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01- Building Form, Systems, Planning and Context 01.10 program analysis

WHOLE COMMUNITY

existing as 1 and 2 storey flats

12 people

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SEMI COMMUNAL

PUBLIC COMMUNAL

food providing and storing

other “living� rooms

Hall space- dining & meeting

1-2 river water harvesting cluster

x 1 bed

10

houses

existing as kitchen garden and outside space

4

3

MINI COMMUNAL EATING

INDIVIDUAL DWELLINGS

Lancaster Co-Housing Group

75

2

1

4

x 2 bed

growing/gardening 75m2 kitchens

2-3

75

showers 40m2

people

4-7

residents

7

x 3 bed

whole community dining and meeting area

3-4 Heating cluster

2 bed flat 65m2

semi communal space public communal space ultimate common space

rainwater harvesting cluster

7-10

residents

Cooling cluster

4-6

food ripening growing/gardening 75m2

laundry 20m2

food storage 60m2

childcare 30m2 gym 40m2 office space 50m2

residents Each dwelling will be private and individual but For comfortable sharing eating experience3 flats are clustered to also feel as if it is connected to the wider make as few variations possible to community make it cheaper/easier to build. Also these eating spaces could be combined larger parties i.e for a group. See next column.

PROVIDING ACCESS

1 bed flat 55m2

3 bed flat 100m2

UNITING

7-10

GROUPING

Min-max number of people

3 bed flat 80m2

guest house 50m2 meeting rooms 60m2

residents

CLUSTERING

3-4

3-4 x 3 bed

Privacy category

CLOSING

3

3

kitchens food ripening

A joint number of clusters grouped according to program here access to everyone but of more responsibility of the group

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These extra communal spaces will be arranged according to what cluster is appropriate. eg. Energy is needed for running of computers and rainwater is needed for showers.

This space should be easily accessed by everyone as the main space for the whole community to meet once a month. This also doubles as event space. 10


01.11 program analysis: Private to public There is a distinction between the different layers of space in which the program and space is organised. This means that in the co housing scheme there is a maximum amount of interaction between residents while they carry out different activities. The journey of a resident from their individual house to their choice of activity or to leave the building will be one of many transitions between these spaces.

1

2

Private

semi-Private

enric miralles- scottish pariliament

Garden trellis

3

semi- Public

Morphosis- madrid social housing

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public

Rome Piazza Venezia

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01.12 Site analysis: Ground and nature It is proposed that the ground should be brought back to a more natural state which will encourage native plants and animals to use it as well as provide a ‘natural’floor on which to live on. However, the ground is not stable and there is in need of a retaining wall to the north side of the site where a rock fae is crumbling. There are many animals that live on the site, and the building should not destroy and if anything help to provide the habitat in which they thrive.

Existing House

Mill Building 15 mins to Halton Centre

The river is a source of water, and the south side of the site is largely unobstructed to beautiful views across the River Lune. Boat house and fishing Hut

River Lune

N

crumbling rock faces made of sandstone and limestone- integral to landscape but not good for growing on

Massing model on site. In this general form the housing is dense instead of sprawled to impact of the ground as little as possible.

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01.13 Site analysis: EnvironmentaL SUN: South facing windows will take advantage of winter and summer sunlight and also provide view out to the lune. The arrangment relies on most of the houses to be lit from the north and south sides with limited windows on the east and west side which are harder to have solar control over Also, with planting occuring on the site, the best way to grow vegetables is arguably in rows north to south with the taller plants like tomatoes and beans to the north and the shorter or imbedded plants to the south so that they do not shade each other. The trees of the site also provide solar shading when the sun is low in the sky in the summer afternoons but not so much in the winter when the trees lose their leaves.

Access

WIND: Wind is strong and in a south westerly direction. According to the Lancashire Council Website, this site has the potential or wind energy capabilities. WATER: Water runoff is naturally from north to south heading towards the river. This movement could be taken advantage of to collect rainwater for flushing toilets, planting and washing.

water runoff

wind

sun

1:750

[Academic use only]

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01.20 time based plans- Wk 1-Wk 8 Groundwork starts in designated site area so that community can help clean up the site from sycamore seedlings while there are works on site.

1:300 see appendix for larger drawings

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01.21 time based plans- Wk 9- Wk 17 Timber construction starts on site from Zone A (east side of side) through to Zone C. The community move in as each structure is complete.

1:300 see appendix for larger drawings

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01.22 time based plans- Wk 18- Wk 30 Site zone gets smaller and is restricted to south buildings zone C. Residents can build and make their surroundings using rammed earth and found objects.

1:300 see appendix for larger drawings

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01.23 time based plans- Wk 40+ Site zone gets smaller and is restricted to south buildings zone C. Residents can build and make their surroundings using rammed earth and found objects.

1:300 see appendix for larger drawings

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01.24 schedule

g in ut ro

tg Je PHASE 1

r be m Ti t ns

co

T1

ct ru n io

PHASE 2

ed m m Ra

T2

r ea th s all

w

PHASE 3

T1

ity un m om

C T3

ns

tio

di ad

PHASE 4

TIME

T4

TOTAL T5

T6

T7

[Academic use only]

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01.24 Ground Floor GA 1:250@A3 (original 1:125@A1)

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01.25 First Floor GA 1:250@A3 (original 1:125@A1)

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01.26 SECOND Floor GA 1:250@A3 (original 1:125@A1)

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01.27 Short Section GA 1:200@A3 (Orginal 1:100@A1)

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01.27 Long Section GA 1:300@A3 (Orginal 1:150@A1)

[Academic use only]

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01.28 Site Plan

[Academic use only]

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01.30 OVERALL SCHEME

Cluster: Meet and Eat

Additional Programmes: Large meeting/ dining space, childrens room Specialism: eating with everyone Requirements: cooking energy indoors

Cluster: Working

Additional Programmes: Office and working spaces Specialism: working environments Requirements: energy and cooling strategies

Cluster: Hygiene

Additional Programmes: Laundry, showers, Gym Specialism: obtaining water from the river, energy generation Requirements: machinery and equipment

Cluster: Growing

Additional Programmes: gardens, kitchens, storage Specialism: experience of eating outdoors Requirements: rainwater harvesting, cooking energy outdoors

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01.31 STRUCTURE sequence overall Construction program option 1 taking into account that the community will want to move in as soon as it is possible this method would mean that the community would have to wait until the end of all of the construction

Construction program option 2. The community would move in after each zone of building is completed. The growth of the architecture by the community is more organic. They will learn as they go along and be part of the excitement of the build.

zone C

zone B zone A

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Time

1A. Jet grounding foundations below ground surface (ommited from next drawings to avoid confusion)

1B. Timber platform frames constructed on top of foundations.

2A. Timber construction acts as shuttering support for rammed earth walls built between the timber frame construction by the community

3A. building grows as a when the community needs it. they define their own communal space adding roofs using timberal vaulting and ceramic bricks and fast setting concrete.

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1.32 BUILD SEQUENCE DETAIL

ret ain i

ng

nat ura l

gro u

wal l

nd

0 T+

t Je

gr

ng di n ou

g in

1 T+

d un o gr

v mo re

2 T+

in ll i f

g

in

th wi

d me m ra

h rt ea

er

3 T+

ng xi i f

s mn u l co

mb ti

5 T+

m ti

r

be

at pl

rm fo

fr

g in m a

d an

g in c a br

1:200 Iso to show sequence of foundations and timber structure through two parts of the scheme

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1.33 STRUCTURE of clusters as components

pitched roof made from timber construction and ceramic cladding

Rain catcher roof made from timber and plastics

solar shading and vine growing canopy made from timber

Floor finishes made from compacted sand

Bedroom units prefabricated plywood fixed to the timber frame

Timber platform framing as primary structure timberal vaulting using thin clay bricks and fast setting concrete

rammed earth walls

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see jet grounding sequence

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timber frame

1.34 STRUCTURE Detail In order for the building to grow, the formwork for the rammed earth construction could be attached to the timber platforms itself as a guide and a base to stand on while doing the upper part of the ramming. Jet grounding is a good alternative to concrete, as it is less intrusive in the soil and takes advantage of using the soil itself to stabilise the structure above it rather than having to dig out the ground and pouring concrete. Jet grounding also is a process which has less embodied energy than in situ concrete.

community “grown� communal space

rammed earth

dwelling spaces dwelling spaces

jet grouting

It could be fixed to the timber posts using a high strength motar. See Section 02 Building Construction.

timber frame

formwork attached

rammed earth from timber platform

Rammed earth= community addition for communal use

timber frame= individual dwelling

formwork removed

high strength mortar

jet grouting

1:20

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1.35 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OVERALL Section anaysis shows that using the jet grouting method, there is no need for cross bracing the timber structure as there is no rotation movement at base.

sketch to show the loads acting in 3D

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1.36 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS FOUNDATIONS

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1.40 Services strategy

Risers which will carry all services for water and electricity etc will be for each individual cluster as shown in the diagram. Each riser will then serve that cluster for these needs. These will be accessible by riser cupboards which when needed to in the future can be used to additionally plumb extra services for new spaces in which it is adjacent to, The diagram shows in yellow how this could be done in the additional spaces. See section 03 for more details

[Academic use only]

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1.41 EXPLANATION AND PRECEDENTS rainwater for other

water supplied for bathroom use

The infrastructure and the framework sets where the bedroom units will be in location of the plan. When the residents move in there is the infrastructure to support the way the building grows to their needs.

bedrooms

A good precedent is the Social Housing Project by Elemental where the bathrooms and bedrooms were built first leaving gaps where the residents would build out the extentions to their houses when they could afford to do so. This gives great flexibility and control to the users of the building.

platforms

communal area for housing cluster to divide or share

entrance

views out to the river and to the communal spaces

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01.50

Building Regulations Part M states that means of access to and into a dwelling should be ‘reasonable provision within the boundary of the plot pf the dwelling for a disabled person to approach and gain access into the dwelling from the point of alighting a vehicle which maybe inside or outside the plot. In most circumstanced it should be possible to provide a level or ramped approach.’ However due to the variations in topography on steeply sloping plots mean that a stepped approach would be reasonable. This will satisfy part M1 of the Building Regulations since: -Stair widths are greater than 900mm -Rise of flights are less than 1.8m -Intermediate landings are less than 900mm in length -The treads have suitable nosings and the rise of each step is 150mm -There is a suitable handrail at least on one side of the flight. - Level entrance from vehicle to staircase -The entrance door has the appropriate door width of minimum clear opening of 775mm. -All corridors exceed minimum widths for disabled access.

Disabled Parking

Common Stairs has been provided for access between storeys designed to suit the needs of ambulant disabled people which is compliant with Part M of the Building Regulations. WC is provided within the entrance storey of the dwelling which can accommodate a wheelchair user. The door opens outwards and provides a clear space for wheelchair users to access it.

1:400 [Academic use only]

demic use only]

ACCESS

There is a passenger lift that satisfies part M with 1500mm by 1500mm clear landing infront of the entrance and doors of which has a clear opening of 800mm minimum

[Academic use only]

1:100 Disabled WC

1:100 Platform Lift

[Academic use only]

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01.60 FIRE In the event of fire, there will be a suitable means of escape which will allow a safe exit from the building by all occupants. Fire strategies will be compliant with Part B of the UK building regulations. The nearest fire station from the site is 3 miles away in Halton, so the building must be fireproofed to allow enought time for the fire and rescue service to reach the building. Fire risks are higher in residential buildings more than any other type of building, and risk of fire may occur by: cooking and kitchen fire residents fire electrical fire forest fire Building regulations Part B has guidance on means of warning and escape in event of fire. - there is sufficient means for giving early warning of fire for persons in the building. -there are routes of sufficient number and capacity which are suitably loated to enable persons to escape to a place of safety in the event of fire; and - the routes are sufficiently protected from the effects of fire where necessary.’ Building regulations Part B1 p 15

diagram showing how compartment walls between buildings run up to the roof and beams are short spans which do not continue through to other compartments adjacent

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01.61 FIRE analysis As the building is on a slope it makes sense that people of the top floors will be safer to escape to the road side north of the site, and the people on the lower floors of the site will be safer to escape to the south side of the site by the banks of the river. This could be a problem as if may cause confusion for residents knowing which exit is best for them. Here the diagram shows on the ground floor the strategy is that people have access to the circulation space which is 30min fire rating to which the staircases can be accessed for escape. Walls between houses in semi detached houses or houses in terraces should be treated as separate buildings and therefore dividing walls will be treated as compartment walls which form a complete barrier to fire. They should also run the full height of the building in a continious vertical plane and continue through the roof space. If one beam, joist or rafter fails it has been designed so that is will not cause failure in any other compartment.

[Academic use only]

[Academic use only]

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01.70- Context- local planning policy and unitary development plans

The site (marked by the red X) exists between an area of oustanding beauty and conservation areas. It also is in an area for scope for Increased Woodland cover. The site was originally paved over so by removing this tarmac and allowing the ground to revert back to its original state and the foundations of the building to be kept ‘light’ the ground is actually improved through the scheme. Also, the opportunity for increased native wildlife in the area can be accommodated within the scheme.

Relevant Policies and Strategies cover: Sustainable communities Regenerate the local economy Regerate the local environment Landscape Character The scheme exists within the local planning policies by addressing the concerns about the landscape and the sustainability of the scheme. In the choice of passive systems, and material choices of the project. Addressing the energy use and the environmental systems that have been chosen. Also in the protecting the natural habitat of the native animals and plants on the site.

Conservation areas

Scope For Increase Woodland Cover

Areas of outstanding beauty

Please see Procurement Chapter for more details.

www.lancashire.gov.uk accessed 4th March 2012

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01.80 Acoustic qualities The site is relatively quiet with no problems of sound pollution or traffic due to the site. However, with the site becoming residency for a small community with lots of interaction bettween them there is a concern that there needs to be acoustic control between rooms especially between residents private rooms and communal rooms. It will be up to the residents to choose and add acoustic barriers to control the acoustic qualities of their spaces. The use cork, sheep wool and rammed earth are choices in which can be added by the community and readily as needed

1.37 Health and Safety in construction The build will be over 300 man hours for the timber construction so appropriate CDM regulations will apply. A CDM co-ordinator is required. There is also a need for safety in the third stage of contruction for when the community adds to the building. There will be a need for some members of the community to learn the techniques correctly and to carry out the construction safely.

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01 building systems