Issuu on Google+

Spring 2011

Volume 2, Issue 1

Gestalt

Psi Chi

Events  New officer elections TBA

The Cedar Crest College Psi Chi Newsletter

 Graduation– 5/14 Congratulations Seniors!

Congratulations Inductees! A ceremony was held on April 21st, 2011 to honor the newest inductees to Cedar Crest College’s chapter of Psi Chi, the International Honor Society in psychology. Spring 2011 Sara Barcheski Alexandria Behrens Kenzie Bickhart Laurean Botrus Monica Bukowski Kristin Clancy Mischelle Damrose Laurian Della Sarah Doyle Emily Gault Emily Haner Alaina Hanzl Kimberly Hardiman Erica Hawkey Teresa Heft Stephanie Holzer Jennifer Kerns Carolyn Kirch Tamara Martin

Courtney Matoushek Kimberly McCormick Elizabeth McKiniry Jessica Miller Crystal Morlock Samantha Nigrelli Jennifer Oravec Kaitlin Oswald Liselotte Penix Abigail Rodgers Olga Roque Sarajane Seine Whitney Shannon Brittany Smith Jaimee Sujkowski Nikki Sunday Stephanie Weisel David Zaun Eryn Ziegler

Fall 2010 Rhiannon Anderson Marissa Cruz Abigail Diaz Felicity Hahn Bernhart Hochleitner Maxine Middlebrook Jessica Pahountis Christine Saleb Stephanie Scully Sonja Zippe

Inside this issue: Anna Freud

2-3

Florence Goodenough

4

On Bullying

5

Art Therapy

6

To the Seniors

7


Page 2

Gestalt

Anna Freud Sigmund and Martha Freud lived in Vienna with their children: Mathilde, Jean Martin, Oliver, Ernst and Sophie. Sigmund Freud was in the midst of creating, what would become, the field of psychology and thus, psychoanalysis. In his thirty-eighth year he was suffering from undiagnosed disease. From the beginning Anna did not form a close bond with her mother. Her mother decided she didn't want to breast feed, like she had with the others. She went on vacation for several months after Anna's birth. However, the nanny Josefine Cihlarz, took care of the three youngest children. Anna's brother recalls in his memoirs when they were younger that they would ask Josefine if there were a fire whom would she save first. Her immediate response was "Anna." There were several stories of the children attending functions and screaming when Josefine was not there. Anna didn't get along with her brothers and sisters very well. She felt she was boring and not "part of them". In addition, she felt especially close to her father. As she got older, he was proud of her intellectual interest and dissatisfaction with feminine activities. Despite trying to assimilate herself into her mother and sisters' web of activities such as men, knitting and beautiful clothing, Anna could not catch on to it. She began school in 1901 at age six at a private elementary school. As a student she was very bored and restless and whined about attending school. This gave her the nickname "Black Devil." In her later years in school, she would divert her restlessness by reading and writing incessantly. Anna said that she didn't learn much of anything from school. She was mainly taught by her father's guests to their home. This is where she picked up several languages such as Hebrew, German, English, French and Italian. In 1908 Anna had an appendectomy. This was a source of great stress for her since no one told her of her operation until she was admitted into the hospital and left. It took her several months to recuperate. After her surgery the family split up. Mathilde was married and lived in Vienna. Martin returned from the war and lived in Vienna where he studied law. Ernst and Oliver both studied in Munich and Berlin, and Sophie was still at home. During this time, while her family was apart from 19091912, she was first introduced into her father's world of psychoanalysis. She was fourteen. She was allowed to sit on a little library ladder in the corner of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society meetings. In 1912 Anna graduated from school in the early summer. She was seventeen. In June of 1914 Anna Freud passed an exam to be-

come an apprentice in elementary school teaching. In the meantime, Anna Freud's eagerness as an apprentice made her father very happy. In addition, she would send her father acco unts o f her dreams, and he would analyze them for her. She worked at the Cottage Lyceum with third graders, fourth graders and fifth graders. The administrator said that Anna had a "gift for teaching." They asked her to sign a four-year contract starting in the fall of 1918. She accepted the position. However, in January of 1917, she developed tuberculosis. This caused her to have to take 3 weeks off of school. It also left her susceptible to various diseases in the future that would affect her teaching career. In the summer of 1918 she tried a form of teaching called "project teaching." This brought her to Hungary to teach in the summer for one month. Then her students from Vienna came to Hungary to learn everything they could from experience. This proved to be a success, and was continued for several years after she left the school. During her time in Hungary she started a project of her own. Her father held the belief that every practitioner should go through a self-analysis before entering the field. After meeting all of her father's colleagues, she decided to start analysis with her father in October. However, in December of 1920, the family became ill with a serious case of influenza that took the life of Sophie, Anna's older sister. Anna had to permanently give up her teaching position because of the influenza. This gave her the opportunity to delve into her analysis. She was able to spend time in a warmer climate south of Vienna where she did much better. In the duration of 1920 she began to volunteer at the Baumgarten Home that cared for Jewish children who were orphaned or made homeless by the war. Here she met Siegfried Bernfeld and Willi Hoffer who ran the Home. Bernfeld, Hoffer and Anna would gather and discuss their

“Creative minds have always been known to survive any kind of bad training.�


Page 3

experiences with children. In 1924, she became a member of the Committee of her father's closest advisors. In 1925, she was on the executive board of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute and started work as a training analyst. In addition, she also took over all the aspects of production of the Verlag, which is a psychoanalytic publication similar to a journal that her father created. She also fought her father's battles concerning Otto Rank. Otto Rank decided to come out against Freudian beliefs with The Trauma of Birth. By the end of 1925, Helen Deutsch founded the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute. Anna was the secretary. She met with other leaders of this new field, and discussed issues dealing with child psychoanalysis. Anna herself did not publish any critical statements on the subject matter until the publication of her first book in 1927 entitled Introduction to the Technique of Child Analysis. It was a collection of all her lectures, and a direct attack at Melanie Klein's theories. At the core of this argument that oftentimes escalated into more issues was the idea of the ego and superego and it's formation. Melanie Klein believed that the superego developed at an early age into an unchangeable structure and intrapsychic conflict with this superego is the inceptor of the infantile neuroses. Although it does develop during Oedipal stage, however, it has nothing to do with the parent's influence. Whereas , Anna stuck with her father's idea that the superego was formed from the dissolution of the Oedipus Complex which parent's are for the most part the sole influence. She taught a course at the Vienna Training Institute that was put together by the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute. In 1927 Anna Freud, Eva Rosenfeld and Dorothy Burlingham organized a school for local children. The first wave of Berlin Jewish psychoanalysts fled Vienna for England. After this Anna Freud was made the "second vice president" of the Vienna Society in 1933. In actuality she was the leader because of everyone's hesitation of practicing within Vienna. She had to run the Society without appearing she was overseeing it. It also became a placement agency for psychoanalysts who had fled. As everyone was escaping Vienna, Anna and her father's plans were to keep the Vienna Society's child guidance center going as long as possible and keep things normal. Anna was, however, worried about the idea that her father might be subject to indignities such as a house search, etc. She joined the editorial board of American Journal Psychoanalytic Quarterly and produced for it in 1935 a Child Analysis issue dedicated to her work in Vienna.

Volume 2, Issue 1

Lastly, Anna Freud used her father’s work on defense mechanisms to expand her own. She postulated that there were three types of anxiety that resulted as a shield to protect the ego from the id, superego and reality:

Neurotic anxiety is the unconscious worry that we will lose control of the id's urges, resulting in punishment for inappropriate behavior. Reality anxiety is fear of real-world events. The cause of this anxiety is usually easily identified. For example, a person might fear receiving a dog bite when they are near a menacing dog. The most common way of reducing this anxiety is to avoid the threatening object. Moral anxiety involves a fear of violating our own moral principles.


Gestalt

Page 4

Florence Goodenough

Florence was born on August 6, 1886 in Honesdale, Pennsylvania. She was raised on a farm among eight other siblings. She attended Millersville Normal School and received her B.Pd. (bachelor of pedagogy). After, Florence began her teaching career in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Some major accomplishments made by Florence include: Key researcher in Terman’s study which led to the Stanford-Binet I.Q. test for children Published the Draw a Man Test… Draw a Woman Test in the book entitled Measure of Intelligence by Drawings Published Handbook of Child Psychology Created the Minnesota Preschool Scale Published 10 textbooks and 26 research studies (numerous articles) Florence had an extensive and impressive education, which resulted in her obtaining her Ph.D. in psychology. Before receiving her Ph.D., she attended Columbia University and also Stanford University. Her doctoral studies were completed at Stanford where she studied under Lewis Terman (1924). While studying under professors and researchers, and after obtaining her Ph.D., Florence made many contributions to the field of psychology. Some of these contributions include: Measurement of Intelligence by Drawings (1926) Draw a Man test for preschoolers was the test present within the book Second book: Anger in Young Children (1931) President of the National Council of Women Psychology in 1941 President of the Society of Research in Child Development in 1946 and 1947 Florence retired in 1947 due to a degenerative disease and became blind a few years later. She passed away on April 5, 1959 in her sister’s home in Florida of a stroke. Florence never married or had children, because she was always strongly devoted to her work.

 President of the National Council of Women Psychology in 1941  President of the Society of Research in Child Development in 1946 and 1947


Page 5

Volume 2, Issue 1

On Bullying Recent statistics suggest that one out of every seven children will be bullied in school, and more than one third of those children will respond to that bullying with either self-isolation, or by planning ways of enacting revenge for the wrongdoings against them. While there has been much attention centered on bullying prevention and how to deal help children deal with bullies, the responses of the educators who are witnessing these situations are rarely taken into account. The following study concerns pre-service teacher’s reactions to different bullying scenarios, and how the type of bullying that is present in each scenario can affect how that situation is viewed. Bauman and Del Rio (2006) investigated pre-service teacher’s reactions to various bullying situations, and whether the type of bullying behavior presented had any bearing on participants perceptions of the bullying situation. Participants were asked to respond to six written vignettes describing school bullying situations, including scenarios of physical, verbal, and relational bullying, and complete a Likert scale concerning their perception of the seriousness of the incident, their degree of empathy for the victim, and the likelihood of intervention. Results indicated that relational bullying was rated as the least serious out of the 3 types of bullying presented to the participants. In addition, participants rated the least amount of empathy for the victims of relational bullying, were least likely to intervene in relational bullying incidents, and responded with the least severe actions for both perpetrators and victims of relational bullying. Overall, results indicated that physical bullying was seen as the most serious. Bauman and Del Rio (2006) offer several explanations for this discrepancy between perceptions of physical and relational bullying. One of the reasons may be due to the ambiguous nature of relational bullying, which is not as obvious as when a

teacher might observe an incident of physical bullying. Due to many zero tolerance policies for physical and verbal violence that are in place in numerous schools, there are set guidelines for recognizing and responding to this type of behavior. As a result, teachers, regardless of their experience level, are not as likely to encounter feelings of uncertainty concerning the best course of action in any given bullying situation. Relational bullying behaviors, however, are not as clear cut and easily recognizable, or as easily corrected, and are less likely to be forbidden by school policy. Also, teachers may fear that reporting incidents of relational bullying to an administrator may cause them to be perceived as ineffective classroom managers. In addition, when the results of this study were compared with those of practicing teachers in a previous study, the results found that even though pre-service teachers had significantly higher scores on seriousness, empathy, and likelihood of intervention for all bullying types, there was no significant differences found between the two groups on actions toward the bully. The recognition of wrongdoing with a corresponding lack of action may reflect a certain level of idealism on the part of preservice teachers. Furthermore, even though pre-service teachers may recognize the importance of bullying as a problem more than many seasoned teachers, they did not have better way of coping with bullying in school than seasoned teaching veterans (Bauman, & Del Rio, 2006). Bauman, S., & Del Rio, A. (2006). Preservice teachers’ responses to bullying scenarios: Comparing physical, verbal, and relational bully ing. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1),

October is National Bullying Prevention Awareness Month!


Page 6

Gestalt

My Views on Art Therapy B y: S ta ce y S t a ngl

My interests lie in the field of Art Therapy. I plan on becoming a specialist in child and adolescent counseling and utilizing art therapy to work with this population in various settings such as hospitals, studios, correction facilities, schools, and different trauma camps.

velopment. Closely related in practice to marriage and family therapists and mental health counseling, art therapists throughout the US are licensed as either MFTs, LPCs, or LPCCs and hold either registration or board certification as an art therapist (see section on

Art therapy is defined as: “a form of expressive therapy that uses art materials, such as paints, chalk and markers. Art therapy c o m b i n e s m o r e t r a d i tional psychotherapeutic theories and techniques with an understanding of the psychological aspects of the creative process, especially the affective properties of the different art materials. As a mental health profession, art therapy

Art Therapy Standards of Practice). Art therapists work with children, adolescents, and adults and provide services to individuals, couples, families, groups, and communities.

is employed in many clinical settings with diverse populations. Art therapy can be found in non-clinical settings as well as in art studios and in workshops that focus on creativity de

This picture is from a presentation I did called “Art Therapy Uses: Treatment for Patients with Eating Disorders� - during which the class completed a collaborative work of art, similar to what would be done in a true art therapy session.


Page 7

Volume 2, Issue 1

CONGRATULATIONS! To the Graduating Seniors

Six officers of Cedar Crest College’s chapter of Psi Chi will be graduating on Saturday, May 14th at 11am. Cortney Rieck Victoria Schupp Adrienne Maurer Brittany Haltzman Stacey Stangl Cinthia Marino


Gestalt Newsletter Editors: Cortney Rieck

Psi Chi

Stacey Stangl Contributors: Brittany Haltzman Danica Hannis Shannon Haberzettl Stacey Stangl

Psi Chi Officers 2010-2011 Co-President– Cortney Rieck Co-President– Victoria Schupp Vice President– Danica Hannis Secretary– Adrienne Maurer Treasurer– Brittany Haltzman Historian– Stacey Stangl Events Coordinator– Cinthia Marino

Psi Chi Faculty Advisors Dr. Sharon Himmanen Dr. Micah Sadigh About Gestalt: Gestalt is a student-run newsletter in the Psychology department at Cedar Crest College that was created to help students advance further in the field of psychology by means of writing well-researched articles, and providing thoughtful insight to topics in psychology. Gestalt features articles written by students that belong to Cedar Crest’s chapter of Psi Chi, the National Honor Society in Psychology as well as information on upcoming events and general information about the psychology program. The newsletter is written and edited completely by students, and is always looking for submissions.

To contact the Cedar Crest College Psi Chi chapter please email: psichi@cedarcrest.edu


Gestalt Spring 2011 Newsletter