RC) print 1973 35mm snapshot


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Instant 1948–2009

Instant photography differs from other processes because, as the name implies, development of the image occurs instantly. Instant feedback was a great advantage for professional photographer to test exposures and was also a novelty that made the process

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exceptionally popular among amateurs for snapshots.


Instant

Instant film was first developed by Edwin Land in 1947 within the Polaroid Corporation, a company Land originally started to manufacture polarizing filters and various optical devices. Instant film, eventually given the name Polaroid, was invented as a way to have instantaneous capture and development of a photographic image. It became popular with the general public as an easy way to take snapshots and with professionals to preview exposures before shooting a photographic negative. Instant development of the image is made possible by a reserve of chemicals included on each piece of film. There are several methods for carrying this chemical pack, such as peel-apart (sandwiched), pack or integral. The peel-apart method spreads the chemicals across the exposured surface and then the unused chemicals are peeled away. This type of instant film is preferred by professional photographers because of its superior color, tone, and sharpness. With the integral film, the chemistry for the image development is contained within the timing and receiving layers; no intervening or extraneous layers were necessary. This type of film was preferred by individuals who wanted instant results or when it was inconvenient to wait for conventional film to be processed.

One of the most notable points about the instant film is that it was much more light sensitive than conventional film of the same era, able to reach an ISO of 20,000. The Polaroid Corporation ceased production of instant film in 2008.

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As of 2010, Fuji and the Impossible Project are the only commercial manufacturers of instant film.


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Polacolor, Type 48 March 29, 1970 Peel–apart roll film Easter Sunday, Madison, OH

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Polaroid, Type 30 series June 21, 1955 Peel–apart roll film Diane Mastro, 4 years old


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Polaroid, Type 88 ca.1970 Peel–apart roll film

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Polaroid, Type 40 series ca.1970 Peel–apart roll film


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Polaroid, Type 108 ca.1970 Land pack film

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Polaroid, SX–70 ca.1980 Integral pack film


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Polaroid, Type 50 series ca.1990 Peel-apart sheet film 4x5 proof

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Polaroid, Type 50 series ca.1980 Peel-apart sheet film 4x5 proof by Bill du Bois


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Silver-Dye Bleach 1963–2000

Silver-dye bleach printing process, most commonly known as Cibachrome, was originally released as a commercial product by the Ciba-Geigy Corporation of Switzerland in the 1960s. Unlike chromogenic prints, Cibachrome prints are very true to color and

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deteriorate at a much slower rate. .


Silver-Dye Bleach

Silver-dye bleach printing process, most commonly known as Cibachrome, was originally released as a commercial product by the Ciba-Geigy Corporation of Switzerland in the 1960s. When purchased and branded by Ilford in 1989, the name Cibachrome was changed to Ilfocrhome. It is most used in positive-to-positive printing but is a comparatively unfamiliar method in the 21st century. Cibachrome printing can be likened to the term “cult-classic”, referring to its selective use, almost entirely by die-hard traditionalists. The silver dye bleach process began using a pigmented acetate support, or base, and from the late1940’s to the early 1980’s, this was the only substrate support available. However, in the early 1980’s, polyester and resin coated papers were beginning employment in the Cibachrome process.

Cibachrome papers consist of azo dyes; constituents that produce vivid red, orange, and yellow hues. Due to the stable nature of the compounds, Cibachrome prints are very long-standing and lightfast, meaning, the prints remain true to their original colors over time and do not deteriorate with relative rapidity. The color couplers within Cibachrome papers absorb light in a unique fashion, resulting in the appearance of a sharper image. The only

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disadvantage of the process is the longer exposure and processing times (with respect to Chromogenic).


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Silver窶電ye bleach ca.1980 Ilford Cibachrome Direct positive (reversal) print


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Workflows Spring 2011

This book is a collabrative work of the Imaging Systems Minor, Imaging Workflows class, Spring 2011. In next few pages, each team presents the workflow that was followed to create the reproductions seen in this book.


Team 1

Team 1 chose this workflow based on our collective knowledge and skills. Our first step was to select our images, which we did with the help of the Image Permanence Institute. We then chose the papers we felt would best match the media of the original historical image. We then began capturing the images and the Macbeth Color Checker using a copy stand set up with a Canon 5D Mark II. Once all images were captured as RAW files, they were given the proper naming convention, cropped and sized. Next we created a camera profile by comparing the captured image of the Macbeth Color Checker to the reference file. We then created a printer profile by comparing a target that was printed on our selected paper with our printer and the reference file. After creating the profiles our group opened the RAW files in Photoshop and assigned the camera profile to the images. The images were saved as untagged CMYK files. The images were then compiled in the book as a PDF. The printer profiles for each different paper type were assigned to the correct pages. Once all of this was completed, we began proofing and printing the book.


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Workflow Diagram - GretagMacbeth Workflow Diagram - Gretag Acquire Images and Paper

Acquire images to be reproduced

Acquire papers to be printed with

Macbeth Match paper type of image to paper type to be printed on

Sarah Mooney

Capture

Using a copy stand, position lights and camera

Lay print flat and focus camera

Capture image with Canon 5D Mark II (repeat for all images)

Capture Macbeth Color Checker

Profiling

Using GretagMacbeth ProfileMaker create camera profile

Measure Macbeth Color Checker with X-Rite EyeOne iO

Choose Macbeth Color Checker reference file

Open both files and create a camera profile

Measure target with X-Rite iSis

Print chosen CMYK target with selected printer with no color management

Using GretagMacbeth ProfileMaker create a printer profile

Open both files and create a printer profile (repeat for all paper types)

Save RAW files with proper naming convention

Christine Damato

Brittany McCulloch Processing

Open images in Photoshop

Assign camera profile to images

Convert images to printer profile for paper type

Press

Compile images into a PDF

Assign printer profiles for paper type to PDF

Hard proof images on HP Indigo 7000

Set images to Untagged CMYK

Steve Deridder


Team 2

The main goal of this project was to accurately and precisely reproduce photographs from the past, not only in color and aesthetics, but also in media type. Using high-end equipment and software, the Betterlight 6k scanning back system and HP Artist, our group has helped create a photographic history book that includes 1:1 reproductions of the photographs spanning several decades. Our group was charged with writing the text and reproducing the images associated with five photographic processes: Matte Collodion, Cyanotype, Plainotype, Carbon, and Woodburytype. In order to do this we had to think about the whole process of making a book and accurately reproducing color on different media types using an Indigo S7000 press. Thinking first about our image output size we chose our camera system and our method for color reproduction. After this, we captured all our images and made all the measurements necessary for the software to be able to create a source ICC profile and correct for lighting non-uniformity. From here we chose our paper types and created a destination ICC profile for each type of media we use. We then converted the files to the destination profile, using the absolute colorimetric rendering intent, and placed them within the InDesign file along with our text. Using a large selection of paper types from Mohawk, our main goal of producing this book was to match not only color, but the media type as well as possible, we chose our papers mainly based off of surface sheen and texture. Because many of the original images are old and have degraded from their original condition, the paper has yellowed significantly. While such yellowing is not possible to match with our paper type choice, the color accuracy of our reproduction simulates this as best as is feasible given the constraints of the tools available to us.


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Selection

Select Images to Reproduce

Select Reproduction Size (1:1)

Choose Camera and Resolution (6K Betterlight Digital Back)

Capture

Position Lights at 45 Degree Angle

Set Up Camera

Capture Original Photographs

Photograph White Reference Card

Save Images With No Gamma Correction

Measure Spectral Reflectance Of 30 Colors On Original Photograph

Measure Spectral Reflectance Of 3 Areas On White Reference Card

Import Images and Measurements Into HP Artist

Save Output Image With Attached Source ICC Profile

Crop and Resize Images in Photoshop

Output

Select Paper Types

Print CMYK Test Targets For iSiS and i1iO On Indigo S7000 Press

Measure Printed Test Targets Using Measure Tool

Create .ICC Profile Using Profile Maker

Convert Images To Destination Profiles in Photoshop

Press

Write Accompanying Text For Photographs

Place Files In InDesign Layout

Create Final PDF

Send PDF To Print

Profiling

Louis Novak

Save and Assign "No Profile" To Images For Indigo S7000 Press

Josh Marrah

Victor Prado


Team 3

The first step of this process was acquiring images to reproduce. We were fortunate enough to have the Image Permanence Institute at RIT lend us an appropriate selection of historical photographs. Once we had access to the images we matched them to the output media based on texture, warmth, and finish. We then photographed each image on a copy stand using the Hasselblad H4D. It was important to maintain even lighting conditions and incorporate the Macbeth Color Checker as a reference. Using measurements from the known values of the Macbeth Color Checker, we then had an idea as to how our camera interprets the colors captured. This allows us to assign a source profile usingProfile Maker. Later, we created an output profile by sending reference targets to the Indigo 7000 so they could be printed on our chosen paper types. Having these targets let us measure and annotate the capabilities of the press. We then converted the images to the printer profiles we created, and placed the images into the design document as untagged files. Our entire workflow relies on the fact that we are sending a file to a press that will not color manage our document. All the color management was done with an “early binding” philosophy. In this manner, we control the process as “content creators” and the printer can focus on running the job with a “stable press” and not dealing with the numerous options that often mess up a press run.


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Bryan Edwards

Nick Paton

Tim Zwicky


Team 4

For our team’s workflow, we tried to keep it as simple as possible. By streamlining the process we were able to avoid basic problems such as missing files or failing to process them. Our capture workflow revolved around the Hasselblad H4D camera and Phocus software. Shooting with a camera tethered to the computer allowed for immediate evaluation of exposure and allowed us to strip out all the adjustments made by the camera and software to the file. We captured white reference images as well as the Macbeth target for potential processing of the images in the HP Artist software, which would yield potentially more accurate colors. The profiling workflow was run with the GretagMacbeth “Profile Maker” and “Measure Tool” programs and the X-Rite Isis instrument. We made custom charts out of spectral data collected from our images to create accurate test targets to print. We further customized our printer profiles by adjusting the CMYK separations based off a Total Area Coverage chart printed on each paper. Our processing workflow relied heavily on Photoshop action scripts to ensure that all steps were completed in a methodical and exact process. By allowing this automation, the process was also accelerated. The end result of this process was 8 bit .TIFF files sized in a 1:1 ratio and sized for print.


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Image Evaluation

Meet with IPI to learn about processes and recieve image packet

Evaluate image substrate and determine matches

Capture

Set up camera and allow lights to stabalize

Open Phocus software and disable all processing/set session white balance

Capture MacBeth target and a white reference image for testing

Place photograph on copystand and ßatten with magnets at corners

Capture all objects with Hasselblad

Benjamin Cort

Export images from Phocus as 16bit TIFF Þles

ProÞling

Capture spectral data of capture illuminant

Make camera proÞle from Macbeth target in ProÞle Maker

Take spectral measurements from each object

Make custom target out of spectral measurements

Print custom target on Indigo for each paper type used Mohamed Sadek

Processing

Measure targets with X-Rite Isis

Make CMYK proÞles in ProÞle maker and adjust separations based on TAC Chart

Repeat for each paper type

Open Þle in Photoshop

Convert image to 8bit

Set interpolation preferences to Nearest-Neighbor

Convert image to correct printer proÞle

Save image and uncheck box for linking proÞle

Batch rename to naming convention and place onto server

Crop and size image 1:1

Assign camera proÞle

Thomas Cantone


Acknowledgements

This book is the collective work of the many enthusiastic students taking the Imaging Workflows class, in partial completion of a Minor in Applied Imaging Systems offered through the School of Photographic Arts and Sciences at the Rochester Institute of Technology. The final book, however, would not have been possible without the support of many other Institutions and people that offered their enthusiastic support, in kind or via donations, thereby contributing to the learning experience of the students. We especially want to thank the Image Permanence Institute for contributing images that span the history of photography, Mohawk Fine Papers for their contribution of the papers used in this project, and the Printing Applications Lab for allowing the use of their HP Indigo Press for the printing of the book. Each of these Institutions comprise of personnel who generously contributed their time and knowledge to this project. These people and others who contributed to this project in any manner are recognized on the facing page. To all of you – a heartfelt Thank You!

Nitin Sampat Instructor of the Imaging Workflows Class Coordinator, Applied Imaging Systems Minor School of Photographic Arts and Sciences, RIT


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Thank You James Reilly Image Permanence Institute

Kristin Smith Image Permanence Institute

Caroline LeFevre Image Permanence Institute

Lauren Parish Image Permanence Institute

Bill Garno Printing Applications Lab

John Dettmer Printing Applications Lab

Jeremy Vanslette Printing Applications Lab

Barbara Giordano Printing Applications Lab

Chris Harrold Mohawk Fine Papers

Therese Mulligan RIT, School of Photography

Kaitlin McCue Teachers Assistant

Gina Benedetti Timeline Designer

David Pankow Cary Special Collection

Bruce Meader School of Design

Owen Butler School of Photography


Further Reading

Baldwin, Gordon. Looking at Photographs: A Guide to Technical Terms. Malibu, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1991. LavÊdrine, Bertrand. Photographs of the Past: Process and Preservation. Los Angeles: Getty Publications, 2009. Newhall, Beaumont. The History of Photography. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1982. Ostroff, Eugene, ed. Pioneers of Photography: Their Achievements in Science and Technology. June 22–25, 1986,

Rochester, NY. Springfield, VA: The Society for Imaging Science and Technology (IS&T), 2009. Print.

Peres, Michael R. The Focal Encyclopedia of Photography. 4th ed. Burlington, MA: Elsevier, 2007. Reilly, James M. Care and Identification of 19th-Century Photographic Prints. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak

Company, 1986.

Reilly, James M. The Albumen & Salted Paper Book. Rochester, NY: Light Impressions Corporation, 1980.


atlas

G raphics

Moments in Time  

Contemporary Reproductions of Historic Photographic Processes

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