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Ema Ani~i} RIP – Rije~ka industrijska pri~a R.I.P. – Rijeka's Industrial Past


izdava~/publisher Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka Muzejski trg 1/1, Rijeka urednik/editor Ervin Dubrovi} autorica/author Ema Ani~i} recenzentica/reviewer Julija Lozzi Barkovi} dizajn knjige/design of the monograph Vesna Rožman lektorica i korektorica/proofreading Gordana Ožbolt prijevod na engleski/English translation Ira Stani}-Maruna fotografije/photography Stanislav Beli~ka, Kristijan Vu~kovi}, Željko Stojanovi} stru~ni suradnici/collaborators Marija Lazanja Duševi}, Ivana Golob, Luka Ani~i}, Mia Rizner suradnici u pripremi/co-collaborators Jasna Milinkovi}, Ivana Lu~i} projektna dokumentacija/project documentation Državni arhiv u Rijeci/State Archives in Rijeka financirali su/funded by Grad Rijeka/The City of Rijeka, Primorsko-goranska županija/Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Ministarstvo kulture Republike Hrvatske/ Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Croatia tisak/printing

Rijeka, o`ujak/March 2014.

zahvale/acknowledgments Larsen ^ebuhar, Ivan Paškvan, Mladen Grguri}, Igor Žic, Davor Velni}, Kristina Pandža, Damir Sabali}, Deborah Pustišek, Mladen Urem, Ivan Kajapi, Petar Mutavdžija, Andrej Mir~ev, Velid \eki}, Oleg [imi}, Ivan Perani}, Tamara Knego, Drago Ivandi}, Safet Baštrakaj, Željko Žuža, Jasmina Karahasanovi}

CIP zapis dostupan u ra~unalnom katalogu Sveu~ilišne knjižnice Rijeka pod brojem 130406056 ISBN 978-953-6587-74-2


Ema Ani~i}

RIP Muzej grada Rijeke, 2014.


Pri~a o baštini ili o ostacima i krhotinama? Ova knjiga o povijesti rije~ke industrije ujedno je tužna slika rije~ke propasti. No više nego ukazivanje na propast, zada}a joj je topografskim pristupom prikazati rezultate sustavnih istraživanja, koja su doista obuhva}ala svaki pedalj gradskoga podru~ja, te ukratko prikazati ~im više tvorni~kih zgrada, postrojenja i skladišta, koja su nastajala i nestajala tijekom dvaju stolje}a rije~ke industrijske povijesti, od polovice osamnaestog do polovice dvadesetoga stolje}a. Iako je Muzej grada Rijeke krenuo s vrlo ranim primjerima rije~kih proizvodnih pogona, glavnina je vezana uz doba najve}ega uspona industrijske povijesti, uz drugu polovicu devetnaestog i po~etke dvadesetoga stolje}a. No nije se moglo ispustiti slavne po~etke – Povlašteno rije~ko trgova~ko društvo (ili Trš}ansko-rije~ko društvo, kojemu je zadnji nasljednik isto tako propali Rikard Ben~i}). Doba "lake konjice", proizvodnje še}era i papira, naslijedilo je doba "teške metalurgije", ljevaonica, proizvodnje torpeda, motora i ~eli~nih brodova, prera|iva~a nafte te proizvo|a~a i distributera struje (termoelektrana) i vode (vodovodni sustav). No pridružuju im se i prera|iva~i kože i drva, proizvo|a~i duhana i ~okolade, "mehani~ki" mlinovi za proizvodnju brašna, ljuštionica riže i pržionica kave. U pri~u o industrijskoj povijesti Rijeke uklju~ene su i luka i željeznica, koje ništa ne proizvode, ali su neizostavan dio sustava, a industrijske su svojom ikonografijom, velikim skladištima, silosima, dizalicama i drugim postrojenjima (remiza za lokomotive). Sustavna pri~a o usponu i padu, o okolnostima koje su uzdignule rije~ku industriju i prilikama u kojima se po~ela urušavati i potom posve nestala, pri~ekat }e neku drugu priliku za koju tek treba profilirati primjeren pristup i provesti sustavna istraživanja. Ovo je ponajprije knjiga o industrijskim zgradama i o punktovima industrijske proizvodnje na tlu cjelokupnog prostora grada. S jedne strane teži leksikonskoj preglednosti i sažetosti, s druge vizualnoj privla~nosti i upe~atljivosti. Autorica teksta Ema Ani~i} provela je iscrpna arhivska i terenska istraživanja na kojima ju je uporno pratio vrstan fotograf Stanislav Beli~ka. Unato~ raskoši njegovih fotografskih detalja te fascinantnim i neuobi~ajenim vizurama koje su Muzej i potaknule da se upusti u rad na ovoj knjizi i izložbi, prevagnule su dokumentarne fotografije, one koje više govore o cjelini nego o pojedinostima. Stoga su mnogi likovno atraktivni detalji, od kojih neki apstraktno koloristi~ki, drugi vedro pop-artisti~ki, a tre}i sutonsko nadrealisti~ki, pali u sjenu pred fotografijama koje zahva}aju širu vizuru pojedinih pogona. Upravo su te, katkad manje atraktivne "panorame", još ~esto i kontaminirane tragovima današnjice, satelitskim antenama, klima-ure|ajima i automobilima koji napadaju i zaposjedaju i najskrovitije zakutke. U svakom slu~aju Rije~ka industrijska pri~a – koja ne pripovijeda o ne~emu što doživljavamo i prema ~emu se odnosimo kao prema baštini, nego govori o arheologiji, o ostacima i krhotinama – pruža prvi pouzdan i cjelovit uvid, daje prvu važnu sintezu koja nas poti~e na daljnji rad, na istraživanje, na obnavljanje i uklapanje baštine u suvremeni život.

Ervin Dubrovi}


A Story About Heritage or one About Remnants and Fragments? This book portrays the history of Rijeka’s industry but also creates a sad image of Rijeka’s downfall. However, rather than pointing to failure, its mission is to topographically present the results of a systematic research which indeed encompassed every inch of the city area as well as to briefly illustrate many of the factory buildings, plants and warehouses which emerged and disappeared over the two centuries of Rijeka’s industrial history, from the mid-18th to the mid-19th century. Although the Museum of Rijeka started with very early examples of Rijeka’s manufacturing plants, the majority of the book is related to the period of the greatest industrial rise which took place in the second half of the 19th and in the early 20th century. However, we could not omit the glorious beginnings – Rijeka’s Privileged Trading Company (or the Trieste-Rijeka Company and its last successor, the equally collapsed Rikard Ben~i}). The era of “light cavalry” with its sugar and paper production was inherited by an era of “heavy metallurgy” with foundries, torpedo, engines and steel ship factories, oil refineries and producers and distributors of electricity (thermal power plants) and water (water supply systems). They were joined by leather and wood as well as tobacco and chocolate manufacturing plants, “mechanical” mills for the production of flour, rice mills and coffee roasting plants. The story of Rijeka’s industrial history also includes its ports and railway, which produced nothing, but were nevertheless an indispensable part of the equation. With their iconography, large warehouses, silos, cranes and other installations (like the traction maintenance depot) they were just as well industrial facilities. A systematic story of the rise and fall, of the circumstances that propelled Rijeka’s industry and of the conditions in which it began to crumble and then disappeared altogether, will wait for another opportunity for which we have yet to define an appropriate approach and implement systematic research. This is primarily a book about industrial buildings and points of industrial production in the entire area of ​​the city. On the one hand, it aspires to lexicographic clarity and brevity and, on the other hand, to visual appeal and impressiveness. The author of the text, Ema Ani~i}, has conducted extensive archival and field research, in which she was steadily accompanied by the accomplished photographer Stanislav Beli~ka. Despite the splendour of his photographic detail and fascinating and unusual views, which, in fact, encouraged the Museum to engage in the work on this book and the eponymous exhibition, the documentary photographs, the ones that are more about the whole than about the details, prevail. Thus, many attractive visual details, some of which abstractly colouristic, others brightly pop-artistic and yet others shadowy surreal, made way for the photographs which provide a broader vision of the individual plants. It is exactly these sometimes less attractive “panoramas” that are, in addition, often contaminated with traces of today’s world, with satellite dishes, air conditioners and cars that attack and occupy the most hidden corners. In either case, Rijeka’s Industrial Past is not only about something that we experience and something we refer to as heritage, but it is also about archaeology, about remnants and fragments. This book provides the first reliable and comprehensive insight as well as a first major synthesis that encourages us to conduct further work and research and to restore and integrate our heritage into our contemporary life.

Ervin Dubrovi}


RIP – Rije~ka industrijska pri~a

Nadam se da ova knjiga ne}e biti još jedan od ostataka rije~ke industrijske baštine. Knjiga je nužno fragmentarna, a u njoj je "revitalizirano" onoliko koliko je ostalo sa~uvano u povijesnim izvorima. 1 Iako termin fabbrica u prijevodu s talijanskog jezika na hrvatski ozna­ ~ava tvornicu, valja pojasniti specifi~nost povijesno-gospodarskog kon­teksta i spomenuti da rije~ke fabbrice s kraja 18. i po~etka 19. sto­ lje}a nisu bile tvornice, nego manufakture. Manufakture imaju manji broj radnika od tvornica, proizvodni proces je tehnološki jednostavniji, a produktivnost manja. Stoga }e se u ovom radu pojam fabbrica, kojim se u izvorima (Spisi magistrata) ozna~avaju upravo ti proizvodni kapaciteti, prevoditi pojmom manufaktura s obzirom na to da je potrebno napraviti razliku izme|u fabbrice s po~etka 19. stolje}a i tvor­ni~kih kompleksa kasnijih razdoblja. Pove}anjem broja radnika u proizvodnom pogonu te usavršavanjem tehnološkog procesa i pove}a­njem produktivnosti samog pogona može se govoriti o tvornicama u užem smislu rije~i te se u tom smislu taj pojam i upotrebljava u tekstu. 2 Prva prometnica koja je spajala Rijeku i Karlovac zvala se Karolinska cesta, a bila je dovršena 1728. godine. Zbog potrebe za boljom prometnicom prema kontinentu, 1803. zapo~inje izgradnja druge ceste od Rijeke do Karlovca preko Gornjeg Jelenja, Delnica i Skrada, Lujzinske ceste, a dovršava se za vrijeme francuske uprave u ovim krajevima, 1811. godine. Ve} 1830. dovršava se cestovna veza izme|u Rijeke i Trsta. (Nikola Straži~i}, Rije~ka luka – od malog emporija na uš}u Rje~ine do lu~kog sustava na obalama Kvarnera, u: Rije~ka luka-povijest, izgradnja, promet, Muzej grada Rijeka, Rijeka, 2001., str. 10.)

Rije~ka industrijska pri~a (RIP) govori o odvažnim pothvatima inozemnih i rije~kih poduzetnika koji su Rijeku u~inili zna~ajnim industrijskim, trgova~kim i prometnim središtem unutar Austro-Ugarske Monarhije. Oboga}ena proizvodnjom raznovrsnih manufaktura i industrija, ali i zbog svojega iznimna geografskog položaja, Rijeka postaje jednom od glavnih luka Sredozemlja. Silovit gospodarski napredak i tehnološki uzlet, vo|en otvorenim svjetonazorom, doveo je koncem 19. stolje}a Rijeku do vrhunca gospodarskog razvoja pa se slobodno može zaklju~iti da rije~ka industrijska era predstavlja svojevrsnu modernu renesansu grada. U drugoj polovici 18. i prvim desetlje}ima 19. stolje}a u Rijeci se zapaža zna~ajan rast manufakturne proizvodnje.1 Razlog tomu treba tražiti ponajprije u obilju sirovina kojima je bogata rije~ka okolica. Drugi preduvjet pokretanja proizvodnje odnosi se na postojanje tržišta i dobrih prometnih pravaca. Svakako treba istaknuti pomorske putove i razvoj luke, ali i ceste2 i željezni~ke pruge koje vode prema kontinentu. Uz donji tok Rje~ine, današnji Mrtvi kanal, vežu se prva trgovišta o kojima svjedo~e velike bitve nanizane uz gotovo cijeli kanal. Bitve su služile za vezivanje transportnih jedrenjaka. Prve manufakturne radnje

3 Nikola Straži~i}, n. d. (2001.), str. 10.

se osnivaju u neposrednoj blizini samih mjesta na kojima se trgovalo, ali se širenjem trži-

4 Rije~ko manufakturno doba bilo je obilježeno proizvodnjom svije}a. Vlasnik najve}e takve manufakture bio je Josip (Giuseppe) Pessi. Njegova je manufaktura imala dva zaposlenika i uživala je status privilegirane fabbrice s djelovanjem u Rijeci. (DARI, JU 51, kutija 264., fascikl VIII., 1824.) Imao je radionicu na Brajdi i prodavaonicu na Korzu. Nakon njegove smrti 1875., posao je preuzeo njegov ne}ak Dragutin Rudan koji ga 1880. seli na svoj suša~ki posjed. Od 1898. tvornica ulazi u vlasništvo Josipa Jagodnika, posjeduje parni stroj i aktivno radi u prvoj polovici 20. stolje}a. Svije}ama je opskrbljivala crkve Primorja, Like, Gorskog kotara i Istre. (Andrija Ra~ki, Povijest grada Sušaka, Tisak Primorskog štamparskog zavoda d.d., Sušak, 1929., str. 286.) 5 U Rijeci je od 60-ih godina 18. do prve polovice 19. stolje}a radilo nekoliko užarskih radnji: Nicole Crespija iz Riminija, udovice Francesca Spadonija, Ivana Nepomuka Pilepi}a, Antonija Spadonija, Giovannija Spadonija i drugih. (Milica Trkulja, Rijeka – središte manufakturne proizvodnje, u: Temelji moderne Rijeke, Muzej grada Rijeke, Rijeka, 2006., str. 53.)

6

šta osnivaju nove manufakturne radnje, udaljene od korita Rje~ine. Zbog potreba tih malo udaljenijih manufaktura dolazi do postupnog nasipavanja i stvaranja operativne obale, i tu se jasno uo~ava sinergija koja je postojala izme|u samih proizvodnih i privezišnih kapaciteta. Primjerice, sredinom 18. stolje}a na Brajdi se osniva Rafinerija še}era zbog ~ijih se potreba u blizini gradi i mali kameni gat za iskrcaj sirovina koje su se dovozile brodovima iz prekooceanskih zemalja.3 U mandra}u pred Rafinerijom še}era otvara se i Lazaret sv. Karla Boromejskog koji je služio za raskuživanje kontaminiranih brodova i posada, koji su ve}inom prevozili sirovine za same manufakture. U Rijeci su u to vrijeme, osim Rafinerije še}era, postojali i stolarski, tesarski, kožarski, ugljenarski, veslarski, ba~varski, brodograditeljski, svje}arski,4 užarski5 i drugi pogoni, primjerice za proizvodnju alkoholnih pi}a i likera. Gledano s kulturološkog stajališta,


R.I.P. – Rijeka's Industrial Past

I hope that this book will not be yet another remnant of Rijeka’s industrial heritage. Its structure is inevitably of a fragmentary nature and it "revitalises" as much as has been preserved in historical sources. Rijeka’s Industrial Past (R.I.P.) is a book about daring ventures of entrepreneurs from Rijeka and abroad who made Rijeka a significant industrial, commercial and transport centre within the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Enriched with a variety of manufacturing and industrial products, but also because of its exceptional geographical position, Rijeka became one of the main ports of the Mediterranean. Tremendous economic progress and the technological rise driven by an open world view led the late-19th century Rijeka to the summit of economic importance and we can safely conclude that Rijeka’s industrial era represents the city’s modern renaissance.In the second half of the 18th and the first decades of the 19th century, Rijeka experienced a significant increase in manufacturing production.1 The reason for this should be sought primarily in the abundance of raw materials that are found in Rijeka’s surrounding area. Another prerequisite for the start of production refers to the existence of markets and good transportation routes. Maritime routes and the development of the harbour are of great importance here, but also road2 and rail routes directed

1 Although the term fabbrica means factory if translated from Italian into English, it is necessary to properly clarify the specific historical and economic context and to note that Rijeka’s fabbricas from the end of the 18th and the early 19th century were not really factories, they were rather manufacturing shops. Manufacturing shops have a smaller number of workers than a factory, the manufacturing process technology is somewhat simpler and the productivity lower. Therefore, the term fabbrica, which, according to sources (Municipal Documents), indicates precisely such production capacities, will be translated as manufacturing shop or plant considering that it is necessary to distinguish between a fabbrica from the early 19th century and a factory complex of the later period. By increasing the number of workers in a manufacturing plant, improving technological processes and increasing productivity one can talk about factories in the narrow sense of the term and use it in the text as such. 2 The first road that connected Rijeka and Karlovac was called Karolina Road and was completed in 1728. Already in 1830, the road connecting Rijeka and Trieste was also completed. Because of the need for a better connection with the continent, the construction of another road from Rijeka to Karlovac across Gornje Jelenje, Delnice and Skrad, the Louisiana Road, began in 1803 and was completed in 1811, during the French rule in this region. (Nikola Straži~i}, Rije~ka luka-od malog emporija na uš}u Rje~ine do lu~kog sustava na obalama Kvarnera, in: Rije~ka luka-povijest, izgradnja, promet, Muzej grada Rijeke, Rijeka, 2001, p 10)

towards the continent. The first marketplaces are linked to the lower flow of the Rje~ina

3 Nikola Straži~i}, ibid. (2001), p. 10.

river, today’s Dead Canal. Large bollards strung along almost the entire channel bear witness to that development today. Bollards were used for bonding transport sailing ships. First manufacturing shops were established in the immediate vicinity of marketplaces, but the expansion of the market led to the formation of new manufacturing shops, located away from the bed of the Rje~ina. The needs of these more distant manufacturing plants led to the gradual filling and forming of a quay, showing an obvious synergy that existed between production and mooring capacities. For example, in the mid-18th century, the needs of the newly established Sugar Refinery in Brajda resulted in the construction of a small stone pier in front of it for unloading raw materials that were brought in by ships from overseas countries.3 In the small port in front of the Sugar Refinery, the Lazaretto of St. Charles Borromeo was opened and served for decontamination of contaminated ships and crews that were mostly transporting raw materials for manufacturing. Apart from the Sugar Refinery, at that time, Rijeka also had a joinery, a carpentry, a shipyard,

4 Rijeka’s manufacturing era was characterized by the production of candles. The owner of the largest such manufacturing shop was Joseph (Giuseppe) Pessi. His facility had two employees and enjoyed the status of a privileged fabbrica of Rijeka. (State Archives in Rijeka, PI 51, box 264, folder VIII, 1824) He had a workshop on Brajda and a shop on the Corso. After his death in 1875, the facility was taken over by his nephew Dragutin Rudan and, in 1880, it moved to his estate in Sušak. In 1898, Josip Jagodnik assumed ownership of the plant and continued with production in the first half of the 20th century. He supplied the Croatian Littoral, Lika, Gorski Kotar and Istria with candles. (Andrija Racki, Povijest grada Sušaka, Tisak Primorskog štamparskog zavoda d.d. Sušak, 1929, p. 286) 5 From the 1860s until the first half of the 19th century, Rijeka had several rope making manufacturing plants, belonging to Nicola Crespi from Rimini, widow of Francesco Spadoni, Ivan Nepomuk Pilepi}, Antonio Spadoni, Giovanni Spadoni and others. (Milica Trkulja, Rijekasredište manufakturne proizvodnje, in: Temelji moderne Rijeke,Muzej grada Rijeka, Rijeka, 2006, p. 53)

manufacturing plants for leather, coal, oars, barrels, copper, candles4, ropes5 as well as other facilities, such as plants for the production of alcoholic beverages and liqueurs. From the 7


6 DARI, PR 1, kutija 264., fascikl VIII, 1824.; Milica Trkulja, n. d. (2006.), str. 53.

zanimljivo je da su u Rijeci djelovale mnoge manufakture za izradu odjevnih predmeta,

7 Isto, str. 54.

iz Ferma,6 ~ija je radionica od 31. sije~nja 1801. uživala status povlaštene rije~ke fa-

ponajviše šešira. Godine 1796. najuspješniji u izradi šešira bio je Giuseppe Fulvi rodom bbrice i imala petnaest zaposlenih. Šeširima su se bavili i Francesco Rinaldi i Ivan Pile-

8 Povijest Rijeke, ur. Danilo Klen, Skupština op}ine Rijeka, ICR, Rijeka, 1988., str. 143.

pi}.7 Zabilježeno je i nekoliko radionica kože i krzna. Još šezdesetih godina 18. stolje}a

9 Milica Trkulja, n. d. (2006.), str. 54.

J. Antuna Veltensa, Luigija de Orlanda i Giuseppea de Zanchija, koja je registrirana

10 Deseppi je posjedovao štavionicu kože, krzna i sukna s ukupno ~etrdeset zaposlenih radnika, a robu je izvozio u Dalmaciju i Italiju. (Milica Trkulja, n. d. (2006.), str. 54.) 11 Kožara Giuseppea Anitonija Majera imala je ~etiri zaposlena radnika i status privilegirane tvornice. Privilegij je dobio Antonijev otac Giuseppe 29. rujna 1791. (DARI, PR 1, kutija 264., fascikl VIII, 1824.) 12 U Simonettijevoj radionici radila su samo dva zaposlena; ova manufaktura nije uživala status privilegirane fabbrice. (DARI, PR 1, kutija 264., fascikl VIII, 1824.; Milica Trkulja, Rije~ka luka – povijest, izgradnja, promet, Suša~ka revija, godina IX., br. 33, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 2001., str. 54.) 13 Andrija Ljudevit Adami} i njegov otac imali su trgova~ku poslovnicu Simeone Adamic e figlio. 14 Jedna od Adami}evih manufaktura bila je proizvodnja stakla koju pokre}e u Mrzoj Vodici, kupljenom 1807. godine. U prvoj polovici 19. stolje}a postojalo je još nekoliko manjih manufaktura s jednim do dva zaposlena radnika koji su se bavili staklarskim zanatom, to~nije proizvodnjom ~aša. U arhivskim izvorima spominju se Bartolo Matkovich, Luigi Negovetich, Mattio Rocco Doix, Giuseppe Negovetich i drugi, ~ije fabbrice nisu uživale najve}i privilegij. (DARI, PR 1, kutija 264., fascikl VIII, 1824.; Irvin Lukeži}, Andrija Ljudevit Adamich i William Moline, Suša~ka revija, godina XIV., br. 56, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 2006., str. 78.) Mrzla Vodica je mjesto smješteno na strateški važnoj poziciji, a prolaskom Lujzinske ceste postat }e trgova~ki važna. (Rudolf Strohal, Uz Lujzinsku cestu, Tiskara Rijeka, Rijeka, 1993., str. 54.) 15 DARI, JU 4, kutija 919, br. 1246, 3. IV 1824.

spominju se A. Brajni} i L. Minolli,8 zatim radionica u vlasništvu Ignazija Verpoortena, 1788. i navodno je štavila kožu za Njema~ku i Italiju.9 Po~etkom 19. stolje}a djelovale su manufakture Domenica Deseppija,10 Giuseppea Antonija Majera11 te Antonija Simonettija u ~ijem je vlasništvu bila štavionica i bojaonica svih vrsta krzna.12 Po~etak 19. stolje}a obilježen je djelovanjem Andrije Ljudevita Adami}a, trgovca i vizionara ~iji }e rad utabati put razvoju prvih tvorni~kih postrojenja u Rijeci.13 Adami}evoj trgovini Europa je bila mala pa su se proizvodi iz njegove ponude odvozili i u daleke svjetske luke. Svojom gospodarskom djelatnoš}u Andrija Ljudevit Adami} name}e se kao klju~na osoba za razumijevanje društvenih i gospodarskih prilika u Rijeci do sredine 19. stolje}a. Rijeku je zadužio naprednim industrijsko-poduzetni~kim svjetonazorom, a uz to što je sam bio pokreta~ brojnih manufaktura,14 zahvaljuju}i njegovim poznanstvima u Rijeku dolaze znanstvenici i investitori, od kojih je najzna~ajniji William Moline. Moline u ožujku 1824. preuzima Adami}ev mlin i manufakturnu proizvodnju papira,15 a ve} u rujnu te godine zajedno s Britancima Charlesom Thomasom Hillom i Johnom Simpsonom osniva pivovaru (Fabbrica Birra Hill & Co).16 Na popisu privilegiranih manufaktura, koji se nalazi u arhivskom gradivu Magistrata za 1824. godinu, pohranjenom u Državnom arhivu u Rijeci, spominje se i Molineov pogon za ekstrahiranje tanina iz hrastova drva namijenjena preradi kože. Ta je manufaktura bila smještena na Rje~inu, mjesto Hrast, a njezin pokreta~ bio je Andrija Ljudevit Adami}.17 Manufaktura je zapošljavala osam radnika. Gospodarski razvoj popra}en ja~anjem trgovinskih veza, dolaskom brojnih stranih inve-

16 Prema spisima Magistrata tvornica je bila smještena u ku}i Michielea Manattija. (DARI, Spisi magistrata 1822–1825). Smatram da je proiz­ vodnja zapo~ela negdje oko 1825., nakon što je izgra|ena pe} potrebna za rad. Pivo se proizvodilo prema receptu engleske tehnologije prerade, a izvozilo sve do Krfa u Gr~koj. U dvorištu spomenute ku}e nalazio se i pogon za proizvodnju ruma (Fabbrica di Rhum). (Irvin Lukeži}, n. d. (2006.), str. 81.) 17 Adami} manufakturu osniva 1820., ali je ubrzo prodaje Molineu. S obzirom na Molineov "izumiteljski" status u domeni proizvodnje koju je unaprijedio brojnim inovacijama, manufaktura dobiva carske privilegije koje joj olakšavaju poslovanje. (DARI, PR-1, kut. 264, fascikl VIII, Farrbice con privilegio, 1824.) 18 Rudolf Bi~ani}, Doba manufakture u Hrvatskoj i Slavoniji 1750.–1860., Jugoslavenska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti, Zagreb, 1951., str. 127. 19 Rudolf Bi~ani}, n. d. (1951.), str. 121.; Milica Turkulja, n. d. (2006.), str. 51.

8

stitora i visokoobrazovanih ljudi te razvojem manufakturne i industrijske proizvodnje sa sobom je nosio i prekomjerno iskorištavanje prirodnih resursa. Jedna od najštetnijih manufaktura primorskog kraja bila je prerada potaše, pepeljike, odnosno kalcijeva karbonata. Glavna je sirovina za ovaj proizvod drvo, a zbog tadašnje tehnologije bile su potrebne iznimno velike koli~ine drva. Postupak se sastojao od izgaranja drva, naj~eš}e bukovine, nakon ~ega se pepeo lužio u kotlovima te se kristaliziranjem i kalcinacijom dobivala potaša.18 Potaša se koristila u kemijskoj proizvodnji za izradu sapuna, u medicini i proizvodnji stakla. Znatna koli~ina proizvoda izvozila se u Veneciju gdje se koristila za proizvodnju venecijanskog stakla.19 O manufakturama, kao na~inu proizvodnje, može se govoriti do sredine 19. stolje}a. Druga polovica 19. stolje}a razdoblje je konkretnoga industrijskog napretka, a za~etak


cultural point of view, it is interesting to note that Rijeka had many manufacturing shops that produced garments, mostly hats. In 1796, the most successful hatter in Rijeka was Giuseppe

6 State Archives in Rijeka, PR 1, box 264, folder VIII, 1824; Milica Trkulja, ibid. (2006), p. 53.

Fulvi, a native of Ferma,6 whose workshop with a workforce of 15 employees enjoyed the status of a privileged fabbrica ever since it opened on 31 January 1801. Millinery was also the occupation of Francesco Rinaldi and Ivan Pilepi}7. There were also several workshops for leather and fur. In the 1860s, there is mention of A. Brajni} and L. Minolli8 as well as a work-

7 Ibid., p. 54 8 Povijest Rijeke, ed. Danilo Klen, Skupština op}ine Rijeka, ICR, Rijeka, 1988, p. 143 9 Milica Trkulja, ibid. (2006), p. 54

shop owned by Ignazio Verpoorten, J. Antun Veltens, Luigi de Orlando and Giuseppe de Zanchi, which was registered in 1788 and was allegedly engaged in tanning and processing leather for the markets of Germany and Italy. In the early 19 century, Domenico Deseppi, 9

th

10

Giuseppe Antonio Majer11 and Antonio Simonetti operated manufacturing plants and owned a tannery and dyeworks for all kinds of fur.12 The beginning of the 19th century was marked by the activities of Andrija Ljudevit Adami}, merchant and visionary, whose work paved the way for the development of the first factory plants in Rijeka.13 The European market was too small for Adami}’s trading skills and his products were transported to distant international ports. With his economic activity, Andrija Ljudevit Adami} represents a key figure for understanding the social and economic conditions of mid-19th century Rijeka. He indebted Rijeka with his advanced industrial and entrepreneurial worldview, and he was the initiator of numerous manufacturing plants.14 Thanks to his contacts, Rijeka attracted a number of scientists and investors, most notably William Moline. In March 1824, Moline took over Adami}’s mill and the manufacturing of paper.15 In September of the same year, together with the British Charles Thomas Hill and John Simpson, he founded a brewery (Fabbrica Birra Hill & Co.).16 It should also be noted that the list of privileged manufacturing plants found within the municipal archival material from 1824 and stored in the State Archives in Rijeka mentions Moline’s plant for the extraction of tannins from oak wood and intended for processing leather. This manufacturing plant was located on the Rje~ina river, in the town of Hrast, and its founder was also Andrija Ljudevit Adami}.17 The manufacturing plant employed eight workers. Economic development, accompanied by the strengthening of trade relations, the arrival of many foreign investors and highly educated people as well as the development of manufacturing and industrial production resulted in an excessive extermination of natural resources. One of the most harmful manufacturing plants of the littoral region was the processing of so called potash, better known as potassium carbonate. The main raw material for this product was wood and the technology of the time needed extremely large amounts of it. The process consisted of burning the wood, usually beech, followed by leaching the ashes in boilers in order to finally obtain potash through crystallization and calcination.18 Potash was used in the chemical production of soap, in medicine and for manufacturing glass. Significant quantities of the product were exported to Venice, where it was used for the production of Venetian glass.19 We can talk about manufacturing as a method of production until the mid-19 century. The th

second half of the 19th century was a period of tangible industrial progress, the beginning

10 Deseppi owned a tannery for leather, fur and cloth, with a total of forty employees, and exported his products to Dalmatia and Italy. (Milica Trkulja, ibidem, (2006), p. 54) 11 Giuseppe Antonio Majer’s tannery had four employees and the status of a privileged factory. The privilege was given to Anthony’s father Giuseppe on 29 September 1791. (State Archives in Rijeka, PR 1, box 264, folder VIII, 1824) 12 Simonetti’s workshop had only two employees and this manufacturing shop did not enjoy the status of a privileged fabbrica. (State Archives in Rijeka, PR 1, box 264, folder VIII; Milica Trkulja, Rije~ka luka – povijest, izgradnja, promet, Suša~ka revija, godina IX., br. 33, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 2001, p. 54.) 13 Andrija Ljudevit Adami} and his father had the trading office Simeone Adamic e figlio. 14 One of Adami}’s manufactures was the manufacturing of glass in Mrzla Vodica which he purchased in 1807. In the first half of the 19th century, there were still several small manufacturing plants with one to two employees that were engaged in the glazing craft, i.e. the production of glass. The archive mentions Bartolo Matkovich, Luigi Negovetich, Mattia Rocco Doix, Giuseppe Negovetich and others, whose fabbricas did not enjoy the greatest privileges. (State Archives in Rijeka, PR 1, box 264, folder VIII, 1824; Irvin Lukeži}, Andrija Ljudevit Adamich i William Moline, Suša~ka revija, godina XIV., br. 56, Klub Suša~ana, p. 78). Mrzla Vodica is a village located on a strategically important position, and the passing of the Louisiana Road only increased its commercial importance. (Rudolf Strohal, Uz Lujzinsku cestu, Tiskara Rijeka, Rijeka, 1993, p. 54) 15 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 4, box 919, nr. 1246, 3. IV 1824, 16 According to Municipal Documents the factory was located in the house of Michiele Manatti. (State Archives in Rijeka, Spisi magistrata 1822-1825). It can be assumed that the production started somewhere around 1825, just after the completion of a furnace necessary for the production process. Beer was produced according to English processing technology and exported all the way to Corfu in Greece. In the courtyard of the same house there was a plant for the production of rum (Fabbrica di Rhum). (Irvin Lukeži}, ibid. (2006), p. 81) 17 Adami} established the manufacturing plant in 1820, but sold it to Moline soon afterwards. Due to Moline’s status as "inventor" in the field of production, which he improved with a number of enhanced innovations, the manufacturing plant got the royal privileges that facilitated business. (State Archives in Rijeka, PR-1, box 264, folder VIII, Fabbrice con privilegio 7. III.1824) 18 Rudolf Bi~ani}, Doba manufakture u Hrvatskoj i Slavoniji 1750.–1860., Jugoslavenska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti, Zagreb, 1951, p. 127 19 Rudolf Bi~ani}, ibid. (1951), p. 121.; Milica Turkulja, ibid. (2006) p. 51

9


se dogodio još tridesetih godina osnutkom Tvornice papira Smith & Meyner. Povratak na staro više nije bio mogu}, a tvorni~ki pogoni osnaženi parnim strojevima po~inju mjeriti konjske snage. U skladu s tehnološkim promjenama broj radnika se pove}ava, a produktivnost je neusporedivo ve}a. U tom razdoblju Rijeka se formira kao pravi europski lu~ki grad s potrebnom infrastrukturom i željezni~kom prugom prema kontinentu. Istovremeno je u gradu otvoreno nekoliko brodogradilišta; primjerice, brodogradilište Lazarus u današnjem bazenu luke Baroš, brodogradilište Danubius na Brgudima te manji škverovi u Kraljevici i Martinš}ici. Ljevaonice Popis manufaktura iz Spisa magistrata, koje su uživale najve}e privilegije List of manufacturing plans from the Municipal Documents which enjoyed the highest privileges (DARI/ State Archives in Rijeka, PR-1, kutija 264.)

10

poput Cussar i Skull postaju nezaobilazne radionice, vrlo aktivne pri opremanju luke. U zapadnoj zoni grada s radom zapo~inje Rafinerija nafte, a zatim se postrojenja samo nižu: Ljuštionica riže, Stabilimento tecnico Fiumano (poslije Silurificio Whitehead), Stabilimento di prodotti chimici, Uljara Hungaria, gradska Plinara, Tvornica ~okolade...


of which is attributed to the founding of the Smith & Meynier Paper Factory in the 1830s. Regression was no longer possible and factory plants equipped with steam engines began to measure horsepower. Following the technological changes, the number of workers multiplied and productivity increased substantially. During this period, Rijeka developed into a true European seaport with the entire necessary infrastructure and a railroad towards the continent. At the same time, several shipyards started operation, such as the Lazarus shipyard in today’s basin of the port of Baroš, the Danubius shipyard in Brgud and smaller shipyards in Kraljevica and Martinš~ica. Foundries such as Cussar and Skull became indispensable and were very active in equipping the port. In the western zone of the city, the Oil Refinery started operation, and, from that point on, further plants mushroomed: Rice-Husking Factory, Stabilimento tecnico Fiumano (later Silurificio Whitehead), Stabilimento di prodotti chimici, Hungaria Oil Mill, municipal Gasworks, Chocolate Factory, etc.

Plan Rijeke iz 1830-ih, s ucrtanom dubinom mora, manufakturama, mlinovima i skladištima u klancu Rje~ine i na Brajdi Map of Rijeka from the 1830s with depth of sea, manufacturing plants, mills and warehouses in the Rje~ina gorge and on Brajda. (iz knjige Franza Rauchmüllera von Ehrensteina, Sveu~ilišna knjižnica Rijeka/ from the book of Franz Rauchmüller von Ehrenstein, University Library Rijeka)

11


Industrija i urbanizam grada Urbanisti~ki gledano, Rijeka se unutar Austro-Ugarske Monarhije potpuno oblikovala. Pojedinci poput Andrije Ljudevita Adami}a uvidjeli su rije~ki potencijal i lobirali unutar vladaju}ih krugova za izgradnju prometnica te upozoravali na važnost pomorskih putova i poticali razvoj proizvodnje. No ono što je zaista presudilo, ma|arski je interes u stvaranju Rijeke kao važnog monarhijskoga gospodarskog i kulturnog središta. Iako govorimo o primorskom gradu, anti~ki temelji gotovo su potaracani, a stidljivi renesansni i barokni impulsi iz prekomorske Lagune Rijeku su tek okrznuli. Rijeku urbanisti~ki definira naglašen kontinentalni duh, što se o~ituje u širokim alejama, visokim historicisti~kim i secesijskim pro~eljima i planski osmišljenim gradskim trgovima. To je primaran urbanisti~ki proces koji svakako definira tadašnji centar grada; sekundarni urbanisti~ki proces koji se odvija na rubovima grada mnogo je sinergi~niji i u svojoj naravi dvojan. Na rubovima grada, ili u njegovoj neposrednoj blizini, ni~u industrijska postrojenja. Širenjem grada, jednako kao i širenjem industrije, dolazi do stvaranja jedinstvene i karakteristi~ne urbanisti~ke slike kakvu danas poznajemo. Nedvojbeno je da se Rijeka oblikuje usporedno s industrijskim napretkom te }e se zbog toga industrijska i stambena arhitektura nerijetko nadopunjavati i prožimati. Prvi manufakturni pogoni, mlinovi, ovisili su o energiji dobivenoj iz prirode. S obzirom na geomorfološke osobitosti prostora, smjestili su se daleko od središta grada, na obalama Rje~ine. Dolaskom parnih strojeva i izgradnjom elektri~nih centrala smještaj industrije približava se samoj jezgri grada, odnosno moru i privezištu, a luka i željeznica koriste se u trgova~ke svrhe. Ipak, uo~ljive su tri izvorne industrijske zone koje se danas nalaze u centru grada. To su Ruži}eva ulica (dobila ime po Gjuri Ruži}u) i Vodovodna ulica, a nasuprot njima, u zapadnom dijelu grada, Ulica Milutina Bara~a (nekadašnja Industrijska ulica) u kojoj se jedino može prepoznati planska izgradnja za industrijske potrebe. Nešto se druga~ija situacija sagledava uza samu Rje~inu gdje se sjeverno od gradske jezgre razvijaju dvije industrijske zone, danas dio središta grada – Vodovodna i Ruži}eva ulica. Rje~ina, povijesna i prirodna me|a, u jednom je razdoblju granica izme|u dva grada, Rijeke i Sušaka, što u kontekstu teme knjige rezultira dvama industrijskim zonama. Stoga nije ~udno što postoje radionice sli~ne ili iste namjene s jedne i s druge strane Rje~ine. U prvom redu tu su mlinovi, ali i druge manufakture. U Vodovodnoj je ulici, primjerice, postojala Tvornica sapuna Levi & Bianchi, a u Ruži}evoj je u isto vrijeme djelovala Tvornica sapuna Heindlhofer. Jednako je i s Kožarom Ruži} u Vodovodnoj te Kožarom Simoni}-Bakar~i} u Ruži}evoj ulici. Mesoprera|iva~ki kombinat u Vodovodnoj ulici opskrbljivao je mesnim proizvodima rije~ko podru~je, a isti je pogon postojao u Ruži}evoj ulici za Suša~ane. Rije~ka je strana ipak bila u prednosti jer je nedaleko od mesokombinata djelovala Ledana Gorup ~iji se led koristio za skladištenje 12


Industry and Urban Development From the urbanistic point of view, the city Rijeka was fully formed within the Austro-Hungarian rule. Individuals such as Andrija Ljudevit Adami} saw the full potential of Rijeka, lobbied within the ruling circles for the construction of roads, pointed to the importance of maritime routes and encouraged the development of production in Rijeka. However, what really made the difference was the existence of Hungarian interests in the formation of Rijeka as an important economic and cultural centre of the Monarchy. Although we are talking about a coastal city, Rijeka’s ancient foundations have almost completely been paved over and shy Renaissance and Baroque impulses from the overseas Lagoon only had slight influence on the city’s urbanism. What really defines Rijeka’s urbanism is the emphasised continental spirit, which is reflected in the wide avenues, high Historicist and Art Nouveau facades and the methodically planned city squares. That was the primary urbanistic process and, at the time, it certainly defined the city centre. The secondary urbanistic process took place on the outskirts and was much more synergistic in its dual nature. On the close-by outskirts of the city industrial plants sprouted. The expansion of the city as well as the expansion of the industry led to the formation of a unique and distinctive urban image we all know today. Rijeka undoubtedly developed in parallel with its industrial progress and, therefore, the industrial and residential architecture often complemented and enriched each other. The first manufacturing plants – mills – depended on energy obtained from nature. Considering the geomorphological features of the area, the resources were located far from the city centre, on the banks of the Rje~ina river. With the introduction of steam engines and the construction of power stations the industrial facilities started to approach, on the one hand, the centre of the city and, on the other hand, the sea and the docks, using the port and the railroad for their trading purposes. However, three "original" industrial zones can be pinpointed that are located in the city centre today: Ruži}eva Street (named after Gjuri Ruži}) and Vodovodna Street, and facing them, on the west side of the city, Milutina Bara~a Street (former Industrijska Street). It is obvious that planned construction for industrial purposes can only be recognized in Industrijska Street. A somewhat different situation presents itself along the Rje~ina river, where two industrial zones developed north of the city centre, which are now part of the city centre: Vodovodna Street and Ruži}eva Street. The Rje~ina river is a historical and natural boundary that used to represent a border between the two towns of Rijeka and Sušak at a certain historical period, which in the context of this book’s topic results in two different industrial zones. Thus, it is not surprising that workshops with similar or same purposes existed on both sides of the Rje~ina. There were primarily mills, but also other manufacturing plants. For example, in Vodovodna Street there was the Levi & Bianchi Soap Factory, while at the same time Ruži}eva Street had the Heindlhofer Soap Factory. The same applies to the Ruži} Tannery in Vodovodna Street and Simoni}-Bakar~i} Tannery in Ruži}eva Street. There were also meat processing complexes required for supplying the citizens with meat products, one for Rijeka in Vodovodna Street and the other plant for Sušak in Ruži}eva Street. But in this case Rijeka had the upper hand. On its side of the Rje~ina, not far from the meat processing plant, there was Icehouse Gorup, which provided ice for the storage of 13


mesa. I suša~ka se mesnica koristila rije~kim ledom, sve dok politi~ka situacija nakon Prvoga svjetskog rata nije potaknula Suša~ane na izgradnju vlastite ledane. Prožimanje industrije i urbanizma na suša~kom Šetalištu XIII. divizije (nekadašnje Šetalište prijestolonasljednika Petra) bilo je specifi~no. Uz ladanjske vile, uza samu morsku obalu, manufakturni su pogoni poput, primjerice, Rije~ke parne tvornice konjaka i žestokih pi}a, smještani vrata do vrata sa stambenim dijelom. Iz toga se može iš~itati da uglavnom nije bilo namjenske izgradnje tvornica, zbog ~ega su u Kotarsku oblast ~esto stizale pritužbe vezane za neugodne mirise i buku iz takvih radionica. Tek se u Martinš-­ }i­ci, s tvornicom Plumbum, tvornicom Redlich i brodogradilištem Sre}ka Turine, može govoriti o industriji planski udaljenoj od stambenih objekata. Knjiga prvenstveno ima zada}u popisa rije~kih manufakturnih i tvorni~kih postrojenja od polovice 18. stolje}a do Drugoga svjetskog rata. Povijesni je kontekst minimaliziran. Ovakav je katalog bio prijeko potreban i upravo za~u|uje što nije sastavljen i prije. Uz sintezu postoje}ih saznanja, ova knjiga sadržava i posve nove, dosad neobjavljene ~injenice, što je plod dugotrajna istraživanja povijesnih izvora u Državnom arhivu u Rijeci. Mislim da je tako postala zanimljiva i korisna istraživa~ima industrijske baštine, kao i povjesni~arima, ali i Rije~anima i Rije~ankama koji }e, ~itaju}i je, ste}i dobar uvid u impresivnu industrijsku prošlost našega grada. Tema je obra|ena topografski, prema zamišljenim geografskim prostornim zonama današnje Rijeke – zoni centar, u koju sam smjestila i Ruži}evu i Vodovodnu ulicu, zapadnoj industrijskoj zoni i isto~noj zoni sa završetkom u Martinš}ici. Naglasak je stavljen na manufakture i tvornice, od kojih je do danas ostao sa~uvan barem dio u arhitektonskom smislu. Ipak, nekim je manufakturama takav trag izbrisan, a bilo ih je nužno uvrstiti u katalog zbog njihova zna~ajnoga povijesnog konteksta. Nadam se da }e na jednomu mjestu sakupljeni i interpretirani izvori baciti novo svjetlo na povijest rije~ke industrije i upozoriti na važnost konzervacije, revitalizacije i arhitektonske prenamjene našega kulturno-povijesno-arhitektonskog naslije|a.

14


meat. Sušak’s butchers were also using the ice from Rijeka, until the political situation after World War I encouraged them to build their own icehouse. The interweaving of industry and urban planning at Sušak’s XIII divizije Promenade (formerly known as Šetalište prijestolonasljednika Petra/Crown Prince Peter’s Promenade) was specific. Manufacturing plants were placed in summer mansions along the coast line, next door to residential houses. One of them was Rijeka’s Brandy and Spirits Steam Plant. It is evident that planned industrial construction was not the rule on more than several occasions, which is why the District Authority often received complaints about odours and noise coming from the said workshops. Only Martinš~ica, with its Plumbum factory, Redlich factory and Sre}ko Turina shipyard, had planned industrial construction with plants located at a safe distance from residential buildings. This book has the primary task to catalogue Rijeka’s manufacturing and plant facilities from the mid-18th century until World War II. The historical context is minimized. I believe that the existence of such a catalogue was necessary and it is surprising that it has not been done by now. However, except for the synthesis of existing knowledge, this book is made from entirely new, never published facts and it is the result of long research of historical documents in the State Archives in Rijeka. I think that the result is an interesting and useful source not only for researchers of industrial heritage and historians, but also for the citizens of Rijeka who will have the opportunity of gaining insight into the impressive industrial history of our city. The topic was elaborated topographically, following imaginary geographic spatial zones of today’s Rijeka. The Zone of the Centre, within which I located both Ruži}eva and Vodovodna Street, the Western Industrial Zone and the Eastern Zone ending in Martinš~ica. Emphasis is placed on manufacturing plants and factories of which we have preserved remnants today, at least in the architectural sense of the word. However, there are certain manufacturing plants, the traces of which have been erased (in the architectural sense), but which needed to be included in the catalogue because of their significant historical context. I hope that the gathered and interpreted sources and facts will shed new light on the history of Rijeka‘s industry and emphasize the importance of conservation, revitalization and architectural reuse of our cultural, historical and architectural heritage.

15


Industrijska zona centar

16


Industrial Zone of the Centre

17


Rije~ka luka 20 Tom je odlukom Rijeka postala otvoreno tržište za strance koji se otad mogu slobodno nastanjivati i trgovati u gradu. (Milica Trkulja, n. d. (2001.), str. 25.)

Poticaj razvoju trgovine i pomorstva u kvarnerskom akvatoriju dao je Karlo VI. 1719. izdavši odluku o gradu Rijeci kao slobodnoj luci.20 Godine 1779. Rijeka je pridružena kruni Kraljevine Ugarske. Zapo~eto je s izgradnjom adekvatnih prometnica i luka se povezuje sa zale|em.21 Bili su to sami po~eci razvoja rije~ke luke i ulaganja carskog kapitala u Rijeku,

21 Milica Trkulja, n. d. (2001.), str. 25., 26.

prepoznatu kao velik pomorski i trgova~ki potencijal.

22 Mihovil Andrijaševi}, Razvitak Rije~ke luke od 1918. godine, oblikovanje i graditelji, disertacija, Sveu~ilište u Zagrebu, Filozofski fakultet, Zagreb, 1980., str. 218.

Rije~ka luka, kakvu danas poznajemo, izgra|ena je najve}im dijelom u 19. i ranom 20. stolje}u zahvaljuju}i projektima francuskog inženjera Hilariona Pascala koji je uz rije~ku projektirao i luku u Marseilleu,22 te ma|arskog inženjera Antala Hajnala.23 Projekt rije~ke

23 Milica Trkulja, n. d. (2001.), str. 27.

luke kao luke-modela bio je izložen na svjetskim izložbama u Be~u 1873. i Parizu 1878.

24 Nana Palini}, Povijesna skladišta rije~ke luke kao nacionalni i internacionalni unikum industrijske arhitekture, I. me|unarodna konferencija u povodu 150. obljetnice Tvornice torpeda u Rijeci i o~uvanja rije~ke industrijske baštine, Pro Torpedo, Rijeka, 2003., str. 391. 25 Cijelom dužinom priobalja, od uš}a Rje~ine do prostora na kojem se danas nalazi Brodogradilište 3. maj (prostor Brguda), bilo je nasipano od oko 100 do 300 metara mora ispred prirodne obale.

godine.24 Izgradnji luke prethodili su iznimno zahtjevni gra|evinski zahvati nasipanja i širenja obale od Rje~ine do Brguda.25 Nastavilo se s izgradnjom ostalih dijelova luke – lukobrana, gatova i rive te njezinim povezivanjem željezni~kom mrežom sa zale|em. Usporedno sa životom i razvojem rije~ke luke od 70-ih godina 19. stolje}a do 1940. tekla je i izgradnja lu~kih skladišta. O veli~ini luke govori to što je uo~i Prvoga svjetskog rata imala 24 trajna skladišta, sva odreda s historicisti~kim i secesijskim osobitostima,26 a

26 Nana Palini}, Povijesna skladišta rije~ke luke, Suša~ka revija, god. XI., br. 42/43, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 2003., str. 28.

lu~ki je promet, koji se ponajviše odnosio na še}er, drvo i žito, godišnjom tonažom svrsta-

27 Isto, str. 28.

tak skladišta, a zajedno sa željezni~kim skladištima te privremenim skladištima i otvore-

28 Jasna Rotim Malvi}, Lu~ka skladišta, u: Rije~ka luka – povijest, izgradnja, promet, Muzej grada Rijeke, Rijeka, 2001., str. 202.

su podizana u nizovima uz pristaništa ili blokovski na gatovima. To su primjeri vrlo ranih,

vao Rijeku me|u vode}e europske luke. Do Drugoga svjetskog rata izgra|eno je još desenim stovarištima, u rije~koj je luci bilo i do šezdeset gra|evina skladišnog tipa.27 Skladišta gotovo eksperimentalnih korištenja novih konstrukcija te mješavine raznih stilskih utjecaja. Rije~ka lu~ka skladišta posjeduju neku vrstu kombinacije dopadljive vanjštine i funkci-

29 Nana Palini}, n. d. (2003.), str. 28.

onalne unutrašnjosti.28 Prolazna su skladišta bila predvi|ena za sortiranje generalnog te-

30 Isto.

reta, postojala su zatim skladišta za duže zadržavanje robe i specijalizirana skladišta, me|u koje se mogu ubrojiti silosi ili hladnja~e.29 Investitori u izgradnji skladišta do Prvoga svjetskog rata bile su Ma|arske državne željeznice (MAV) i Pomorski gubernij, a izme|u dva rata izgradnju skladišta na rije~koj su strani financirali Magazzini Generali,30 a Javna i slobodna carinska skladišta u luci Baross Gradska op}ina Sušak.

Dio rije~ke luke iz zraka – Visinov gat, Budimpeštansko pristanište (fotografija: Željko Stojanovi})

18


The Port of Rijeka The incentive for the development of trade and navigation in the waters of the Gulf of Kvarner came from Charles VI in 1719, when he issued a decision that the city of Rijeka was to be considered a free port.20 In 1779, Rijeka was annexed by the Kingdom of Hungary. The

20 With this decision, Rijeka became an open market for foreigners who were, from then on, free to inhabit and trade in the city. (Milica Trkulja, ibid. (2001), p. 25)

construction of adequate roads started to connect the port to the hinterland.21 Those were

21 Milica Trkulja, ibid. (2001), p. 25, 26

the beginnings of the development of Rijeka’s harbour and the Monarchy’s investment of capital into the city upon its recognition of its major maritime and commercial potential. The port of Rijeka as we know it today was built largely in the 19 and early 20 century th

th

thanks to the projects of French engineer Pascal Hilarion, who along with Rijeka’s port also

22 Mihovil Andrijaševi}, Razvitak Rije~ke luke od 1918. godine, oblikovanje i graditelji, disertacija, Sveu~ilište u Zagrebu, Faculty of Philosophy, Zagreb, 1980, p. 218

projected the one in Marseilles,22 and Hungarian engineer Antal Hajnal.23 The project for the

23 Milica Trkulja, ibid. (2001), p. 27

port of Rijeka as a model port was exhibited at the World Expositions in Vienna, 1873, and Paris, 1878.24 The construction of the port preceded an extremely demanding construction work of filling and widening the shore from the river Rje~ina to Brgud. The work continued 25

with the construction of other parts of the harbour: breakwater, piers and quay as well as a rail network linking the harbour with the hinterland. From the 1870s until 1940, parallel to the life and development of the port of Rijeka, the construction of port warehouses took place. The size of the port is witnessed by the fact that, on the eve of World War I, it had 24 permanent storages, all of them with characteristic elements of Historicism and Art Nouveau.26 The port’s traffic, primarily related to sugar, timber and wheat, with its annual tonnage placed Rijeka among the leading European ports. Until

24 Nana Palini}, Povijesna skladišta rije~ke luke kao nacionalni i internacionalni unikum industrijske arhitekture, I. Me|unarodna konferencija u povodu 150. obljetnice tvornice torpeda u Rijeci i o~uvanja rije~ke industrijske baštine, Pro Torpedo, Rijeka, 2003., p. 391 25 The coastline all the way from the mouth of the Rje~ina river to the area of today’s Third May Shipyard (Brgud) was filled about 100 to 300 meters in front of the natural sea coast. 26 Nana Palini}, Povijesna skladišta rije~ke luke, Suša~ka revija, god. XI, br. 42/43, Rijeka, 2003, p. 28

World War II, a dozen more warehouses were built, and together with the railway ware-

27 Ibid., p. 28

houses, temporary warehouses and open storage spaces the port of Rijeka had up to sixty warehouse-type buildings.27 Warehouses were built in rows along the docks or in blocks on the piers and they are fine examples of a very early, almost experimental use of new designs

28 Jasna Rotim Malvi}, Lu~ka skladišta, in: Rije~ka luka-povijest, izgradnja, promet, City Museum of Rijeka, Rijeka, 2001, p. 202

and blends of various stylistic influences. Rijeka’s port warehouses possess a certain combi-

29 Nana Palini}, ibid. (2003), p. 28

nation of appealing exterior and functional interior.28 We distinguish between transit storages, used for sorting general cargo, storages for longer retention of goods and specialized storage

30 Ibid.

facilities including silos and cold storages.29 Until World War I, the investors in the construction of the warehouses were the Hungarian State Railways (MAV) and the Maritime Governorate, and between the two world wars the construction on Rijeka’s side was financed by the Magazzini Generali,30 while the Public and Free Customs Warehouses in Port Baross were funded by the Town Municipality of Sušak.

Aerial view of a part of the port of Rijeka – Visin Pier, Budapest Pier (photo: Željko Stojanovi})

19


1 Lu~ka skladišta rije~ka luka, nekadašnja suša~ka luka – Porto Baross od 70-ih godina 19. stolje}a do 1940. Lajos (Luigi) Burgstaller, Vjenceslav Celligoi, Ferenc Pfaff, Wehler, Rolberitz, Milan ^alogovi} i drugi

Budimpeštansko pristanište – skladišta XIII i XV (danas skladišta 12 i 13) 31 Krajem 19. i po~etkom 20. stolje}a Celligoi je u suradnji s rije~kim arhitektom Giuseppeom Leardom osnovao svoje prvo gra|evinsko poduze}e. Nakon Leardove smrti 1897., Celligoi nastavlja rad s vlastitim poduze}em. (Jasna Rotim Malvi}, n. d. (2001.), str. 203.)

Skladišta 12 i 13 na prvi se pogled doimaju kao jedinstvena zgrada jer su me|usobno spojena. Gra|ena su izme|u 1893. i 1898. u duhu historicizma. Najprije je izgra|eno isto~no skladište, broj 12, prema projektu Lajosa (Luigija) Burgstallera. Korištena je Monierova armiranobetonska konstrukcija s mnoštvom stupova i greda, koja je omogu­-

32 Nana Palini}, n. d. (2003.), str. 30.

}a­vala nosivost od 1.200 kg/m2. Pro~elje stvara dojam reprezentativnosti zbog rizalita

33 Ivana Lu~i}, Prijedlog revitalizacije lu~kih skladišta u Rijeci, diplomski rad, Filozofski fakultet u Rijeci, Rijeka, 2012., str. 51.

i visokih pilastara što se protežu do krovne atike i imaju piramidalne završetke. Takvom se dekoracijom pokušala naglasiti administrativna funkcija ovog dijela zgrade, ina~e namijenjena uredima. Zapadno skladište, broj 13, gra|eno je 1897. prema projektu Vjenceslava Celligoija31 i Istvána Bacsáka.32 U svojem projektu Celligoi je koristio jednak sustav konstrukcije skladišta, a profilaciju i dekoraciju pro~elja prilagodio je ve} postoje}emu susjednom skladištu broj 12.33

Budimpeštansko pristanište i rije~ki silosi u pozadini (fotografija: Stanislav Beli~ka)

20


1

Port warehouses Port of Rijeka, former Sušak port – Port Baross from 1879 to 1940 Lajos Luigi Burgstaller, Vjenceslav Celligoi, Ferenc Pfaff, Wehler, Rolberitz, Milan ^alogovi} and others

Budapest Pier – Warehouses No. XIII and XV (today warehouses no. 12 and 13) At first glance the warehouses no. 12 and 13 appear to be a unique building because they are interconnected. They were built between 1893 and 1898 in the spirit of Historicism. First the eastern warehouse no. 12 was built according to the project of Lajos Luigi Burg-

31 In the late 19th and early 20th century Celligoi founded his first construction company in cooperation with Rijeka’s architect Giuseppe Leard. After Leard’s death in 1897 Celligoi continued his work with his own company. (Jasna Rotim Malvi}, ibid. (2001), p. 203)

staller. Monier’s reinforced concrete structure was used, with lots of columns and beams,

32 Nana Palini}, ibid. (2003), p. 30

enabling a load-bearing capacity of 1,200 kg/m2. The facade creates the impression of representativeness due to avant-corps and tall pilasters which extend up to the roof attic and have pyramidal endings. It appears that such decoration tried to emphasize the admin-

33 Ivana Lu~i}, Prijedlog revitalizacije lu~kih skladišta u Rijeci, diplomski rad, Filozofski fakultet u Rijeci, Rijeka, 2012, p. 51

istrative functions of this part of the building, normally intended for offices. The western warehouse no. 13 was designed by Vjenceslav Celligoi31 and István Bacsák32 and built in 1897. In his project Celligoi used the same warehouse structure system. The moulding and the decoration of the facade are adapted to the existing neighbouring warehouse no. 12.33

Budapest Pier and Rijeka’s silos in the background (photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

21


Lu~ko skladište broj XIV – Visinov gat (danas skladište 17)

Na Visinovu gatu, nekadašnjemu gatu Marije Valerije, izgra|eno je skladište broj 17.

Visinov gat, skladište broj 17 Visin Pier, warehouse no. 17

Gradilo se od 1906. do 1909.,34 arhitekt je Ma|ar Ferenc Pfaff kojega su angažirale

(fotografija/photo: @eljko Stojanovi} – Kristijan Vu~kovi})

Ma|arske državne željeznice.35 Projektirana je monumentalna zgrada, s prizemljem ~ijim središtem kroz pravokutna vrata prolaze kolosijeci za vagone i ponad kojeg su još tri kata. Osim historicisti~kih elemenata vidljivih u na~inu gradnje lu~kih prozora i kamene balustrade koja skriva krov, osje}a se i duh moderne kroz naglašene vodoravne linije i povezane balkone na isto~noj i zapadnoj fasadi. Bilo je to prvo skladište u Rijeci ~ija

34 Nana Palini}, n. d. (2003.), str. 36.

je konstrukcija izvedena u cijelosti u armiranom betonu36 i to prema sistemu CoignetDe Tedesco. Poslije }e ta metodologija biti korištena pri izgradnji skladišta Metropolis.

35 Isto.

Radove je izvodilo budimpeštansko poduze}e Grünwald Testvérek.37 Nosivost gra|evine

36 Konstrukciju od armiranog betona imala je i gra|evina Hotela Emigranti (Nana Palini}, n. d., (2003.), str. 35.)

poboljšana je na 1.500 kg/m2.38

37 Nana Palini}, n. d. (2003.), str. 36.; DARI, JU 51, kutija 30.

Lu~ka skladišta broj Xix–Xxiii – kompleks Metropolis – Paško pristanište (danas skladišta 18–22)

38 Ivana Lu~i}, n. d. (2012.), str. 52.; Nana Palini}, n. d. (2003.), str. 36.

Kompleks od pet lu~kih skladišta, koja se u dva reda nižu uz morsku obalu na krajnjem zapadnome dijelu lu~ke slobodne carinske zone, konzervatori su nazvali Metropolis jer svojom teatralnoš}u i nizanjem vise}ih pasaža podsje}a na scenografiju poznatoga

39 Uz Wehlera i Rolberitza, na izvedbenim nacrtima radio je cijeli niz arhitekata: Vjenceslav i Eugenio Celligoi, Theodor Träxler, Aladar Vladimir Baranyaj, Slavko Benedik, Ignàc Bereny, Holstein i Sterner. (Nana Palini}, n. d. (2003.), str. 31.)

22

SF-filma redatelja Fritza Langa. Gra|ena su izme|u 1909. i 1913. prema nacrtima ma|arskih inženjera Wehlera i Rolberitza39 kombiniranjem armiranobetonske konstrukcije i tradicionalnog materijala opeke. O kvaliteti izvedbe govori ~injenica da je nosivost


Port Warehouse No. Xiv – Visin Pier (today warehouse no. 17) Nacrt Ferenza Pfaffa za lu~ko skladište na Visinovu gatu iz 1907. Ferenz Pfaff’s draft of the port warehouse on Visin Pier from 1907 (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 30., 31)

Warehouse no. 17 was built on the former Mary Valerius Pier, known today as Visin Pier. It

34 Nana Palini}, ibid. (2003), p. 36

was planned by the Hungarian architect Ferenc Pfaff who was hired by the Hungarian State

35 Ibid.

Railways.34 The construction took place between 1906 and 1909.35 A monumental building was designed, with a rectangular door and tracks for railway cars which were passing through the centre of the ground floor, above which there are three more storeys. Besides historicist elements visible in the construction of the port windows and the stone balustrade that conceals the roof, the spirit of Modernism is captured through accentuated horizontal lines and connected balconies on the eastern and western facade. It was the first warehouse

36 Hotel Emigranti also had a construction made of reinforced concrete. (Nana Palini}, ibid. (2003), p. 35.) 37 Nana Palini}, ibid. (2003), p. 36; State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 30 38 Ivana Lu~i}, ibid. (2012), p. 52; Nana Palini}, ibid., (2003), p. 36

in Rijeka with a structure consisting entirely of reinforced concrete,36 according to the Coignet-De Tedesco system. The same methodology was later used in the construction of the Metropolis warehouse. The work was carried out by the Budapest-based company Grünwald Testvérek.37 The load-bearing capacity of the building was enhanced to 1,500 kg/m2.38

Port Warehouses No. XIX-XXIII – Metropolis Complex – Pag Pier (today warehouses no. 18-22) The complex of five port warehouses, which are aligned in two rows along the coast in the far western part of the free customs area, was named Metropolis by the conservators because its theatrics and the apposition of overhead passages are reminiscent of the scenery of the famous science fiction film directed by Fritz Lang. The complex was built between 1909 and 1913 according to plans of the Hungarian engineers Wehler and Rolberitz.39 The warehouses were built by combining reinforced concrete structures with traditional materials such as bricks. The fact that the load-bearing capacity of the floors is 1,500 kg/m2 and of the

39 Besides Wehler and Rolberitz, a number of architects worked on the final blueprints. Vjenceslav and Eugenio Celligoi, Theodor Träxler, Aladar Vladimir Baranyaj, Slavko Benedik, Ignác Bereny, Holstein and Sterner. (Nana Palini}, ibid., (2003), p. 31)

23


Metropolis, skladište broj 18 Metropolis, warehouse no. 18

na katovima 1.500 kg/m2, a u prizemlju ~ak 2.000 kg/m2. Godine 1914. donosi se odluka o me|usobnom povezivanju skladišta, za što su bili zaduženi Ignác Bereny i Béla

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

Enyedi. Berenyjevom intervecijom skladišta su spojena u dva paralelna niza, dok je Enyedi zaslužan za popre~no povezivanje gra|evina, ~ime je stvorio ve} spomenutu bogatu scenografiju izme|u skladišta.40 Dekoracija zidova zasniva se na opeci kojom su

40 Isto, str. 31.

uokvireni prozorski otvori mrežasta ostakljenja. Vertikalna komponenta gra|evina do-

41 U Almanahu grada Sušaka isti~e se kako je izgradnjom ovih skladišta ispunjena velika praznina koja se osje}ala u suša~koj luci. Predvi|a se ponovni razvoj grada, a luka }e osim tržišta drva nastojati postati uvozno i tranzitno lu~ko središte me|unarodnoga glasa. Do izražaja bi trebala do}i prednost geografskog položaja ove luke i njezine izvrsne željezni~ke veze s Jugoslavijom i zemljama središnje Europe. (Almanah grada Sušaka, Turisti~ka biblioteka Jadran, Sušak, 1938., str. 70.)

datno je naglašena plitkim lezenama koje se protežu od prizemlja do potkrovlja, a tome pridonose i reljefne stilizirane balustrade smještene izme|u prozora, ~ime su katovi naizgled spojeni po okomitoj osi. S morske strane pro~elje je raš~lanjeno stupnjevito postavljenim balkonima moderna izgleda koji služe za utovar tereta na više katova s pomo}u dizalica.

Kompleks Porto Barossa – Slobodna carinska skladišta, Carinarnica i Lu~ka kapetanija 42 Julija Lozzi Barkovi}, Gra|evine povijesno-prometnog zna~enja u Su­ {aku – va`nome prometnom raskri`ju u razdoblju izme|u dvaju ratova, III. me|unarodna konferencija o industrijskoj ba{tini, Pro torpedo, Rijeka, 2007., str. 229. 43 Damir Krizmani}, Nenad Labus, Lada Turato, Anamarija Zrn~i}, Konzervatorski elaborat za podru~je Delte i luke Porto Baross, Konzervatorski odjel u Rijeci, Rijeka, 2011.

24

Nakon što su u luci Baross srušena dotrajala historicisti~ka skladišta, gradi se kompleks Slobodnih carinskih skladišta, Carinarnice i Lu~ke kapetanije.41 Za projektanta je izabran inženjer Milan ^alogovi}, pionir kada je rije~ o upotrebi armiranobetonskih konstrukcija u nas.42 Arhivski izvori pokazuju da je ^alogovi} projekt napravio 1931. te da izgradnja zapo~inje neposredno nakon toga.43 Ovim kompleksom trebao se osigurati samostalan gospodarski uzlet suša~ke luke nakon odvajanja od Rijeke. Time suša~ki


ground floor 2,000 kg/m2 attests to the quality of the construction. In 1914, the decision

Lu~ka skladišta 18–22, kompleks Metropolis Port warehouses no. 18 to 22, Metropolis Complex

was made to interconnect the warehouses and the task was assigned to Ignác Bereny and

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

Béla Enyedi. Bereny decided to connect the warehouses in two parallel lines, while Enyedi was responsible for cross-linking structures between the warehouses which created the 40 Ibid., p. 31

previously mentioned science fiction scenery.40 The decoration of the walls is based on bricks which frame the meshed-glass windows. The vertical component of the buildings is additionally emphasised by shallow pilasters that extend from the ground up to the attic as well as by the embossed stylized balustrades placed between the windows, which seemingly connect the floors on a vertical axis. On the sea side, the facade is broken down by modern-looking terraced balconies that were also used for loading cargo on several floors by means of cranes.

41 The Almanac of the town of Sušak emphasized that the construction of these warehouses filled a big gap that was felt in Sušak’s port. It anticipated the redevelopment of the town and the striving of the port to become an import and transit port of international reputation besides serving the wood market. The geographical location of the port and its excellent rail links with Yugoslavia and the countries of Central Europe were also among its special features. (Almanah grada Sušaka, Tourist Library Jadran, Sušak, 1938, p. 70)

Port Baross Complex – Free Customs Warehouses, Customs House and Port Authority After the demolition of the deteriorated historicist warehouses in port Baross, a new complex of Free Customs Warehouses, the Customs House and the Port Authority building were constructed.41 Engineer Milan ^alogovi} was chosen as project designer. He was a pioneer when it comes to the use of reinforced concrete structures in the region.42 Archival sources show that ^alogovi} designed the project in 1931, and that construction began shortly after that.43 This complex was to secure an independent economic boom of the port of Sušak after the town’s separation from Rijeka. Thereby Sušak’s basin got its own port au-

42 Julija Lozzi Barkovi}, Gra|evine povijesno-prometnog zna~enja u Su­ {aku – va`nome prometnom raskri`ju u razdoblju izme|u dvaju ratova, III. me|unarodna konferencija o industrijskoj ba{tini, Pro torpedo, Rijeka, 2007, p. 229 43 Damir Krizmani}, Nenad Labus, Lada Turato, Anamarija Zrn~i}, Konzervatorski elaborat za podru~je Delte i luke Porto Baross, Konzervatorski odjel u Rijeci, Rijeka, 2011

25


44 Isto.

bazen dobiva vlastitu lu~ku kapetaniju, carinarnicu i skladišta za robu.44 Izgra|eni objek-

45 Isto, str. 231.

njem balkona na katovima i povišenom rampom za prihvat tereta. Drugi je kat izgra|en

ti rani su primjer primjene funkcionalisti~kog stila u Sušaku,45 ^alogovi} to postiže niza-

46 Nana Palini}, Rane armiranobetonske konstrukcije u rije~koj luci, Gra|evinar, br. 5, Zagreb, 2009., str. 443. 47 Nana Palini}, Izvješ}e o arhivskom istraživanju skladišta br. 40 i 41 na Senjskom pristaništu u Rije~koj luci, Konzervatorski elaborat br. A4 4794, Konzervatorski odjel u Rijeci, Rijeka, 2003., str. 1.

tijekom 1938. i 1939., a cijela konstrukcija napravljena je u kombinaciji armiranobetonske konstrukcije i nosivih zidova od opeke sa specifi~nim gljivastim stupovima. Stupovi su omogu}avali prijelaz prema stropu bez greda, što je prva takva konstrukcija u Rijeci.46 U interijeru se isti~e posebno reprezentativan središnji hol carinarnice iznad koje se prostire djelomi~no ostakljena kupola.47 Eksterijer je ra|en u kombinaciji opeke i bijele žbuke. Dodatna dinamika gra|evine postignuta je na južnom pro~elju na kojem je

Kompleks Slobodnih carinskih skladišta, Carinarnice i Lu~ke kapetanije (fotografija: Stanislav Beli~ka)

26


thority, customs house and warehouses.44 The constructed buildings are an early example of the application of the functionalist-style architecture in Sušak,45 and ^alogovi} achieved that by stringing balconies on the upper floors and by setting up an elevated ramp for receiving cargo. The second floor was built in 1938 and 1939, and the entire structure was made of a combination of reinforced concrete and load-bearing brick walls with specific mushroom-like columns. These columns enabled the transition towards the ceiling without the use of beams, and this was the first structure of the kind in Rijeka.46 The representative central hall of the customs house covered by a partially glazed dome stands out in the interior.47 The exterior is made of a combination of brick and white plaster. Additional dynam-

44 Ibidem 45 Ibidem, p. 231 46 Nana Palini}, Rane armiranobetonske konstrukcije u rije~koj luci, Gra­ |evinar, no. 5, Zagreb, 2009, p. 443 47 Nana Palini}, Izvješ}e o arhivskom istraživanju skladišta br. 40 i 41 na Senjskom pristaništu u Rije~koj luci, Konzervatorski elaborat br. A4 4794, Konzervatorski odjel u Rijeci, Rijeka, 2003, p. 1

ics of the building was achieved on the southern end where the central part was set off

Free Customs Warehouses, Customs House and Port Authority complex (photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

27


48 Damir Krizmani}, Nenad Labus, Lada Turato, Anamarija Zrn~i}, n. d. (2011.)

središnji dio istaknutiji od bo~nih dijelova kompleksa tako što je smanjen i stupnjevito uvu~en. Rije~ je o gra|evini s prizemljem i dva kata, ali se doima niskom i izduženom. Longitudinalnost je postignuta dugim balkonima središnjega uvu~enog dijela i vijencem

49 Nana Palini}, n. d., (2003.), str. 2.

izme|u dva kata kao dekorativnim detaljem južnog pro~elja. Iako su korišteni pojedini dekorativni i konstrukcijski elementi specifi~ni za historicizam i secesiju, dominantan je utjecaj moderne kojim je ova gra|evina obilježena. ^alogovi}ev kompleks ošte}en je u bombardiranju tijekom Drugoga svjetskog rata. Uništen je isto~ni dio skladišta i južni dio Carinarnice. Danas je ovaj prostor u derutnome stanju i potrebna mu je temeljita sanacija.

Senjsko pristanište, skladište broj 41 Lu~ko skladište broj 41 smješteno na Senjskom pristaništu luke Baross, isto~no od ^alogovi}evih skladišta, gra|eno je po~etkom 20. stolje}a za skladištenje drva. Na gra|evini je vidljiv jasan funkcionalisti~ki karakter, s velikim kvadrati~nim otvorima namijenjenim utovaru i istovaru drva. Iako vanjština upu}uje na prizemlje i prvi kat, u unutrašnjosti se radi o jedinstvenom prostoru.48 Projektna dokumentacija ovog skladi-

Senjsko pristanište u Porto Barossu, skladište broj 41 Senj Dock in Port Baross, warehouse no. 41

šta hangarskog tipa nije prona|ena.49

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

28


against the lateral parts of the complex by reducing and gradually retracting it. Although the building has a ground floor and two additional floors, it gives the impression of being low and

48 Damir Krizmani}, Nenad Labus, Lada Turato, Anamarija Zrn~i}, ibid. (2011) 49 Nana Palini}, ibid. (2003), p. 2

elongated. The longitude was achieved by placing long balconies on the central indented part of the facade and a wreath as a decorative detail between the two floors of the southern front. Although some decorative and structural elements specific to Historicism and Art Nouveau were used, the building is marked by a dominant influence of Modernism. ^alogovi}’s complex was damaged by bombs during the Second World War. The eastern part of the warehouse and the southern part of the customs house were also destroyed. Today, this area is in a state of disrepair and in need of thorough restoration.

Senj Dock, Warehouse No. 41 Port warehouse number 41 is located on the Senj Dock in Port Baross, east of the ^alogovi} warehouses. It was built in the early 20th century for the storage of wood. The large square openings intended for loading and unloading timber emphasise the functionalist character of the building. Although the building’s exterior suggests the presence of a ground floor and a first floor, the interior is a unique space.48 The project blueprints for this

Senjsko pristanište u Porto Barossu, skladište broj 41 Senj Dock in Port Baross, warehouse no. 41

hangar-type warehouse were never found.49

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

29


2 Tvornica Lazarus, Fabbrica macchine caldaie e piroscafi luka Baross 1900. projektant nepoznat

Nacrt Lazarusova brodogradilišta iz 1896. (DAR, JU 51, kutija 137)

50 Irvin Lukeži}, Lazarusovo brodogradilište, Suša~ka revija, godina II., br. 5, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 1994., str. 37.

Godine 1870. rije~ka luka dolazi pod neposrednu ma|arsku upravu pa se usporedno s tim doga|aju brojne promjene: grade se lu~ki bazeni, postavljaju nova postrojenja i pove}ava proto~nost. Isto razdoblje obilježeno je dovršavanjem željezni~ke poveznice

51 Isto, str. 38.

Budimpešta –Zagreb – Rijeka i Rijeka – Sv. Petar, ~ime je luka kona~no dobila odgova-

52 Navodno je Lazarusova radionica pod imenom Stabilimento Lazarus djelovala još od 1896., me|utim, proširivanjem i moderniziranjem pogona, od 1900. djeluje pod punim nazivom Fabbrica macchine caldaie e piroscafi i tada ve} zapošljava stotinjak radnika. (Jasna Rotim-Malvi}, Industrija, u: Arhitektura secesije u Rijeci, MMSU, Rijeka, 2007., str. 318.) 53 Lazarus je vrlo kratko bio vlasnik kraljevi~kog brodogradilišta jer je ~ak i nakon podrške austrijske mornarice, brodogradilište 1901. bilo u teško}ama, zbog ~ega se ubrzo ponovno zatvorilo (1903.), ~ime Kraljevica nastavlja biti kupalište. (Irvin Lukeži}, n. d. (1994.), str. 41.) 54 Isto, str. 42.

raju}u vezu sa zale|em.50 Ma|arska privreda poticala je brodogradnju, naro~ito za potrebe ratne mornarice, ali i za izgradnju putni~kih i trgova~kih brodova. Nastojalo se otvoriti doma}e poduze}e za izradu pomorske opreme, remont brodova i popravak strojeva. Izgradnja takve tvornice povjerena je inženjeru Josipu Lazarusu. Za izgradnju tvornice dodijeljena mu je prostorna površina veli~ine 600 m² u luci Baross. Tvornicu je navodno podigao o svom trošku te mu je ma|arska vlada obe}ala status privilegiranog privrednika.51 Puni naziv tvornice glasio je Fabbrica macchine caldaie e piroscafi. Lazarusova je tvornica 19. sije~nja 1900. službeno puštena u pogon.52 Proizvodila je sidra, lance, kotlove, manje strojeve i drugu brodsku opremu i bavila se popravcima brodskih strojeva. U škveru su se obavljala manja zavarivanja i remont brodova. Lazarusova

55 Jasna Rotim-Malvi}, n. d. (2007.), str. 318

tvrtka bila je poznata po brojnim tehnološkim inovacijama, primjerice po izgradnji strojeva na paru u Rijeci. O Lazarovoj sposobnosti govori i to što je usporedno s rije~kom tvornicom i škverom postao vlasnik obnovljenog brodogradilišta u Kraljevici53 i pokušao parirati ma|arskom koncernu Danubius ne bi li nakon likvidacije Howaldta u Brgudima preuzeo i taj škver.54 Godine 1905. u Lazarusovoj tvornici buknuo je požar,55 a zbog 30


2

Lazarus Factory, Fabbrica macchine caldaie e piroscafi Port Baross 1900 project engineer unknown

Draft of the Lazarus shipyard from 1896. (State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 137)

In 1870, the port of Rijeka came under direct Hungarian administration and this set off a number of changes: new port pools were built, new plants were set up and the transit

50 Irvin Lukeži}, Lazarusovo brodogradilište, Suša~ka revija, godina II., br. 5, Klub Suša~ana, 1994, p. 37

traffic was increased. The same period was marked by the completion of the rail links Bu-

51 Ibidem, p. 38

dapest –Rijeka – Zagreb and Rijeka – St. Peter, with which the port finally received an adequate connection with the hinterland.50 The Hungarian economy stimulated shipbuilding, especially for the Navy, but also the construction of passenger and merchant ships. Attempts were made to open a local company for producing marine equipment and carrying out ship overhaul and engine repair. The construction of such a plant was entrusted to engineer Josip Lazarus and he was granted an area of 600 m2 within Port Baross. The factory was allegedly built at his own expense and that is why the Hungarian government promised him the status of a privileged businessmen. The full name of the company was 51

Fabbrica macchine caldaie e piroscafi. On 19 January 1900, the factory was officially put into operation.52 It manufactured anchors, chains, boilers, small machinery and other ship

52 Apparently Lazarus’s workshop started operation under the name Stabilimento Lazarus as early as in 1896. However, after expanding and modernizing its machinery, it operated under the name Fabbrica mac­ chine caldaie e piroscafi from 1900 onwards and already had approx. a hundred employees. (Jasna Rotim-Malvi}, Industrija, in: Ar­hi­tektura secesije u Rijeci, MMSU, Rijeka, 2007, p. 318) 53 Lazarus also owned Kraljevica’s shipyard, but only for a very brief period of time, because, even after receiving support from the Austrian Navy in 1901, the shipyard continued experiencing financial difficulties and it soon closed again (in 1903), and Kraljevica remained a bathing area. (Irvin Lukeži}, ibid. (1994), p. 41)

equipment and engaged in the repair of ship engines. The shipyard performed minor weld-

54 Ibidem, p. 42

ing work and overhauled ships. Lazarus’s company was known for its many technological innovations such as the construction of steam engines in Rijeka. Lazarus’s ability is wit-

55 Jasna Rotim-Malvi}, ibid. (2007), p. 318

nessed not only by the fact that parallel to the factory and shipyard in Rijeka, he became the owner of the restored shipyard in Kraljevica53 and tried to compete with the Hungarian group Danubius. In addition, he also took over the Howaldt shipyard in Brgud after its liquidation.54 In 1905, a fire broke out55 in Lazarus’s factory and the damage caused by the fire 31


56 Irvin Lukeži}, n. d. (1994.), str. 45.

nanesene štete nije bio mogu} ponovni oporavak. Od nekadašnjega tvorni~kog kom-

57 Brodogradilište je dobilo ime prema narodnom heroju iz Drugoga svjetskog rata, ina~e radniku brodogradilišta.

slove na brodskim strojevima i drugoj brodskoj opremi. Ipak, Lazarusova mehani~arska

pleksa ostala je samo radionica, a brodogradilišni poslovi sveli su se na remontne poradionica bila je, uz Skullovu i Cussarovu, jedna od važnijih u gradu, o ~emu svjedo~i i velik broj zaposlenih kova~a, ljeva~a, kotlara, zakovi~ara i drugih. Uvjeti za rad bili su veoma loši, kao i mjere zaštite i sigurnosti radnika, pa su ozljede bile ~este. Nakon Prvoga svjetskog rata Stabilimento Lazarus nastavlja raditi kao manje remontno brodogradilište sa šezdeset zaposlenih radnika.56 Iz tog brodogradilišta nastat }e 1948. brodogradilište Viktor Lenac.57 Pove}ana potražnja za ve}im i opsežnijim remontima brodova potaknula je šezdesetih godina 20. stolje}a preseljenje brodogradilišta u zaljev Martinš}ica koji se odlikuje izvrsnim prirodnim karakteristikama, a udaljen je svega dvije nauti~ke milje od središnjeg dijela rije~ke luke. Do danas nije sa~uvano ništa od nekadašnjeg Lazarusova brodogradilišta i ljevaonice za koju se pretpostavlja da se nalazila na krajnjemu zapadnom dijelu bazena luke Ba­ ross, odnosno na po~etku lukobrana rije~ke luke.

3 Pokretni željezni~ki most Porto Baross 1896. projektant nepoznat 58 Malo sjevernije od ovoga pokretnog mosta bio je još jedan pokretni most, teško ošte}en 1920. i 1945., nakon ~ega je do danas sa~uvan inkorporiran u glavnu prometnicu iz smjera Kazališta Ivana pl. Zajc prema Sušaku (Isto~ni izlaz). (Damir Krizmani}, Nenad Labus, Lada Turato, Anamarija Zrn~i}, n. d. (2011.) 59 Damir Krizmani}, Nenad Labus, Lada Turato, Anamarija Zrn~i}, n. d. (2011.) 60 Isto. 61 Isto.

Pokretni željezni~ki most (fotografija: Stanislav Beli~ka)

32

U luci Baross do danas je sa~uvana jedna rijetkost – pokretni željezni~ki most na Mrtvom kanalu.58 Most je izgra|en 1896.,59 a pored mosta nalazi se mali utilitarni objekt – strojarnica u kojoj je bio smješten stroj za pokretanje mosta.60 Pokretni most, zajedno s pripadaju}om mu ku}icom, konzervatorska struka vrednuje kao zašti}eno kulturno dobro kojemu je potrebna restauracija budu}i da je rije~ o jedinom do danas sa~uvanom takvom mostu na ovom podru~ju.61


was too much for him to recover from. Only the workshop remained from the former factory

56 Irvin Lukeži}, ibid., (1994), p. 45

complex, and shipbuilding jobs were reduced to revision operations on the ships’ engines and other marine equipment. Nevertheless, Lazarus’s engine workshop was, together with Skull’s and Cussaro’s, among the most important ones in the city, as evidenced by its large number

57 The shipyard as named after a national hero of World War II, who was also a worker at the shipyard.

of employees including blacksmiths, smelters, boilermakers, bolt makers and others. Since working conditions as well as occupational health and safety measures were particularly bad, work related injuries were frequent. After Wold War I, Stabilimento Lazarus continued its work as a smaller dockyard with sixty employees.56 Later, in 1948, the shipyard Viktor Lenac57 developed on the foundations of Stabilimento Lazarus. Increased demand for larger and more comprehensive ship overhauls prompted the relocation of the shipyard to the Gulf of Martinš~ica in the 1960s. The gulf has excellent natural characteristics and is only two nautical miles away from the central part of the port of Rijeka. To date, no evidence was kept from the former Lazarus shipyard and foundry. It is assumed that it was located in the western part of Port Baross, that is, at the beginning of the breakwater of the port of Rijeka.

3

Movable railway bridge

One rarity is still preserved at Port Baross: a movable railway bridge over the Dead Canal.58 The bridge was built in 1896,59 and next to the bridge there is a small utilitarian object – an engine room which housed the machine that ran the bridge.60 The conservators appraise the bridge together with the accompanying object as protected cultural heritage in need of restoration, since it is the only surviving moveable bridge in this area.61

Port Baross 1896 unknown 58 A little north of this bridge there was another movable bridge. It was badly damaged in 1920 and 1945, after which it was incorporated into the main road leading from the Theatre of Ivan pl. Zajc towards Sušak (eastern exit from Rijeka) and preserved to this day. (Damir Krizmani}, Nenad Labus, Lada Turato, Anamarija Zrn~i}, ibid. (2011) 59 Damir Krizmani}, Nenad Labus, Lada Turato, Anamarija Zrn~i}, ibid. (2011) 60 Ibid. 61 Ibid.

Movable railway bridge (photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

33


4 Svjetionik Mlaka (nekad Rije~ki lukobran) postavljen 1884. Laios (Luigi) Burgstaller, pregradnja i dogradnja 1933. prema projektu Andree Bayera Godine 1884. na vrh Rije~kog lukobrana (nekad lukobrana Marije Terezije) postavljen je

62 DARI, JU 51, kutija 173. 63 Jakov Karmeli}, Ivana Golob, Miljenko Smokvina, Bijeli bljesak 10 sekundi (Rije~ki svjetionik na Mlaki), ~lanak u objavi.

željezni svjetionik. Zbog slijeganja lukobrana svjetionik je krajem 19. stolje}a premješten na Mlaku. Godine 1933. i tre}i put biva pomaknut, sada podignut uvis na trokatnu svjetioni~arsku zgradu, i oja~an armiranim betonom. Zadnja promjena doga|a se 2002. kada se na zgradu nadogra|uje još jedan kat za Obalnu radiopostaju. Svjetionik se sastoji od osam prstena naslaganih jedan na drugoga. Na vrhu se nalazi lanterna s opti~kim aparatom.62 Središnji dio opti~kog aparata povezan je sa satnim mehanizmom. Svake dvije minute opti~ki ure|aj, koji se sastoji od osam le}a, napravi puni krug, što zna~i da se svjetlost pojavljuje svakih 15 sekundi u obliku izmjeni~nog pojavljivanja crvenog pa bijelog svjetla. Svjetlost je vidljiva s udaljenosti od oko 33 kilo-

Svjetionik Mlaka lighthouse Mlaka

metra, odnosno 17,8 nauti~kih milja. Svjetionik je danas u potpunosti automatiziran i uklopljen u vizuru grada.63

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

34


4 Lighthouse Mlaka (former breakwater of Rijeka) erected in 1884 Laios (Luigi) Burgstaller, remodelling and additions in 1933 according to the project of Andrea Bayer In 1884, an iron lighthouse was set up at the end the breakwater of Rijeka’s port (formerly

62 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 173

breakwater of Maria Theresa). Due to the subsidence of the breakwater, the lighthouse was moved to Mlaka at the end of the 19th century. However, in 1933, it was moved for the third time and this time it was built as a four-storey lighthouse building as well as

63 Jakov Karmeli}, Ivana Golob, Miljenko Smokvina, Bijeli bljesak 10 sekundi (Rije~ki svjetionik na Mlaci), article pending publication.

strengthened with reinforced concrete. The last change occurred in 2002, when the building gained another floor for the Coastal Radio Station. The lighthouse consists of eight rings stacked on each other. At the top there is a lantern room with an optical apparatus, containing the lamp and the lenses.62 The central part of the apparatus is connected to a timer. Every two minutes, the optical apparatus, consisting of eight lenses, makes a full circle, which means that the light appears every 15 seconds in the form of an alternating occurrence of red and white light. The light is visible from a distance of approximately 33 kilometres or 17.8 nautical miles. Today, the lighthouse is

Nacrt svjetionika, tlocrt i popre~ni presjek Draft of the lighthouse, layout and cross-section

fully automated and an integral part of the cityscape.63

(DARI /State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 173)

35


5 Lu~ke dizalice rije~ka luka po~etak 20. stolje}a poduze}a Ganz, Škoda, Metalna, Krupp, Samsung

64 Ganz-ljevaonica željeza i strojogradnja d.d. bilo je budimpeštansko poduze}e koje u prvom desetlje}u 20. stolje}a seli poslovanje u Rijeku, sura|uju}i s brodogradilištem Danibius unutar novog poduze}a GanzDanubius. (Daina Glavo~i}, Rije~ke bitve, Suša~ka revija, godina XII., br. 46/47, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 2004., str. 75.)

Lu~ke dizalice, od kojih su neke još i danas u upotrebi, postavljane su po~etkom 20. stolje}a. U pravilu je rije~ o pokretnim dizalicama koje su se kretale metalnim šinama duž gata luke i tako opsluživale brodove. Uglavnom su Ganzove proizvodnje, ali neke je proizvela ~eška Škoda ili slovenska Metalna.64 Danas ti impresivni gorostasi uglavnom imaju tek simboli~ko zna~enje. S promjenama u tehnologiji transporta i na~inu ambalažiranja tereta, ve}ina ih vi{e nije u upotrebi.

Jedna od dvije sa~uvane Škoda-dizalice u luci Porto Baross One of the two surviving Škoda cranes in Port Baross (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

36


5 Port Cranes port of Rijeka beginning of the 20th century companies Ganz, Škoda, Metalna, Krupp, Samsung The port cranes, some of which are still in use, were erect at the beginning of the 20th century. In general, they were mobile cranes on metal rails that moved along the port jetties and, thus, served the boats. They were mainly manufactured by Ganz, but there were also some produced by the Czech Škoda or Slovenian Metalna.64 Today, these impressive

64 Ganz-ljevaonica željeza i strojogradnja d.d. was a Budapest-based company that moved its business to Rijeka in the first decade of the 20th century. It cooperated with the Danubius shipyard within the new company Ganz-Danubius. (Daina Glavo~i}, Rije~ke bitve, Suša~ka revija, godina XII, br. 46/47, Klub suša~ana, Rijeka, 2004, p. 75)

giants have mostly only a symbolic meaning. With changes in transportation technology

Rije~ke dizalice/Rijeka’s cranes

and cargo packaging most of them have lost its purpose.

(fotografija/photo: @eljko Stojanovi})

37


6 Željezni~ka skladišta od Trga žabica do Brguda druga polovica 19. i po~etak 20. stolje}a ing. Richtnitz, Ferenc Pfaff i dr.

65 Odnosi izme|u Hrvatske i Ma|arske ure|eni su Hrvatsko-ugarskom nagodbom iz 1868., a Rijeku je obilježio ~lanak 66. (Rije~ka krpica) kojim je grad pripao ugarskom dijelu Monarhije. 66 Jasne inicijative za povezivanje Rijeke sa zale|em dao je Andrija Ljudevit Adami} prvih desetlje}a 19. stolje}a inzistiraju}i na realizaciji željez­ nice koja bi spajala ravni~arski kraj zapadne Ugarske i Hrvatske, na relaciji Šopron – Zagreb, odnosno Karlovac. Ovaj su put ponovno do izražaja došle Adami}eve poduzetni~ko-vizionarske ideje, pri ~emu se kao osnovni cilj postavljalo nametanje Rijeke kao vode}e luke te njezino spajanje s kontinentom. (Bernard Stulli, Željezni~ke veze Rijeke sa Zale|em, u: 110 godina rije~ke željeznice, Željezni~ki prijevoz Rijeka, Rijeka, 1983., str. 17.) 67 Nana Palini}, Povijesna skladišta Rije~ke luke, n. d. (2003.), str. 27.

Nakon Austro-ugarske nagodbe iz 1867., ma|arski duh u Rijeci postaje sve naglašeniji,65 a nastojanja Budimpešte da od Rijeke stvori veliku izvoznu luku nalagala su da se zna~ajna sredstva ulože u izgradnju željeznice.66 Idejni projekt željeznice i njezin položajni nacrt unutar grada izradio je József Bainville.67 Izgradnja željezni~ke pruge prema Karlovcu zapo~inje 1869. i usprkos nizu problema otvorena je u studenome 1873., ~ime se Rijeka priklju~uje ma|arskome željezni~kom sustavu.68 Iste godine dovršen je željezni~ki spoj od Rijeke do Sv. Petra (Pivka) te je Rijeka povezana na željezni~ku liniju Trst – Be~.69 Ti su željezni~ki pravci bili nužni za ostvarivanje planova razvoja Rijeke u kontekstu trgova~ke i putni~ke luke. Rijeka je na taj na~in bila povezana s važnim carskim i europskim centrima Be~om i Budimpeštom,

68 Pruga Rijeka – Karlovac bila je izgra|ena kao jednokolosije~na glavna pruga. (Davorin Desselbrunner, Gradnja Rije~ke željeznice na relaciji Karlovac – Rijeka (1869–1873), u: 110 godina rije~ke željeznice, Željezni~ki prijevoz Rijeka, Rijeka, 1983., str. 36, 58.) 69 Željezni~ka je linija od Trsta do Be~a bila sagra|ena još 1857. godine. (Nikola Straži~i}, n. d. (2001.)

Željezni~ko skladište III b (fotografija: Stanislav Beli~ka)

38

koji su u njoj vidjeli potencijal za realizaciju vlastitih poduzetni~kih nastojanja. Usporedno s izgradnjom željezni~ke pruge, na potezu od Trga Žabica do Brguda (današnji 3. maj), podizala su se željezni~ka skladišta namijenjena prekrcaju i skladištenju


6 Railway Warehouses from Žabica square to Brgud second half of the 19 and beginning of the 20th century eng. Richtnitz, Ferenc Pfaff and others th

After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Hungarian spirit became more and more pronounced in Rijeka,65 and Budapest’s efforts to make Rijeka a major export port demanded the investment of significant resources in the construction of railways.66 The preliminary design of the railway and the draft of its position within the city were made by József Bainville.67 The construction of the railway line towards Karlovac began in 1869. Despite a number of problems it was opened in November 1873 and, thus, linked Rijeka to the Hungarian railway system.68 That same year a railway connection between Rijeka and St. Peter (Pivka) was completed, thereby connecting Rijeka to the railway line Trieste-Vienna.69 The completion of these railway lines was a necessity for the realization of development plans for Rijeka to become a strong passenger and trading port. This connected Rijeka with the monarchical and European centres Vienna and Budapest. In turn, they recognised Rijeka’s potential and used it to accom-

65 Relations between Croatia and Hungary were governed by the Cro­ atian-Hungarian Agreement of 1868 and Rijeka was especially affected by Article 66 (called Rije~ka krpica or Rijeka’s cloth, meaning an inserted provision), which stipulated that the city belongs to the Hungarian part of the Monarchy. 66 A clear initiative to connect Rijeka with the hinterland came from Andrija Ljudevit Adami} in the first decades of the 19th century, when he insisted on the implementation of a railway line that would connect the plains of western Hungary and Croatia, between Sopron – Zagreb, as well as Karlovac. This endeavour is another display of Adami}’s entrepreneurial visionary ideas, his main goal being to make Rijeka a major port and to connect it with the continent. (Bernard Stulli, Željezni~ke veze Rijeke sa Zale|em, in: 110 godina rije~ke željeznice, Željezni~ki prijevoz Rijeka, Rijeka, 1983, p. 17)

plish their entrepreneurial efforts. In parallel with the construction of the railroad, railway warehouses were erected stretching from the Žabica square to Brgud (today’s Third May Shipyard), with the intention of

67 Nana Palini}, Povijesna skladišta Rije~ke luke, ibid. (2003), p. 27 68 The railway line Rijeka-Karlovac was built as a single-track railway. (Davorin Desselbrunner, Gradnja Rije~ke željeznice na relaciji KarlovacRijeka (1869-1873), in: 110 godina rije~ke željeznice, Željezni~ki prijevoz Rijeka, Rijeka, 1983, p. 36, 58) 69 The railway line between Trieste and Vienna was built in 1857. (Nikola Straži~i}, ibid. (2001), p. 4)

Railway warehouse III b (photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

39


70 Nana Palini}, Prometne zgrade – željeznica i luka, u: Arhitektura historicizma u Rijeci, Moderna galerija Rijeka, Rijeka, 2001., str. 384. 71 Ova dogradnja provedena je prema nacrtima Ferenca Pfaffa. (Nana Palini}, n. d. (2001.), str. 386.)

robe. Ve} do kraja 19. stolje}a bilo je sagra|eno tridesetak skladišta, otvorenog tipa i trajnih skladišta jasnih historicisti~kih stilskih obilježja, od kojih su do danas sa~uvana skladišta broj IIIa, IIIb i 15 (danas skladišta broj 31, 32, 33).70 Željezni~ko skladište III b izgra|eno je prema projektu inženjera Richtnitza 1881. godine. Radi se o longitudinalnom objektu izrazitih funkcionalnih karakteristika, smještenom zapadno od Trga Žabica. Duž sjevernog i južnog pro~elja proteže se povišeno prizemlje ~ija je funkcija bila olakšati pretovar robe iz vagona u skladište i obratno. Iako je zgrada utilitarnog karaktera, na pro~elju ne nedostaje dekorativnih historicisti~kih elemenata. Ritmiziranost pro~elja postignuta je naizmjeni~nim izmjenjivanjem dva prozorska otvora i jednih vrata. Taj slijed prozorskih otvora na prvom katu dodatno je naglašen plitkim lezenama. Zna~ajna arhitektonska intervencija napravljena je 1890. kada je dogra|en isto~ni dio skladišta u kojem su bili smješteni uredi.71 Pro~elje toga novijeg dijela gledalo je na ondašnji Trg Zigy, današnja Žabica, te stoga nije ~udno što se pokušalo dograditi kako bi se bolje uklopilo u vizuru trga. Ve} 1895. svoj }e prijedlog ponuditi arhitekt Hühn Gyule, ali projekt nije izveden. Trg Zigy dobit }e novo pro~elje tek dvanaest godina poslije prema projektu Ferenca Pfaffa koji je izradio projekt vrlo sli~an Gyulovu. Rije~

Nerealizirani nacrt isto~nog dijela skladišta III b iz 1895. prema arhitektu Hühnu Gyuleu Unexecuted draft of the eastern section of the warehouse III b, made by architect Hühn Gyule in 1895

je o reprezentativnom, kamenom, neorenesansnom pro~elju koje je u izvornom obliku ostalo sa~uvano do danas.

(DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 135)

40


transhipment and storage of goods. By the end of the 19th century, thirty warehouses were built, both open and permanent storage warehouses, with clear historicist stylistic characteristics. The warehouses number IIIa, IIIb and 15 (today warehouses no. 31, 32, 33) are still standing today.70

70 Nana Palini}, Prometne zgrade-željeznica i luka, in: Arhitektura historicizma u Rijeci, Moderna galerija Rijeka, Rijeka, 2001, p. 384 71 This addition was made according to the plans of Ferenc Pfaff. (Nana Palini}, ibid. (2001), p. 386)

The railway warehouse III b was made according to the project outline of engineer Richtnitz in 1881. It is a longitudinal object with distinctive functional features located west of the Žabica square. An elevated floor extends along the northern and southern fronts, the function of which was to facilitate the reloading of goods from wagons to the warehouse and vice versa. Although the building is utilitarian in character, the facade is not missing historicist decorative elements. The rhythmic character of the facade is achieved by the alternate succession of two windows and a door. The aforementioned sequence of windows on the first floor is further underlined by shallow pilasters. A significant architectural intervention was made in 1890 when the eastern part of the warehouse, housing offices, was added to the building.71 The facade of the new addition faced the former Zigy square, today’s Žabica square, and it is no wonder that upgrading efforts were made to better incorporate the facade into the square’s skyline. Already in 1895, architect Hühn Gyule submitted his draft for the facade, but the project was not carried out. The Zigy square got a new facade only twelve years later. It was designed by Ferenc Pfaff, who admittedly made a draft very similar to the one of Gyule. It was a representative stone facade in neo-renaissance style that has been preserved in its original form until today.

Nacrt tlocrtne rekonstrukcije isto~nog dijela skladišta III b, Ferenc Pfaff, 1907. Blueprint of the ground plan reconstruction of the eastern section of the warehouse III b, Ferenc Pfaff, 1907 (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 152)

41


7 Željezni~ki kolodvor Krešimirova ulica 1891. Ferenc Pfaff

72 Nana Palini}, Prometne zgrade – željeznica i luka, n. d. (2001.), str. 376.

Sedamnaest godina nakon izgradnje pruge Rijeka – Karlovac, centar grada dobiva reprezentativnu kolodvorsku zgradu. Za projekt gra|evine bio je zadužen glavni arhitekt Ma|arskih državnih željeznica Ferenc Pfaff. Tipološki vrlo sli~na zdanja Pfaff je projektirao u Zagrebu, Bratislavi, Pe~uhu i drugdje na prostoru Austro-Ugarske Monarhije. Zadani projekt izvelo je poduze}e Vjenceslava Celligoia, a 1. sije~nja 1891. Rijeka dobiva zgradu željezni~kog kolodvora.72 Arhitektonska profilacija kolodvorske zgrade jednostavna je i podre|ena njezinoj namjeni. Gra|evina je temeljena na jednoetažnome paviljonskom prostoru ~iji je naglasak na dužini (120 m). Visinom i fasadnom dekoracijom posebno je istaknut središnji ulazni paviljon, dok su malo manje visine bo~na dva paviljona koja su s glavnim povezani krilima. U duhu ma|arske gradnje zdanje posjeduje skladnu klasicisti~ku kompoziciju. Trokutni zabati poviše prozorskih otvora, krovna balustrada iznad friza s triforama te

Željezni~ki kolodvor Rijeka Rijeka railway station

reljefna dekoracija s motivima girlandi i rizalitnim pilastrima s korintskim kapitelima tek su neki od motiva kojima ma|arski arhitekt, u duhu klasicizma, interpretira antiku.

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

42


7 Railway Station Krešimirova Street 1891 Ferenc Pfaff Seventeen years after the construction of the railway line Rijeka-Karlovac, the city centre got a representative station building. The main architect of the Hungarian State Railways,

72 Nana Palini}, Prometne zgrade-željeznica i luka, ibid. (2001), p. 376

Ferenc Pfaff, was in charge of the project. Pfaff designed typologically very similar buildings in Zagreb, Bratislava, Pécs and elsewhere in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The project was carried out by the company of Vjenceslav Celligoi and, on 1 January 1891, the new building of Rijeka’s railway station was ready for use.72 The architectural profile of the station building is simple and corresponds to its purpose. The building is based on a single-storey pavilion area with emphasis on the length (120 m). The central entrance pavilion is particularly prominent with its height and facade decoration. It is connected with two slightly less high side pavilions by means of wings. In the spirit of the Hungarian construction style, the building has a harmonious classicist composition. Triangular pediments above the windows, a roof balustrade above the frieze with triforia as well as relief decoration with garland motifs and avant-corps pilasters with Željezni~ki kolodvor Rijeka, južno pro~elje Rijeka railway station

Corinthian capitals are just some of the features with which the Hungarian architect, in the spirit of classicism, interpreted classical antiquity.

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

43


8 Remiza Zapadna industrijska zona, Ulica Milutina Bara~a neposredno prije Prvoga svjetskog rata projektant nepoznat

73 Olga Magaš, Industrijska arhitektura, u: Arhitektura historicizma u Rijeci, Moderna galerija Rijeka, Rijeka, 2001., str. 382.

Nakon izgradnje željeznice i glavnoga željezni~kog kolodvora bilo je potrebno napraviti i niz popratnih namjenskih objekata u koje se, prije svih, ubraja remiza. Remiza za lokomotive napravljena je nedaleko od glavnog željezni~kog kolodvora, u nekadašnjoj Industrijskoj ulici. Nije poznat arhitekt niti to~no vrijeme izgradnje, ali se pretpostvalja da je remiza izgra|ena neposredno prije Prvoga svjetskog rata.73 U toj se prizemnoj gra|evini polukružna tlocrta, pokrivenoj kosim krovom, nalaze dvadeset i dva kolosijeka za garažiranje lokomotiva. Stražnje pro~elje zgrade, okrenuto prema današnjoj Ulici Milutina Bara~a, obilježeno je jednostavnom dekoracijom zida, raš~lanjenog pilastrima od kamenog bunjata, izme|u kojih se nalaze visoki otvori tipi~noga historicisti~kog dekorativnog završetka.

Ložionica za pripremu lokomotiva Rijeka. Boiler room for the preparation of locomotives in Rijeka (Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka)

Unutrašnjost remize Interior of the traction maintenance depot (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

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8 Traction Maintenance Depot Western Industrial Zone, Milutina Bara~a Street shortly before World War I project engineer unknown After the construction of the railway and the main railway station, it was necessary to make a series of accompanying facilities, above all, a traction maintenance depot. A loco-

73 Olga MagaĹĄ, Industrijska arhitektura, Arhitektura historicizma u Rijeci, Moderna galerija Rijeka, Rijeka, 2001, p. 382

motive depot was made not far from the main railway station, in the former Industrijska Street. The architect and the exact time of construction are unknown, but it can be assumed that the storage was built just before World War I.73 It is a semi-circular ground floor building, covered by a sloping roof. Inside the building there are twenty-two tracks for garaging locomotives. The rear facade of the building, facing today’s Milutina Bara~a Street, is marked by simple wall decorations, segmented by pilasters of cut stone between which there are high openings with a typical historicist decorative finish.

Remiza za vlakove u nekadaĹĄnjoj Industrijskoj ulici Traction maintenance depot in the former Industrijska Street (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

45


9 Rafinerija še}era Krešimirova ulica od 1750. do 1828. Andrea Menini (upravna zgrada – 1782.–1786.)

Upravna zgrada Rafinerije še}era na grafici von Mayra iz 1832. Administration building of the Sugar Refinery on a von Mayr graphic from 1832 (Pomorski i povijesni muzej Hrvatskog primorja, Rijeka Maritime and History Museum of Croatian Littoral, Rijeka)

Upravna zgrada nekadašnje Rafinerije še}era ­Kompleks Rafinerije še}era bio je smješten duž nekadašnje morske obale pa sve do starog Lazareta. Danas se nalazi u Krešimirovoj ulici nasuprot Željezni~kog kolodvora. 74 Krasanka Majer, Petar Puhmajer, Pala~a [e}erane u Rijeci, Grad Rijeka u suradnji s Hrvatskim restauratorskim zavodom, Rijeka, 2008., str. 30. 75 Rafineriju je 1785. navodno zadesio velik požar, u vrijeme kada je poslovanje kompanije bilo na vrhuncu. Tada su izgorjela skladišta i "ku}a Uprave". Prema zabilješkama dubrova~kog putopisca iz 1788., može se iš~itati da je novu gra|evinu za smještaj uprave izgradio neki Mennini iz Trevisa. Možda je rije~ o furlanskom arhitektu Andreji Meniniju poznatom po izgradnji pala~e Friedl-Rechar u Ljubljani 1794., koja ~ak podsje}a na rije~ku zgradu. (Krasanka Majer, Petar Puhmajer, n. d. (2008.), str. 35.–39.) 76 Ova je gra|evina bila upravna zgrada Rafinerije še}era, ali se zna da su se u njoj nalazili i stanovi direktora tvornice, što može biti jedan od razloga sve~anog karaktera unutrašnjosti. (Krasanka Majer, Petar Puhmajer, n. d. (2008.), str. 35–39.) 77 Iako zbog veli~ine pogona Rafineriju še}era ~esto nazivamo industrijskim, to je još uvijek manufakturno poduze}e.

46

Projekt kompleksa izveden je prema planovima inženjera Francesca Saverija Bonoma.74 Od njega je ostala velebna kasnobarokna pala~a izgra|ena 1786., a pretpostavlja se da je njezin arhitekt bio Andrea Menini.75 Glavno južno pro~elje jednostavne je neo­ klasicisti~ke kompozicije s tri monumentalna polukružna portika. Monotoniju simetrije prekidaju prozori prvog i drugog kata s izmjeni~no polukružnim i trokutnim nadstrešnicama. Duh nemirne barokne tradicije najistaknutiji je na vijugavim linijama balkona drugog kata, na kojem je bio smješten raskošan piano nobile. Iako još uvijek suzdržane vanjštine, u unutrašnjosti zgrade pažljivim je odabirom dekoracijskih elemenata, igrom stupova i arkatura te detaljima fresko-ciklusa i štuko-oblikovanja, postignut sve~ani, gotovo pompozan ugo|aj.76 Rije~ka Rafinerija še}era, poznata i kao Zuccheriera, vezuje se uza same po~etke razvoja industrije u Rijeci, odnosno prerade še}era u Austrijskoj Monarhiji.77 Po~etak Zuccheriere veže se za trgova~ko udruženje iz Antwerpena, na ~elu kojega su bili Urban Arnoldt i Charles Proli. Iako im je prvobitan plan bio otvoriti Rafineriju še}era u Trstu,


9 Sugar Refinery Krešimirova Street from 1750 to 1828 Andrea Menini (administration building – 1782 - 1786)

Administration Building of the Former Sugar Refinery

Upravna zgrada Rafinerije še}era Administration building of the Sugar Refinery (Drago Ivandi})

The Sugar Refinery complex was located along the former sea coast all the way to the old Lazaretto. Today it is situated in Krešimirova Street opposite to the railway station. The complex project was carried out according to plans of engineer Francesco Saverio Bonome.74 A magnificent late Baroque palace remained from the former complex, built in 1786. Presumably, its architect was Andrea Menini.75 The main south facade has a simple neoclassical composition with three monumental semi-circular porticos. The monotony of the symmetry is interrupted by the windows of the first and second floor with alternating triangular and semi-circular eaves. The spirit of the restless Baroque tradition is most prominent in the winding lines on the balcony of the second floor where the sumptuous piano nobile was located. In spite of the still somewhat minimalistic exterior, the interior of the building with its carefully selected decoration elements, a playful alignment of pillars and arcatures as well as details such as fresco cycles and stucco design, evoked a solemn, almost pompous atmosphere.76 Rijeka’s Sugar Refinery, also known as Zuccheriera, is associated with the beginnings of the industrial development in Rijeka and the refining of sugar in the Austrian monarchy.77 The beginning of the Zuccheriera is linked to a trading association in Antwerp, led by Arnoldt Urban and Charles Proli. Although their original plan was to open a sugar refinery in

74 Krasanka Majer, Petar Puhmajer, Pala~a [e}erane u Rijeci, Grad Rijeka u suradnji s Hrvatskim restauratorskim zavodom, Rijeka, 2008, p. 30 75 The Refinery was allegedly struck by major fire in 1785, right around the time when the business of the Company was at its peak. The warehouses and the administration building went up in flames. According to records of a travel writer from Dubrovnik from 1788, the new building that accommodated the administration was made by some Mennini from Treviso. There is a possibility that this was the architect Andrea Menini from Friuli, famous for building the palace of Friedl-Rechar in Ljubljana in 1794, which is even reminiscent of Rijeka’s building. (Krasanka Majer, Petar Puhmajer, ibid. (2008), p. 35–39) 76 This building was the administration building of the Sugar Refinery, however, it is known that it housed apartments for the company’s director, which may be a reason for the solemn character of the interior. (Krasanka Majer, Petar Puhmajer, ibid. (2008), p. 35-39) 77 Even though we often call the Sugar Refinery an industrial plant due to its great size, it is still a manufacturing company.

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nakon dobivanja dozvole od Monarhije, plan je izmijenjen i Zuccheriju otvaraju u Rije-

78 Krasanka Majer, Petar Puhmajer, n. d. (2008.), str. 24.; Irvin Lukeži}, Nizozemci u Rijeci, Suša~ka revija, godina XI., br. 41, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 2003., str. 81.

ci.78 Pun naziv kompanije glasio je Glavna trgova~ka kompanija Trsta i Rijeke. Time se

79 Isto.

izvoz še}era, kave, ~aja i duhana, imala mogu}nost gradnje vlastitih brodova, eksploa-

80 Rafiniranjem še}era dobivala se široka paleta proizvoda; nekoliko vrsta še}era, liker Rosoli i slatkiši. (Krasanka Majer, Petar Puhmajer, n. d. (2008.), str. 25; Irvin Lukeži}, n. d. (2003.), str. 81.). 81 Kapital tvornice posjedovali su ve}im dijelom Nizozemci iz Antwerpena, Bruxellesa, Louvaina, Amsterdama, Ganda i Haaga, pa je jedan od dioni~ara bio Pierre Wellens koji je predsjedovao skupštini nizozemskih dioni~ara. Me|u dioni~arima bili su i predstavnici austrijske visoke aristokracije, s caricom Marijom Terezijom na prvome mjestu. Upla}eni kapital prelazio je dioni~ku glavnicu od 1.088.000 forinti, zbog ~ega je Tvornica še}era tada bila najve}e kapitalisti~ko poduze}e u ~itavoj Europi. (Irvin Lukeži}, n. d. (2003.), str. 81.) 82 Ve} na samom po~etku rada kompanije donijeta je odluka da }e njome uvijek upravljati tri direktora (voditelja), od kojih }e jedan biti glavni. Od 1752., do 1759. to su bili Urban Arnoldt, Jean Antoine Wellens i Archibald Kennedy. Tada je i prvotni naziv kompanije promijenjen u Privilegirana trgova~ka kompanija Arnoldt, Kennedy i Wellens. Od zna~aj­nijih direktora koji su upravljali tvornicom, valja spomenuti i Ignacea Verpoortena (1760.–1776.) te Petera de Vierendeelsa (1777.–1803.), ~iji je rad bitno obilježio poslovanje Rafinerije. Nakon Vierendeelsove smrti 1803., poslovanje više nije bilo u~inkovito. U svjetskoj industriji po~ela se primjenjivati sirovina še}erne repe koju rije~ka Še­}e­­rana nije koristila, a u me|uvremenu su se u Europi otvorile brojne še}erane, što je pove}alo konkurentnost. U upravi Še}erane tada su bili Villem Jan de Ridder, Andrija Seiler te Vierendeelsov sin Petar. (Krasanka Majer, Petar Puhmajer, n. d., (2008.), str. 32.–45.) 83 Godine 1768. u tvornici su bila zaposlena 764 radnika. Od toga je bilo 49 stranaca – Nizozemci, Hamburžani, Francuzi (na najboljim radnim mjestima), 316 iz austrijskih zemalja – Istrani, Kranjci, Austrijanci i 399 doma}ih radnika. (Irvin Lukeži}, n .d. (2003.), str. 82.) 84 Rudolf Bi~ani} u svojoj knjizi Doba manufakture u Hrvatskoj i Slavoniji (1750.–1860.) navodi Rafineriju še}era u Rijeci kao najve}e manufakturno poduze}e 18. i 19. stolje}a u Hrvatskoj i Austro-Ugarskoj Monarhiji, ali isti~e da je to i jedna od najve}ih manufaktura svojega doba u Europi. (Rudolf Bi~ani}, n. d. (1951.), str. 155. 85 Irvin Lukeži}, n. d. (2003.), str. 81. 86 Direktor Zuccheriere Massart prodao je objekt kraljevskom eraru, nakon ~ega je kompleks dodijeljen 52. pukovniji nadvojvode Franje Dragutina, postrojbi austrijske vojske stacioniranoj u Rijeci. (Saša Dmitrovi}, Mala povijest duhana u Rijeci, Suša~ka revija, godina V., broj 18/19, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 1997., str. 66.) 87 Daina Glavo~i}, Rije~ka industrijska arhitektura bivše Še}erane i Duhanjere, I. me|unarodna konferencija u povodu 150. obljetnice tvornice torpeda u Rijeci i o~uvanja rije~ke industrijske baštine, Pro Torpedo, Rijeka, 2003., str. 381. Upravna zgrada Rafinerije še}era, piano nobile (unutrašnjost) Administration building of the Sugar Refinery, piano nobile (interior) (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

48

nastojao dodatno potaknuti razvoj rije~ke luke, a kompanija je, osim prava na uvoz i tiranja rudnih nalazišta, sije~e šuma i mnogih drugih djelatnosti.79 Dekretom od 1. listopada 1750. Marija Terezija je Še}erani dala brojne povlastice pod nazivom Oktroj, koje su uklju~ivale dozvolu za osnivanje kompanije koja se imala baviti industrijom še}era. Društvo je trebalo biti izuzeto od svih carina i da}a na uvoz sirovog še}era, koji se obavljao kroz trš}ansku i rije~ku luku.80 Monopol povlaštene kompanije posebno je istaknut time što su drugi trgovci še}erom morali svoj še}er nabavljati neposredno od Kompanije. Kompanija je imala i pravo slobodne gradnje brodova u brodogradilištima Trsta i Rijeke, a ~ak je i gra|evinski materijal potreban za njihovu izgradnju bio oslobo|en svih nameta. Radnici su bili oslobo|eni osobnih kmetskih tlaka i vojnih dužnosti.S obzirom na dobivene privilegije, iste je godine zapo~eta izgradnja velikog pogona i uprave Še}erane,81 a jedan od prvih upravitelja bio je spomenuti Urban Arnoldt.82 U tvornici je u vrijeme njezina osnutka bilo zaposleno oko 700 radnika.83 Postupno, tvornica je prerasla u cijeli koncern poduze}a, obuhvativ{i i neke manufakture (primjerice za preradu voska, voštanih svije}a i potaše). Svoje poslovnice i skladišta imala je diljem Monarhije te u inozemstvu: Istanbulu, Solunu, na Krimu, u zapadnoj Europi i Americi. Postrojenje Rafinerije še}era bilježi se od 1750. do 1826. kada poduze}e odlazi u ste~aj,84 a posljednji direktor rodom iz Ganda u Flandriji, Leo Johann Massart, odredio je rasprodaju pokretne i nepokretne imovine rafinerije.85 Od 1832. do 1848. u Še}erani je bila smještena vojarna ma|arske vojske,86 a 1851. u kompleksu s proizvodnjom zapo~inje Tvornica duhana.87


Unutrašnjost upravne zgrade Rafinerije še}era Interior of the Sugar Refinery’s administration building (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

78 Krasanka Majer, Petar Puhmajer, ibid.(2008), p. 24; Irvin Lukeži}, Nizozemci u Rijeci, Suša~ka revija 41, godina XI., Klub suša~ana, Rijeka, 2003, p. 81 79 Ibidem 80 The process of sugar refining created a wide range of products: several types of sugar, the Risoli liquor and sweets. (Krasanka Majer, Petar Puhmajer, ibid. (2008), p. 25; Irvin Lukeži}, ibid. (2003), p. 81) 81 Most of the capital of the mentioned factory was owned by the Dutch from Antwerp, Brussels, Louvain, Amsterdam, The Hague and Gant and one of the shareholders was also Pierre Wellens, who presided the Assembly of Dutch shareholders. Among the shareholders there were also representatives of the Austrian high aristocracy with empress Maria Theresa leading the way. The paid-up capital exceeded the equity of 1,088,000 forints which made the Sugar Factory the largest capitalist enterprise in all of Europe. (Irvin Lukeži}, ibid. (2003), p. 81)

Trieste, after obtaining a permit from the monarchy, the plan was changed and the Zuccheriera opened in Rijeka.78 The full name of the company Main Trading Company of Trieste and Rijeka. This was an attempt to further encourage the development of the port of Rijeka. Besides having the right to import and export sugar, coffee, tea and tobacco, the company was also allowed to build their own ships, exploit mineral deposits, cut wood and carry out many other activities.79 With a decree of Maria Theresa from 1 October 1750, the factory gained many privileges. The privileges, known as "Oktroj", included a permission to establish a company that was to engage in sugar manufacturing. The company was supposed to be exempt from all customs duties on the import of raw sugar, which was carried out via the ports of Trieste and Rijeka. The monopoly of this privileged company is especially highlighted by the fact that other traders had to procure their sugar directly from the Company. Also, the Company had the right of free ship construction in the shipyards of Trieste and Rijeka and even the material needed for construction was acquitted of all taxes. The workers were exempt from paying serf’s taxes and military duties.80 Considering the obtained privileges, the construction of a large plant and the administration building of the Sugar Refinery81 began in the same year, and one of the first managers was the above mentioned Urban Arnoldt.82 At the time of its

82 At the very beginning of the Company’s operation, the decision was made that it would be managed by three directors (managers), one of whom was to be the chief manager. Between 1752 and 1759, the managers were Urban Arnoldt, Jean Antoine Wellens and Archibald Ke­ nnedy. At that time, the original name of the company was changed to Privilegirana trgova~ka kompanija Arnoldt, Kennedy i Wellens (Arnoldt, Kennedy and Wellens Privileged Trading Company). Among the important directors who ran the factory we should also mention Ignace Verpoorten (1760-1776) and Peter de Vierendeels (1777-1803) whose work significantly marked the Refinery’s operation. After Vierendeels’s death in 1803, the business became less efficient. The global industry began to use raw beet sugar, which the refinery in Rijeka did not use, and in the meantime a number of sugar refineries opened in Europe, which increased competitiveness. At the time, the management of the Refinery consisted of Villem Jan de Ridder, Andrija Seiler and Vierendeels’s son Peter. (Krasanka Majer, Petar Puhmajer, ibid. (2008), p. 32-45) 83 In 1768, the factory employed 764 workers. 49 of them were foreigners - Dutch, citizens of Hamburg, French (occupying the best positions). 316 workers came from the Austrian countries: Istria, Carniola and Austria itself. The 399 remaining workers were locals, Croatians. (Irvin Lukeži}, ibid. (2003), p. 82) 84 In his book on the age of manufacturing in Croatia and Slovenia between 1750 and 1860, Rudolf Bi~ani} states that Rijeka’s Sugar Refinery was the largest manufacturing company of the 18th and 19th century in Croatia as well as the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and also one of the largest manufacturing plants of his time in Europe. (Rudolf Bi~ani}, ibid. (1951), p. 155)

foundation, the factory employed about 700 workers.83 Gradually, the factory had grown into

85 Irvin Lukeži}, ibid. (2003), p. 81

a group of companies and it also involved some manufacturing plants (e.g. plants for processing wax, wax candles and potash). It had offices and warehouses throughout the Monarchy and abroad: in Istanbul, Thessaloniki, Crimea, Western Europe and America. The facilities of the Sugar Refinery operated from 1750 to 1826 when the company went bankrupt,84 and the last manager, Leo Johann Massart, born in Gent, Flanders, ordered the sale of the refinery’s movable and immovable property.85 From 1832 to 1848 the refinery complex housed the Hungarian Army.86 In 1851, the Tobacco Factory started its production in the premises.87

86 The director of the Zuccheriera, Massart, sold the facility to the Royal Treasury, after which the complex was assigned to the 52nd Regiment of Archduke Franjo Dragutin, which was the Austrian Army’s unit that was stationed in Rijeka. (Saša Dmitrovi}, Mala povijest duhana u Rijeci, Suša~ka revija, godina V, broj 18/19., Klub Su{a~ana, Rijeka, 1997, p. 66) 87 Daina Glavo~i}, Rije~ka industrijska arhitektura bivše Še}erane i Duhanjere, I. me|unarodna konferencija u povodu 150. obljetnice tvornice torpeda u Rijeci i o~uvanja rije~ke industrijske baštine, Pro Torpedo, Rijeka, 2003, p. 381

49


10 Tvornica duhana Krešimirova ulica od 1851. do Drugoga svjetskog rata nepoznat autor za T- i H-objekt

Prvi spomen vezan za duhan zabilježen je u kontekstu tarenja duhana u franjeva~kom

T-objekt/T-object (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

mlinu u Lu~ici. Tamo se ~etiri dana mljelo brašno, a peti dan tario duhan.88 Ipak, prva zna~ajna kompanija bila je Temišvarska, u kojoj je navodno bio zaposlen duhanski stru~njak, Nizozemac Blondin. Ova trgova~ka kompanija imala je svoju platnaru u Bakru i manufakturu duhana na Trsatu. Kompanija je zatvorena 1771. zbog loše investicije, kupnje neupotrebljivog duhana. Duhanska pri~a nastavlja se s Adamom pl. Bienenfeldom, direktorom duhanskog poduze}a iz Be~a, i Adamom Karlom Scharmom, koji su 1763. osnovali Tvornicu duhana u Sušaku. Ta je tvornica bila smještena nedaleko od kapele Sv. Lovre, na mjestu današnjega Hotela Neboder i HKD-a.89 Schramovim politi~kim vezama tvornica je ostvarila monopol u vrijeme francuske vladavine u Rijeci (1805.–1813.) kada je rad drugim duhanskim manufakturama zabranjen. Za uspostavljenje Tvornice duhana u Rijeci klju~an je bio carski patent donesen 20. studenoga 1850., koji se odnosi na monopol u proizvodnji duhana. Patent je stupio na

88 Saša Dmitrovi}, n. d. (1997.), str. 63.

snagu u Ugarskoj, Transilvaniji, Hrvatskoj, Slavoniji i Vojnoj krajini u ožujku 1851. godine. Sama ma|arska vlada je 24. svibnja 1851. za 100.000 zlatnih dukata otkupila zgra-

89 Isto, str. 64.

de stare Rafinerije še}era i u postoje}oj infrastrukturi propale Rafinerije še}era zapo~ela 50


10 Tobacco Factory Krešimirova Street from 1851 to World War II Unknown author: T-object and H-object The first mention related to tobacco was noted in the context of tobacco threshing in the

88 Saša Dmitrovi}, ibid. (1997), p. 63

Franciscan mill in Lu~ica. At the mill, flour was milled four days a week, and on the fifth day

89 Ibidem, p. 64

tobacco was threshed.88 However, the first significant company was the Temišvar company, which allegedly employed a tobacco specialist, a Dutchman named Blondin. This

90 Ibidem, p. 66

trading company had its textile factory in Bakar and the manufacturing of tobacco in Trsat. The company was closed in 1771 due to a bad investment of buying useless tobacco. The tobacco story continued with Adam Bienenfeld, Esq., director of the tobacco company from Vienna, and Adam Karl Schramm, founder of a tobacco factory in Sušak in 1763. The latter was located not far from the chapel of St. Lovro, on the site of today’s Hotel Neboder and HKD Theatre.89 With Schramm’s political connections, the factory achieved a monopoly at the time of French rule in Rijeka (1805-1813), a time when the operation of other tobacco manufacturing plants was prohibited. Crucial for the establishment of the Tobacco Factory in Rijeka was the imperial patent referring to the monopoly in the production of tobacco, issued on 20 November 1850. This patent became effective in Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, Slavonia and the Military Krajina in March 1851. On 24 May 1851, the Hungarian government bought the buildings of the former Sugar Refinery for 100,000 gold ducats and started producing tobacco in the existing infrastructure of the collapsed Sugar Refinery.90 The first director of the company was Josip Dechler, followed by Franjo Skodnik.91 The plant did not undergo further changes

Tvornica duhana, 1899. (sušara) Tobacco Factory, 1899 (drying facility) (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

51


90 Isto, str. 66.

proizvodnju duhana.90 Prvi ravnatelj tvornice bio je Josip Dechler, a nakon njega dolazi

91 Isto.

kompleks proširuje historicisti~kom trokatnicom, tzv. T-objektom. U toj je zgradi 1867.

Franjo Skodnik.91 Tvornica }e prve izmjene pretrpjeti tek krajem šezdesetih kada se pokrenuta proizvodnja Virginia cigara.

92 Isto, str. 70.

Tvornica duhana koristila je i prostore tzv. H-kompleksa, odnosno nekadašnju pogonsku

93 Povijest Rijeke, n. d. (1988.), str. 259.

zgradu Še}erane. Paviljoni su me|usobno bili spojeni aneksom pa su pritom tvorili tlocrtni oblik slova H, odakle proizlazi naziv.

94 Saša Dmitrovi}, n. d. (1997.), str. 71.

Tvornica duhana poznata je po broju radnika koje je zapošljavala. Godine 1884. u njoj je bilo zaposleno 2.600 radnika, ve}im dijelom žena. Spominju se i jako dobri uvjeti za rad. Radnici su imali dnevni objed, zdravstveni sistematski pregled, pla}eno bolovanje i razne druge pogodnosti.92 Godišnja proizvodnja cigareta bila je zna~ajna – 1880. godine 150– 170 milijuna, a ve} 1890. ~ak 250 milijuna cigareta.93 Nakon Prvoga svjetskog rata i pada Monarhije tvornica nastavlja djelovati sa smanjenim proizvodnim kapacitetom. Radni uvjeti drasti~no se narušavaju i sve su ~eš}i štrajkovi radnika. Tako je u sije~nju 1925. pokrenut štrajk za ~ije je gušenje bila angažirana vojska.Tvornica prestaje s radom tijekom Drugoga svjetskog rata, a posljednji njezin ravnatelj bio je Augusto Vannini.94 Nekoliko godina nakon prestanka rada tvornice, u kompleksu }e od 1945. do 1995. djelovati Tvornica motora i traktora Rikard Ben~i}.

Položajni nacrt objekata u kompleksu Tvornice duhana Layout of the objects in the Tobacco Factory complex (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 113)

52


until the late 1860s, when the complex was expanded by a historicist four-storey building

91 Ibidem

called T-object. In 1867, the production of the Virginia cigars started in this building.

92 Ibidem, p. 70

The Tobacco Factory also used spaces of the former factory buildings of the Sugar Refinery, the so-called H-complex. The pavilions were interconnected with an annexed building

93 Povijest Rijeke, ibid. (1988), p. 259

forming the letter H.

94 Saša Dmitrovi}, ibid. (1997), p. 71

The Tobacco Factory was renowned for the high number of workers it employed. In 1884, it had 2,600 workers, mostly women. The working conditions are reported to having been very well. The workers enjoyed a daily meal, physical health examinations, paid sick leave and various other benefits.92 The annual production of cigarettes was significant. In 1880, 150-170 million cigarettes were produced and, in 1890, the number was already at 250 million.93 After the First World War and the fall of the Monarchy, the factory continued to operate with a reduced production capacity. The mentioned working conditions drastically worsened and the number of workers’ strikes increased. In January 1925, the workers launched a strike and, to break it, it was necessary to bring in the Army.94 The factory closed its doors during World War II and the last director of the company was Augusto Vannini. Several years after the closure of the factory, from 1945 to 1995, the complex housed the Rikard Ben~i} Factory of Engines and Tractors.

Mostovi koji spajaju H-objekt i sušaru Bridges connecting the H-object and the drying facility (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

53


11 Rije~ka tvornica konopa Potok 1764. do kraja 20. stolje}a Emilio Ambrosini (1901.), Mate Glavan

95 Tvornica konopa dobila je 11. ožujka 1802. status fabbrice koja djeluje u Rijeci i uživa najve}e povlastice Rije~koga gubernija. Za njezina se vlasnika 1802. navodi Teodoro Crespi. (DARI, PR-1, kutja 246, fascikl VIII, 1824.)

Godine 1764. Nicolò Crespi, podrijetlom iz Riminija, otvara u Rijeci manufakturu konopa. Osnovni proizvod tvornice bio je konop za brodove. Iz izvora je vidljivo da je 1802. tvornica imala šesnaest zaposlenih.95 Modernizaciji tvornice uvelike je pridonio Giovanni Sirola koji postaje vlasnik oko 1860. godine. Sirola je zamislio preseljenje manufak-

96 Radove je nadzirao Mate Glavan. (Jasna Rotim Malvi}, Industrija, u: Arhitektura secesije u Rijeci, MMSU, Rijeka, 2007., str. 328.; Deborah Pustišek, Emilio Ambrosini, Muzej grada Rijeke, 2011., str. 91.)

turne proizvodnje u novu ve}u gra|evinu, za ~iji je projekt zadužio Emilija Ambrosinija 1901. godine.96 Rije~ je o jednostavnoj gra|evini pravokutna oblika s naglašenim centralnim prostorom u koji je bila smještena sala za predionicu konopa. Objekt je raš­ ~lanjen nizom velikih prozorskih otvora s blagim polukružnim lukom. Dekoracija kojom se Ambrosini ovdje izražava upu}uje na skromne, ali uo~ljive secesijske elemente. Zgrada je danas u raspadnutom stanju, bez krovišta. To je sve što je ostalo sa~uvano od nekadašnje Rije~ke tvornice konopa. Po~etkom 20. stolje}a tvornica je izra|ivala konope za austrougarsku flotu u Puli, za rije~ku Tvornicu torpeda i za Brodogradilište 3. maj. Tijekom Prvoga svjetskog rata tvornica doživljava krizu iz koje teško izlazi, da bi ju nova kriza zasko~ila neposredno nakon Drugoga svjetskog rata. U poduze}u se po~inju

Tvornica konopa Rope Factory

izmjenjivati vlasnici, a 80-ih godina cjelokupna proizvodnja seli na Škurinje. Cijelo je postrojenje razrušeno pri izgradnji trgova~kih centara.

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

54


11 Rijeka’s Rope Factory Potok from 1764 until the end of the 20 century Emilio Ambrosini (1901), Mate Glavan th

In 1764, Nicolò Crespi, a native of Rimini, opened a manufacturing plant for ropes in Rijeka. The company’s main products were ropes for ships. Sources show that the plant had sixteen employees in 1802.95 Giovanni Sirola, who gained ownership of the factory around

95 On 11 March 1802, the Rope Factory acquired the status of a fabbrica that operates in Rijeka and enjoys the greatest privileges of Rijeka’s Governorate. In 1802, the factory was owned by Teodoro Crespi. (State Archives in Rijeka, PR-1, box 246, folder VIII, 1824)

1860, greatly contributed to the modernization of the factory. Sirola gave the idea of moving the manufacturing production to a new, larger building and, in 1901, he put Emilio Ambrosini in charge of the project.96 It is a simple rectangular building with a prominent central area where the rope spinning section was located. The integrity of the facility is

96 The construction work was supervised by Mate Glavan. (Jasna Rotim Malvi}, Industrija, in: Arhitektura secesije u Rijeci, MMSU, Rijeka, 2007, p. 328.; Deborah Pustišek, Emilio Ambrosini, Muzej grada Rijeke, 2011, p. 91)

split by a series of large windows with a mild semi-circular arch. The decorations used by Ambrosini indicate very modest but noticeable Art Nouveau elements. The building is now in a degraded state with no roof. It represents everything that was preserved from the former Rope Factory of Rijeka. At the beginning of the 20th century, the factory manufactured ropes for the Austro-Hungarian fleet in Pula, Rijeka’s Torpedo Factory and the Third May Shipyard. During the First World War, the factory experienced a crisis from which it struggled to come out, only to enter a new crisis immediately after World War II. The company’s owners started rotating and, in the 1880s, the entire production was moved to Škurinje. The entire plant was destroyed during the construction of shopping centres.

Tvornica konopa (detalj) Rope Factory (detail) (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

55


12 Modiano – tvornica igra}ih karata Potok, Rikarda Katalini}a Jeretova 4 1913./1915. Emilio Ambrosini, Mario Ambrosini

97 Piero Delbello, Modiano – od Trsta do Rijeke, Modiano, 2013., str. 20. 98 Daina Glavo~i}, Stambena arhitektura, u: Arhitektura secesije u Rijeci, MMSU, Rijeka, 2007., str. 140.

Tvrtka Modiano osamdesetih godina 19. stolje}a pokre}e vlastitu tvornicu cigaretnog papira i igra}ih karata u Trstu, a 1915. }e u Rijeci izgraditi tvornicu za proizvodnju igra-­ }ih karata. Tvornica se nalazila u nekadašnjoj Via Goldoni (danas Ulica Rikarda Katalini­}a Jeretova 4), a projektanti su bili arhitekti, otac i sin Ambrosini. Nakon o~eve smrti Mario Ambrosini dovršio je gradnju. Pogon je bio u upotrebi do 1931. kada prestaje s proizvodnjom jer se u to vrijeme otvara podružnica trš}anske tvornice u Budimpešti.97 Objekt u kojem se nalazila rije~ka tvornica do danas je sa~uvan i poznat je pod nazivom Uglovnica Modiano. Rije~ je o monumentalnome secesijskom zdanju vrlo zanimljive fasadne dekoracije s naglašenim vertikalnim usmjerenjem masivnih istaknutih erkera i malo diskretnijih kaneliranih pilastara s biljnim kapitelnim završecima.98

Uglovnica Modiano Modiano Corner House (fotografija/photo: @eljko Stojanovi})

56


12 Modiano – Playing Cards Factory Potok, Rikarda Katalini}a Jeretova Street no. 4 1913/1915 Emilio Ambrosini, Mario Ambrosini In the 1880s, the company Modiano started its own cigarette paper and playing cards

97 Piero Delbello, Mondiano-od Trsta do Rijeke, Modiano, 2013, p. 20

factory in Trieste and, in 1915, Modiano built a factory for the manufacturing of playing cards in Rijeka. The factory was located in the former Via Goldoni (today Rikarda Katalini} a Jeretova Street no. 4), and it was designed by architects, father and son Ambrosini. After his father’s death, Mario Ambrosini finished the construction. The plant was in use

98 Daina Glavo~i}, Stambena arhitektura, in: Arhitektura secesije u Rijeci, MMSU, Rijeka, 2007, p. 140

until 1931, when the production was terminated because a Budapest branch of the company was opened at the time.97 The facility in which the mentioned factory was located has been preserved to this day and is known under the name Uglovnica Modiano (Modiano Corner House). It is a monumental Art Nouveau building with highly interesting facade decorations and a pronounced vertical orientation, with prominent massive bay windows and somewhat more discreet cannelured pilasters with floral capitals.98

Plakat izložbe Modiano: Od Trsta do Rijeke, 2013. Exhibition poster Modiano: From Trieste to Rijeka, 2013 (Galerija Kortil)

57


13 Rije~ka tvornica poku}stva Vrata, uprava u Rijeci 1881. projektant nepoznat Fužine i okolna mjesta karakterizira bogatstvo drva i voda. Voda se koristila kao glavna

99 Povijest Rijeke, n. d. (1988.), str. 259.

pogonska snaga za obradu drva i mljevenje žita. Prvi podaci o pilanama i mlinovima u

100 Isto, str. 259.

Fužinama, Li~u i Vratima potje~u još iz prve polovice 17. stolje}a.

101 Pretpostavlja se godišnji izvoz 120–130 tisu}a komada poku}stva. (Povijest Rijeke, n. d. (1988.), str. 259.) 102 Jasna Gavrani}, Industrija i mala privreda, u: Fužine, Odbor za proslavu 200-godišnjice škole Fužine, Mjesna zajednica Fužine i Izdava~ki centar Rijeka, Rijeka, 1986., str. 355.

Tvornicu za izradu namještaja od savijenog drva u Vratima pokrenula je 1881. francuska tvrtka Charles Chevallier iz Lyona.99 Godine 1884. tvornica prelazi u vlasništvo Ma|arske zemaljske banke iz Budimpešte.100 Ve} na samom po~etku tvornica je bilježila znatne uspjehe. Imala je 360 zaposlenika i iznimnu organizaciju rada te produktivnost.101 Od 1893. do 1897. tvornicu preuzima Dioni~ko društvo Rijeka i ona postaje prepoznatljiva pod nazivom Rije~ka tvornica poku}stva d.d.. Povjesni~ar Danilo Klen

103 Isto, str. 364.

navodi da je u Rijeci bilo smješteno upravno sjedište tvornice, a u gorskokotarskim Vratima radni pogon. U to je vrijeme tvornica najviše poslovala s Bejrutom, Aleksandrijom i Istanbulom.102 Po~etak 20. stolje}a tvornica je do~ekala u sklopu ma|arskog poslodavca, tvrtke Mundus, kada propada zbog lošeg poslovanja. Strojevi su iz nje prevezeni u druge Mundusove tvornice u Osijeku, Novoj Gradiški i Varaždinu. Tek 1950-ih godina, kada ulazi u sastav DIP Delnice, može se govoriti o njezinu oporavku.103 Šezdesete godine 20. stolje}a obilježila je modernizacija pogona, ~ime }e se prerada namještaja dovesti na bolju razinu.

Natpis Fiume na stolici Rije~ke tvornice poku}stva (Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka)

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13 Rijeka’s Furniture Factory Vrata, Rijeka’s city administration 1881 project pngineer unknown Fužine and the surrounding area abound in wood and water. Water is used as the main

99 Povijest Rijeke, ibid. (1988), p. 259

driving force for woodworking and grinding grain. First records on sawmills and mills in the

100 Ibidem, p. 259

area of Fužine, Li~ and Vrata date back to the first half of the 17th century. The French company Charles Chevallier from Lyon founded a factory for making bentwood furniture in Vrata in 1881.99 In 1884, the factory became property of the Hungarian National Bank from Budapest.100 Already at the very beginning of its operation, the factory recorded significant successes. It had 360 employees and exceptional work organization and productivity.101 Dioni~ko društvo Rijeka (Joint Stock Corporation Rijeka) took over the ownership of the factory from 1893 to 1897, and the factory became known under the

101 The assumed annual export was around 120-130 thousand pieces of furniture per year. (Povijest Rijeke, ibid. (1988), p. 259) 102 Jasna Gavrani}, Industrija i mala privreda, in: Fužine, Odbor za proslavu 200-godišnjice škole Fužine, Mjesna zajednica Fužine i Izdava~ki centar Rijeka, Rijeka, 1986, p. 355 103 Ibidem, p. 364

name Rije~ka tvornica poku}stva d.d. (Rijeka’s Furniture Factory plc). The historian Klen states that Rijeka housed the administration headquarters of the company, while the production was located in Vrata, Gorski Kotar. At the time, the company mostly did business with Beirut, Alexandria and Istanbul.102 The factory entered the 20th century under the ownership of the Hungarian company "Mundus", when it went bankrupt due to poor performance. The factory’s machinery was transported to the other "Mundus" factories in Osijek, Nova Gradiška and Varaždin. The recovery of Vrata’s furniture factory came in the 1950s, when it became part of DIP Delnice.103 The 1960s were marked by the modernization of the production facilities for processing furniture.

Katalog proizvoda iz 1894. i stolac od kuhane savijene bukovine Product catalogue from 1894 and chair made of steam-bended beech wood (Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka)

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Ĺ kolji} i vodovodna ulica

60


Ĺ kolji} and Vodovodna Street

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14 Tramvajska remiza na Školji}u Školji} 1925. projektant nepoznat

104 Boris ^abrijan, Rje~ina i njezini mostovi, Suša~ka revija, godina I., br. 4, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 1993., str. 13.; L' Azienda Servizi Publici Municipalizzati di Fiume nel suo Trentennio: 1909–1939/XVII., Rijeka 1939., str. 19. 105 Pruga je dodatno ure|ena i produžena 1907. na 4.600 metara. (L' Azienda Servizi Publici Municipalizzati di Fiume nel suo Trentennio: 1909– 1939/XVII., n. d. (1939.), str. 22.) 106 Ivana Golob, Stara industrijska zona, Suša~ka revija, godina XX., br. 77, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 2012., str. 29. 107 Olga Magaš, Komunalni objekti, u: Arhitektura secesije u Rijeci, Moderna galerija Rijeka, Rijeka, 1997./98., str. 294.

Godine 1895. Rijeka dobiva elektri~nu struju, a ve} 1899. pušten je u pogon prvi tramvaj za gra|ane.104 Tramvajska linija vodila je od mosta na Rje~ini do brodogradilišta Danubius.105 O važnosti tramvajske rute govori i potreba za njezinom obnovom te uvo|enje dvotra~nih tramvaja dvadesetih godina 20. stolje}a.106 Da bi se novi tramvaji na odgovaraju}i na~in skladištili, 1928. izgra|ena je remiza na Školji}u. Rije~ je o jednokatnici pravokutna tlocrta. Na njezinu pro~elju do izražaja dolaze visoki, mrežasto ostakljeni prozori smješteni ispod polukružnog krova. U centralnom dijelu nalaze se tri pravokutna prozorska otvora, a u zgradu se ulazi kroz dva ulaza postavljena s lijeve i desne strane. Gra|evina je izvorno bila namijenjena remizi pa je njezina funkcionalnost ostvarena hangarskim107 tipom gradnje. Osim armiranobetonskih konstrukcija, osnovni su gra|evni materijal cigla i kamen, zbog ~ega se ovaj objekt uklapa u estetiku obližnje klaonice. U remizu je moglo stati deset tramvajskih vagona. Koristila se i za skladištenje i za njihov popravak. Zgrada remize danas je automehani~arska radionica Autotroleja.

Autotrolej, nekadašnja tramvajska remiza (fotografija: Stanislav Beli~ka)

62


14 Tram depot Školji} 1925 project engineer unknown The city got electricity in 1895, and already in 1899, the first tramway was put into operation.104 The tramline lead from the bridge over the Rje~ina to the Danubius shipyard.105 The renewal of the tram route and the introduction of a two-lane tram in the 1920s showed just how important the tram route was at the time.106 To be able to store the new trams appropriately, a tram depot was built at Školji} in 1928. It is a two-storey rectangular building with a facade containing notable, high, mesh-glazed windows, placed under a semicircular roof. There are three rectangular windows in the central part, and the building is entered through two entrances placed on the left and right side respectively. The building was originally designed for a tram depot and therefore its functionality was achieved through "hangar"-type107 construction. Besides reinforced concrete structures, the basic building materials are brick and stone which is why this facility fits into the aesthetics of a

104 Boris ^abrijan, Rje~ina i njezini mostovi, Suša~ka revija, godina I, br. 4, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 1993, p. 13; L'Azienda Servizi Publici Municipalizzati di Fiume nel suo Trentennio: 1909-1939/XVII., Rijeka, 1939, p. 19 105 The tramline was additionally configured and prolonged in 1907. From then on, it had 4,600 meters. (L'Azienda Servizi Publici Municipalizzati di Fiume nel suo Trentennio: 1909-1939/XVII., ibid. (1939), p. 22) 106 Ivana Golob, Stara industrijska zona, Suša~ka revija, godina XX, br. 77, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 2012, p. 29 107 Olga Magaš, Komunalni objekti, in: Arhitektura secesije u Rijeci, Mo­ derna galerija Rijeka, Rijeka, 1997/98, p. 294

nearby slaughterhouse. The tram depot could fit ten tram cars. It was used both for storage and for their repair. The depot building is now used as a car repair shop for the bus company Autotrolej.

Autotrolej, former tram depot (photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

63


15 Kožara Ruži} Vodovodna ulica broj 5 i 2 od 1879. do potkraj 19. stolje}a Giacomo Mattich, Emilio Ambrosini

Tvornica kože Gjuro Ruži} u Vodovodnoj ulici (Muzej grada Rijeke)

16 Ljevaonica i kovnica Matteo Skull Vodovodna ulica broj 5 i 2 od 1879. do kraja Drugoga svjetskog rata Santo Pillepich, Giacomo Mattich i Nereo Bacci

Kožara ruži}, Ljevaonica i kovnica skull, rade kon~ar 108 Kožara je bila u vlasništvu Gjure Ruži}a, me|utim na samom po~etku rada u suvlasništvu je bio i Francesco Seeman, vlasnik terena. (Olga Magaš, Vodovodna ulica u kontinuitetu razvoja od zelenog kanjona do industrijske zone i novih mogu}nosti, Zbornik GFR IX, Rijeka, 1992., str. 209.; Ivana Golob, n. d. (2012.), str. 32.)

U današnjoj Vodovodnoj ulici br. 5 i 2 postojale su dvije tvornice: Kožara Ruži} i Ljevaonica i kovnica Matteo Skull. Kožara Ruži}108 zapo~ela je s radom 1879., a bila je smještena na samom po~etku Vodovodne ulice, u objektima s obje strane ulice. Na projektu izgradnje zgrada tvorni~kog pogona i radni~kih stanova te adaptacije Seemanove

109 Godine 1887. geometar Luigi Dinssic, pod nadzorom ing. Randicha, adaptirao je potkrovlje južne stambene zgrade koja tada dobiva današnji vanjski izgled s tri kata. Na preinakama Kožare radio je još jedan rije~ki ugledni arhitekt, Emilio Ambrosini 1903. i 1908. (Olga Magaš, n. d. (1992.), str. 209., 210., DARI, JU 51, kutija 146.).

ku}e bio je angažiran inženjer Giacomo Mattich (1881, 1883.).109 Na susjednom tere-

110 Ivana Golob, n. d. (2012.), str. 30.

80-ih godina 19. stolje}a. Zanimljivo je da su još tada radni~ki stanovi bili integralni dio

111 Olga Magaš, n. d. (1992.), str. 210., DARI, JU 51, kutija 116., DARI, JU 51, kutija 169.)

64

nu, tako|er u Seemanovu vlasništvu, uza samu Kožaru nalazila se Tvornica Skull110 smještena u jednokatnom skladištu prema projektu Santa Pillepicha.111 Djelovanje tvornice poznate pod punim nazivom Ljevaonica i kovnica Matteo Skull, može se pratiti od tvornice. Tvornica se proširuje i arhitektonski mijenja 1881. i 1888., a 1925. se proširuje na ra~un tada ve} propale Kožare Ruži}. Godine 1925. napravljen je spojni aneks


15 Ruži} Tannery Vodovodna Street no. 5 & 2 from 1879 till the end of the 19th century Giacomo Mattich, Emilio Ambrosini

Leather Factory Gjuro Ruži} in Vodovodna Street (City Museum of Rijeka)

16 Matteo Skull Foundry and Mint Vodovodna Street no. 5 & 2 from 1879 till the end of the 19th century Santo Pillepich, Giacomo Mattich and Nereo Bacci

Ruži} Tannery, Skull Foundry And Mint, Rade Kon~ar On today’s addresses Vodovodna Street no. 5 and 2 there were two factories: the Ruži} Tannery and the Matteo Skull Foundry and Mint. The Ruži} Tannery108 started operating in 1879 and it was located at the very beginning of Vodovodna Street, in buildings on both sides of the street. Engineer Giacomo Mattich was hired to manage the construction of the factory and working class housing as well as for the adaptation of Seeman’s house (1881, 1883).109 Next to the Tannery, on the neighbouring ground but also in Seeman’s property, there was the Skull Factory,110 located in a two-storey storehouse designed by Santa Pillepich.111 The activities of the mentioned company with the full name of Matteo Skull

108 The tannery was owned by Gjure Ruži}, however, at the very beginning of production the co-owner was also Francesco Seeman, the owner of the property. (Olga Magaš, Vodovodna ulica u kontinuitetu razvoja od zelenog kanjona do industrijske zone i novih mogu}nosti, Zbornik GFR IX, Rijeka, 1992, p. 209; Ivana Golob, Stara industrijska zona, (2012), p. 32) 109 In 1887, the surveyor Luigi Dinssic, under the supervision of engineer Randich, adapted the attic of the southern residential building giving it today’s exterior appearance with three floors. Another one of Rijeka’s renowned architects, Emilio Ambrosini, worked on modifications of the tannery in 1903 and 1908. (Olga Magaš, ibid. (1992), p. 209, 210, State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 146)

Foundry and Mint can be traced back to the 1880s. It is interesting that the workers’ apart-

110 Ivana Golob, ibid. (2012), p. 30

ments were still an integral part of the factory at the time. The factory was expanded and architecturally changed in 1881, then again in 1888 and 1925, when it expanded at the expense of the already collapsed Ruži} Tannery. In 1923, a connecting annex was con-

111 Olga Magaš, ibid. (1992), p. 210, State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 116, State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 169)

65


naglašen istaknutim prizemnim portalom s profiliranim željeznim vratima. Do 1932. bila

Krovovi Kožare Ruži} i Ljevaonice Skull. The roofs of the Ruži} Tannery and Skull Foundry.

je ujedna~ena uli~na fasada pogona.112

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

112 Olga Magaš, n. d. (1992.), str. 210.

Nekadašnja jednokatna pogonska gra|evina Kožare preure|ena je u radni~ke stanove,

Nacrt Ljevaonice Skull iz 1879., izgra|ene na Seemanovu i Skullovu terenu./Draft of the Skull Foundry from 1879, built on Seeman’s and Skull’s estate.

a 1941. postala je upravna zgrada Ljevaonice i tvornice strojeva Matteo Skull prema projektu Nerea Baccija. Gra|evina ima jednostavan pravokutni tlocrt, a prema povije-

(DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 116)

66


Nacrt nekadašnje Kožare Ruži} i Ljevaonice Skull prije pregradnje 1941. Blueprint of the former Ruži} Tannery and Skull Foundry before construction in 1941. (DARI, JU 48, mapa 23/State Archives in Rijeka JU 48, file 23)

structed. It was accentuated by a prominent ground-floor portal with a profiled iron door.

112 Olga Magaš, ibid. (1992), p. 210

By 1932, the street-side facade of the facility was also harmonized.

112

The former tannery’s two-storey factory building was adapted into housing facilities for workers and, in 1941, it became the administration building of the Matteo Skull Foundry and Engine Factory, according to the project of Nereo Bacci. The building has a simple rectangular Plan dogradnje Ruži}eva kompleksa na stražnjem dijelu parcele, sjeverozapadno prema stijenama (može se iš~itati situacijski plan položaja Kožare Ruži} u odnosu na Ljevaonicu Skull iz 1881.) Plan of the expansion of the Ruži} complex on the rear of the plot, north-west towards the cliffs (this site plan from 1881 demonstrates the position of the Ruži} Tannery in relation to the Skull Foundry) (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 118)

67


113 Ivana Golob, n. d. (2010.), str. 85.

sno-umjetni~kim odrednicama može se okarakterizirati kao zdanje talijanske moder-

114 Olga Magaš, n. d. (1992.), str. 211.

tima proširivanja pogona tvornice. Najzanimljivije zahvate napravio je na suprotnoj

ne.113 Istovremeno, osim preinaka na ovoj gra|evini, Bacci je radio i na drugim projekstrani ulice gdje je projektirao uglovnicu futuristi~kih arhitektonskih karakteristika, poslije poznatu pod nazivom dopolavoro, koja je mostom bila povezana s upravnom zgradom.114 Ljevaonica je radila do kraja Drugoga svjetskog rata, nakon ~ega propada i u prostore tvornice ulazi Rade Kon~ar. Kompleks nekadašnjeg pogona danas je ve}im dijelom napušten i nerijetko služi kao odlagalište otpada. Upravna zgrada tvornice i Radni~ki dom preko puta ulice prenamijenjeni su 1999. u restauratorski odjel Državnog arhiva u Rijeci.

Upravna i pogonska zgrada Administration and factory building (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

68


floor plan and, according to historical and artistic guidelines, it can be characterized as a building of Italian Modernism.

113

113 Ivana Golob, ibid. (2010), p. 85

At the same time, apart from the modification of this build-

114 Olga Magaš, ibid. (1992), p. 211

ing, Bacci was involved in other projects that included the factory’s expansion. He made the most interesting interventions on the opposite side of the street, where he designed a corner building with futuristic architectural characteristics. This building was later known as the dopolavoro (after work) and it had a bridge connecting it to the administration building.114 The foundry continued its production until the end of the Second World War, after which it went bankrupt and the factory premises were taken over by Rade Kon~ar. The complex of the former plant is now largely abandoned and often serves as a waste dump. In 1999, the factory’s administration building as well as the workers’ home across the street were converted into the Conservation and Restoration Department of the State Archives in Rijeka.

Nacrt Ljevaonice Skull (40-ih godina 20. stolje}a) Draft of the Skull Foundry (1940s) (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 48, mapa 23)

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17 Tvornica tjestenine Cartesio, Curti & Co Vodovodna ulica broj 13 od 1904. Giovanni Curet (1904.) i Emilio Ambrosini (1911.)

Po~eci rada Tvornice tjestenine Cartesio, Curti & Co. vežu se uz 1888. kada su naprav-

Tvornica tjestenine (Cartesio, Curti & Co) Cartesio Vezzil & Co Fabbrica paste alimentari (Cartesio, Curti & Co.) Cartesio Vezzil & Co.

ljeni nacrti popre~nog presjeka tvornice s ucrtanim strojevima na parni pogon koji }e se u njoj koristiti.

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

U prvim godinama djelovanja tvornice koristila se samo jedna gra|evina, ali su s vremenom izgra|eni i drugi objekti i aneksi. Od kompleksa Tvornice tjestenine Cartesio, Curti & 115 U sklopu pogona sagra|en je 1904. i tvorni~ki dimnjak uza sjevernu granicu parcele. (Olga Magaš, n. d. (1992.), str. 220.; DARI, JU 51, kutija 113.)

Co do danas je ostala sa~uvana historicisti~ka zgrada u Vodovodnoj 13. Zgrada je sa­

116 Vjerojatno bez Luigija Curtija ~ijeg prezimena otad više nema u imenu tvrtke.

Dobro poslovanje zasigurno je dovelo do novih radova na tvornici te ve} 1911. vlasnici

117 DARI, JU 51, kutija 113.

prostora. Idejna rješenja povjerena su uglednome rije~kom arhitektu Emiliju Ambrosini-

118 Olga Magaš, n. d. (1992.), str. 220.; DARI, JU 51, kutija 113.

jektira dodatan dvorišni objekt ispod klisure.118

gra|ena 1904. prema nacrtima Giovannija Cureta, a smještena ispred tvornice, na samoj ulici.115 Vrlo brzo, 16. sije~nja 1905., izdana je uporabna dozvola i za ovaj dio pogona. pod novim imenom Cartesio Vezil & Co116 naru~uju adaptaciju i reorganizaciju tvorni~kog ju.117 Ambrosini Curetovu zgradu prenamjenjuje za stanovanje, a za potrebe pogona pro-

70


17 Pasta Factory Cartesio, Curti & Co Vodovodna Street no. 13 from 1904 Giovanni Curet (1904) and Emilio Ambrosini (1911)

The very beginnings of the Pasta Factory Cartesio, Curti & Co. can be linked to 1888, when

Nacrt Tvornice tjestenine Cartesio Curti & Co, 1904. Draft of Cartesio Curti & Co. pasta factory, 1904

the cross-sectional drafts of the factory were made, showing the steam-powered ma-

(DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 113)

chines that were meant for use in the production process. Only the aforementioned building was used in the first years of the company’s operation, but over time other facilities and additions were built. The historicist building at Vodovodna Street no. 13 is the only object that has been preserved from the Cartesio, Curti & Co. pasta factory complex. The building was constructed in 1904, according to the designs of Giovanni Curet and it was located in front of the factory, right alongside the street.115 The operating permit for this portion of the facility was issued very soon, on 16 January 1905. Good business results led to new adaptations on the factory and, already in 1911, the owners, under the new name of Cartesio Vezil & Co,116 commissioned the renovation and reorganization of the fac-

115 In 1904, the factory chimney was built along the northern border of the plot as part of the plant. (Olga Magaš, ibid. (1992), p. 220; State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 113) 116 Probably without Luigi Curti whose last name was no longer part of the company name. 117 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 113

tory space. Conceptual designs were entrusted to Rijeka’s renowned architect Emilio Ambrosini.117 Ambrosini turned Curet’s building into a housing facility and for the needs of production he designed an additional courtyard facilitiy just below the cliff.118

118 Olga Magaš, ibid. (1992), p. 220; State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 113

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Nacrt Tvornice tjestenine Cartesio, Curti & Co iz 1888. (DARI, JU 51, kutija 127)

Curetova i Ambrosinijeva reprezentativna trokatnica pogonske, odnosno poslije stambene funkcije, pro~eljem okrenuta Vodovodnoj ulici, do danas je ostala sa~uvana u gotovo nepromijenjenu obliku. Rije~ je o tipi~nome historicisti~kom oblikovanju koje se izvrsno uklapa u stilski izri~aj ostalih objekata Vodovodne ulice. Dekoracija same gra|evine je skromna, a estetici i fasadnom ritmu pridonosi razli~ito oblikovanje prozorskih okana, ovisno o etažama. Prizemlje i prvi kat doimaju se kao postament za piano nobile na drugom katu i mansardu poviše njega.

18 Ljevaonica metala Cussar Vodovodna 17 (Cussar I), Vodovodna 15 (Cussar II) 1886. Giacomo Zammattio 1886. (Cussar I); Giacomo Mattich 1908. (Cussar II)

Ljevaonica metala Cussar I Danas su poznate dvije gra|evine u kojima je nekada djelovala Ljevaonica metala. 119 Nina Hraba, Melita Lubina, Dolores Oštri}, Damir Sabali}, Lada Turato, Ivor Vodopivec, Anamarija Zrn~i}, Konzervatorski elaborat za podru~je Vodovodne ulice u Rijeci, Broj elaborata 1952, Konzervatorski odjel u Rijeci, 2009., Inventarni broj 17. 120 Olga Magaš, n. d. (1992.), str. 214.

Starija gra|evina, smještena u Vodovodnoj 17, a datirana u 1886.,119 izgra|ena je prema projektu uglednoga trš}anskog arhitekta Giaccoma Zammattija.120 Zgrada je bila namijenjena stambenom i poslovnom prostoru Ljevaonice metala Cussar.121 Govorimo o jednostavnoj dvokatnici s prizemljem. Pro~elje je raš~lanjeno nizom prozorskih otvora jednostavnih pravokutnih formi, naglašenih polukružnim i ravnim historicisti~kim nat-

72


Cartesio, Curti & Co. factory draft from 1888 (State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 127)

Facing Vodovodna Street, Curet and Ambrosini’s representative four-storey facility with production and later residential functions has remained preserved in virtually unchanged form until today. It is a typical historicist building that fits perfectly into the stylistic design of other objects in Vodovodna Street. The decoration of the building itself is modest and differently shaped window panes, depending on the floors, contribute to the aesthetics and the facade rhythm of the building. The ground floor and the first floor appear like a pedestal for the piano nobile on the second floor and the attic above it.

18 Cussar Metal Foundry Vodovodna Street no. 17 (Cussar I), Vodovodna Street no. 15 (Cussar II) 1886 Giacomo Zammattio, 1886 (Cussar I); Giacomo Mattich, 1908 (Cussar II)

Metal Foundry Cussar I Today, we know about two buildings that housed the metal foundry. The older of the two buildings is located at Vodovodna Street no. 17 and dates back to 1886.119 The building’s 120

design was made by Giacomo Zammattio, a reputable architect from Trieste,

and it was

intended for residential and business premises of the Cussar Metal Foundry.

121

It is a very

simple three-storey building with a ground floor. The facade is divided by a series of win-

119 Nina Hraba, Melita Lubina, Dolores Oštri}, Damir Sabali}, Lada Turato, Ivor Vodopivec, Anamarija Zrn~i}, Konzervatorski elaborat za podru~je Vodovodne ulice u Rijeci, Broj elaborata 1952, Konzervatorski odjel u Rijeci, 2009, inventory no. 17. 120 Olga Magaš, ibid. (1992), p. 214

dows of simple rectangular shape with pronounced semi-circular and flat historicist lintels. 73


121 Po~etke ljevaoni~arskog djelovanja u Rijeci treba tražiti na Dolcu u maloj ljevaonici bronce i željeza Fonderia al Dolac di Diracca, Cussar, Skull, utemeljene izme|u 1864. i 1869. godine. Ljevaonica je svojim proizvodima opskrbljivala tada aktivan Stabilimento tecnico Fiumano. Imala je izme|u deset i dvanaest zaposlenih. Djelovala je oko desetak godina jer je ve} 1878. njezina djelatnost obustavljena nakon što su se vlasnici poslovno razišli. Nedugo zatim, svoje su samostalne ljevaoni~arske radnje otvorili Cussar i Skull u današnjoj Vodovodnoj ulici. (Olga Magaš, n. d. (2001.), str. 442.

prozornicima. Jednoli~an raspored razbijen je balkonom na konzolama u sredini prizem­ nog kata. Od fasadne dekoracije izdvaja se vodoravni vijenac koji se proteže izme|u prizemlja i prvog kata te ispod mansardne etaže. Okomitu komponentu naglašavaju ispresijecane rustikalne lezene, ~ine}i kolonadu izme|u otvora. Zgrada je danas obnovljena i služi u stambene svrhe.

Ljevaonica metala Cussar Ii

122 Ivana Golob, n. d. (2012.), str. 29. 123 Ivana Golob, n. d. (2010.), str. 79.

Zgrada se nalazi u Vodovodnoj 15. Datirana je u 1908. godinu i njezin je projektant Giacomo Mattich. Naru~itelj je ove trokatnice vlasnik ljevaonice metala Luigi Cussar koji ju je izvorno namijenio u poslovne i stambene svrhe. Pro~elje usmjereno prema Vodovodnoj ulici osobito je zanimljivo zbog razigranosti arhitektonske profilacije. Vertikalno je raš~lanjeno ispresijecanom rustikalnom lezenom, a horizontalno kordonskim profiliranim vijencima, nadovezuju}i se na motiviku gra|evine Cussar I. Važno je istaknuti da se pogon tvornice nalazio u stražnjem dvorištu ovih dviju zgrada.122 Današnja funkcija gra|evine ostala je poslovna i stambena.123

Arhivski nacrt Cussarova terena iz 1884. Archival draft of the Cussar property in 1884.

Vodovodna 17 (Cussar I). Vodovodna Street no. 17 (Cussar I)

(DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 184.)

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

74


The monotonous layout is interrupted by a balcony on consoles in the middle of the ground floor. A horizontal cornice, extending between the ground floor and the first floor and below the mansard, stands out from other facade decorations. The vertical component is emphasized by intersected rustic pilasters, forming a colonnade between the apertures. The building has been restored and serves for residential purposes today.

121 The beginnings of metal foundring in Rijeka can be sought at Dolac in the small bronze and iron foundry Fonderia al Dolac di Diracca, Cussar, Skull, founded sometime between 1864 and 1869. With its products, the foundry supplied the Stabilimento tecnico Fiumano, which was very active at the time. It had between 10 and 12 employees. The foundry operated about ten years, but in 1878 its activities discontinued after the owners parted ways. Shortly after that, Cussar and Skull opened their own foundries in today’s Vodovodna Street. (Olga Magať, ibid. (2001), p. 442)

Metal Foundry Cussar Ii 122 Ivana Golob, ibid. (2012), p. 29

The building is located at Vodovodna Street no. 15. It dates back to 1908 and it was

123 Ivana Golob, ibid. (2010), p. 79

designed by Giacomo Mattich. The financier of this three-story building was the owner of the metal foundry, Luigi Cussar, and it was originally intended for commercial and residential purposes. The facade facing Vodovodna Street is particularly interesting because of the playfulness of its architectural shapes. The facade is vertically divided by an intersecting rustic pilaster strip, and horizontally by cordon moulded cornices, based on the motifs of Cussar I. It is important to emphasize that the production plant was located in the backyard of these two buildings.122 The current function of the building is still both commercial and residential.123

Cussar II (Vodovodna 15); na istu zgradu, juĹžnije, nadovezuje se Tvornica tjestenine Cartesio, Curti & Co. Cussar II (Vodovodna Street no. 15). The pasta factory Cartesio, Curti & Co. is attached to the south end of this building. (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

75


19 Klaonica Školji} broj 16. od 1907./1908. do (?); danas Vir 1989. Tehni~ki ured grada Rijeke; Guido Lado, Ugo Clauti, Carlo Pergoli

Pro~elje pogonskog kompleksa/The facade of the production complex (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka) 124 Navodno je postojala još jedna klaonica na samom po~etku Vodovodne ulice, na mjestu današnjeg parkirališta. Pretpostavljam da je ta starija klaonica ve} prestala s radom u trenutku izgradnje kompleksa o kojem se govori. 125 Julija Lozzi Barkovi}, Secesija u arhitekturi Rijeke, Izdava~ki centar Rijeka, Rijeka, 2010., str. 157. 126 Olga Magaš, Komunalni objekti, u: Arhitektura secesije u Rijeci, Moderna galerija Rijeka, 1997., str. 286. 127 Istovremeno je Carlo Pergoli bio angažiran na projektu paviljona rije~ke ribarnice. (Olga Magaš, Urbanizacija prostorne cjeline Školji} – Banska vrata, Vjesnik povijesnog arhiva Rijeka, Sušak, 1995., str. 215.) 128 Olga Magaš, n. d. (2007.), str. 286.; Nina Hraba, Melita Lubina, Dolores Oštri}, Damir Sabali}, Lada Turato, Ivor Vodopivec, Anamarija Zrn~i}, n. d. (2009.)

76

Gradska klaonica bila je komunalni objekt od iznimne važnosti za grad. To pokazuje i pažnja koja se posve}ivala ovom kompleksu tijekom izgradnje.124 Poznato je da je 1895. gradska financijska komisija za izgradnju gradske klaonice dogovorila kupnju ku}e obitelji Superina i okolnog terena koji se nalazio na podru~ju današnje Vodovodne ulice.125 Sve je radove izveo Tehni~ki ured grada Rijeke. Prvi nacrti idejnog projekta napravljeni su još 1901.,126 a 1904. arhitekt Carlo Pergoli127 dora|uje postoje}e nacrte i crta pro~elja gra|evina.128 Gradnja je završena 1907. kada je i sam pogon stavljen u funkciju.129 Koordinator izgradnje klaonice bio je Guido Lado, nadzor je obavljao Ugo Clauti, a zaslugom Carla Pergolija i njegovim nacrtima fasada, kompleksu je dan jedinstven umjetni~ki pe~at.130 Za klesarske radove bio je angažiran Giovanni Dorig, Natale Mohovich za radove u kovanom željezu, a arhitekt Giovanni Rubinich za zidarske radove.131 Rubinich je za vrijeme izgradnje 1904./1905. ponudio Tehni~kom uredu novo rješenje u izradi krovova, poda i stupova uporabom armiranobetonskih konstrukcija Monier, što


19 Slaughterhouse Školji} 16 from 1907/1908 to (?); today Vir 1989 Technical Office of the City of Rijeka, Guido Lado, Ugo Clauti, Carlo Pergoli The city slaughterhouse was a communal facility of the utmost importance for the city. The amount of attention that this complex received during its construction attests to its vital role.124 It is known that, in 1895, the city’s financial committee made an agreement to purchase the house and the surrounding estate of the Superina family, located in the area of today’s Vodovodna Street125 for the construction of the city slaughterhouse. All works were carried out by the Technical Office of the City of Rijeka. The first drafts of the preliminary design were made in 1901126 and, in 1904, architect Carlo Pergoli127 completed the existing drafts and designed the facades of the buildings.128 Construction was completed in 1907 and, in the same year, the plant was put into operation.129 The coordinator of the construction of the slaughterhouse was Guido Lado, the construction supervisor was Ugo Clauti and, thanks to Carlo Pergoli and his design of the facades, the complex obtained a unique artistic mark.130 Giovanni Dorig was hired for carving and stone works, Natale Mohovich for works in wrought iron and architect Giovanni Rubinich for masonry.131 During the construction (1904/1905), Rubinich offered the Technical Office a new solution for the

124 There was allegedly another slaughterhouse at the beginning of Vodovodna Street, on the site of today’s parking lot. It is safe to assume that the older slaughterhouse was already closed at the start of construction of the new complex. 125 Julija Lozzi Barkovi}, Secesija u arhitekturi Rijeke, Izdava~ki centar Rijeka, Rijeka, 2010, p. 157. 126 Olga Magaš, Komunalni objekti, in: Arhitektura secesije u Rijeci, Moderna galoerija Rijeka, 1997, p. 286 127 At the same time, Carlo Pergoli was involved in designing the pavilion of Rijeka’s Fish Market. (Olga Magaš, Urbanizacija prostorne cjeline Školji}Banska vrata, Vjesnik povijesnog arhiva Rijeka, Sušak, 1995, p. 215) 128 Olga Magaš, ibid. (2007), p. 286; Nina Hraba, Melita Lubina, Dolores Oštri}, Damir Sabali}, Lada Turato, Ivor Vodopivec, Anamarija Zrn~i}, ibid. (2009) 129 Olga Magaš, ibid. (2007), p. 286

construction of roofs, floors and columns: the use of Monier reinforced concrete structures. This shows that Rijeka’s architects knew about current European trends in terms of new materials and reinforced concrete solutions.132 The entrance building is aesthetically the most impressive part of the slaughterhouse com-

130 Julija Lozzi Barkovi}, ibid. (2010), p. 163; Olga Magaš, ibid. (1997), p. 286 131 Julija lozzi-Barkovi}, ibid. (2010), p. 160; Olga Magaš, ibid. (1995), p. 215

plex. It is a longitudinal two-storey building with an accentuated, elevated, central avant-

132 Julija Lozzi-Barkovi}, ibid. (2010), p. 160

corps part containing an attica style clock. The side arms are symmetrically opened with round arched window openings. Above them extends a wreath highlighted with medallions containing a motif of an iron loop which, as a leitmotif, became the decorative element of the entire complex. Wrought iron was used for the decoration of the attic. Pergoli

133 Very impressive are the luxfer prisms used for five window openings that are symmetrically placed around the entrance, which again shows how variations of materials can be used as decorative elements. 134 Ivana Golob, ibid. (2012), p. 29

achieved unique Art Nouveau facade mouldings with very few decorative elements. The most impressive parts were achieved by using a variety of materials, in this case, brick,

135 Olga Magaš, ibid. (1995), p. 215

stone and wrought iron.133 Other supporting facilities were built along the main operational building. Although they possess similar stylistic features, their prominent practical character makes them far less representative. The Technical Office of Rijeka was in charge for their construction. By 1908, operating and manufacturing halls, stables and cold stores were built according to its designs. The slaughterhouse also had the first biochemical laboratory in former Yugoslavia, which is why testing of meat and animals for bacterial infection during the slaughter procedure became mandatory in Rijeka.134 The thermal energy produced in the nearby Waste Incinerator135 was used to run the engines of the slaughterhouse. Today, the entire complex has another function. It has been preserved and it is now used for commercial purposes of the Vir 1898 meat company.136 77


pokazuje da su rije~ki arhitekti znali za aktualna europska kretanja u vezi s novim mate-

129 Olga Magaš, n. d. (2007.), str. 286. 130 Julija Lozzi Barkovi}, n. d. (2010.), str. 163.; Olga Magaš, n. d. (1997.), str. 286. 131 Julija lozzi-Barkovi}, n. d. (2010.), str. 160.; Olga Magaš, n. d., (1995.), str. 215. 132 Julija Lozzi-Barkovi}, n. d. (2010.), str. 160.

rijalima i armiranobetonskim rješenjima.132 Estetski najdojmljivija je ulazna zgrada u kompleks Klaonice, longitudinalna jednokatnica s rizalitno istaknutim, povišenim, središnjim portalnim dijelom na ~ijem se vrhu nalazi atika sa satom. Bo~ni krakovi simetri~no su otvoreni prozorskim otvorima s polukružnim završecima. Iznad njih se proteže vijenac naglašen medaljonima s motivom željezne petlje koja }e kao lajtmotiv postati dekorativni element cijelog kompleksa. Za

133 Vrlo su upe~atljive i luxfer-prizme korištene na pet prozorskih otvora simetri~no postavljenih oko samog ulaza, koje ponovno upu}uju na varijaciju materijala kao dekorativnog elementa.

dekoraciju potkrovišta upotrijebljeno je kovano željezo. Pergoli je postigao jedinstvenu secesijsku profilaciju pro~elja s vrlo malo dekorativnih elemenata, a najdojmljivije je postignuto uporabom razli~itih materijala, u ovom slu~aju opeke, kamena i kovanog željeza.133

134 Ivana Golob, n. d. (2012.), str. 29.

Uz glavnu pogonsku zgradu, usporedno se grade i drugi popratni objekti sli~nih stilskih

135 Olga Magaš, n. d. (1995.), str. 215.

karakteristika, ali s naglašenim namjenskim karakterom, zbog ~ega su puno manje reprezentativni. I za njihovu je izgradnju bio zadužen Tehni~ki ured u Rijeci. Do 1908.

136 Ivana Golob, n. d. (2010.), str. 72.

izgra|ene su, prema njihovim nacrtima, pogonske i prera|iva~ke hale, štale i hladnja~a.

137 Zgrada se nalazi na samoj Vodovodnoj ulici; prilaz ulaznoj zgradi nekadašnje Klaonice i ostataku kompleksa danas je onemogu}en jer je put pre­ prije~en željeznom ogradom koju je podigla Mesna industrija Vir 1898.

U Klaonici se nalazio prvi biokemijski laboratorij na podru~ju bivše Jugoslavije pa je u Rijeci bilo obvezno testiranje mesa i životinja na bakterijske zaraze pri klanju134 Za pokretanje strojeva Klaonice koristila se toplinska energija proizvedena u obližnjoj Spalionici sme}a.135 Danas je cijeli kompleks prenamijenjen i konzerviran te se koristi u gospodarske svrhe, za potrebe Mesne industrije Vir 1898.136

Upravna zgrada Godine 1908. nekadašnja stambena ku}a obitelji Superina adaptirana je i prenamijenjena u upravnu zgradu Klaonice. Gra|evina je vrhunski primjer secesijske arhitekture, lijepo ukomponirana u postoje}i kompleks. Prizemnica s dva kata ima sli~na secesijska obilježja korištena na glavnoj pogonskoj zgradi: ciglene polukružne zabate ponad prozora, pojednostavnjen vijenac s medaljonima ukrašenima željeznom petljom, a ne izostaje ni dinamika postignuta izmjeni~nim promjenama ciglenih i kamenih površina. Danas je ova gra|evina vrlo dojmljiva i vizualno istaknuta zbog svog smještaja,137 ali je to ipak manje reprezentativan objekt kada ga se uspore|uje s ulaznom zgradom u nekadašnju Klaonicu. Objekt je obnovljen i koristi se kao upravna zgrada Mesne industrije Vir 1898.

Fasada Klaonice (detalji) Slaughterhouse, facade details (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

78


Administration Building

Upravna zgrada Klaonice Slaughterhouse administration building (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

In 1908, the former residential house of the Superina family was adapted and converted into the administration building of the slaughterhouse. The building is a superb example of Art Nouveau architecture, beautifully incorporated into the existing complex. This building with two floors has similar Art Nouveau features that were also used on the main production building: semi-circular brick gables above the windows, a simplified cornice with me-

136 Ivana Golob, ibid. (2010), p. 72

dallions decorated with an iron loop as well as a dynamic achieved by alternating brick and stone surfaces. This building is very impressive even by today’s standards and visually prominent because of its location.137 However, it is less representative when compared with the entrance building of the former slaughterhouse complex. The facility has been renovated and it is used by the Vir 1898 meat company as its administration building.

137 The building is located directly in Vodovodna street. Today, it is impossible to approach the entrance building of the former slaughterhouse and the rest of the complex because the road is blocked by an iron fence that was erected by the Vir 1898 meat company.

79


20 Tvornica sapuna Levi & Bianchi Vodovodna ulica broj 30 druga pol. 19. stolje}a Franjo Šiki} (1899.), Vjenceslav Celligoi (1900.), Giovanni Rubinich (1905.), Luigi Luppis (1919., 1920., 1924. i 1925.)

Tvornica sapuna Levi & Bianchi s radom zapo~inje u drugoj polovici 19. stolje}a.138 Po-

Kompleks Tvornice sapuna Levi & Bianchi (izgra|en na nekadašnjem Brunijevu posjedu) Levi & Bianchi Soap Factory complex (built on the former Bruni property)

gon je izgra|en na Brunijevu gra|evinskom terenu,139 a jedan od objekata kompleksa sa~uvan je do danas i nalazi se u Vodovodnoj ulici na broju 39. Tvornica je djelovala

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

nekoliko desetlje}a pa nije ~udno što je imala više faza izgradnje, od 80-ih 19. stolje}a do ~ak 1938. kada su napravljene posljednje preinake. Rije~ je o cijelom kompleksu smještenom na samome kraju Vodovodne ulice, na platou podno stijena Kalvarijskog brijega pa sve do cestovnog prolaza, nekadašnje Via dei Molini,140 uza samu Rje~inu. 138 Jedan od prvih slikovnih prikaza Tvornice sapuna je razglednica s kraja 19. stolje}a. (Ervin Dubrovi}, Po~eci uspona, u: Rije~ki torpedo – prvi na svijetu, Muzej grada Rijeke, Rijeka, 2010., str. 12.) 139 DARI, JU 51, kutija 113.

Najstariji nacrti, pohranjeni u Državnom arhivu u Rijeci, datiraju iz velja~e 1899., a potpisao ih je arhitekt Franjo Šiki}.141 Dogradnja tvornice nastavlja se 1905. kada se gradi gra|evina u kojoj je bio smješten parni kotao. Za ovaj je projekt bio angažiran arhitekt Giovanni Rubinich.142 U arhivskim izvorima nije istaknuta lokacija gra|evine pa se postavlja pitanje je li Rubinichev projekt

140 Danas Vodovodna ulica.

ikada bio realiziran. Velik zahvat na tvornici izveden je 20-ih godina 20. stolje}a kada

141 Iz nacrta se može iš~itati i da se kompleks u samom po~etku sastojao od dviju gra|evina – jedne postavljene paralelno sa smjerom kretanja ulice i rijeke (postoji danas) i druge okomite na ulicu. Vjenceslav Celligoi je 1900. za potrebe tvornice izradio projekt gra|evine s nadstrešnicom na sjevernom dijelu parcele uza stijene. (DARI, JU 51, kutija 113.) 142 DARI, JU 51, kutija 113.

tvornica, tada u vlasništvu Silvija Silvianija, dobiva prepoznatljiv naziv Fabbrica Fiumana di Saponi, Glicerina, Soda cristallizzata e prodotti Grassi. Gra|evinski radovi na izgradnji novoga krila izvedeni su prema projektu Lugija Luppisa. Tvorni~ki kompleks Levi & Bianchi sastojao se od niza industrijskih i stambenih gra­ |evina. Do danas je ostalo sa~uvano vrlo malo nekadašnjeg postrojenja. U najprepoz­

80


20 Levi & Bianchi Soap Factory Vodovodna Street no. 30 second half of the 19th century Franjo Šiki} (1899), Vjenceslav Celligoi (1900), Giovanni Rubinich (1905), Luigi Luppis (1919, 1920, 1924 and 1925)

The Levi & Bianchi Soap Factory started with production in the second half of the 19th

Smještajni plan Tvornice sapuna Levi & Bianchi 1899. Layout draft of the Levi & Bianchi Soap Factory

century.138 The plant was built on the Bruni building ground.139 One of the complex facilities

(DARI/ State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 113)

has been preserved to this day and is located at Vodovodna Street no. 39. The factory

Šiki}ev plan projekta Tvornice sapuna, 1899. Šiki}’s draft of the Soap Factory’s design

operated for several decades, hence, it is no surprise that it had several phases of con-

(DARI/State Archives in Rijeka JU 51, kutija 113)

struction from the 1880s up to 1938, when the last modifications were made. This was a whole complex, located at the end of Vodovodna Street on a plateau beneath the Kalvarija hill, stretching all the way to the road passage, the former Via dei Molini,140 next to the Rje~ina river. The oldest drafts, stored in the State Archives in Rijeka, date back to February 1899, and were signed by the architect Šiki}.141

138 One of the first images of the Soap Factory was a postcard from 1891. (Ervin Dubrovi}, Po~eci uspona, in: Rije~ki torpedo-prvi na svijetu, Muzej grada Rijeke, Rijeka, 2010, p. 12)

The upgrade of the factory continued in 1905, when the steam boiler facility was built. The

139 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 113

architect Giovanni Rubinich was hired for this project.142 Archival sources never emphasized the location of the building, so the question is whether Rubinich’s project had ever

140 Today Vodovodna street.

actually been implemented. A great intervention on the factory complex was made in the 1920s, when the factory, then owned by Silvio Silviani, got the distinctive name Fabbrica Fiumana di Saponi, Glicerina, Soda cristallizzata e prodotti Grassi. Construction works on the new wing were carried out according to the project of Luigi Luppis. The Levi & Bianchi factory complex consisted of a series of buildings of industrial and resi-

141 The draft shows that the complex consisted of two buildings in the beginning, one set parallel to the direction of the street and the river (exsists today) and the other perpendicular to the street. In 1900, Vjenceslav Celligoi designed a building with a porch on the north side of the plot along the cliffs for the needs of the company. (State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 113)

dential character. To date, very little has been preserved from the former plant facilities.

142 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 113

81


natljivijem, ali i vrlo derutnom dijelu kompleksa danas djeluje Ljevaonica metala Ardens

Produ`etak glavne pogonske zgrade tvornice Levi & Bianchi prema projektu Luigia Luppisa iz 1920. godine Extension of the main production facility of the Levi & Bianchi factory according to Luigi Luppis's project from 1920

Rije~ je o zašti}enom spomeniku kulture koji je u službenim bilješkama Konzervatorskog odjela u Rijeci okarakteriziran kao gra|evina u vrlo lošem stanju.143 To je longitudi-

(DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 113)

nalna jednokatnica prepoznatljivih historicisti~kih elemenata. Pretpostavljam da su na toj poziciji izvorno postojale dvije gra|evine koje su tek naknadno me|usobno spojene. Takvu je pretpostavku mogu}e iš~itati iz oblikovanja samog pro~elja zgrada koje gledaju na Vodovodnu ulicu. Jasno je vidljiv dekor starijeg dijela zgrade, koji je raš~lanjen nizom velikih prozorskih otvora s ciglastim polukružnim zabatom i naglašenim centralnim zaglavnim kamenom. Dinamika tog dijela pro~elja postiže se ciglenim pilastrima smještenima izme|u prozora, što daje vertikalnu dimenziju niskoj jednokatnici. Vjero-

Projekt Giovannija Rubinicha Project draft made by Giovanni Rubinich

jatno je to najstariji dio kompleksa koji je 1899. projektirao Franjo Šiki}.144 Drugi dio

(DARI/ State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 113)

pro~elja projektiran je naknadno, 1920., prema planu inženjera Luigija Luppisa.145 Prema sa~uvanim nacrtima, ova je gra|evina trebala biti reprezentativna dvokatnica s prizemljem. Budu}i da se danas na tomu mjestu nalazi samo prizem­nica, projekt vjerojatno nikad nije bio potpuno realiziran ili su dva gornja kata bila iz­gra|ena, ali naknadno uklonjena. Sigurno je, a što se iz samih nacrta da zaklju~iti, kako je ovaj dio zgrade bio

143 Nina Hraba, Melita Lubina, Dolores Oštri}, Damir Sabali}, Lada Turato, Ivor Vodopivec, Anamarija Zrn~i}, n. d. (2009.) 144 DARI, JU 51, kutija 113.

zamišljen kao arhitektonski nastavak ve} postoje}eg dijela tvornice. To se o~ituje i u samoj dekoraciji pro~elja koja je u novijem dijelu jednostavnija, ali stilski uskla|ena s postoje}im Šiki}evim historicisti~kim elementima. To~na godina prestanka rada tvornice ne zna se, me|utim arhivski izvori upu}uju na to da se posljednji gra|evinski zahvati izvode još 1938. na projektu skladišno-stambenog

145 Isto.

objekta, danas u Vodovodnoj 37a.146

146 Isto.

82


The Metal Foundry Ardens d.o.o. is now operating in the most recognizable, but also di-

Nekadašnja Tvornica sapuna danas The former Soap Factory today

lapidated part of the complex. This object is considered cultural heritage and, in official

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

documents of the Conservation and Restoration Department of Rijeka, it is characterised as a building in very poor condition.143 It is a longitudinal two-storey building with recognizable historicist elements. It is safe to assume that originally there were two buildings, which were later interconnected. Such an assumption can be made because of the design of the facades of the buildings facing Vodovodna Street. The decor of the older part of the building is clearly visible; it is divided by a series of large windows with semi-circular brick gables and a prominent central keystone. The dynamics of this part of the facade is achieved by brick pilasters placed between the windows and giving a vertical dimension to this lowstorey building. This is probably the oldest part of the complex, designed by Franjo Šiki} in 1899.144 The second part of the facade was designed later, in 1920, according to the plans of engineer Luigi Luppis.145 The preserved drafts indicate that this facility should have been a representative three-storey house with a ground floor. Given that today, on this location, there is only a single-storey house, it is likely that the project was never fully realized or that the two upper floors were built, but later removed. What is certain and visible from the drafts is that this part of the building was conceived as an architectural continuation of the existing part of the factory. This is reflected in the decoration of the facade, which is simpler, yet stylistically coordinated with the existing historicist elements of Šiki}. The exact date of this factory’s closure is unknown. However, archival sources suggest

143 Nina Hraba, Melita Lubina, Dolores Oštri}, Damir Sabali}, Lada Turato, Ivor Vodopivec, Anamarija Zrn~i}, ibid. (2009) 144 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 113

that the final construction works on the warehouse/residential building project were carried out in 1938, in today’s Vodovodna Street no. 37a.146

145 Ibidem 146 Ibidem

83


21 Termoelektrana Vodovodna ulica 26 1906. Pal Holfeld, Giuseppe Giordano, Giovanni Rubinich (upravna zgrada), Rup~i} i Szüko (pogonska zgrada)

147 Nana Palini}, 125 godina elektri~ne energije u Rijeci, HEP i DARI, Rijeka, 2006., str. 70. 148 Giordano je nekoliko godina bio direktor Servizi Pubblici della Citta di Fiume 1908., a potom je dvadesetih godina obavljao dužnost glavnoga tehni~kog direktora. (L' Azienda Servizi Publici Municipalizzati di Fiume nel suo Trentennio: 1909–1939/XVII., n. d. (1939.), str. 22.) 149 Podaci su preuzeti iz arhiva HEP-a.

Termoelektrana – pogon Prvotni plan bio je izgraditi hidro-termoelektranu na Grohovu. Te je planove 1903. priredio inženjer Pal Holfeld. Regulaciju Rje~ine riješio je tako da omogu}ava dovoljan dotok vode potrebne za pokretanje turbina.147 Nakon njega, nacrte je 1906. doradio Giuseppe Giordano.148 Ipak, od plana izgradnje hidro-termoelektrane na Grohovu se odustalo i krenulo u realizaciju projekta termoelektrane na Zviru. Pri gradnji iskoristio se postoje}i

150 L' Azienda Servizi Publici Municipalizzati di Fiume nel suo Trentennio: 1909–1939/XVII., n. d. (1939.), str. 34.

arhitektonski plan iz 1906., prvotno namijenjen grohovskoj elektrani ~iji su arhitekti Rup~i} i Szüko.149 Termoelektrana je zapo~ela s radom 3. svibnja 1908. godine.150 Pogon elektrane bio je smješten u dvije gra|evine me|usobno spojene poput basilica gemina, a uz njih je bio gotovo priljubljen dimnjak. Iako govorimo o pogonskim zgrada-

Termoelektrana, pogon, 1907. Powerhouse of the Thermal Power Plant, 1907

ma, fasadna artikulacija upu}uje na isplanirani estetski dojam s bitnim elementima neoromani~kog izri~aja koji je prožet secesijskom elegancijom vidljivom u oblikovanju

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

84


21 Thermal Power Plant Vodovodna Street no. 26 1906 Pal Holfeld, Giuseppe Giordano, Giovanni Rubinich (administration building), Rup~i} and Szüko (powerhouse building)

Thermal Power Plant – Powerhouse Rup~i} and Szüko, draft of the hydro-thermal electric power plant on Grohovo, Budapest, 1906, source: arhive of the HEP company The original plan was to build a hydro-thermal power plant on Grohovo. The drafts were made

147 Nana Palini}, 125 godina elektri~ne energije u Rijeci, HEP i DARI, Rijeka, 2006, p. 70 148 Giordano was the manager of Servizi Pubblici della Citta di Fiume for several years. After that, in the 1920s, he was the chief technical manager. (L’Azienda Servizi Publici Municipalizzati di Fiume nel suo Trentennio: 1909-1939/XVII., ibid. (1939), p. 22)

by Pal Holfeld in 1903. He provided for a regulation of the Rje~ina river in order to ensure suf-

149 Information from HEP’s archive.

ficient water flow for driving the turbines.147 Afterwards, the drafts were completed by Giuseppe Giordano.148 However, the hydro-thermal power plant on Grohovo was never constructed. Instead, the Zvir thermal power plant was realized. During construction, the existing

150 L’ Azienda Servizi Publici Municipalizzati di Fiume nel suo Trentennio: 1909-1939/XVII., n. d. (1939), p. 34

architectural plan from 1906 was used, which was initially made for the Grohovo plant by the architects Rup~i} and Szüko.149 The thermal power plant was commissioned on 3 May Termoelektrana, pogon 1907. (unutrašnjost) Thermal Power Plant, powerhouse (interior), 1907

1908.150 The powerhouse was located in two buildings, interconnected like a basilica gemina, with a chimney built on their juncture. Although these are plant facilities, their facade articula-

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

85


staklenih površina na prozorskim otvorima. Pro~elje je raš~lanjeno nizom velikih polukružnih otvora me|usobno odvojenih lezenama, koji dopuštaju prolazak dnevnog svjetla u prostore pogona. Ovaj se pogonski kompleks stilski poklapa s obližnjom Spalionicom sme}a iz 1905. godine. Prostor elektrane bio je arhitektonski podijeljen u tri dijela. U južnom se dijelu nalazila strojarnica, središnjem kotlovnica, a u sjevernom skladište i radionica. Danas se ti prostori ne koriste.151

Upravna zgrada Termoelektrane Godine 1909. prema projektu Giovannija Rubinicha izgra|ena je upravna zgrada Termoelektrane.152 Zgrada ima jednostavan kvadratni tlocrt, a sastoji se od prizemlja i dva kata. Katovi su bili podijeljeni prema funkcionalnim potrebama – u prizemlju su bili smješteni tehni~ki uredi, na prvom katu ra~unovodstvo, a na drugom su bili ure|eni stanovi za glavne inženjere. Poslovno-stambena funkcija istaknuta je profiliranim vijencem, ~ime se prizemlje i prvi kat odvajaju od drugoga, stambenog, kata. Pro~elje je dekorirano historicisti~kim elementima, a osnovni motiv koji se proteže na svim katoviRup~i} i Szüko, nacrtni plan hidro-termoelektrane na Grohovu, Budimpešta, 1906./Rup~i} and Szüko, draft of the hydro-thermal electric power plant on Grohovo, Budapest, 1906 (izvor: arhiv HEP-a/source: arhive of the HEP company)

151 Sandra Malovi}, Industrijska baština Rijeke u razdoblju secesije – inventarizacija, Završni rad, Gra|evinski fakultet u Rijeci, Rijeka, 2009., str. 19.

ma su plitki polukružni natprozornici. Prozorski otvori prizemlja i prvog kata dodatno su naglašeni plitkim lezenama koje uokviruju prozore nadovezuju}i se na reljefnu balustradu postavljenu izme|u prizemlja i prvog kata. Osnovni materijali korišteni u realizaciji ove gra|evine jesu kamen i opeka. Donedavno je na ulazu bila autenti~na ograda od kovanoga željeza, no uklonjena je. Zgrada je u vlasništvu tvrtke HEP.

152 Ivana Golob, n. d. (2012.), str. 27.; Jasna Rotim Malvi}, n. d. (2007.), str. 318. Upravna zgrada Termoelektrane, Stanislav Beli~ka/Administration building of the Thermal Power Plant (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

86


tion indicates a preplanned aesthetic impression with essential elements of Romanesque Revival pervaded by Art Nouveau elegance that is visible in the shapes of the glass surfaces of the window openings. The facade is divided by a series of large semi-circular openings separated by pilasters that allow for passage of natural light into the spaces of the facility. This plant complex stylistically corresponds to the nearby Waste Incinerator from 1905. The power plant’s inner space was architecturally divided into three parts. The southern part housed the machine hall, the central part the boiler room and northern part the workshop.

Nacrt strojeva za Termoelektranu iz 1907. godine. Projekt strojeva izradilo je budimpeštansko poduze}e Danubius. Godine 1913. u Termoelektrani je zabilježeno korištenje strojeva iz Prima Società Fabbrica Macchine di Brünn. Draft of the engines for the thermal power plant from 1907. The engine project was made by the Budapest-based company Danubius. Records show that, in 1913, the thermal power plant had engines from Prima Società Fabbrica Macchine di Brünn. (izvor: arhiv HEP-a/source: HEP archive)

Today, these facilities are not being used.151

Thermal Power Plant – Administration Building The administration building of the power plant was designed by Giovanni Rubinich and built in 1909.152 The building has a simple square floor plan, consisting of a ground floor and two upper floors. The floors were divided according to functional needs; the ground floor housed technical offices and the first floor the accounting department, while the second floor contained apartments for the chief engineers. The business/residential function is emphasized with a moulded cornice, which also separates the ground floor and the first floor from the second, residential floor. The facade is decorated with historicist elements and the basic motifs that extend over all floors are shallow semi-circular lintels. The windows of the ground and first floor are additionally emphasised by shallow pilasters that frame the windows following the relief balustrade set between the ground floor and the first floor. The main materials used in the construction of this building were stone and brick. Until recently, the facility had the authentic entrance wrought iron fence, but it was removed. The building is now owned by the HEP company.

151 Sandra Malovi}, Industrijska baština Rijeke u razdoblju secesije – inventarizacija, Završni rad, Gra|evinski fakultet u Rijeci, Rijeka, 2009, p. 19 152 Ivana Golob, ibid. (2012), p. 27; Jasna Rotim Malvi}, ibid. (2007), p. 318

87


22 Spalionica sme}a Vodovodna ulica 1905. Giovani Randich (prilago|en projekt be~kog arhitektonskoga studija Alphons Custodis)

153 Nana Palini}, n. d. (2006.), str. 66.; Olga Magaš, n. d. (1997.), str. 292.; L' Azienda Servizi Publici Municipalizzati di Fiume nel suo Trentennio: 1909–1939/XVII., n. d. (1939.), str. 48. 154 Ivana Golob, n. d. (2012.), str. 27.

Spalionica sme}a izgra|ena je i stavljena u pogon u svibnju 1905. godine. Projektirala ju je be~ka specijalizirana tvrtka Alphons Custodis, a nacrt je djelomi~no izmijenio arhitekt Giovanni Randich.153 Gra|evina se sastoji od dvije pravokutne prostorije, sjeverne ve}e i južne manje i niže gdje je smješten glavni ulaz s nadstrešnicom. Gra|ena je u cigli s velikim lu~nim mrežasto ostakljenim prozorima. Osim natprozornika, dekoracija

155 Boris ^abrijan, n. d. (1993.), str. 13.

zidova vrlo je skromna, plitkim lezanama naglašeni su kutovi zgrade. Izvorno krovište nije sa~uvano. Istaknut je ulazni prostor ~ija su vrata uokvirena polukružnim lu~nim završetkom mrežasta ostakljenja.

Spalionica sme}a (pro~elje) Waste Incineration Plant (facade)

Spalionica sme}a davala je energiju Termoelektrani i tom su se strujom napajale obliž­ nja Klaonica154 i crpna stanica Zvir.155

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

88


22 Waste Incineration Plant Vodovodna Street 1905 Giovani Randich (adapted the project of the Viennese architect Alphons Custodis)

Spalionica sme}a Waste Incineration Plant (fotografija/photo: Stanisav Beli~ka)

Tlocrt Termoelektrane, Spalionice sme}a i crpne stanice Zvir, nacrt iz 1931. godine. U svakoj pogonskoj zgradi ucrtani su strojevi i njihova funkcija. Na tlocrtu su zabilježeni i danas porušeni dimnjaci Spalionice i Termoelektrane. Nazna~en je put kojim se ugljen dovozio u Termoelektranu, a koji je prolazio sa stražnje strane cijeloga kompleksa. Layout of the Thermal Power Plant, the Waste Incineration Plant and the Zvir pumping station from 1931. The draft of each plant building contains the planned engines and their functions. The layout includes the chimneys of the Waste Incineration Plant and the Thermal Power Plant, which have been demolished. There is also a path situated on the back side of the entire complex, along which the coal reached the thermal power plant. (izvor: arhiv HEP-a/source: HEP archive)

The Waste Incineration Plant was built and commissioned in 1905. The project was made by the specialized Viennese company Alphons Custodis and, subsequently, the design was partially altered by architect Giovanni Randich.153 The building consists of two rectangular spaces, a larger one on the north side and a smaller and lower one on the south side. The south side is also the location of the main entrance with a porch. The plant is made of brick with large arched mesh-glazed windows. Besides lintels, the wall decoration is very modest; only shallow pilaster strips were used to emphasize the angles of the building. The original roof has not been preserved. The entrance area is prominent with a door framed

153 Nana Palini}, ibid. (2006), p. 66; Olga Magaš, ibid. (1997), p. 292; L' Azienda Servizi Publici Municipalizzati di Fiume nel suo Trentennio: 1909–1939/XVII., ibid. (1939.), p. 48.

by a semi-circular arch containing meshwork glazing.

154 Ivana Golob, ibid. (2012), p. 27

The Waste Incineration Plant provided energy for driving the Thermal Power Plant as well

155 Boris ^abrijan, ibid. (1993), p. 13

as for powering the nearby Slaughterhouse154 and the Zvir pumping station.155 89


23 Izvor i crpna stanica Zvir Vodovodna ulica 1884. projektant nepoznat

156 Iste godine i Rijeka je dobila prvi vodovod jer su zajedno s crpnom stanicom izgra|ene i vodospreme Plase i Kozala. (Boris ^abrijan, n. d. (1993.), str. 13.; L' Azienda Servizi Publici Municipalizzati di Fiume nel suo Trentennio: 1909–1939/XVII., n. d. (1939.), str. 9.)

Zgrada crpne stanice sagra|ena je 1894. godine.156 Sastoji se od svega nekoliko prostorija, raspore|enih prema tlocrtnom L-obliku. Zidovi su obloženi raznobojnom ciglom svjetlijih tonova, a prozorski otvori dodatno su istaknuti natprozornicima od lepezasto postavljene opeke. Osim lezena kojima je postignuta jednostavna dekoracija zidova, možda su najzanimljiviji detalj secesijske florealne konzole od kovanog željeza ispod samog krovišta. Stilski gledano, može se pretpostaviti da je ova zgrada bitno utjecala na izgradnju kompleksa Termoelektrane koji je gra|en tek 1906. godine.

Crpna stanica Zvir Zvir Pumping station, south facade with water pumps (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

90


23 Zvir spring and pumping station Vodovodna Street 1884 project engineer unknown The building of the pumping station was erected in 1894.156 It consists of only four rooms arranged according to an L-shaped ground plan. The walls are covered with colourful bricks of a lighter tone, and the windows were additionally emphasized with fan-shaped brick lintels. Besides the pilaster strips which were used to achieve a simple decoration of the walls,

156 That same year, Rijeka got its first water conduit because, along with the pumping station, also water tanks for Plase and Kozala were constructed. (Boris ^abrija, ibid. (1993), p. 13.; L’Azienda Servizi Publici Municipalizzati di Fiume nel suo Trentennio: 1909-1939/XVII., ibid. (1939), p. 9)

perhaps the most interesting detail is a wrought iron Art Nouveau floral console under the roof. Stylistically speaking, it can be assumed that this building significantly influenced the construction of the thermal power plant complex, which was built later, in 1906.

91


157 Boris ^abrijan, n. d. (1993.), str. 13.

Nakon izgradnje Spalionice sme}a, crpna stanica Zvir je, kao i obližnja Klaonica, koristi-

158 Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.)

generator od 150 kVA. Proizvedena energija služila je za rad elektromotora u crpki.157

la njezinu toplinsku energiju za pokretanje parnog stroja koji je potom okretao elektro-

Izvor Zvir koristio se i u ranijem razdoblju za opskrbu vodom Rijeke i Sušaka. Isprva je

159 Zvir je do 1853. bio u vlasništvu Suša~ana, sve dok ugarska vlada nije donijela odredbu u kojoj potvr|uje da je rije~ o rije~kom izvorištu. (Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.), str. 230.)

Sušak koristio vrelo nedaleko od Tvornice papira u tadašnjoj Tvorni~koj ulici. Voda se

160 Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.), str. 231.

i Pe}inama) i vodospremu Trsat za visoku opskrbnu zonu (Trsat i bulevar). Problem je

pumpala u vodospremu na Lujzinskoj cesti za nisku opskrbnu zonu (Sušak s Brajdicom nastao nakon što je u Sušaku izbila epidemija tifusa, ~iji je uzrok bio u zaga|enom izvorištu pitke vode.158 Suša~ani su bili primorani otkupljivati vodu iz izvora Zvir koriste}i rije~ki vodovod izgra|en 90-ih godina 19. stolje}a.159 Troškovi otkupa vode bili su izrazito visoki, što se donekle reguliralo 1908. nagodbom, nakon ~ega su dobili pravo otkupa vode za 9 filira po kubnom metru. Problem s dovodom vode Sušak je riješio 1913./1914. izgradnjom novog vodovoda, vodovodne pruge koja je do Sušaka dovodila

Crpna stanica Zvir, ju`no pro~elje Zvir pumping station, south facade

pitku vodu iz 18 kilometara udaljenog vrela na Rje~ini.160

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

92


After the construction of the Waste Incineration Plant, the Zvir pumping station, just like

157 Boris ^abrijan, ibid. (1993), p. 13

the nearby Slaughterhouse, used its thermal energy to run a steam engine, which in turn

158 Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929), p. 230

drove an electric generator with a rated power of 150 kVA. The energy produced was used to power the electric motors in the pumping station.157 The Zvir spring was used in the previous period for water supply of Rijeka and Sušak. At first, Sušak used a spring near the Paper Mill in the former Tvorni~ka Street. The water was

159 The Zvir spring was the property of Sušak until 1853, when the Hungarian government passed a provision that it is Rijeka’s source of water. (Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929), p. 230)

pumped into the water tank on Louisiana Road for the low supply zone (Sušak with Braj­dica

160 Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929), p. 231

and Pe}ine) and Trsat’s water tank for the high supply zone (Trsat and the boulevard). Problems arose after the outbreak of typhus in Sušak, its cause being a contaminated source of drinking water.158 The people of Sušak were forced to buy water from the Zvir spring using Rijeka’s aqueduct which was built in the 1890s.159 Reportedly, the costs of buying water were extremely high and that was, to some extent, regulated with the settlement of 1908, after which they received the right to purchase water for 9 fillér per m³. In 1913/14, the problem

Unutrašnjost crpne stanice Zvir Interior of the Zvir pumping station

of Sušak’s water supply was finally solved with the construction of a new water conduit, a water main that brought drinking water from the 18 km distant Rje~ina spring to Sušak.160

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

93


24 Kožara Palese Školji} (danas parkirali{te) prva polovica 19. stolje}a projektant nepoznat

Nacrti Kožare Palese iz 1858. (DARI, JU 2, kutija 471)

161 Rad Kožare spominje se još u Spisima magistrata iz 1824. godine. Kožara je u to vrijeme imala šest zaposlenih i nije uživala status privilegirane fabbrice. Manufakturom je tada upravljao Giovanni Palese, a pretpostavlja se da je rije~ o istoj radnji ~iji }e vlasnik 50-ih godina 19. stolje}a biti Francesco Palese. (DARI, PR-1, kutija 264., fascikl VIII, 1824.) Prema Olgi Magaš, ova je kožara bila prvi manufakturni pogon na prostoru Školji}a prikazan na planu grada i luke iz 1778. godine. (Olga Magaš, n. d. (1995.), str. 201. 162 DARI, JU 2, kutija 471/2. 163 DARI, JU 51, kutija 92. 164 Povijest Rijeke, n. d. (1988.), str. 260.

Dvadesetih godina 19. stolje}a na Školji}u je postojala kožara – Kožara Palese.161 Objekt je bio smješten na Via del Macello uz bidermajersku aleju, nekadašnju Paseggiatu dello Scoglietto. U po~etku se radilo o maloj manufakturi, iako gra|evinski radovi iz

Cijeli kompleks Kožare Palese na Školji}u na veduti Rijeke i Sušaka (razglednica) Postcard with veduta of Rijeka and Sušak (the entire Palese Tannery complex at Školji} can be seen)

kasnijeg razdoblja govore o proširenju kompleksa zbog potreba rada tvornice. Kožara Palese je, naime, jedna od prvih, a možda i prva, kožara u Rijeci. Nedugo zatim u nepo-

(Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka)

srednoj blizini otvaraju se još dvije ve}e tvornice za preradu kože, Simoni}-Bakar~i} u današnjoj Ruži}evoj ulici i Kožara Ruži} u Vodovodnoj ulici. Od tvornice Palese nije

nema slike

ostalo ništa jer se na njezinu mjestu nalazi parkiralište. Ostali su jedino arhivski zapisi iz vremena rada tvornice. Primjerice, 8. lipnja 1858. Francesco Palese moli gradsko poglavarstvo dozvolu za rušenje starog zida i izgradnju novoga duž desne obale Rje~ine na Školji}u.162 Posjed tvornice Palese nalazio se na samome kraju uz Rje~inu, a dotrajao i neadekvatan zid bio je razlog da se izgradi novi. Tvornica se spominje i 1884. kada su na njoj izvedene strukturalne promjene kojima se funkcija prvog kata gra|evine promijenila iz trgova~ke u stambenu.163 Povjesni~ar Danilo Klen navodi prestanak rada tvornice upravo te, 1884. godine.164 94


24 Palese Tannery Školji} (today parking) first half of the19th century project engineer unknown

Drafts of the Palese Tannery from 1858 (State Archives in Rijeka JU 2, box 471)

161 The operation of the tannery had already been mentioned in the Municipal Documents from 1824. At that time, the tannery had six employees and did not enjoy the status of a privileged fabbrica. The manufacturing plant was managed by Giovanni Palese and we can assume that this is the same shop whose owner was Francesco Palese in the 1850s. (State Archives in Rijeka, PR-1, box 264, folder VIII, 1824) According to Olga Magaš, this tannery was the first manufacturing plant in the area of Školji} that was depicted in the plan of the city and the port from 1778. (Olga Magaš, ibid. (1995), p. 201) 162 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 2, box 471/2 163 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 92 164 Povijest Rijeke, ibid. (1988), p. 260

In the 1820s, the Palese Tannery operated on Školji}.161 The facility was located in Via del Macello street along the Biedermeier alley, the former Paseggiata dello Scoglietto. In the beginning, it was a small manufacturing plant although construction work from a later period

Položajni nacrt donjeg toka Rje~ine iz 1884. s obilježenom Kožarom Palese Layout of the lower flow of the Rje~ina river from 1884 with Palese Tannery

indicates that the complex was enlarged for the factory’s needs. The Palese Tannery could very well have been the first among Rijeka’s tanneries. Not long after, in the immediate vicin-

(DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 184)

ity of Palese, two more factories for manufacturing leather opened, Simoni}-Bakar~i} in today’s Ruži}eva Street and the Ruži} Tannery in Vodovodna Street. Today, there is nothing left of the Palese factory and, in its place, there is a parking lot. Merely the archival records from the time of the factory’s operation have been preserved. For example, on 8 June 1858, Francesco Palese asked the Municipal Council for the permission to demolish the old walls and to build new ones along the right bank of the Rje~ina river on Školji}.162 The Palese factory estate was located at the very end of Vodovodna Street, alongside the Rje~ina river, and its decrepit and inadequate wall was the reason to build a new one. The factory was also mentioned in 1884, when structural changes were made, altering the building’s first floor purpose from a commercial to a residential one.163 The historian Danilo Klen states that the factory terminated operation the exact same year, 1884.164 95


Mlinovi na Rje~ini i RuĹži}eva ulica

96


Mills on the Rje~ina River and RuĹži}eva Street

97


25 Mlin u Žaklju Žakalj na Rje~ini po~etak 19. stolje}a, ostaci iz 1865. projektant nepoznat

165 Rje~ina je još poznata pod nazivima Eneo, Fiume, Ri~ina, Flumen, Pflaum, Oeneus, Tarsia, Reka i dugi. (Nada Sablji}-Butorac, Milica Trkulja, Rje~ina i njezini mostovi, Muzej grada Rijeke, Rijeka, 1994., str. 5.) 166 Poznato je da je još u 15. stolje}u Martin Frankopan svoj mlin darovao trsatskim franjevcima. (Andrija Ra~ki, Zabilježbe iz gospoštije Grobnik, 1948., str. 11.) 167 Nada Sablji}-Butorac, Milica Trkulja, n. d. (1994.), str. 6. U manufakturnom razdoblju povijesti na Rje~ini navodno su kod Zvira postojala tri do ~etiri mlina, a prostor se nazivao locus mulendinorum (mjesto mlinova). Na Kukuljanovu su postojala dva mlina i šest stupa, na Trnovici tri mlina, pilana, ~etiri stupe i jedan stupi}, u Martinovom Selu mlin i pilana, u Gospodskom Selu dva mlina i dvije pilane, u Lukežima šest mlinova, ~etiri stupi}a i jedna pilana i tako dalje. (Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1948.), str. 11.) 168 U Rijeci je još u prvoj polovici 19. stolje}a djelovalo nekoliko tvornica tjestenine. (DARI, PR-1, kutija 264., fascikl VIII, 1824.) Paromlin na Pulžalu (Ponsal) prera|ivao je žitarice za potrebe tvornice tjestenine osnovane 1845. godine. (Povijest Rijeke, n. d. (1988.) str. 222.) 169 Povijest Rijeke, n. d. (1988.), str. 223.

Mlin Žakalj (detalj unutrašnjosti) (fotografija: Stanislav Beli~ka)

98

Stolje}ima unazad, kraško podru~je oko Rje~ine165 duge 17,3 km bilo je naseljeno, razdijeljeno vlasništvom redovni~kih bratovština,166 gradskog erara i privatnog vlasništva. Rje~ina je bila pogodno podru~je za razvoj privrede i obrta vezanih uz energiju dobivenu iz vode. S po~ecima industrijske ili, bolje re}i, aktivnije manufakturne proizvodnje, na Rje~ini se grade mlinovi, pile za preradu drva, stupe za obradu vunenog sukna te stupi}i za ljuštenje pšenice i je~ma.167 Vrlo ~esto uz mlinove su se nalazile i tvornice tjestenine.168 Prvi zna~ajan uzlet ovakve proizvodnje zbiva se u 19. stolje}u. Uskoro su se pojavili i prvi problemi uzrokovani promijenjenim politi~kim odnosima unutar Monarhije. Ma|arska je sve više štitila budimpeštansku mlinsku veleindustriju podizanjem prometnih nameta za prijevoz proizvoda, a usporedno s tim rastao je sve ve}i uvoz ruskog i talijanskog žita.169


25 Žakalj Mill Žakalj on the Rje~ina beginning of the 19 century, remains from 1865 project engineer unknown th

Centuries ago, the karst area alongside the Rje~ina river165 with its length of 17.3 km was settled and divided into properties of the religious brotherhoods,166 the city treasury and private estates. The Rje~ina was a very suitable area for the development of commerce and crafts related to hydropower. With the beginnings of the industrial, or rather the more active manufacturing production, mills started being built on the Rje~ina river as well as sawmills for wood processing, fulling mills for processing wool cloth and grinding mills for wheat and barley.167 It was often that a pasta factory168 was located right by the mill. The first significant rise of such symbiotic production took place during the 19 century. But soon first problems th

caused by the change in political relations within the Monarchy appeared. Hungary became more protective of its own Budapest milling industry by raising traffic levies on the transportation of products. Concurrently, the import of Russian and Italian grain strongly increased.169

165 The Rje~ina is also known under the names Eneo, Fiume, Ri~ina, Flumen, Pflaum, Oeneus, Tarsia, Reka and others. (Nada Sablji}-Butorac, Milica Trkulja, Rje~ina i njezini mostovi, Muzej grada Rijeke, Rijeka, 1994, p. 5 166 Martin Frankopan donated his mill to Trsat’s Franciscans back in the 15th century. (Andrija Ra~ki, Zabilježbe iz gospoštije Grobnik, 1948, p. 11) 167 Nada Sablji}-Butorac, Milica Trkulja, ibid. (1994), p. 6. In the manufacturing period of Rje~ina’s history, there were reportedly three to four mills on the Zvir spring, and the area was called locus mulendinorum (the area of mills). On Kukuljanovo, there were two mills and six fulling mills, Trnovica had three mills, a sawmill, four fulling mills and one grinding mill, in Martin’s village there was a mill and a sawmill, in the village of Gospodsko Selo two mills and two sawmills, in Lukeži six mills, four grinding mills and one sawmill, and so on. (Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1948), p. 11) 168 Several pasta factories operated in Rijeka in the first half of the 19th century. State Archives in Rijeka, PR-1, box 264, folder VIII, 1824) The steam mill on Pulžal (Ponsal) processed the grain for the needs of the pasta factory founded in 1845. (Povijest Rijeke, ibid. (1988), p. 222) 169 Povijest Rijeke, ibid. (1988), p. 223

Žakalj Mill (detail of the interior) (photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

99


170 Isto, str. 223.

Ipak, u rije~kim mlinovima godišnje su bile samljevene velike koli~ine pšenice, a proizvodi

171 Nakon što je kupio posjed od bra}e Bar~i}, trsatski posjednik Luka Matkovi} zatražio je 17. kolovoza 1801. od grobni~kog dominiuma dozvolu za izgradnju mlina. (Rudolf Strohal, n. d. (1993.), str. 39.)

Najpoznatiji me|u mlinovima bio je mlin u Žaklju pod Orehovicom. Mlin je prvotno bio

172 Prema Letture di famiglia (Trieste) iz 1854., poznato je da Ottavio Fontana dolazi u Rijeku na poticaj Gašpara Matkovi}a koji je sredinom 19. stolje}a bio vrlo aktivan u društvu, a zbog svoje trgova~kopoduzetni~ke djelatnosti imao je niz poznanstava koja su ga dovela do ovog talijanskog investitora. Devetnaesto stolje}e poznato je po djelovanju znatnog broja ve}ih i manjih škverova, a Gašpar Matkovi} bio je vlasnik jednog takvog. (Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.), str. 283.)

su se otpremali u Istru, Dalmaciju te Levant, Brazil i Indiju.170

u vlasništvu Luke Matkovi}a171 a nakon što ga je Matkovi}ev sin Gašpar prodao, mlin dolazi u vlasništvo Trš}anina Carla d'Ottavija Fontane172 i Marca Pigazzija.173 Trš}anski investitori znatno ulažu u otkupljeni maleni mlin pa izgra|uju branu i kanal, a cijeli kompleks povezuju mostom preko kanjona Rje~ine i cestovnim odvojkom do Lujzinske ceste.174 Mehanizam novoga mlina bio je napravljen prema ameri~koj, poslije belgijskoj, tehnologiji175 i imao je osamnaest kamenih kola. Na strojevima je bilo zaposleno više od

173 Nana Palini}, Vodotok Rje~ine tijekom povijesti, II. me|unarodna konferencija o industrijskoj baštini, Pro Torpedo, Rijeka, 2005., str. 243.

stotinu radnika.176 Žito je dolazilo iz Rusije, Rumunjske, Banata,177 a brašno se izvozilo u

174 Isto.

pilo ga je društvo Stabilimento commerciale di farine di Fiume179 s Iginiom Scarpom na

Englesku, Francusku, Brazil, Njema~ku i Balkan.178 Nakon što je mlin 1862. izgorio, ku~elu. Godine 1865. izgra|ena je impozantna peteroetažna gra|evina, 90 m dužine i 25

175 Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.), str. 281.

m visine, s unutarnjom skeletnom konstrukcijom od lijevanog željeza i drva, s drvenom

176 Isto, str. 281.

krovnom strukturom kombinirane dvostruke stolice i jednostruke visulje.180 Uz ovu

177 Mlin je imao kapacitet prerade 20.000 tona žita u godini dana. (Rudolf Bi~ani}, n. d. (1951.), str. 155.) 178 Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.), str. 281.

gra|evinu nalazila se ~etveroetažna poslovno-stambena zgrada uprave te prizemna stambena zgrada i portirnica smještena uz gornji ulaz, uza sam most preko rije~nog korita.181 Rad mlina može se pratiti do 1918. godine.182 Nakon Prvoga svjetskog rata bio je potpuno napušten. Znatnu devastaciju doživljava u Drugome svjetskom ratu kada je

179 Tvrtka po~etkom 80-ih godina 19. stolje}a povezuje djelatnost paromlina u Pulžalu i mlina na vodeni pogon u Žaklju. Proizvodnja je tada pove}ana na 10.000 tona brašna i drugih prera|evina godišnje, a tvornica je zapošljavala stotinu radnika. (Povijest Rijeke, n. d. (1988.), str. 260.) 180 Olga Magaš, Ekološki park Orehovica, II. me|unarodna konferencija o industrijskoj baštini, Pro Torpedo, Rijeka, 2005., str. 294.; Nana Palini}, Rje~ina kroz povijest, u: Rje~ina i Zvir-regulacija i revitalizacija, Državni arhiv u Rijeci, Hrvatske vode, Grad Rijeka, Rijeka, 1999., str. 12. 181 Olga Magaš, n. d. (2005.), str. 294. 182 Vlasnici mlina su se izmjenjivali. Nakon Skarpe dolazi Rije~anin Conradi za vrijeme kojega mlin ulazi u ste~aj 1879. godine. Mlin zatim odlazi u vlasništvo skupine investitora – Nikole Poli}a, Karla Frémonta te Ri­je­ ~anina Poski}a i Raka, pod ~ijom je upravom dobro poslovao do 1893. godine. Te godine mlin je kupio Simo Vranicani, ali ve} sljede}e pada u kona~ni ste~aj. Na javnoj dražbi otkupljuje ga Whitehead, ali nakon smrti Johna i Roberta Whiteheada, njihovi ga nasljednici 1907. daruju gradu. Objekti tvornice tada su bili korišteni za razne namjene, od smještaja vojske (1909./1911.) do prostora za skladištenje sto~ne hrane i smještaj stoke. Prema gradskom planu, u prostorijama nekadašnje tvornice trebalo se smjestiti popravilište, ali se kompleks naposljetku prodaje Ugarskome pivskom društvu Kobany iz Budimpešte 1918., koji zbog rata ne uspijeva osposobiti pivski pogon. (Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.), str. 282.; Nana Palini}, n. d. (1999.), str. 12.) 183 Nana Plaini}, n. d. (2005.), str. 245.

Mlin u Žaklju (Muzej grada Rijeke)

100

miniran most i ošte}en kompleks.183


Nevertheless, Rijeka’s mills ground large amounts of wheat per year and the products were supplied to Istria, Dalmatia and the Levant, Brazil and India.

170 Ibidem, p. 223

170

The most well-known mill was the one in Žakalj, underneath Orehovica. The mill was originally owned by Luka Matkovi}171 but, after it was sold by Matkovi}’s son Gašpar, the mill became property of Carlo d’Ottavio Fontana172 and Marco Pigazzi from Trieste.173 The entrepreneurs from Trieste invested significant means into the small mill: they built a dam and a canal and set up a connection to the complex by constructing a bridge over the Rje~ina canyon and an ancillary road towards the Louisiana Road.174 The mechanism of the new mill was built according to the US, and later Belgian, technology175 and had eighteen millstones. Over a hundred workers176 were employed for operating the machines. The grain was imported from Russia, Romania and Banat,177 and the flour was exported to England, France, Brazil, Germany and the Balkans.178 After the mill burned down in 1862, it was purchased by

171 On 17 August 1801, after he had bought an estate from the Bar~i} brothers, Trsat’s landlord Luka Matkovi} requested permission from Grobnik’s Dominium for the construction of the mill. (Rudolf Strohal, ibid. (1993), p. 39) 172 According to Letture di famiglia (Trieste) from 1854, Ottavio Fontana came to Rijeka on the incentive of Gašpar Matkovi}. In the mid-19th century, Gašpar was very active socially. Due to his commercial and entrepreneurial activities he had a number of contacts that led him to this Italian investor. The 19th century was known for the activity of a significant number of larger and smaller shipyards and Gaspar Matkovi} owned one of them. (Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929), p. 283) 173 Nana Palini}, Vodotok Rje~ine tijekom povijesti, II. me|unarodna konferencija o industrijskoj baštini, Pro Torpedo, Rijeka, 2005, p. 243

the company Stabilimento commerciale di farine di Fiume,179 headed by Iginio Scarpa. In

174 Ibidem

1865, an impressive six-storey facility was built, measuring 90 m in length and 25 m in height,

175 Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929), p. 281

with an internal skeletal structure of cast iron and wood and a wooden roof structure with a combined double roof truss and a single hanging beam.180 In addition to this structure, there

176 Ibidem, p. 281

were also a five-storey business/residential administration building and a single-storey residential building including the porter’s lodge located along the upper entrance next to the bridge over the river bed.

181

The operation of this mill can be traced back to 1918.

182

After

177 The mill had a capacity of processing 20,000 tons of wheat per year. (Rudolf Bi~ani}, ibid. (1951), p. 155)

World War I, it was completely abandoned. It also suffered significant devastation in World

178 Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929), p. 281

War II, when the bridge was mined and the complex damaged.183

179 At the beginning of the 1880’s, the company linked the activity of Pul­ žal’s steam mill with the water mill in Žakalj. That increased production to 10,000 tons of flour and other processed products per year, and the factory employed 100 workers. (Povijest Rijeke, ibid. (1988), p. 260) 180 Olga Magaš, Ekološki park Orehovi}a, II. me|unarodna konferencija o industrijskoj baštini, Pro Torpedo, Rijeka, 2005, p. 294; Nana Palini}, Rje~ina kroz povijest, in: Rje~ina i Zvir-regulacija i revitalizacija, Državni arhiv u Rijeci, Hrvatske vode, Grad Rijeka, Rijeka, 1999, p. 12 181 Olga Magaš, ibid. (2005), p. 294. 182 The ownership over the mill changed frequently. After Škarpa, Rijeka’s Conradi took over and drove the mill into bankruptcy in 1879. After that, the mill became property of a group of investors: Nikola Poli}, Karlo Frémont and Rijeka’s own Poski} and Rak, under whose administration it operated very well until 1893. That same year, the mill was bought by Simo Vranicani and, already the following year, declared its final bankruptcy. The mill was subsequently bought by Whitehead at a public auction, but, after the death of John and Robert Whitehead, their successors donated it to the city of Rijeka in 1907. The factory facilities started being used for a variety of functions, from accommodation for the Army (1909/1911) to storage space for fodder and livestock holding. According to the city zoning plan, a reformatory should have been situated in the former factory complex. However, the complex was ultimately sold to the Hungarian Beer Company Kobany from Budapest in 1918, which was not able to start beer production due to War. (Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929), p. 282, Nana Palini}, ibid. (1999), p. 12) 183 Nana Plaini}, ibid. (2005), p. 245 Žakalj Mill (City Museum of Rijeka)

101


26 Mateši}ev mlin Podbadanj, ispod gornje Orehovice 40-ih godina 19. stolje}a projektant nepoznat

184 DARI, JU 2, kutija 353/2.

U neposrednoj blizini Matkovi}eva mlina, ispod gornje Orehovice u Podbadnju, na lije-

185 Saša Dmitrovi}, Amerikanski mlin u Žaklju, Suša~ka revija, godina IV., br. 14/15, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 1996., str. 78.

19. stolje}a jer, prema arhivskim izvorima, Antonio Mattessich piše "Slavnom Vije}u"

186 Rudolf Strohal smatra da su tuneli bili namijenjeni za nikad izgra|enu tvornicu te da zbog toga nisu nikada ni bili u funkciji. (Rudolf Strohal, n. d. (1993.), str. 41.) 187 DARI, JU 2, kutija 441/2

voj obali Rje~ine djelovao je Mateši}ev mlin. Vjerojatno je izgra|en ~etrdesetih godina 1839. i traži dozvolu za izgradnju mlina na Rje~ini. Mlin je trebao biti smješten na Mateši}evu posjedu na Comune di Cosala.184 Andrija Ra~ki u svojoj Povijesti grada Sušaka navodi da je mlin imao pedeset zaposlenih.185 Godine 1850. izgra|en je akvedukt za opskrbu mlina vodom inventivnom metodom koja ne zahtijeva branu, nego koristi tunel186 kojim se voda crpi ispod stijena kanjona (Le Rocce).187 O~igledno je da je mlin bio

188 Nana Palini}, n. d. (1999.), str. 13., Olga Magaš, n. d. (2005.), str. 296.

Mateši}ev mlin u Podbadnju (fotografija: Stanislav Beli~ka)

102

velika investicije, ali je 1. velja~e 1863. izgorio u požaru, nakon ~ega više nije bio obnovljen.188 Danas su od njega sa~uvane ruševine i tuneli za vodu.


26 Mateši} Mill Podbadanj, located beneath upper Orehovica 1840s project engineer unknown The Mateši} Mill operated in the immediate vicinity of the Matkovi} Mill, below upper Ore-

184 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 2, box 353/2

hovica, in Podbadanj, on the left bank of the Rje~ina river. It was probably built in the 1840s, because, according to archival sources, Antonio Mattessich wrote to the Glorious Council in 1839 and sought permission to build a mill on Rje~ina. The mill should have been located on Mateši}’s estate at Comune di Cosala.184 Andrija Ra~ki states in his work on the history of the town of Sušak (Povijest grada Sušaka) that the mill had fifty employees. In 1850, an aque185

duct for supplying the mill with water was constructed. A very inventive method was used,

185 Saša Dmitrovi}, Amerikanski mlin u Žaklju, Suša~ka revija, godina IV, br. 14/15, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 1996, p. 78 186 Rudolf Strohal believes that the tunnels were intended for a factory that was never built and, therefore, were never put into operation. (Rudolf Strohal, ibid. (1993), p. 41)

one that does not require a dam, but instead uses a tunnel186 which extracts the water from beneath the rocks of the canyon (Le Rocce).

187

187 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 2, box 441/2

It is evident that a lot of funds were invested

in this mill, but unfortunately, on 1 February 1863, it burnt down to the ground and, after that, it was not rebuilt. 188 Today, all that is left of the former mill are its ruins and its water tunnels.

188 Nana Palini}, ibid. (1999), p. 13, Olga Magaš, ibid. (2005), p. 296

Mateši} Mill in Podbadanj (photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

103


Veliki mlin Žakalj na istoimenom lokalitetu pod Orehovicom. Sjevernije se vide ostaci Mateši}eva mlina, a u pozadini dimnjak, najvjerojatnije, Tvornice umjetnih gnojiva Rühr & Binovsky. The great Mill of Žakalj, on the eponymous site located beneath Orehovica. Further to the north, the remains of the Mateši} Mill can be seen and, in the background, a chimney, presumably from the artificial fertilizer factory Rühr & Binovsky. (Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka)

Sjeverno od Mateši}eva mlina prema Pašcu, na mjestu zvanom Koparovo bio je 1874. izgra|en još jedan mlin, na ~etiri kamena s turbinom snage 35 konja, u vlasništvu Franje Binovskog. Binovsky je deset godina poslije, 1884., zajedno s rije~kim mesarskim poduzetnikom Adalbertom Rührom, na istome mjestu otvorio Tvornicu koštanog ljepila.189 Godine 1890. osnovali su i Tvornicu umjetnih gnojiva.190 Konzorciju Rühr & Binovsky pristupit }e 1892. i peštanska Tvornica spodiuma (koštanog ugljena dobivenog

Desno: Tuneli Mateši}eva mlina Right: The tunnels of the Mateši} Mill

pougljenjivanjem kosti).191 Tvornica umjetnih gnojiva Rühr & Binovsky stradat }e 1907.

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

u požaru, nakon ~ega više ne}e biti obnovljena.192 O njezinoj veli~ini govori i to što je u njoj u to vrijeme bilo zaposleno i do trideset radnika.

189 Nana Palini}, n. d. (1999.), str. 13.

Osim tih, na Rje~ini je postojao ~itav niz mlinova u privatnom vlasništvu i u vlasništvu

190 Povijest Rijeke, n. d. (1988.), str. 261.

op}ine i vjerskih redova. Valja spomenuti mlinove Bruni i Lenac, koji su se sedamdesetih godina 19. stolje}a nalazili u današnjoj Vodovodnoj ulici.193

191 Saša Dmitrovi}, n. d. (1996.), str. 75. 192 Andrija Ra~ki, Zabilježbe iz povijesti gospoštije Grobnik, Narodna štamparija, Rijeka, 1948., str. 11.; Nana Palini}, n. d. (2005.), str. 245. 193 Olga Magaš, n. d. (2001.) str. 440.

104


In 1874, another mill was built north of the former Mateši} Mill in the direction of Pašac, at a

Projekt dovoda vode za rad Mateši}eva mlina Plan of the water supply system for the Mateši} Mill

place called Koparovo. It had four millstones and a turbine of 35 horsepower and it was

(DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 2, 441/2)

owned by Franjo Binovsky. Ten years later, in 1884, together with Rijeka’s meat entrepreneur Adalbert Rühr, Binovsky opened a bone glue factory189 in the same facility. In 1890, they also founded a factory for the production of artificial fertilizers.190 In 1892, the Pest-based Spodium Factory (bone coal derived from bone carbonization)191 also joined the Rühr & Binovsky Consortium. In 1907, the factory for the production of artificial fertilizers Rühr & Binovsky perished in a fire and was not rebuilt after that.192 The factory employed up to thirty employees, which shows just how large the factory was for that time. 189 Nana Palini}, ibid. (1999), p. 13

Apart from the aforementioned, the Rje~ina river had a number of mills, some private property and some owned by the municipality and the religious orders. We should also

190 Povijest Rijeke, ibid. (1988), p. 261

mention the Bruni and Lenac mills which operated in the 1870s and were located in today’s Vodovodna Street.193

191 Saša Dmitrovi}, ibid. (1996), p. 75 192 Andrija Ra~ki, Zabilježbe iz povijesti gospoštije Grobnik, Narodna štam­ parija, Rijeka, 1948, p. 11; Nana Palini}, ibid. (2005), p. 245 193 Olga Magaš, ibid. (2001), p. 440

105


27 Tvornica papira Ruži}eva ulica od 1821. do po~etka 21. stolje}a (danas Tvornica papira d.d. u ste~aju) projektant nepoznat Pri~a o Tvornici papira pri~a je o prvome velikom industrijskom pothvatu u Rijeci. Sve

194 Irvin Lukeži}, n. d. (2006.), str. 81. 195 Rije~anin Andrija Ljudevit Adami} (1766.–1828.) ostao je poznat kao izraziti rodoljub, trgovac i gospodarstvenik izvanrednih poduzetni~kih inicijativa. Svoju trgova~ku karijeru zapo~inje s ocem u tvrtki Simeone Adamich e Figlio za trgovinu duhanom, ali i drugim proizvodima (konop­lja, drvo, ocat, rakija, žita, kovina). Nakon toga otvara brojne manufakture, mala tvorni~ka postrojenja, primjerice, staklarnicu i tvornicu papira. O Adami}evim društvenim vezama govori njegov utjecaj na monarhijsku i europsku politiku u našim krajevima. (Irvin Lukeži}, n. d. (2006.), str. 78.) 196 Irvin Lukeži}, n. d. (2006.), str. 78 197 Zvir je do danas nepresušan izvor pitke vode iz kojega se grad Rijeka opskrbljuje. 198 Tek }e se sredinom 19. stolje}a mo}i govoriti o industrijskom pogonu, nakon što je moderniziran i pokretan parnim strojevima. 199 William Moline (1793.–1878.), sin kožara Sparksa Molinea, u Rijeku dolazi oko 1820. zbog poslovnih dogovora s Ljudevitom Adami}em. Moline je, poput Adami}a, odgojen u poduzetni~kom duhu, a osim kožarske struke bio je vi~an i drugim industrijskim zanatima, primjerice preradi papira, tekstila i še}era te proizvodnji piva. (Irvin Lukeži}, n. d. (2006.), str. 80.) 200 DARI, JU 4, kutija 919., 1824. 201 Irvin Lukeži}, n. d. (2006.), str. 81. 202 Broj od osam radnika upisan je u Spisima magistrata iz 1824., u kojima se Tvornica (fabbrica) papira navodi me|u tvornicama koje su radile u Rijeci, a da pritom nisu imale najviše privilegije za rad. (DARI, PR-1, kutija 264., fascikl VIII, 1824.) 203 Krpe iz ove tvornice izvozile su se u druge inozemne tvornice, naro~ito u Englesku. Na stranom tržištu posebno su bili traženi potplati pu~anstva s Granice (nekadašnje Vojne krajine – Lika i okolica) jer su bili izra|eni od ~iste konoplje od koje se poslije preradom mogao proizvoditi najfiniji cigaretni papir. (Smith & Meynier-tvornica papira d.d. na Sušaku u prvom stolje}u svoga osnutka 1827.–1927., Zaklada tiskare Narodnih novina u Zagrebu, Sušak, 1927., str. 7.; Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.), str. 279.) 204 Irvin Lukeži}, n. d. (2006.), str. 81.

Dio upravne zgrade Tvornice papira i Energana (fotografija: Stanislav Beli~ka)

106

zapo~inje 1. rujna 1821.194 kada Andrija Ljudevit Adami}195 kupuje mlin Lu~icu196 nasuprot Zvira.197 Adami} je kupio mlin ne bi li pomo}u njega pokrenuo manufakturu za proizvodnju papira.198 Uz Adami}a, suosniva~ Tvornice papira bio je Britanac William Moline.199 Moline }e 1824. otkupiti od Adami}a i mlin i manufakturu za preradu papira.200 Platit }e za njih 19. 000 forinti.201 U ovoj je manufakturi tada bilo zaposleno osam radnika;202 papir se uz pomo} vodene snage proizvodio isklju~ivo od krpa.203 Nakon tri godine Moline za 20.000 forinti204 prodaje tvornicu engleskom poduzetniku Walteru


27 Paper Mill Ruži}eva Street from 1821 till the beginning of the 21 century (today, the paper mill company Tvornica papira d.d. is bankrupt) project engineer unknown st

The story of the Paper Mill is the story of the first major industrial enterprise in Rijeka. It all started with the 1st of September 1821,194 when Andrija Ljudevit Adami}195 bought the Lu~ica Mill,196 located opposite of Zvir.197 Adami} bought the mill in order to use it for starting the planned paper manufacturing plant.198 Besides Adami}, the co-founder of the Paper Mill was the Briton William Moline.199 In 1824, Moline bought off the mill and the paper manufacturing plant from Adami}.200 He paid 19,000 forints for them.201 This manufacturing plant employed eight workers.202 By using hydropower, the paper was produced exclusively from cloth rags.203 After three years, Moline sold the factory for a price of 20,000

194 Irvin Lukeži}, ibid. (2006), p. 81 195 Rijeka’s Andrija Ljudevit Adami} (1766-1828) remained known as a great patriot, merchant and businessman with extraordinary entrepreneurial initiatives. His commercial career began with his father in the company Simeone Adamich e Figlio, trading tobacco and other products (hemp, wood, vinegar, brandy, grain, metals). After that, he opened numerous manufacturing as well as small industrial plants, for example, glassworks, paper mill and others. Through his powerful social ties Adami} influenced the monarchic and European policies in our region. (Irvin Lukeži}, ibid., (2006), p. 78) 196 Irvin Lukeži}, ibid.(2006), p. 78

forints204 to the English entrepreneur Walter Crafton Smith,205 who subsequently, together

197 Zvir has remained an inexhaustible source of drinking water for the city of Rijeka until today. 198 We cannot yet talk about an industrial plant before the mid-19th century, when the plants were modernized and started being powered by steam engines. 199 William Molina (1793-1878), the son of the tanner Sparks Moline, came to Rijeka around 1820 due to his business arrangements with Ljudevit Adami}. Moline, like Adami}, was raised in an entrepreneurial spirit, and aside from his leather profession he was skillful in other industrial crafts, such as paper processing, textile, sugar and beer production. (Irvin Lukeži}, ibid. (2006), p. 80) 200 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 4, box 919, 1824 201 Irvin Lukeži}, ibid. (2006), p. 81 202 The number of eight workers was inscribed in the Municipial Documents from 1824, according to which the Paper Mill (fabbrica) was stated among the factories that operated in Rijeka, while not having the highest privileges for operation. (State Archives in Rijeka, PR-1, box 264, folder VIII, 1824) 203 Rags from this factory were exported to other foreign factories, especially in England. Shoe soles from the people of the Frontier (former Military Krajina - Lika and surrounding area) were particularly sought after on the foreign markets because they were made of pure hemp, from which, with additional processing, the finest cigarette paper could be produced. (Smith & Meynier-tvornica papira d.d. na Sušaku u prvom stolje}u svoga osnutka 1827.–1927., Zaklada tiskare Narodnih novina u Zagrebu, Sušak, 1927, p. 7; Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929), p. 279.) 204 Irvin Lukeži}, ibid. (2006), p. 81 205 W. C. Smith was a native of London. He came to Rijeka thanks to the recommendation of Rijeka’s merchant Gašpar Makovi} as a representative of the English paper mill Brown, Smith & Cie. (Smith & Meynier-tvornica papira d.d. na Sušaku u prvom stolje}u svoga osnutka 1827.–1927., ibid. (1927), p. 7; Irvin Lukeži}, Hartera, Suša~ka revija, godina IX, br. 34/35, Klub suša~ana, Rijeka, 2001, p. 105) Part of the administration building of the Paper Mill and the power station (Energana) (photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

107


Walter Crafton Smith (portret iz 1879.) Walter Crafton Smith (portrait from 1879) (Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka)

205 W. C. Smith rodio se u Londonu. U Rijeku stiže zahvaljuju}i preporuci rije~kog trgovca Gašpara Makovi}a kao predstavnik engleske tvornice papira Brown, Smith & Cie. (Smith & Meynier – tvornica papira d.d. na Sušaku u prvom stolje}u svoga osnutka 1827.–1927., n. d. (1927.), str. 7; Irvin Lukeži}, Hartera, Suša~ka revija, godina IX., br. 34/35, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 2001., str. 105.) 206 Na samom po~etku u tvornicu se uklju~uje Louis Meynier, francuski poslovni ~ovjek, slikar i putnik podrijetlom iz Erlangena. U Rijeku dolazi na poziv W. C. Smitha nakon što su se upoznali u Švicarskoj. Vrlo brzo Louis svoj udio u osnivanju tvornice sa Smithom prepušta bratu Charlesu koji dolazi iz Pariza i u listopadu 1828. preuzima upravu tvornice. (Smith & Meynier – tvornica papira d.d. na Sušaku u prvom stolje}u svoga osnutka 1827.–1927. , n. d. (1927.), str. 7.; Irvin Lukeži}, n. d. (2001.), str. 105.) 207 Rad Tvornice papira Smith & Meynier smatra se po~etkom industrijske proizvodnje u ovim krajevima. (Rudolf Bi~ani}, n. d. (1951.), str. 216.) 208 Olga Magaš, Revitalizacija prostora industrijske zone Školji} u Rijeci, I. me|unarodna konferencija u povodu 150. obljetnice tvornice torpeda u Rijeci i o~uvanja rije~ke industrijske baštine, Pro Torpedo, Rijeka, 2003., str. 415. 209 Irvin Lukeži}, n. d. (2001.), str. 106.

Craftonu Smithu205 koji }e zajedno sa svojim partnerom Charlesom Meynierom206 zapo~eti industrijsku proizvodnju papira.207 Tvornica }e u listopadu 1828. promijeniti naziv u Smith & Meynier.208 Iako je sirovina za preradu papira ostala ista, novi su vlasnici tvornicu modernizirali. Još 1827. nabavili su Fourdrinierov stroj za proizvodnju papira koji je tada slovio kao izniman stroj, da bi ve} 1833. u pogon dopremili parni stroj i time pove}ali proizvod-

210 Isto.

nju.209 Tvornica papira je zbog inovacija u tehnološkom procesu i kakvo}e samog papira

211 Tvornica je u vrijeme uprave svojega najpoznatijega tehni~kog ravnatelja Eugena Frémonta (od 1838. do 1886.) doživjela golem napredak. U tvornicu je dopremljeno nekoliko novih parnih strojeva, od kojih je stroj iz 1867. bio nagra|en na svjetskoj izložbi u Parizu kao remek-djelo onodobne tehnike. Prvi ve}i problemi u tehnološkom smislu javili su se 1886. kada se u svjetskoj preradi papira po~ela koristiti celuloza. Ta sirovina, za razliku od krpe, više nije bila dostupna u neposrednoj blizini i nije je bilo u izobilju, što je ovu tvornicu sprje~avalo u hvatanju koraka sa svjetskim trendovima prerade papira. (Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.), str. 280.; Smith & Meynier-tvornica papira d.d. na Sušaku u prvom stolje}u svoga osnutka 1827.–1927., n. d. (1927.), str. 15.

bila nebrojeno puta nagra|ivana na doma}im i me|unarodnim gospodarskim izložbama u Be~u 1835., Pešti 1842., Londonu 1851., Münchenu 1854., Parizu 1878., Barceloni 1888. i poslije.210 U skladu s napretkom tvornica se širila i pove}avao se broj radnika. Sedamdesetih godina 19. stolje}a ondje je radilo oko tisu}u radnika.211 Kompleks Tvornice papira gra|en je ve}im dijelom dvadesetih godina 19. stolje}a, ali je velike arhitektonske izmjene pretrpio u 20. stolje}u. Tvornica je u vrijeme izgradnje bila moderna i dobro je poslovala, o ~emu govori ~injenica da je taj kompleks posjedovao prvi parni stroj na Balkanu.212 Osim tehnološkog napretka, tvornica je bila napredna

212 Mladen Grguri}, Tvornica papira Rijeka, Muzej grada Rijeke, Rijeka, 2007., str. 11.

i u socijalnoj politici te je ve} 1877. osnovala prvi mirovinski fond za radnike.213 Nakon

213 Danilo Klen, Tvornica papira Rijeka, Tvornica papira, Rijeka, 1971., str. 47.

suradnjom u tom smjeru. Gospodarska kriza na prijelazu stolje}a znatno poga|a tvorni-

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Hrvatsko-ugarske nagodbe tvornica podupire ma|arske interese i nastavlja s dobrom


Charles Meynier (portret iz 1879.) Charles Meynier (portrait from 1879) (Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka)

206 At the very beginning, the factory’s business activities also included Louis Meynier, a French businessman, painter and traveller originally from Erlangen. He came to Rijeka at the invitation of W.C. Smith, after they met in Switzerland. Very soon afterwards, Louis left the share he originally invested into the factory together with Smith to his brother Charles, who, after arriving from Paris in October 1828, took over the management of the factory. (Smith & Meynier – tvornica papira d.d. na Sušaku u prvom stolje}u svoga osnutka 1827.–1927., ibid. (1927), p. 7, Irvin Lukeži}, ibid. (2001), p. 105) 207 The operation of the paper factory Smith & Meynier is considered as the beginning of industrial production in this region. (Rudolf Bi~ani}, ibid. (1951), p. 216)

with his partner Charles Meynier,206 started the industrial production of paper in Rijeka.207 In October 1828, the factory changed its name to Smith & Meynier.208 Although the raw

208 Olga Magaš, Revitalizacija prostora industrijske zone Školji} u Rijeci, I. me|unarodna konferencija u povodu 150. obljetnice tvornice torpeda u Rijeci i o~uvanja rije~ke industrijske baštine, Pro Torpedo, Rijeka, 2003, p. 415

material for paper processing remained the same, the new owners modernized the factory.

209 Irvin Lukeži}, ibid. (2001), p. 106

In 1827, they acquired a Fourdrinier papermaking machine which was known as an exceptional machine and, already in 1833, they purchased a steam engine and thereby increased

210 Ibidem

production.209 Due to the innovations in the production process and the quality of the paper, the Paper Mill received numerous awards on national and international trade fairs: in Vienna 1835, Pest 1842, London 1851, Munich 1854, Paris 1878, Barcelona 1888 and so on.210 In accordance with its progress, the factory expanded and the number of workers increased. In the 1870s, the factory employed approximately a thousand workers.211 The Paper Mill complex was built largely in the 1820s, but major architectural changes were made in the 20th century. At the time of its construction, the factory was state-ofthe-art and it operated very well. The complex also owned the first steam engine in the Balkans, another proof that it was keeping up with the times.212 Apart from technology, the factory also had an advanced social policy: as early as in 1877, it established the first pension fund for workers.

213

After the Croatian-Hungarian Settlement, the factory supported

Hungarian interests and continued its good collaboration with that country. At the turn of the century, the factory was strongly hit by economic crisis. At that time, a new entity

211 During the administration of its most famous technical director Eugene Frémont (from 1838 to 1886), the factory experienced a huge improvement. Several new steam engines were shipped to the factory, among them the machine that was honoured at the World Exposition in Paris in 1867 as a masterpiece of art of the time. The first major technological problems occurred in 1886, when the world began to use cellulose for paper processing. The raw material cellulose, unlike cloth, was no longer available in the immediate vicinity and was, generally, not abundantly present, which prevented the factory from catching up with the global trends of processing paper. (Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929), p. 280; Smith & Meynier-tvornica papira d.d. na Sušaku u prvom stolje}u svoga osnutka 1827.–1927., ibid. (1927), p. 15) 212 Mladen Grguri}, Tvornica papira Rijeka, Muzej grada Rijeke, Rijeka, 2007, p. 11 213 Danilo Klen, Tvornica papira Rijeka, Tvornica papira, Rijeka, 1971, p. 47

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Maketa strojeva u manufakturi papira iz 1815. Sli~no je izgledalo postrojenje Adami}eve manufakture na Rje~ini iz 1820-ih sve do pojave parnog stroja unutar pogona tvornice 1833. godine. Model of the Paper Mill’s plant from 1815. Adami}’s manufacturing plant on the Rje~ina from the 1820s had a similar set-up until the factory started using steam engines in 1833. (Technisches Museum, Be~/Vienna)

Tvornica papira, 1925. Paper Mill in the interwar period, 1925 (Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka)

cu. U to vrijeme u vlasni~ku strukturu Tvornice papira ulazi i novi subjekt – Ungarische Papier A.G. (Prva ugarska industrija papira d.d.).214 Dolaskom toga dioni~kog društva pogon na vodu i paru moderniziran je, a do Prvoga svjetskog rata broj zaposlenih je udvostru~en. Nakon Prvoga svjetskog rata vlasnici se izmjenjuju i tvornica biva integrirana u sastav kompanije Jela, industrija papira, a nakon toga je u vlasništvu Prve hrvatske štedionice i Mjesnog odbora ravnateljskog vije}a Smith i Meynier na Sušaku. Razdoblje nakon rata donijelo je nov procvat za tvornicu, izra|ivali su se cigaretni papir, svileni i biblijski papiri, papiri za kopiranje i drugo. Prodaja tvorni~kih proizvoda ponovno 214 Godine 1875. Edgar Crafton i Walter Glennie Smith povla~e se iz tvornice, dok Charles Meynier umire 1876. Zamjenjuje ga ne}ak Henry koji u tvornici ostaje do smrti 1912. godine. (http://www.muzej-rijeka.hr/ tvornica-papira/kronologija.html; Povijest Rijeke, n. d. (1988.), str. 259.

110

se raširila po cijelom svijetu: u Sjedinjene Ameri~ke Države, Argentinu, Rumunjsku, Egipat, Bliski i Daleki istok. Nakon Drugoga svjetskog rata tvornicu preuzima narodna vlast. Danas je kompleks napušten.


entered the ownership structure of the Paper Factory – the Ungarische Papier A.G.214 With the arrival of this joint-stock company, the plant’s steam and hydropower drives were modernized and, by World War I, the number of employees doubled. After World War I, the owners of the factory changed, the factory was incorporated into the paper company Jela,

214 In 1875, Edgar Crafton and Walter Glennie Smith withdrew from running the factory. After the death of Charles Meynier in 1876, he was replaced by his nephew Henry who remained in the factory until his death in 1912. (http://www.muzej-rijeka.hr/tvornica-papira/kronologija.html; Povijest Rijeke, ibid. (1988), p. 259)

industrija papira, and after that it became property of the First Croatian Savings Bank (Prva Hrvatska Štedionica) and the local council committee of the directors’ council of Smith and Meynier on Sušak. The period after the war brought a new revival of the factory; it produced cigarette paper along with silk and Bible paper, copy paper etc. Sales of the manufactured products once again spread all over the world: United States, Argentina, Romania, Egypt, the Middle and the Far East. After World War II, the factory was taken over by the national government. Today, the complex is abandoned.

Industrijski pogoni u kanjonu Rje~ine Industrial plants in the Rje~ina canyon (fotografija/photo: @eljko Stojanovi})

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Dio upravne zgrade Tvornice papira i dimnjak Part of the Paper Factory’s administration building and chimney. (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

Upravna zgrada Tvornice papira Upravna zgrada sagra|ena je 1827. godine. Sa~uvana je do danas, ali u promijenjenom obliku.215 Govorimo o jednokatnici ~iji je osnovni gra|evni materijal armirani beton, a zidne nadopune ra|ene su u opeci.216 Sa~uvana je kamena dekoracija na ulazu i natprozornicima. Specifi~na je krovna lanterna smještena iznad trokutasta zabata. Lanterna završava krovnim tornji}em sa željeznim pokaziva~em strana svijeta.

Ostale zgrade stare tvornice Dvorane za skladištenje i sortiranje krpa bile su smještene u dvije gra|evine, prvotno odvojene, no pregradnjama sada djeluju kao spojeni prostor. Gra|ene su izme|u 1821. i 1827., a oko 1927./1928. rekonstruirano im je krovište. U po~etnoj fazi pri izgradnji je korištena opeka i kamen u vapnenom mortu. Na kasnijim pregradnjama uo~ljiva je opeka u cementnom mortu i armirani beton. Velika važnost ovih zdanja je u prizemnim prostorijama za manufakturnu proizvodnju, jasne barokne arhitektonske profilacije. Skladišni prostor u prizemlju izveden je s pomo}u lukova kako bi se pove}ala nosivost etaže.217 215 Dio zgrade bio je srušen za vrijeme izgradnje elektri~ne centrale u neposrednoj blizini. 216 Dolores ^iki}, Nenad Labus, Sustav mjera zaštite kulturnog dobra na podru~ju obuhvata Detaljnog plana ure|enja proizvodnog podru~ja Hartera, broj elaborata A4 1821, Konzervatorski odjel u Rijeci, Rijeka, 2009., Inventarni broj 16. 217 Isto.

Pogon i skladište koristili su se kao bojaonice, dvorane za cijepanje krpa, skladišta i drugo, a u lijevom dijelu kompleksa, uza samu Rje~inu, navodno je bio smješten Fourdrinierov stroj. Zbog niza pregradnji ne može se govoriti o jednome stilskom razdoblju, ve} o nizu isprepletenih na~ina artikuliranja pro~elja i konstrukcijskih rješenja unutrašnjosti. Na pro~eljima se mogu iš~itati neka historicisti~ka obilježja prema izri~aju moderne. U unutrašnjim se prostorima, prema na~inu oblikovanja stropova, može govoriti o nekim neobaroknim rješenjima, ba~vastim i križnorebrastim formama.

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Administration Building of the Paper Mill The administration building was erected in 1827. It has been preserved until today, but in modified form.215 It is a two-storey building, built to the greatest extent with reinforced concrete, with wall additions made of brick.216 The stone decorations on the door and window lintels have been preserved. A very specific detail is the roof lantern, placed above the triangular pediment. The lantern ends with a roof turret that has an iron pointer with the four cardinal directions.

215 One part of the building was demolished during construction of the power station in the immediate vicinity. 216 Dolores ^iki}, Nenad Labus, Sustav mjera zaštite kulturnog dobra na podru~ju obuhvata Detaljnog plana ure|enja proizvodnog podru~ja Hartera, broj elaborata A4 1821, Konzervatorski odjel u Rijeci, Rijeka, 2009, inv. no. 16 217 Dolores ^iki}, Nenad Labus, ibid. (2009)

Other Facilities of the Old Factory These two buildings were built separately, but they were subsequently altered so as to function as a unique space. They were built between 1821 and 1827, while the roof was reconstructed around 1927/28. In the initial phase of construction, brick and stone with lime mortar were used. Brickwork with cement mortar and reinforced concrete is visible in later alterations. The building was originally designed as a hall for sorting and storing rags, but it became part of the plant later. The importance of these buildings lies in the groundfloor manufacturing rooms with their clearly visible baroque architectural moulding. The storage space on the ground floor was built with arcs to maximize its bearing capacity.217 The factory and the storage were used as dyeworks, halls for ripping rags, warehouses, etc. The left part of the complex, next to the Rje~ina river, allegedly housed a Fourdrinier

Dvorane za skladištenje i sortiranje krpa bile su smještene u dvije gra|evine, prvotno odvojene, no pregradnjama sada djeluju kao spojeni prostor. The halls for sorting and storing rags were located in two buildings, which were built separately, but subsequently altered so as to funcion as a unique space. (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

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Dio starog kompleksa Tvornice papira, nastao izme|u 1821. i 1827. Part of the Paper Mill complex, built betveen 1821 and 1827 (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

Elektri~na centrala Zgrada elektri~ne centrale ili Energane podignuta je 1931. kao dvoetažna gra|evina 218 Zgrada Energane sagra|ena je 1931., a dodatno proširena 1934. i 1936. godine. U ono je vrijeme bila najmodernija elektri~na centrala s parnim turbinama od 3.200 konjskih snaga. Centrala je bila opskrbljena tada najmodernijim ure|ajem za loženje, kontrolu i registraciju proizvodnje elektri~ne energije. Prije izgradnje ove energane, tvornica se opskrbljivala energijom iz vlastite pogonske centrale, hidrauli~ke (vodene turbine od 1.200 KS) i termocentrale (parni stroj od 1.100 KS). Sve pogonske centrale 30-ih godina 20. stolje}a ukupno su proizvodile energiju od 5.500 KS, a viškove energije proslje|ivali su Elektri (poduze}e grada Sušaka) koja je elektri~nu energiju prodavala Sušaku, Bakru i Kraljevici. (Smith & Meynier-tvornica papira d.d. na Sušaku u prvom stolje}u svoga osnutka 1827.–1927., n. d (1927.), str. 19; Almanah grada Sušaka, Turisti~ka biblioteka Jadran, Sušak, 1938., str. 102.) 219 Ivana Golob, n. d. (2010.), str. 35.

jednostavnoga pravokutna tlocrta s dimnjakom visokim 85 m.218 Gra|evni materijal je armirani beton, a na zidovima su istaknuti kvadratni mrežasto ostakljeni prozori. Krov je ravan i betonski. Uzmu li se u obzir stilske karakteristike gra|evine, njezina jednostavnost i funkcionalnost, može se govoriti o arhitektonskoj modelaciji moderne.219

Zgrada nove tvornice – proizvodna hala – Marganovo Hala na Marganovu datira se u 1946. godinu. Jednostavnog je pravokutna tlocrta bez katova. Ima odlike moderne, a posebno su uo~ljivi mrežasto ostakljeni prozori. U njoj se proizvodio papir za pakiranje.

114


machine. Due to a series of reconstructions, we cannot talk about one stylistic period, but a series of interlocking ways of articulating the facade and constructional solutions of the interior. The facade exposes some historicist features with expressions of Modernism. In the interior spaces, when looking at the manner of how the ceilings were formed, we can talk about some neo-baroque solutions, like barrel vault and cross-ribbed vault ceiling forms.

Tvornica papira, žene na radu u "krparnici" Paper Mill, women sorting cloth rags for paper manufacturing (Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka)

Pogon i skladište sa strane Rje~ine (unutrašnjost). Jedna od pogonskih dvorana najstarijeg dijela kompleksa izrazitih klasicisti~kih arhitektonskih rješenja The factory and the warehouse on the Rje~ina side (interior). One of the factory’s halls in the oldest part of the complex, with distinct classicist architectural solutions. (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

115


Elektri~na centrala, Energana/Power station (fotografija/photo: Kristijan Vu~kovi})

116


Power Station The building of the power station (called Energana) was built in 1931 as a two-storey building with a simple rectangular layout and an 85 m high chimney.218 The construction is made of reinforced concrete and the walls contain prominent square mesh-glazed windows. The roof is flat and made of concrete. Considering the stylistic characteristics of the building, its simplicity and functionality, we can talk about architectural modelling of Modernism.219

The Building of the New Factory – Production Hall – Marganovo The production hall on Marganovo dates back to 1946. Is has a simple rectangular layout

218 The power station’s facility was built in 1931 and further expanded in 1934 and in 1936. At that time, it represented a highly modern power plant with a steam turbine of 3,200 horsepower. The power plant was equipped with state-of-the-art combustion engines, control panel and unit for measuring the generated electricity. Before this power plant was constructed, the factory was supplied with energy from its inhouse power unit, a hydro power plant (hydro turbines with a capacity of 1,200 HP) and a thermal power plant (steam engine with 1,100 HP). In the 1930s, all power units generated a total of 5,500 HP and energy surpluses were forwarded to Elektra (a company of the town of Sušak), which then sold the electricity to Sušak, Bakar and Kraljevica. (Smith & Meynier-tvornica papira d.d. na Sušaku u prvom stolje}u svoga osnutka 1827.–1927., ibid. (1927), p. 19; Almanah grada Sušaka, Turisti~ka biblioteka Jadran, Sušak, 1938, p. 102)

with no floors. It has characteristics of Modernism with especially noticeable mesh-glazed

219 Ivana Golob, ibid. 2010, p. 35

windows. It was used for the production of wrapping paper.

Hala Marganovo/Production hall Marganovo (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

117


28 Ledana Ruži}eva ulica 1929. projektant nepoznat

220 Olga Magaš, n. d. (1992.), str. 218.; DARI, JU 51, kutija 137.

Na desnoj obali Rje~ine, izme|u nekadašnje Via dei Molini i Canale d´acqua, uz Sco-

221 DARI, JU 51, kutija 137.

Vlasnik ledane bio je Milan Gorup, a za projekt izgradnje ledane angažirao je tada vrlo

glietto (današnji Autotrolej), nedaleko od gradske klaonice djelovala je Ledana Gorup.

222 Godine 1904. Carlo Pergoli izradio je projekt paviljona ledane za ribu, zamišljen u sklopu rije~ke ribarnice. Zgrada secesijskih karakteristika sagra|ena je 1912. godine. Danas se ovaj prostor u Demetrovoj 3 koristi kao skladište za ribu. (Damir Krizmani}, Nenad Labus, Lada Turato, Anamarija Zrn~i}, n. d. (2011.) 223 Rimskim ugovorom iz 1924. Rijeka i Sušak postaju sastavni dio dviju razli~itih država, Kraljevine SHS i Italije. 224 Ivana Golob, Kristina Pandža, Suša~ka ledana, IV. konferencija o industrijskoj baštini, Pro Torpedo, Rijeka, ~lanak u objavi.

aktivnog Emilija Ambrosinija.220 Objekt je sagra|en u sije~nju 1896. godine.221 Proizvodnja leda bitno je olakšavala konzerviranje mesnih proizvoda, ali i svakodnevni život.222 Led proizveden u ovoj tvornici bio je dovoljan za opskrbu Rijeke i Sušaka. Dvadesete godine 20. stolje}a bitno su promijenile politi~ku situaciju izme|u Rijeke i Sušaka, u~inivši ih sastavnim dijelovima razli~itih država.223 Zbog toga se u Sušaku javljaju inicijative za izgradnju gradske mesnice i ledane. Tijekom 1925. nekoliko se puta u Primorskom vjesniku ukazuje na potrebu izgradnje tvornice leda u sklopu ve} postoje}e mesnice.224 Poziv na javnu licitaciju za izgradnju ledane izdalo je 2. listopada 1928. Gradsko poglavarstvo.225 Godine 1929. otvorena je Gradska ledana226 ~ija je

225 Isto.

osnovna zada}a bila proizvodnja leda, u prvom redu za konzerviranje mesa.227 Ledana,

226 U arhivskim izvorima spominje se ugovor izme|u gradske op}ine Sušak i Tvornice umjetnog leda Gorup-Hribar iz Rijeke kojim se potonji obvezuju na opremanje ledane u Sušaku. Stoga se može zaklju~iti da su vlasnici rije~ke ledane bili angažirani pri formiranju suša~ke ledane. Detaljan elaborat s usporednim primjerima iz rije~ke Ledane Gorup izradio je inženjer Julije Duimich. Suša~ka je ledana bila u vlasništvu Gradskog N.O. Sušak. (DARI, JU 48, kutija 113., DAR, JU 48, kutija 47). 227 DARI, JU 48, kutija 47., svezak 92. 228 Mesnica je izgra|ena nešto prije nego ledana. Me|u prvim projektnim nacrtima za suša~ku mesnicu ubraja se prijedlog arhitekta Mate Glavana iz 1885. godine. Niz pregradnji mesnica doživljava 1925. kada suša~ka tvrtka Konart La Grasta izvodi adaptaciju. (DARI, JU 48, kutija 47.) 229 Olga Magaš navodi Franju Šiki}a kao projektanta ove gra|evine. (Olga Magaš, n. d. (1995.), str. 217.)

Nacrt za izgradnju ledane kraj ve} postoje}e mesnice Blueprint for the construction of the icehouse beside the existing butcher’s shop (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 48, kutija 47)

118

naime, ukomponirala u ve} postoje}i kompleks mesnice na obali Rje~ine sa suša~ke strane, nedaleko od nekadašnje Kožare Simoni}-Bakar~i}.228 Do danas je ostala sa­ ~uvana glavna zgrada Ledane ~iji arhitekt nije poznat.229 Zgrada ima jednostavan pravokutni tlocrt. Secesijsko pro~elje raš~lanjeno je visokim i uskim mrežasto ostakljenim prozorima na grubo ožbukanom zidu. U neposrednoj blizini Ledane nalazi se zapušteni


28 Icehouse Ruži}eva Street 1929 project engineer unknown On the right bank of the Rje~ina river, between the former Via dei Molini and Canale d’acqua, alongside Scoglietto (today’s Autotrolej), not far from the city slaughterhouse,

220 Olga Magaš, ibid. (1992), p. 218; State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 137 221 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 137

there was the Icehouse Gorup production plant. The owner of the icehouse was Milan Gorup. For the construction project of the icehouse, he hired Emilio Ambrosini, who was very active at the time.220 The facility was built in January 1896.221 The production of ice significantly facilitated the preservation of meat products as well as everyday life.222 The ice produced in this factory was sufficient to supply both Rijeka and Sušak. In the 1920s, the political situation between Rijeka and Sušak significantly changed, when they became parts of two different states.223 Therefore, there were initiatives in Sušak to build an own butcher’s shop and icehouse. During 1925, on several occasions, the newspaper Primorski vjesnik pointed out the need for building an ice factory within the existing butcher’s shop.224 The invitation to a public tender process for the construction of the ice-

222 In 1904, Pergoli made a project for an icebox pavilion for fish, conceived as part of Rijeka’s fish market. The facility with Art Nouveau characteristics was built in 1912. Today, this space in Demetrova Street no. 3 is used as a warehouse for fish. (Damir Krizmani}, Nenad Labus, Lada Turato, Anamarija Zrn~i}, ibid. (2011)) 223 With the Treaty of Rome from 1924, Rijeka and Sušak became territories of two different states, the Kingdom of SHS and Italy. 224 Ivana Golob, Kristina pandža, Suša~ka ledana, IV. konferencija o industrijskoj baštini, Pro Torpedo, Rijeka, article pending publication.

house was issued on 2 October 1928 by the Municipal Council.225 The Town Icehouse226

225 Ibidem

was opened in 1929, with the main task of manufacturing ice primarily for the preservation of meat.227 The icehouse was incorporated into the existing butcher’s shop complex on Sušak’s shore of the Rje~ina, near the former Bakar~i}-Simoni} Tannery.

228

The main build-

ing of the icehouse has been preserved until today, but the architect remains unknown.229 The building has a simple rectangular floor plan. The Art Nouveau facade is divided by using high and narrow mesh-glazed windows on a rough plastered wall. In the immediate

226 Archival sources mention a contract between the municipality of Sušak and the factory for the production of artificial ice, Gorup-Hribar, from Rijeka, with which the latter undertook to equip the icehouse on Su­šak. It can, therefore, be concluded that the owners of Rijeka’s icehouse were involved in the formation of Sušak’s icehouse. A detailed study with comparative examples from Rijeka’s icehouse Gorup was made by engineer Julije Duimich. Sušak’s icehouse was owned by the town of Sušak. (State Archives in Rijeka, JU 48, box 113, State Archives in Rijeka, JU 48, box 47). 227 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 48, box 47, tome 92 228 The butcher’s shop was made somewhat earlier than the icehouse. Among the first project designs for Sušak’s butcher’s shop is the proposal by architect Mate Glavan from 1885. The butcher’s shop experienced a series of reconstructions in 1925; they were carried out by Sušak’s company Konart La Grasat. (State Archives in Rijeka, JU 48, box 47) 229 According to Olga Magaš, Franjo Šiki} was the project engineer of this building. (Olga Magaš, ibid. (1995), p. 217)

Tlocrt ledane s ucrtanim pogonskim strojevima Blueprint for the icehouse with its main engines (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 48, kutija 47)

119


230 Marijan Bradanovi}, Odjeci secesije na Sušaku, u: Arhitektura secesije u Rijeci, MMSU, Rijeka, 2007., str. 342.

dimnjak, slabo uo~ljiv i prekriven bršljanom.230 U stražnjem dijelu, podno stijene, nalazio

231 U srpnju 1939. mjese~na produkcija iznosila je 86.519 komada leda, a do 1945. smanjena je na 546 komada. Zbog pada proizvodnje smanjen je i broj radnika, sa šest zaposlenih 1939. na tri zaposlena 1945. godine. (DARI, JU 48, kutija 47.)

Gradska ledana svjedo~i o vremenu u kojem hladnjaci još nisu postojali i led se proizvo-

se ostatak kompleksa sa~injen od niza manjih objekata.

dio u tvornicama ili donosio iz planinskih krajeva. Djelovanje Ledane bilo je iznimno važno zbog skladištenja mesnih i ribljih namirnica te opskrbe hotela u vrijeme turisti~ke sezone. Tvornica je poslovala sve do 60-ih godina 20. stolje}a, kada na scenu dolazi hladnjak. Do po~etka Drugoga svjetskog rata proizvodnja leda se pove}avala, nakon ~ega po~inje znatno opadati.231 Prostor na kojemu je bio smješten kompleks ledane i mesnog kombinata danas je gotovo neprepoznatljiv.

Ledana/Icehouse (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

120


vicinity of the icehouse there is a neglected chimney, poorly visible and covered with ivy.230 In the back part, under a rock, there was the rest of the complex, made of a number of smaller objects. The Town Icehouse bears witness to a time when refrigerators did not yet existed, when ice was produced in factories or brought from the mountains. The activity of the icehouse was extremely important for the storage of meat and fish, and for supplying the needs of

230 Marijan Bradanovi}, Odjeci secesije na Sušaku, in: Arhitektura secesije u Rijeci, MMSU, Rijeka, 2007, p. 342. 231 In July 1939, the monthly production of ice totaled 86,519 pieces of ice, by 1945 this number decreased to 546 pieces of ice per month. The decrease of production was accompanied by a reduction of workers, from six employees in 1939 to three employees in 1945. (State Archives in Rijeka, JU 48, box 47)

hotels during the tourist season. The factory operated until the 1960s, when common refrigerators started being used. Until the beginning of the Second World War, the ice production increased and then it began to decline significantly.231 The area where the icehouse complex and the meat conglomerate were located is almost unrecognizable today.

Josip Gorup (reljef u bronci) Josip Gorup (bronze relief) (Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka)

Ledana – dimnjaci Icehouse – chimneys (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

121


29 Kožara Bakar~i}-Simoni} Ruži}eva ulica broj 29 1877. V. Vidalin, radove nadzirao Mate Glavan

Kožara Simoni}-Bakar~i} Bakar~i}-Simoni} Tannery (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

U Ruži}evoj ulici na današnjem broju 29 nekada je radila Kožara Bakar~i}-Simoni}. Osniva~i ove kožare bili su Anton Bakar~i} i Ljudevit Ruži}. Ruži} uskoro istupa iz tvrtke, a na njegovo mjesto dolazi Antun Simoni}.232 Anton Bakar~i} umire 1889. godine.233 U po~etku je Kožara bila skromna manufaktura, ali nakon 1900. u nju se ulaže, moderni232 Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.), str. 258.; Milica Trkulja, Nada Sablji}-Butorac, Ri~ina poveda, Muzej grada Rijeke, Rijeka, 1995., str. 14. 233 U tvornici su ga zamijenila njegova bra}a Ivan i Pavao. (Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.), str. 285.) 234 U tvornici su ga zamijenila njegova bra}a Ivan i Pavao. (Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.), str. 285.)

zira se, proširuje i pove}ava proizvodnju i broj zaposlenih.234 Pedesetak radnika moglo je na godišnjoj razini proizvesti 15 do 20 vagona proizvoda, odnosno potplata. Potplati su svoje tržište imali u Gorskom kotaru, Lici, Sjevernoj Dalmaciji, Istri i Sloveniji.235 Neposredno prije Prvoga svjetskog rata uprava tvornice se promijenila. Antun Simoni} se 1911. zbog starosti povukao iz tvrtke, a 1912., smr}u Ivana Bakar~i}a, tvrtkom upravlja Pavao Bakar~i}.236 Za vrijeme Prvoga svjetskog rata Kožara je proizvodila isklju­ ~ivo za potrebe vojske. U doba okupacije posao se u potpunosti obustavio.237 Nakon

235 Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.), str. 285.

razgrani~enja tvornica gubi posao u zemljama pod Kraljevinom Italijom, dolazi do jake

236 Isto.

kvidirana.238 U njenim }e prostorima od 1929. djelovati Ljuštionica riže.239

privredne krize, a nakon smrti posljednjeg vlasnika Pavla Bakar~i}a 1925., Kožara je li-

Danas je od nekadašnje Kožare i kasnije Ljuštionice riže ostala sa~uvana dvokatna

237 Isto.

gra|evina izrazitih historicisti~kih odlika iz 1877., napravljena prema projektu V. Vidali-

238 Isto.

na, dok je radove nadzirao Mate Glavan.240 Osnovna je stilska karakteristika jednoli~an

239 DARI, JU 48, kutja 8

zemlje je od prvog kata odvojeno horizontalnim razdjelnim vijencem.

niz prozorskih okana s ciglenim natprozornicima i istaknutim zaglavnim kamenom. Pri-

240 Julija Lozzi Barkovi}, Arhitektura historicizma na Sušaku, Arhitektura historicizma u Rijeci, MMSU, Rijeka 2001., str. 516.

122

U ovim se prostorijama danas nalazi veleprodajna trgovina Plodine. Gra|evina je ve}im dijelom ostala sa~uvana u svome izvornom obliku i njegovim stilskim odlikama.


29 Bakar~i}-Simoni} Tannery Ruži}eva Street no. 29 1877 V. Vidalin, construction supervisor Mate Glavan The Bakar~i}-Simoni} Tannery once operated in Ruži}eva Street, at today’s number 29. The founders of the tannery were Anton Bakar~i} and Ljudevit Ruži}. However, Ruži} soon withdrew from the company and was replaced by Antun Simoni}.232 Anton Bakar~i} died in 1889.233 The tannery was initially a modest manufacturing plant, but after 1900 it experienced a lot of investments, it was modernized, expanded and the production and employ-

232 Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929), p. 258; Milica Trkulja, Nada Sablji}-Butorac, Ri~ina poveda, Muzej grada Rijeke, Rijeka, 1995, p. 14 233 His factory duties were taken over by his brothers, Ivan and Pavao. (Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929), p. 285) 234 Olga Magaš, ibid. (1995), p. 216 p.

ment increased.234 Around 50 workers produced 15 to 20 wagons of the tannery’s product – soles – on an annual basis. The soles were then sold in the regions of Gorski Kotar, Lika

235 Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929.), p. 285

and Istria as well as in Slovenia.235 Shortly before World War I, the factory management changed. Antun Simoni} retired from the company in 1911 due to old age and, after the

236 Ibidem

death of Ivan Bakar~i} in 1912, the company was run by Pavao Bakar~i}.236 During World War I, the tannery was militarized and production ran exclusively for military purposes. During the occupation, the production was completely suspended.

237

237 Ibidem

After the demarca-

tion, the factory lost its market in the territories that were under the rule of the Kingdom of

238 Ibidem, p. 285

Italy, was hit by a severe economic crisis and, after the death of the last owner Pavao

239 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 48, box 8

Bakar~i} in 1925, the tannery was liquidated.238 In the facilities of the former tannery, a rice mill started production in 1929.239 Today’s only remnant of the former tannery and rice mill is a three-storey building with distinctive historicist features. It was built in 1877 according to the project made by V. Vi-

240 Julija Lozzi Barkovi}, Arhitektura historicizma na Sušaku, Arhitektura historicizma u Rijeci, MMSU, Rijeka 2001, p. 516

dalina while the construction was supervised by Mate Glavan.240 The building’s main stylistic feature is the monotonous sequence of window panes with brick lintels and a prominent keystone. A horizontal wreath visually separates the ground floor from the first floor. The wholesale trade Plodine is located in these premises today. Most of the building has remained preserved in its original form and with its stylistic features.

Portret Antuna Simoni}a Portrait of Antuna Simoni}a (Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka)

123


30 Ljuštionica riže Ruži~eva ulica 29 1877. V. Vidalin, radove nadzirao Mate Glavan, Boren Emili

241 DARI, JU 48, kutja 8.

U kolovozu 1929. Eduard Polak, vlasnik Ljuštionice riže, dao je zahtjev za useljenje

242 Almanah grada Sušaka, Turisti~ka biblioteka Jadran, Sušak, 1938., str. 104.

neke gra|evinske intervencije, a za adaptacije na objektu traži gra|evinsku dozvolu.

tvornice u ve} postoje}i objekt likvidirane Kožare. U zahtjevu isti~e da je nužno provesti Radovi su se trebali izvoditi pod nadzorom gra|evinskog inženjera Borena Emilija. Od Slavnoga gradskog poglavarstva traži se i dopuštenje za upotrebu strojeva nužnih za rad Ljuštionice riže.241 U Almanahu grada Sušaka iz 1938. navodi se da je Ljuštionica riže d.d. proizvodila sve vrste riže. Njezin kapacitet iznosi oko 2.400 vagona na godinu, a sirovinu je nabavljala u inozemstvu, naj~eš}e u Italiji, Egiptu, Indiji i Americi.242

Uporabna dozvola i presjek gra|evine – Ljuštionica riže Operating permit and cross section of the building - Rice Mill (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 48, kutija 8)

124


30 Rice Mill Ruži}eva Street no. 29 1877 V. Vidalin, construction supervisor Mate Glavan, Boren Emili In August 1929, Eduard Polak, the owner of the Rice Mill, submitted the request to move

241 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 48, box 8

the company into the existing facility of the former tannery. In his application he stated that some construction interventions were necessary and he asked for a building permit for adaptation works on the facility. The works were carried out under the supervision of con-

242 Almanah grada Sušaka, Turisti~ka biblioteka Jadran, Sušak, 1938, p. 104

struction engineer Emilio Boreno. Also, permission from the Municipal Government was sought for the use of the machinery necessary for the operation of the rice-husking plant.241 The Town Almanac of Sušak from 1938 states that the Rice Mill produced all kinds of rice. Its capacity was about 2,400 wagons per year. The raw material was procured abroad, mostly in Italy, Egypt, India and America.242

Polo`ajni nacrt Ljuštionice riže Layout of the Rice Mill (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 48, kutija 8)

125


31 Mlin Sre}ka Turine Ruži}eva ulica broj 15 1889. projektant nepoznat

243 Almanah grada Sušaka, Turisti~ka biblioteka Jadran, Sušak, 1938., str. 104.; Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.), str. 287. 244 Izvor je usmena predaja unuke Sre}ka Turine. (Ivana Golob, n. d., 2012., str. 23.). Isto se može iš~itati iz reklame u Almanahu grada Sušaka u poglavlju Industrija. (Almanah grada Sušaka, Turisti~ka biblioteka Jadran, Sušak, 1938., str. 104.); Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.), str. 287.

Ostaci gra|evine nekadašnjeg mlina Sre}ka Turine Remains of the building of the former Sre}ko Turina Mill (fotografija/photo: Kristijan Vu~kovi})

126

U Ruži}evoj ulici na današnjem broju 15, nedaleko od Kožare Simoni}-Bakar~i}, nalazio se mlin Sre}ka Turine. Bio je to mali obiteljski mlin utemeljen 1889.243 i navodno prvi suša~ki mlin na valjke.244 Do danas su ostali sa~uvani samo dijelovi historicisti~ke gra|evine, koji su gotovo neprepoznatljivi budu}i da su stopljeni s okolnim, nado­gra­ |enim, objektima iz kasnijeg razdoblja.


31 Sre}ko Turina Mill Ruži}eva Street no. 15 1889 project engineer unknown The mill owned by Sre}ko Turina was located in Ruži}eva Street, at today’s number 15, not far from the former Bakar~i}-Simoni} Tannery. It was a small family mill founded in 1889243 and, supposedly, the first roller mill of Sušak.244 The only surviving parts of this historicist building are almost unrecognizable today because they blend in with the surrounding upgraded and more recent facilities.

243 Almanah grada Sušaka, Turisti~ka biblioteka Jadran, Sušak, 1938, p. 104; Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929), p. 287 244 Reported by the granddaughter of Sre}ko Turina by word of mouth. (Ivana Golob, ibid., 2012, p. 23). The same can be concluded from the advertising in the industry chapters of the Town Almanac of Sušak. (Almanah grada Sušaka, Turisti~ka biblioteka Jadran, Sušak, 1938, p. 104); Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929), p. 287

Pogled na nekadašnji mlin Sre}ka Turine (zapadna fasada) View of the former Sre}ko Turina Mill (west facade) (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

127


32 Tvornice sapuna Heindlhofer Ruži}eva ulica 12/2 1885. projektant nepoznat Josip Heindlhofer osnovao je tvornicu sapuna u Sušaku 1884. godine.245 Andrija Ra~ki

245 Povijest Rijeke, n. d. (1988.), str. 261. 246 Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.), str. 286.; Iako Ra~ki navodi da je tvornica prestala s radom 1890., fotografija iz fundusa Muzeja grada Rijeke iz 1895. upu}uje na to da je tvornica tada još uvijek radila ili jednostavno, pet godina nakon zatvaranja tvornice, natpis s reklamom tvornice nije bio skinut.

u svojoj Povijesti grada Sušaka navodi djelovanje Tvornice sapuna Heindlhofer uz Lujzinsku cestu od 1885. do 1890. godine.246 Tvornica je zapo~ela s radom istovremeno ili nekoliko godina prije rije~ke Tvornice sapuna Levi & Bianchi smještene na drugoj strani Rje~ine. Tvornica se nalazila u Ruži}evoj ulici, vrlo blizu tadašnje Kožare Simoni}Bakar~i}. Vjerojatno je dio gra|evine, to~nije prizemlje, ostalo sa~uvano u Ruži}evoj ulici broj 12/2.

Pogled na suša~ki tvorni~ki kvart ispod Lujzijane, 1895. Tvrtke Lederfabrik (lijevo) i J. Heindlhofer (tvornica sapuna, desno). (Muzej grada Rijeke)

128


32 Heindlhofer Soap Factory Ruži}eva Street no. 12/2 1885 project engineer unknown Josip Heindlhofer founded the soap factory in Sušak in 1884.245 In his book on the history of

245 Povijest Rijeke, ibid. (1988), p. 261

the town of Sušak, Andrija Ra~ki dates the activity of the Heindlhofer Soap Factory, located right by the Louisiana Road, from 1885 to 1890.246 The factory started production at the same time or a few years earlier than Rijeka’s Soap Factory Levi & Bianchi, which was situated on the other side of the Rje~ina. The factory was located in Ruži}eva Street, in the immediate vicinity of the former Bakar~i}-Simoni} Tannery. It is safe to presume that a part of the build-

246 Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929), p. 286. Although Ra~ki states that the factory closed its doors in 1890, photographs from the collection of the City Museum of Rijeka from 1895 point to the fact that either the factory was still in operation at the time or that the advertising sign of the company was not removed even five years after its closure.

ing, the ground floor to be more precise, has been preserved at Ruži}eva Street no. 12/2.

View of Sušak’s industrial district below the Louisiana Road in 1895. Companies Lederfabrik (left) and J. Heindlhofer (soap factory, on the right). (City Museum or Rijeka)

129


Zapadna industrijska zona

130


Western Industrial Zone

131


33 Ljuštionica riže Ulica Milutina Bara~a od 1881. do nakon Prvoga svjetskog rata Mate Glavan, Giovanni Randich

Ponsal iz vremena neposredno prije Ljuštionice riže i Rafinerije nafte. Na centralnom povišenome mjestu nalazila se vila Giovannija Ciotte, uza samu obalu nalazio se Paromlin te Tvornica cigaretnog papira sa zapadne strane. Plan of Ponsal at the time before the Rice Mill and the Oil Refinery. At the central elevated site there was the villa of Giovanni Ciotta, while both, Paromlin (steam mill) and the Cigarette Paper Factory, were located along the coastline, on the west side. (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 116)

Pogonska zgrada Ljuštionice riže, poznate pod nazivom Prima Fabrica Fiumana Per La Pillatura Del Riso, projektirana je 1881. prema nacrtima rije~kog arhitekta Mate Glavana. Nalazila se u zapadnoj industrijskoj zoni na cesti Via Volosco (danas Ulica Milutina Bara~a).247 Govorimo o glomaznome peteroetažnom objektu, gotovo bedemske forme, s naglašenim trokutnim zabatima krovišta. Pro~elje karakteriziraju nizovi prozorskih otvora i minimalna dekoracija.248 Danas od ove gra|evine sa~uvano vrlo malo budu}i da je nakon propasti Ljuštionice u potpunosti rekonstruirana i uklopljena u upravnu zgradu Rafinerije nafte. Glavan je bio zadužen za projektiranje skladišnih i drugih prate}ih objekata u sklopu tvornice, uklju~uju}i i željezni~ke tra~nice do samoga mora.249 Godine 1889. prema projektu uglednog arhitekta Giovannija Randicha zapo~eta je izgradnja upravne zgrade Ljuštionice riže. Rije~ je o troetažnom objektu skladnih proporcija bogato raš~lanjena pro~elja, s neorenesansnim karakteristikama.250 Zgrada se nalazila zapadno uz glavnu pogonsku zgradu.

247 DARI, JU 51, kutija 118.

U sklopu kompleksa, isto~no od pogonske zgrade, izgra|ena je 1893. stambena višekatnica Rižerije prema projektu Mate Glavana. Uz Randichevu upravnu zgradu, bila je

248 Isto.

to najreprezentativnija gra|evina tvorni~kog kompleksa, izrazite historicisti~ke naravi, s

249 Olga Magaš, n. d. (2001.), str. 432.

istaknutom dinamikom pro~elja postignutom razli~itim oblikovanjem prozorskih okana 132


33 Rice Mill Milutina Bara~a Street from 1881 until the end of World War I Mate Glavan, Giovanni Randich

The Rice Mill with its rice-husking facility, also known as Prima Fabrica Fiumana Per La

Luigi Ossoinack (1849.–1904.) osnovao je Lju{tionicu ri`e 1881. Luigi Ossoinack (1849-1904) founded the Rice Mill in 1881.

Pillatura Del Riso, was designed in 1881 by the local architect Mate Glavan. It was located

(Pomorski i povijesni muzej Hrvatskog primorja Rijeka Maritime and History Museum of Croatian Littoral, Rijeka)

in the western industrial zone, in the Via Volosco (today’s Milutina Bara~a Street).247 It is a bulky, almost bastion-like six-storey facility with prominent triangular gable roofing. The

Situacijski plan Ljuštionice Site plan of the Rice Mill

facade is characterized by rows of window openings and minimal decoration.248 Almost nothing has been preserved from this facility, since it was completely reconstructed and

(DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 122)

incorporated into the administration building of the Oil Refinery after the collapse of the Rice Mill. Glavan was in charge of the design of the storage and other auxiliary facilities within the factory complex, including the railroad tracks to the seashore.249 In 1889, the construction of the administrative building of the Rice Mill started according to the project of the esteemed architect Giovanni Randich. It was a three-storey facility with harmonious proportions and a richly articulated facade with neo-renaissance characteristics.250 The building was located on the west side, alongside the main production facility. 247 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 118

In 1893, the multiple-story residential building of the Rice Mill was erected east of the

plant building, within the complex, according to Mate Glavan’s project. Alongside the

248 Ibidem

Randich administration building, this was the most representative building of the factory

249 Olga Magaš, ibid. (2001), p. 432

complex, displaying a distinct historicist character with a prominent facade dynamic 133


na svakom katu vertikalne elevacije pro~elja. Zgrada je do danas sa~uvana na adresi

250 Isto, str. 432.

Ulica Milutina Bara~a 16 i njezina je funkcija ostala stambena.

251 Povijest Rijeke, n. d. (1988.), str. 260.

U drugoj polovici 19. stolje}a Ljuštionica je bila jedno od ve}ih poduze}a prehrambene industrije. Investitor ovog pogona bila je Ma|arska op}a kreditna banka iz Budimpešte

252 Isto.

u suradnji s doma}im privrednicima.251 Godišnja proizvodnja 1890. iznosila je izme|u

253 Isto.

25 do 30 tisu}a tona riže, a u tvornici je bilo zaposleno 400 radnika.252 Na prijelazu

254 Još 1910. tvornica je zabilježila proizvodnju od 70.000 tona riže i rastu}i broj radnika i strojeva. (Povijest Rijeke, n. d. (1988.), str. 260.)

stolje}a Ljuštionica je prošla kroz razdoblje krize zbog izrazite konkurencije austrijskog, ma|arskog i obližnjega trš}anskog tržišta.253 Ljuštionica riže prestaje s radom nakon Prvoga svjetskog rata,254 a na njezin se teren proširuje Rafinerija nafte.

Pogonska zgrada Ljuštionice riže (80-ih godina 19. stolje}a) Rice Mill plant (1890s) (Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka)

Pogonska zgrada Ljuštionice riže (južno pro~elje) Rice Mill plant (south facade) (Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka)

134


Odobreni projekt pogonske zgrade Ljuštionice ri`e iz 30. kolovoza 1881. – arhitekt Mate Glavan Authorized project of the Rice Mill facility from 30 August 1881, architect Mate Glavan (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 118)

achieved through diverse shaping of the window panes on each floor of the facade’s vertical elevation. The building has been preserved at Milutina Bara~a Street no. 16 and

Stambena zgrada Lju{tionice ri`e prema projektu Mate Glavana Resident building of the Rice Mill according to Mate Glavan's project (DARI/ State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 132)

it is still a residential building. 250 Ibidem, p. 432

In the second half of the 19th century, the Rice Mill was one of the major enterprises of the food industry. The investor for this facility was the Hungarian General Credit Bank from

251 Povijest Rijeke, ibid. (1988), p. 260

Budapest in cooperation with local businessmen.251 In 1890, the annual production amounted to 25,000-30,000 tons of rice, and the factory employed 400 workers.252 At the

252 Ibidem

turn of the century, the rice mill went through a period of crisis due to strong competition

253 Ibidem

from the Austrian, Hungarian and the nearby Trieste market.253 The Rice Mill ceased to operate after the First World War,254 and the Oil Refinery expanded its premises on the mill’s estate.

254 In 1910, the factory recorded a production of 70,000 tons of rice and a growing number of workers and machines. (Povijest Rijeke, ibid. (1988), p. 260)

135


34 Kompleks rije~ke Rafinerije nafte Ulica Milutina Bara~a od 1883. Mate Glavan

255 Danilo Klen, Marijan Kolombo, Ina-Rafinerija nafte 1882.–1972., Ina – Prerada Rafinerija Rijeka, Zagreb, 1972. 256 Milutin Bara~ ro|en je 14. velja~e 1849. u Paukovcu kod Donje Zeline, a obrazovanje je stekao u Be~u i Grazu. Prije dolaska u Rijeku radio je u kemijskoj tvornici Wagenmann u Be~u. Kao tehni~ki direktor u rije~koj rafineriji Bara~ je svojim tehni~kim savjetima bitno utjecao na odluke pri izgradnji rafinerije. (Danilo Klen, Marijan Kolombo, n. d., (1972.); Olga Magaš, n. d. (2001.), str. 436.)

Tijekom svoje povijesti Rijeka je bila bitno obilježena pogodnim geografskim položajem te dobrom povezanoš}u s kontinentalnim i prekooceanskim zemljama. Izgradnju rafinerije u Rijeci potaknulo je 1882. Društvo rafinerije kamenih ulja iz Pešte. Naputak o izgradnji sastavio je Rije~ki magistrat, a ve} u velja~i 1883. izdana je dozvola o izgradnji. Za potrebe Rafinerije bilo je odre|eno mjesto na odgovaraju}oj udaljenosti od stambenih objekata.255 Nakon dobivenih dozvola, na Ponsalu, uza samu Ljuštionicu riže, zapo~inje izgradnja Rafinerije nafte prema projektu arhitekta Mate Glavana. Rafinerija zapo~inje s radom 1883. godine. Za tehni~kog direktora izabran je ing. Milutin Bara~ koji }e na ~elu Rafinerije ostati do kraja Prvoga svjetskog rata.256 Istovremeno su izra|eni planovi i zapo~i­ nje se s izgradnjom petrolejske luke.

Dio pogona Rafinerije (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

136


34 Rijeka’s Oil Refinery complex Milutina Bara~a Street from 1883 Mate Glavan

Tvornica parafina/Paraffin Factory (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

Throughout its history, Rijeka was substantially characterized by its favourable geographic

Nacrt Tvornice parafina iz 1903. Blueprint of the Paraffin Factory from 1903

position and good connections with the continental and overseas countries. The initiative

(DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 146)

for the construction of a refinery in Rijeka came in 1882 from the Shale Oil Refinery Company from Pest. Instructions for the construction were compiled by Rijeka’s municipal authority and the construction permit was issued in February 1883. A specific location was determined for the needs of the refinery, at a suitable distance from residential buildings.255 After obtaining all the necessary permits, the construction of the Oil Refinery, designed by architect Mate Glavan, began on Ponsal, next to the Rice Mill. The refinery was commissioned in 1883. Engineer Milutin Bara~ was elected as technical director and he remained

255 Danilo Klen, Marijan Kolombo, Ina- Rafinerija nafte 1882.–1972., InaPrerada Rafinerija Rijeka, Zagreb, 1972.

137


Milutin Bara~ – prvi upravitelj Rafinerije Milutin Bara~ – the first manager of the Refinery

Dvije godine nakon osnutka Rafinerije zapo~elo se s proizvodnjom parafina. Pogon je smješten u prizemnicu dvostrešnog krovišta s bazilikalnom rasvjetom na središnjem

(INA-Rafinerija Rijeka/INA Refinery Rijeka)

dijelu krova, koju je projektirao Mate Glavan.

Plan rafinerije, ROMSA Layout of the Refinery, ROMSA

Potkraj 19. stolje}a kapacitet rafinerijskih postrojenja iznosio je 57.000 tona nafte go-

(DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 113)

dišnje.257 Ta je koli~ina bila dovoljna za opskrbu Monarhije s 30 posto potrebnih derivata. Najvažniji proizvodi Rafinerije bili su petrolej, parafin, razna otapala, smola, koks i benzin. Na poslovanje Rafinerije znatno je utjecao Prvi svjetski rat jer se proizvodnja od 1916. do 1918. smanjila za gotovo dvije tre}ine. Broj zaposlenih tada je spao na tri stotine radnika.258 Zanimljivo je istaknuti da se nafta uvozila u ba~vama iz SAD-a, a od 1890. iz Rusije i Galicije.259 257 Stotinu godina poslije isto toliko se prera|ivalo u samo nekoliko dana. (Josip Žgalji}, Radni~kim stazama Rije~ke rafinerije, TMG Vjesnik, Zagreb, 1977., str. 12.); Velid \eki}, Prerada nafte u Rijeci 1882.–2005., INA industrija nafte d.d., Rijeka, 2005.

Po završetku Prvoga svjetskog rata prestaje s radom Ljuštionica riže, a pogonska i upravna zgrada prelaze u vlasništvo Akcionarskog društva rafinerije mineralnih ulja (ROMSA). Kompleks tada gubi svoju funkcionalnost te se prostor preure|uje i prilago|uje potrebama Rafinerije. Do bitnih promjena dolazi 1938. kada Eneo Perugini,

258 Isto.

koriste}i kostur velike i duga~ke pogonske zgrade Rižerije, projektira novu upravnu

259 Tek se 1892. u rije~koj Rafineriji prvi put preradila nafta iz doma}ih izvora, i to iz Velikog Poganca nedaleko od Koprivnice. (Danilo Klen, Marijan Kolombo, n. d. (1972.); Josip Žgalji}, n. d. (1977.), str. 12.) 260 Radmila Matej~i}, Kako ~itati grad, Adami}, Rijeka, 2007., str. 411.

138

zgradu ROMSA-e, stvaraju}i potpuno druga~iju vizuru reprezentativne moderne pala~e.260 U isto vrijeme Rafinerija postaje jedan od najsuvremenijih kompleksa za proizvodnju benzina i naftnih derivata, naro~ito ulja. Kompleks je danas u vlasništvu naftne komapanije Ina d.d. i djelomi~no je u upotrebi.


at the head of the Refinery until the end of the First World War.256 At the same time, plans were made for a petroleum port and construction work began soon after. The production of paraffin started two years after the founding of the Refinery. The production plant was located in a house with a double sided roof, which had basilical illumination in the central part of the roof. The facility was also designed by Mate Glavan. At the end of the 19th century, the capacity of the Refinery’s plant amounted to 30,000 tons per year.257 This amount was sufficient to supply 30 % of the Monarchy’s need for petroleum products. The most important products of the Refinery were petroleum, paraffin, various solvents, resins, coke and petrol. The First World War significantly affected the Refinery’s business and, from 1916 until 1918, the production decreased by almost two thirds. The number of employees also reduced to three hundred workers.258 It is also interesting to point out that the oil was imported in barrels from the U.S. and, from 1890 onwards, from Russia and Galicia.259 At the end of World War I, the Rice Mill closed down and the plant facility and the administration building became property of the Joint Stock Company of the Mineral Oil Refinery (ROMSA). The complex then lost its functionality and the area was rearranged and adapted to the needs of the Refinery. Significant changes occurred in 1938, when Eneo Perugini, using the skeleton of the large and long operations building of the Rice Mill, designed the new ROMSA Headquarters Building and created a completely different appearance of that representative modern palace.260 At the same time, the Refinery became one of the most modern complexes for the production of gasoline and petroleum products, especially oils.

256 Milutin Bara~ was born on 14 February 1849 in Paukovac in Donja Zelina and acquired his education in Vienna and Graz. Prior to his arrival in Rijeka, he worked in the chemical plant Wagenmann in Vienna. As the technical director of Rijeka’s Refinery, Bara~ significantly influenced decisions during the construction of the Refinery by giving crucial technical advice. (Danilo Klen, Marijan Kolombo, ibid. (1972); Olga Magaš, ibid. (2001), p. 436) 257 A hundred years later, the same quantity was processed in only two days. (Josip Žgalji}, Radni~kim stazama Rije~ke rafinerije, TMG Vjesnik, Zagreb, 1977, p. 12); Velid \eki}, Prerada nafte u Rijeci 1882.–2005., INA industrija nafte d.d., Rijeka, 2005 258 Ibidem 259 It was not until 1892 that Rijeka’s refinery processed crude oil from domestic sources, and it came from Veliki Poganc, not far from Koprivnica (Danilo Klen, Marijan Kolombo, ibid. (1972); Josip Žgalji}, ibid. (1977), p. 12) 260 Radmila Matej~i}, Kako ~itati grad, Adami}, Rijeka, 2007, p. 411

Today, the complex is in the possession of the oil company Ina d.d. and it is being partly used.

Nekadašnja ku}a Giovannija Ciotte, izgra|ena u prvoj polovici 19. stolje}a kao ladanje vlasnika obližnje Rafinerije še}era. S propaš}u Še}erane postaje privatna vila Giovannija Ciotte. Od 80-ih, unutar kompleksa Ljuštionice, zgrada je imala stambenu funkciju, a po završetku Prvoga svjetskog rata, u sklopu Rafinerije nafte, postaje Radni~ki dom (dopolavoro). U tim je razdobljima doživjela niz pregradnji sa sjeverne strane, dok je južno pro~elje, intervencijom moderne, znatno pro~iš}eno od historicisti~ke dekoracije. The former house of Giovanni Ciotta was built in the second half of the 19th century as a country house of the owner of the nearby Sugar Refinery. When the Sugar Refinery collapsed, the house became Giovanni Ciotta’s private villa. From the 1880s onwards, it had a residential function within the complex of the Rice Mill. After World War I, it became a workers’ home (dopolavoro) within the framework of the Oil Refinery. During all that time, it underwent a series of reconstructions on the north side, while the south facade was substantially purified from historicist decorations by using elements of Modernism. (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

139


35 Hotel Emigranti Ul. Milutina Bara~a 7 1905. Szilárd Zielinski

261 Prema podacima iz La Bilancije, 1906. je iz Rijeke svaki tjedan isplovljavao brod s 800 do 1.800 emigranata. (Jasna Rotim Malvi}, Hoteli, u: Arhitektura secesije u Rijeci, Moderna galerija Rijeka, Rijeka, 1997./1998., str. 254.) 262 Godine 1904. raspisan je natje~aj za projekt hotela radi rješavanja prebivališta i socijalne skrbi za ugarske emigrante koji iz Rijeke putuju u Ameriku. (Julija Lozzi Barkovi}, n. d. (2010.), str. 190.; Željko Maurovi}, Hotel Emigranti, Suša~ka revija, godina XV., br. 58/59, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 2007., str. 59.)

Po~etkom 20. stolje}a, razvojem putni~ke luke i intenziviranjem prekooceankih linija prema Americi, Rijeka postaje središte migracijskih kretanja stanovništva.261 Kapaciteti za prihvat putnika bili su nedostatni pa se ma|arsko Ministarstvo unutarnjih poslova odlu~ilo na izgradnju novog hotela.262 Projekt Hotela Emigranti izradio je inženjer Szilárd Zielinski,263 profesor politehnike na Sveu~ilištu u Budimpešti. Zielinski se odlu~io za potpuno neuobi~ajen tip gra|evine armiranobetonske konstrukcije.264 Konstrukcija i na~in izrade samoga zdanja sasvim su sigurno bili potpuna novost za rije~ko graditeljstvo. Tim se objektom Rijeka priklju~ila europskim trendovima modernih konstrukcija,

263 Isto, str. 254.; DARI, JU 51, 152.

a izgradilo ga je budimpešansko poduze}e Henrik Freud es Fiai 1905. godine.265 Rije~ je

264 U ožujku 1911. u Rijeci je održan kongres u organizaciji rije~ke podružnice Društva inženjera i arhitekata iz Budimpešte, na kojem se najviše govorilo o industrijskim postrojenjima, luci i javnim službama u gradu. Inauguraciji kongresa prisustvovalo je ~ak 150 inženjera i arhitekata. U sklopu kongresa izaslanstvo je posjetilo Tvornicu papira, Ljuštionicu riže i Hotel Emigranti kao primjer eksperimentalne primjene armiranobetonske konstrukcije. (Julija Lozzi Barkovi}, n. d. (2010.), str. 160.)

o 160 metara dugoj zgradi, s prizemljem i dva kata, smještenoj u nekadašnjoj Industrijskoj ulici nasuprot Ljuštionice riže. To je mjesto bilo izabrano upravo zbog blizine luke i željezni~kog pristaništa. U podrumu su bile smještene ~ekaonice, ambulanta, kupaonice, sobe za dezinfekciju i uredi za prodaju putnih karata. Na prvom i drugom katu bile su spavaonice i prostor za okupljanje emigranata koji su prošli sanitarnu i lije~ni~ku kontrolu. Niz florealnih i geometrijskih motiva te vijugavih linija upu}uju na secesiju ili,

265 DARI, JU 51, 152., Željko Maurovi}, n. d. (2007.), str. 254.

bolje re}i, kombinaciju secesije s nadolaze}im izri~ajem moderne.

266 Jasna Rotim Malvi}, n. d. (1997./1998.), str. 256.; Željko Maurovi}, Hotel emigranti, Suša~ka revija, godina XV., br. 58/59, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 2007., str. 60. 267 Tvornica je osnovana 1947., a proizvodila je limenu ambalažu za potreba ribne, mesne i ostale prehrambene industrije. Ve} u prvih nekoliko godina rada zabilježila je velik uspjeh, proizvodilo se 200 do 300 tona proizvoda godišnje, a broj zaposlenih varirao je od 120 do 170 radnika. Godine 1964. u tvornici je proizvedeno 7.500 tona proizvoda sa zaposlenih 1.200 radnika. U ~lanku Novog lista iz iste godine isti~e se napredak tvornica, modernizacija i postojanje velikog tržišta za plasiranje tvorni~kih proizvoda. (Novi list, Tvornica ambalaže "8. Mart" – Rijeka, B. T., 28. i 29. studenoga 1964., str 19.) 268 http://www.mgk-pack.com/index.html (17. 12. 2013.) 269 http://www.mgk-pack.com/prodaja.html (17. 12. 2013.)

Hotel Emigranti, Metalografi~ki kombinat Hotel Emigranti, Metallographic Combine (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

140

Arhitektonski objekt Hotela Emigranti i danas postoji. Dvadesetih godina 20. stolje}a koristio se kao sajmeni prostor, a nakon Drugoga svjetskog rata kao industrijski objekt.266 Godine 1953. u prostor hotela smještena je tvornica ambalaže 8. mart,267 poslije poznatija kao Metalografi~ki kombinat.268 Tvornica i danas djeluje pod nazivom MGK-pack d.d. i, iako je pogon preselila na Kukuljanovo, dio prostora nekadašnjeg Hotela Emigranti još uvijek koristi kao svoj uredski i skladišni prostor.269


35 Hotel Emigranti Milutina Bara~a Street no. 7 1905 Szilárd Zielinski

Pogled na Ul. Milutina Bara~a, razglednica iz 1906. View of the Milutina Bara~a Street, postcard from 1906 (Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka)

261 According to the newspaper La Bilancia from 1906, every week a ship with 800 to 1,800 emigrants on board left Rijeka. (Jasna Rotim Malvi}, Hoteli, in: Arhitektura secesije u Rijeci, Moderna galerija Rijeka, Rijeka, 1997/98, p. 254) 262 In 1904, a tender for the design of a hotel was announced, aiming at solving the problem of residence and welfare of the Hungarian emigrants who travelled from Rijeka to America. (Julija Lozzi Barkovi}, ibid. (2010), p. 190; Željko Maurovi}, Hotel Emigranti, Suša~ka revija, godina XV, br. 58/59, Klub suša~ana, Rijeka, 2007, p. 59)

At the beginning of the 20th century, with the development of the passenger port and the in-

263 Ibidem, p. 254; State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, 152

tensification of transatlantic routes to America, Rijeka became a centre of migratory movements of the population.261 Passenger capacities were insufficient, so the Hungarian Ministry of the Interior decided to build a new hotel.262 The project of Hotel Emigranti was made by engineer Szilárd Zielinski,263 a professor at the Polytechnic Institute of the Budapest University. Zielinski decided on a completely unusual type of a reinforced concrete structure building.264 Most certainly, the structure and method of construction of the facility were a complete novelty for Rijeka’s architecture. This facility proved that Rijeka was keeping up with the European trends of modern constructions. The construction work was carried out by the Budapest company Henrik Freud es Fiai in 1905.265 It is an approximately 160 meters long building with a ground floor and two storeys, located in the former Industrijska Street, opposite the Rice Mill. The same location was chosen because of the proximity to the port and railway pier. The basement housed waiting rooms, an outpatient clinic, bathrooms, disinfection rooms and ticket offices. On the first and second floor there were bedrooms and a gathering space for emigrants who had already undergone medical and sanitary control. A series of floral and geometric motifs and wavy lines indicates elements of Art Nouveau or, better said,, a combination of Art Nouveau and upcoming Modernism. The building of the former Hotel Emigranti exists even today. In the 1920s, it was used as a trade fair area and, after World War II, as an industrial facility.266 In 1953, the packaging factory of 8. Mart,267 later known as the Metallographic Combine, was placed in the area

264 In March 1911, a congress was held in Rijeka, organised by Rijeka’s branch of the Society of Engineers and Architects from Budapest. The emphasis was on industrial plants, the port and public services in the city. The inauguration of the congress was attended by as many as 150 engineers and architects. As part of the congress, a delegation visited the Paper Factory, the Rice Mill as well as Hotel Emigranti as an example of the experimental use of the reinforced concrete structure. (Julija Lozzi Barkovi}, ibid. ( 2010), p. 160) 265 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, 152, Željko Maurovi}, ibid. (2007), p. 254 266 Jasna Rotim Malvi}, ibid. (1997/1998), p. 256; Željko Maurovi}, Hotel emigranti, Suša~ka revija, godina XV, br. 58/59, Klub suša~ana, Rijeka, 2007, p. 60 267 The factory was founded in 1947 and it was engaged in the production of tin packaging for the fish, meat and other food industries. Already in the first few years of business, the factory recorded a great success and produced 200 to 300 tons per year with the number of employees ranging from 120 to 170. In 1964, the factory produced 7,500 tons with a staff of 1,200 workers. A 1964-article from Rijeka-based newspaper Novi list emphasised the factory’s progress, the modernization and the existence of a large market for the placement of manufacturing products. (Novi List, Tvornica ambalaže "8. Mart"-Rijeka, B. T., 28 and 29 November 1964, p. 19) 268 http://www.mgk-pack.com/index.html (17 Dec 2013)

of the former hotel. 268 The factory is still active under the name MGK-pack d.d. and, although it moved its production plant to Kukuljanovo, it still uses parts of the former Hotel

269 http://www.mgk-pack.com/prodaja.html (17 Dec 2013)

Emigranti as office and warehouse spaces.269 141


36 Ljevaonica metala, Robert Whitehead & Co Zapadna industrijska zona, Ulica Milutina Bara~a od 1852. do 90-ih godina 20. stolje}a Giacomo Zammatio, Giovanni Maria Curet (skladišta) i drugi

270 Osnovana 1852. godine.

Na poticaj rije~ke Trgova~ko-industrijske komore (Camere di commercio e d'industria)270

271 Whitehead u tvornicu dolazi 1857. godine.

nica velikoga proizvodnog kapaciteta. Dolaskom mladog i perspektivnog inženjera, ta-

izgra|ena je u nekadašnjoj Via Volosco nova ljevaonica metala, Fonderia metalli, tvor-

272 Irvin Lukeži}, Rije~ka brodogradnja do konca XIX. stolje}a, Suša~ka revija, godina VIII., br. 29, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 2000., str. 68.

dašnjeg direktora Trš}anskog tehni~kog poduze}a Roberta Whiteheada na upravlja~ko mjesto, proizvodnja hvata zamah i usmjerava se na izradu parnih strojeva za ratne brodove carske flote i brodogradnju.271 Fonderija je ukinuta u srpnju 1863.,272 a uprava

273 Olga Magaš, n. d (2001.), str. 428.

tvornice mijenja ime u Rije~ki tehni~ki zavod, Stabilimento tecnico Fiumano.273

274 Miljenko Smokvina, Brodogra|evna djelatnost rije~ke Tvornice torpeda, IV. me|unarodna konferencija o industrijskoj baštini, Pro Torpedo, Rijeka 2012., str. 189. 275 Irvin Lukeži}, Rije~ki izumitelj torpeda Ivan Blaž (Giovanni Biaggio) Luppis de Rammer, I. me|unarodna konferencija u povodu 150. obljetnice tvornice Torpeda u Rijeci i o~uvanja rije~ke industrijske baštine, Pro Torpedo, Rijeka, 2005., str. 51.

Od 1874. pod imenom Silurificio Whitehead, Torpedo fabrik von Robert Whitehead,274 poslije Robert Whitehead & Co, na istome mjestu po~inje djelovati prva tvornica torpeda u svijetu. Prema izvorima, osim Whiteheada i njegovih stru~nih suradnika, ideja za izum torpeda potekla je od Ivana Luppisa. Prema njegovoj zamisli krenulo se u projektiranje oružja za uništavanje neprijateljskih brodova prije nego što se približe obali.275 Dakle, inicijalna idejna primjena tog oružja bila je zaštita obale od brodovlja, stoga i

Lansirna stanica/Launching station (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

142


36 metal foundry, Robert Whitehead & Co. Western industrial zone, Milutina Bara~a Street from 1852 until the 1990s Giacomo Zammatio, Giovanni Maria Curet (warehouses) and others On the initiative of Rijeka’s Trade & Industry Chamber (Camera di commercio e d’industria),270

270 Founded in 1852

a new metal foundry, Fonderia metalli, was built on the former Via Volosca. The new foun-

271 Whitehead came to the factory in 1857.

dry had a large production capacity. With the arrival of a young and promising engineer, the former director of the Trieste Technical Company, Robert Whitehead, to the factory’s managing position, the production gained momentum and focused on manufacturing steam engines for warships of the monarchical fleet and on shipbuilding.271 The Fonderia was

272 Irvin Lukeži}, Rije~ka brodogradnja do konca XIX. Stolje}a, Suša~ka revija, godina VIII, br. 29, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 2000, p. 68 273 Olga Magaš, ibid. (2001), p. 428

closed in July 1863272 and the administration of the company changed its name to Technical Institute of Rijeka, Stabilimento tecnico Fiumano.273 In 1874, the first torpedo factory in the world began to operate at the same location under the name of Silurificio Whitehead, Torpedo Fabrik von Robert Whitehead,274 and later Robert Whitehead & Co. According to sources, besides Whitehead and his associates, the idea for the invention of the torpedo came from Ivan Luppisa. According to his idea, they started designing a weapon for destroying enemy ships before they could approach the coast.275

274 Miljenko Smokvina, Brodogra|evna djelatnost rije~ke Tvornice torpeda, IV. me|unarodna konferencija o industrijskoj baštini, Pro Torpedo, Rijeka, 2012, p. 189 275 Irvin Lukeži}, Rije~ki izumitelj torpeda Ivan Blaž (Giovanni Biaggio) Luppis de Rammer, I. Me|unarona konferencija u povodu 150. obljetnice tvornice Torpeda u Rijeci i o~uvanja rije~ke industrijske baštine, Pro Torpedo, Rijeka, 2005, p. 51

Thus, the initial conceptual application of this weapon was to protect the shore from ships

Tvornica Torpedo (unutrašnjost)/Torpedo Factory (interior) (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

143


naziv salvacoste, u slobodnom prijevodu spasitelj obale ili ono što spašava obalu. Tehni~ka realizacija Luppisove ideje urodila je mnogim patentima i inovacijama da bi u kona~nici bilo stvoreno oružje velike primjene i široke namjene – torpedo. Na taj na~in Rijeka je našla svoje mjesto u samom vrhu tadašnje svjetske industrijske inovacije i proizvodnje. Izum je bio planetaran, a potražnja velika te su se u to vrijeme u tvornici isklju~ivo proizvodila torpeda, ure|aji za lansiranje torpeda i visokotla~ni kompresori zraka. Prvi torpedo napravljen je 1866. godine.276 Nakon Whiteheadove smrti, tvornicu preuzimaju britanski poslodavci, tvrtke Vickers i Armstrong-Whitworth. Proizvodnja je i dalje usmjerena na ratnu industriju. U vremenu od 1908. do 1915. tvornica je ponovno zapo~ela s brodogradnjom, to~nije s izgradnjom podmornica.277 U rije~koj tvornici Whitehead proizvedeno je svega nekoliko podmornica, ali je va`no istaknuti da su rije~ke podmornice bile naoružane torpedima, što je sasvim sigurno dalo novu ulogu samim podmornicama, ali i torpedu. Tvornica u bitno izmijenjenom obliku nastavlja raditi do 90-ih godina, 1966. proizveden je posljednji torpedo, a u godinama koje slijede bavit }e se proizvodnjom dizelskih mo­ tora i traktora. Robert Whithead, 1890.

Što se ti~e sa~uvanih arhitektonskih prostora tvornice, prije svega valja spomenuti vilu

(Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka)

Whitehead kao najreprezentativniji dio upravne zgrade tvornice, zatim kompleks hala s pogonima, skladišta armiranobetonskih konstrukcija te samu lansirnu rampu na ~ijim su

276 Goran Pernjek, Dinko Zorovi}, Povijest razvoja torpeda, u: Rije~ki torpedo – prvi na svijetu, Muzej grada Rijeke, Rijeka, 2010., str. 133 277 Miljenko Smokvina, n. d. (2012.), str. 189. 278 Whiteheadova }e tvornica u godinama prije Prvoga svjetskog rata naglo pove}ati proizvodnju sura|uju}i s austrijskom Ratnom mornaricom. U skladu s tim, od 1908. do 1917. proširuju se stare radionice i grade nove. Impresa costruzioni G. M. Curet bila je nositelj projektantskih i gra|evinskih radova. (Jasna Rotim-Malvi}, n. d. (2007.), str. 318.)

Prema definiciji, torpedo je podvodni projektil s vlastitim pogonskim sustavom, opremljen ure|ajima za kormilarenje po pravcu i dubini, a razlikuju se po kalibru ovisno o mjestu iz kojeg se ispaljuje (brod, avion, podmornica). Torpedo se lansira iz lansirnih cijevi smještenih naj~eš}e na bokovima broda. Izbacivanje torpeda izvodilo se pomo}u komprimiranog zraka ili barutnih plinova koji su se dobivali ispaljivanjem posebnih patrona u "mužaru" na cijevi. By definition, the torpedo is a self-propelled underwater missile, equipped with devices for steering in line and in depth. Torpedoes can be distinguished by their calibre, depending on the location from which they are fired (ship, aircraft, submarines). A torpedo is launched from launching tubes usually located on the sides of the ship. Ejecting the torpedo was achieved by using compressed air or gunpowder gases gained by firing special cartridges in the "mortar" situated on the launching tube. (Società di Studi Fiumani-Archivio Museo Storico di Fiume, Rim/Rome)

144

projektima radili poznati arhitekti Giacomo Zammatio, Giovanni Maria Curet i drugi.278


and, hence, the name salvacoste, freely translated as saviour of the coast or that which saves the coast. The technical realization of Luppis’s idea resulted in many patents and innovations and ultimately in the creation of a weapon of great application and broad purpose – the torpedo. In this way, Rijeka found its place at the top of the global industrial innovation and production of the time. The invention was global and the demand was high and, at that time, the factory only produced torpedoes, torpedo launchers and high air compressors. The first torpedo was made in 1866.276 After Whitehead’s death, the factory was taken over by British employers, the companies Vickers and Armstrong-Whitworth. The production continued to focus on war industry. In the period between 1908 and 1915, the factory re-started its activities of shipbuilding, or to be more exact, the construction of submarines.277 Rijeka’s Whitehead factory produced only a few submarines, but it is important to emphasise that Rijeka’s submarines were armed with torpedoes, which certainly gave a new role not only to the submarines, but to the torpedoes as well. The factory, although in substantially altered form, continued to exist until the 1990s. The last torpedo was produced in 1966, after which the plant started producing diesel engines and tractors. As for the preserved architectural spaces of the factory, we should mention Villa WhitePoprsje Ivana Luppisa, kraj 19. stolje}a Bust of Ivan Luppis from the end of the 19th century

head as the most representative administration building of the company, the hall complex with production facilities, the warehouses made of reinforced concrete as well as the

(Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka)

launching pad itself. All the projects were designed by renowned architects Giacomo Zammatio, Giovanni Maria Curet and others.278

276 Goran Pernjek, Dinko Zorovi}, Povijest razvoja torpeda, in: Rije~ki torpedo-prvi na svijetu, Muzej grada Rijeke, Rijeka, 2010, p. 133 277 Miljenko Smokvina, ibid. (2012), p. 189 278 In the years before World War I, Whitehead’s factory rapidly increased production due to its cooperation with the Austrian Navy. Consequently, from 1908 to 1917, the old workshops were expanded and new ones built. Impresa Costruzioni G.M. Curet was responsible for the design and the construction works. (Jasna Rotim-Malvi}, ibid. (2007), p. 318)

Projekt skladišta za Whiteheadovu tvornicu, Giovanni Maria Curet, 1907. Project of a warehouse for Whitehead’s factory, Giovanni Maria Curet, 1907 (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 152)

145


37 Vila Whitehead Ulica Milutina Bara~a 1878. G. Bianchini (1878.), Enrico Biliscok (1886.) Robert Whitehead naru~io je 1878. od trš}anskog arhitekta G. Bianchinija projekt

279 DARI, JU 51, kutija 118. 280 Grzegorz Jan Rodak, Zgrada Dolac 7 (casa veneziana), Ulazno predvorje i loggie: pokusno sondiranje, Karlovac, 2010.

vile.279 Dvokatnica je do danas sa~uvana u ponešto izmijenjenom obliku, ali gotovo neprepoznatljive unutrašnjosti. Rije~ je o gra|evini tipi~noga klasicisti~kog stila. Ulazno pro~elje južno je orijentirano i ima vrlo dinami~nu arhitektonsku profilaciju s istaknutim erkerima i nenametljivom, ali velikom ulaznom altanom na kojoj se nalazi terasa. Zgrada je s vremenom dogra|ivana, a znatne preinake potpisuje Enrico Biliscoka 1886., dodaju}i urede za službenike i prostorije za crtanje. Objekt je imao funkciju upravne zgrade, ali je prisutna i njegova stambena namjena. Robert Whitehead Rijeku je po~astio još jednim reprezentativnim objektom u samome središtu grada. Rije~ je o poslovno-stambenoj zgradi u Dolcu 7, koju je 1888. za uvaženog industrijalca projektirao Giacommo Zammattio.280 Ova gra|evina, poznata i pod

Vila Whitehead Villa Whitehead

nazivom casa veneziana, svakako je jedno od vrijednih primjera rije~koga historicizma dodirnutog duhom venecijanske gotike.

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

146


37 Villa Whitehead Milutina Bara~a Street 1878 G. Bianchini (1878), Enrico Biliscok (1886) Robert Whitehead commissioned G. Bianchinia, an architect from Trieste, to design his

279 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 118

villa in 1878.279 The three-storey house still exists in a somewhat altered form, but with an almost unrecognizable interior. It is a typical example of classicism. The entrance facade is south-oriented and has a very dynamic architectural moulding with prominent bow win-

280 Grzegorz Jan Rodak, Zgrada Dolac 7 (Casa Veneziana), Ulazno predvorje i loggie: pokusno sondiranje, Karlovac, 2010

dows and an understated but large entrance altana with a terrace on top of it. The building was upgraded several times, and significant modifications were designed by Enrico Biliscoka in 1886, adding staff offices and rooms for drawing. Otherwise, besides its administrative function, the villa also served as a residential building. Robert Whitehead honoured Rijeka with another very representative object in the city centre. It is a commercial and residential building at Dolac no. 7 which was designed for a distinguished industrialist by architect Giacomo Zammattio in 1888.280 This building, also known as Casa Veneziana, certainly represents one of the most valuable examples of Ri-

Projekt vile Whitehead, arhitekt Bianchini 1878. Blueprints of Villa Whitehead by architect Bianchini, 1878

jeka’s Historicism touched by the spirit of Venetian Gothic art.

(DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 118)

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38 Brodogradili{te 3. maj Brgudi, zapadno od Tvornice torpeda druga polovica 19. stolje}a Vjenceslav Celligoi (1906.)

281 Na Brgudima (Cerovice) ve} je otprije djelovala tvornica kemikalija Stabilimento di prodotti chimici. (Povijest Rijeke, n. d. (1988.), str. 247. 282 Ugovor je potpisan 24. kolovoza 1905. u Budimpešti. (DARI, JU 51, kutija 113.) 283 Brodogradilište u Brgudima prelazi u vlasništvo ma|arskog koncerna Danubius u kolovozu 1905., nakon što je dobiven blagoslov ministra Vorosa. (Irvin Lukeži}, n. d. (1994.), str., 42.

O brodogra|evnoj djelatnosti na podru~ju Brguda može se govoriti još u drugoj polovici 19. stolje}a u sklopu poduze}a Rije~ki tehni~ki zavod, Stabilimento tecnico Fiumano. Devedesetih godina 19. stolje}a, osnivanjem Društva za dokiranje i Društva za brodogradnju Howaldt, ugarska vlada preuzela je obvezu dogradnje i pripreme potrebnog terena za brodogradilište u brgudskoj obali,281 zapadnije od Tvornice torpeda. Vrlo brzo izgra|ene su potrebne hale, radionice i navoz za izgradnju brodova do 2.000 tona, a tvrtka Howaldt dopremila je u Rijeku strojeve iz svojeg brodogradilišta u Kielu. Ugovor s brodogradilištem Howaldt istekao je 1903., a na njegovo mjesto dolazi brodogradilište Danubius nakon što je sklopilo ugovor s ma|arskom vladom282 u kojem potpisuje da }e prednost pri zapošljavanju imati Ma|ari te da }e potreban radni materijal nabavljati iz Ma|arske.283 Za velik dio gra|evinskih radova u brodogradilištu bio je zadužen arhitekt Vjenceslav Celligoi. Izgradnja je dovršena u svibnju 1906. godine. U sljede}em desetlje}u brodogradilište bilježi tehnološki napredak i znatno prostorno proširenje,

Brodogradili{te 3. maj/Third May Shipyard (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

148


38 Third May Shipyard (3. Maj) Brgudi, west of the Torpedo Factory second half of the 19th century Vjenceslav Celligoi (1906) The shipbuilding industry in the Brgud area developed in the second half of the 19th century. It all started with the company Rijeka’s Technical Institute, Stabilimento tecnico Fiumano. In the 1890s, by founding the Society for Docking and the Howaldt Society for Shipbuilding, the Hungarian government undertook the obligation to upgrade and prepare the necessary ground for a shipyard on the Brgud coast,281 west of the Torpedo Factory. In short order, the necessary halls, workshops and slipways for building ships up to 2,000 tons were constructed, and the Howaldt company brought machines from its shipyard in Kiel to Rijeka. The contract with the Howaldt shipyard expired in 1903. Its place was taken

281 The chemical factory Stabilimento di prodotti chimici operated on Brgudi (Cerovice) already before. (Povijest Rijeke, ibid. (1988), p. 247) 282 The contract was signed on 24 August 1905 in Budapest. (State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 113) 283 The shipyard in Brgudi became property of the Hungarian Danubius Group in August 1905, after they received the blessing of Minister Voros. (Irvin Lukeži}, Brodogradilište Lazarus, p. 42)

over by the Danubius shipyard, but only after the company made an agreement with the Hungarian government282 in which it stated that Hungarians would be given preference when hiring and that the needed working material would also be acquired from Hungary.283 The architect Vjenceslav Celligoi was in charge of a major part of the construction work at the shipyard. Construction was completed in May 1906. In the next decade, the shipyard

Pogonska hala, 3 maj, fotografija Operations hall of the Third May Shipyard (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

149


~ime je bio pove}an radni kapacitet. Nove radionice, elektri~nu centralu, skladišta i

284 Jasna Rotim Malvi}, n. d. (1997./1998.), str. 318.

objekte za administraciju u stilskom izri~aju secesije i historicizma 1911. grade

285 Irvin Lukeži}, n. d. (1994.), str. 45.

Ma|ari.284 Kao i u drugim brodogradilištima, primjerice Lazarusovom, uvjeti rada bili su vrlo loši, a brodogradilište Danibius bilo je poznato i kao kantjer smrti ili grobnica radnika. Proizvodilo se ve}inom ru~no pa su ozljede radnika bile ~este.285 Stvaranjem novih društveno-politi~kih odnosa nakon Prvoga svjetskog rata i prodajom dionica, brodogradilište je preimenovano u Cantieri navali del Quarnero. U ovom je razdoblju nametnuta jaka konkurencija talijanskih brodogradilišta. Sli~na povijest ponavlja se i tijekom Drugoga svjetskog rata, a tek nakon oslobo|enja Rijeke i malo poslije, 1948., može se govoriti o Brodogradilištu 3. maj, kakva i danas poznajemo.

39 Pogon kemijske industrije – Stabillimento prodotti chimici Brgudi, Cerovice 1899. F. Mattiassi (1899.) Luigi Luppis (1924.) U Rijeci je postojalo više kemijskih tvornica. Na Brgudima (Cerovice) djelovala je tvor-

286 DARI, JU 51, kutija 169.

nica Stabillimento prodotti chimici. Kompleks od nekoliko zdanja nalazio se unutar današnjeg Brodogradilišta 3. maj. Topografski i datumom o~ito je da je ova kemijska industrija postojala prije brodogra|evne djelatnosti u Brgudima, a poslije je nastavila raditi uz sam brodogradilišni kompleks. Postoji nacrt iz 1923. na kojem se traži dozvola za izgradnju nove ograde na mjestu srušene drvene me|e koja je dijelila brodogradilište od tvornice.286

Projekt zgrade tvornice iz 1913. koja još uvijek postoji unutar kompleksa 3. maja Bluprint of the factory building from 1913, still in existence within the complex of the Third May Shipyard (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 165)

150


experienced rapid technological progress as well as significant spatial expansion, which

284 Jasna Rotim Malvi}, ibid. (1997/1998), p. 318

increased the working capacity. In 1911, the Hungarians built new workshops, a power

285 Irvin Lukeži}, ibid. (1994), p. 45

station, warehouses and administration buildings according to stylistic rules of Art Nouveau and Historicism.284 Just as in other shipyards, such as Lazarus, the working conditions were very bad and the Danubius shipyard was known as "death trap" or "workers’ tomb". Production was mostly by hand and injuries of workers were very common.285 After the creation of new social and political relations after World War I and the sale of the company’s shares, the shipyard was renamed Cantieri navali del Quarnero. During this period, Rijeka represented a strong competition for the Italian shipyards. A similar story is repeated during World War II and, only after the liberation of Rijeka and from 1948 onwards, we can talk about the Third May Shipyard as we know it today.

39 Chemical Industry’s Production Facility – Stabillimento prodotti chimici Brgudi, Cerovice 1899 F. Mattiassi (1899) Luigi Luppis (1924) Rijeka had several chemical factories. The factory Stabillimento prodotti chimici operated

286 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 169

on Brgudi (Cerovice). The complex of several facilities was located within today’s Third May Shipyard. Topographic sources and date analysis both show that this chemical industry existed before shipbuilding activities even started in Brgudi and that it later continued to operate alongside the shipbuilding complex. There is a draft from 1923 with the application for a construction permit for a new fence to be built on the site of the demolished wooden boundary that separated the shipyard from the factory.286

Plan izgradnje zida izme|u brodogradilišta i tvornice Stabillimento prodotti chimici (1923.) Construction plan for the wall between the shipyard and the factory Stabillimento prodotti chimici (1923) (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 169)

151


Prema arhivskim izvorima može se iš~itati nekoliko kasnijih faza izgradnje. Dio kompleksa izgra|en je 1899. prema nacrtima F. Mattiassija. Sa~uvan je i objekt te njegovi nacrti iz 1913., a posljednji napravljeni gra|evinski projekti za potrebe ove tvornice izra|eni su 1924. prema inženjeru Luigiju Luppisu. Najstarija od sa~uvanih zgrada longitudinalna je dvokatna zgrada iz 1899. koja se nalazi uza zapadni ulaz Brodogradilišta 3. maj. Gra|evina nema izraženu fasadnu dekoraciju, a jedina su istaka polukružni cigleni natprozornici postavljeni simetri~no iznad svakog od dvanaest prozorskih okana u prizemlju i na prvom katu.287 Dr. Klen po~etke djelovanja ove tvornice vezuje uz sredinu 19. stolje}a i navodi kako je tvornica proizvodila raznovrsne kemikalije za slovenska i talijanska podru~ja Monarhije.288 Jedan od osnivatelja tvornice 1851. bio je Englez Walter Glennie Smith, ne}ak Waltera Craftona Smitha, osniva~a Tvornice papira Smith & Meynier.289 Zna~enje je tvornice svakako bilo veliko jer su njezin rad poticali tada najaktivniji gospodarski investitori. Sedamdesetih godina njezin je predsjednik bio Henry Meynier, jedan od upravitelja Tvornice papira, predsjednik Rije~ke kreditne banke, jedan od prvih dioni~ara Stabillimento technico fiumano, ~lan upravnog odbora tvornice ulja Hungarija i neko vrijeme predsjednik Trgova~ko-obrtni~ke komore.290 Tvornica je uvezene fosfate prera|ivala u fosfor i superfosfate, a sumporni šljunak u sumpor i druge derivate.291 Navodno je 1873. koristila parni stroj od 25 konjskih snaga i zapošljavala trideset radnika.292 Pozitivno poslovanje tvornice dovelo je do postupnog pove}anja broja radnika te je po~etak 20. stolje}a do~ekala kao proizvodni pogon sa stotinu zaposlenika.293 Stabillimento prodotti chimici, zgrada iz 1913. Stabillimento prodotti chimici, building from 1913 (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

287 DARI, JU 51, kutija 113. 288 Povijest Rijeke, n. d. (1988.), str. 224., 247. 289 Irvin Lukeži}, n. d. (2001.), str. 108. 290 Isto, str. 107. 291 Pero Mitrovi}, Radojica F. Barbali}, Rije~ka luka, u: Rijeka zbornik, Matica Hrvatska, Zagreb, 1953., str. 47. 292 Isto, str. 261. 293 Isto, str. 261. Stabillimento prodotti chimici, projekt za izgradnju zgrade i dimnjaka 1899. Stabillimento prodotti chimici, construction project of the facility and the chimney from 1899 (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 113)

152


Archival sources show that there were several phases of construction that took place later

287 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 113

on. Part of the complex was built in 1899, according to plans of F. Mattiassi. The edifice

288 Povijest Rijeke, ibid. (1988), p. 224, 247

built in 1913 along with its blueprints has been preserved. In 1924, the last construction works took place according to designs of engineer Luigi Luppis. The oldest of the preserved

289 Irvin Lukeži}, ibid. (2001), p. 108

facilities is a longitudinal three-storey building from 1899, which is located along the western entrance of the Third May Shipyard. The building does not have a pronounced facade

290 Ibidem, p. 107

decoration. The only prominent elements are the semi-circular brick lintels placed symmetrically over each of the twelve window panes on the ground floor and first floor.287 The historian Klen states that this factory started operating in the mid-19th century and that it

291 Pero Mitrovi}, Radojica F. Barbali}, Rije~ka luka, in: Rijeka zbornik, Matica Hrvatska, Zagreb, 1953, p. 47

produced a variety of chemicals for the needs of the Monarchy’s Slovenian and Italian regions.

288

292 Ibidem, p. 261

One of the founders of the company in 1851 was the Englishman Walter Glennie

Smith, the nephew of Walter Crafton Smith, founder of the Smith & Meynier Paper Factory.289

293 Ibidem, p. 261

The importance of this plant was certainly big because its operation was encouraged by the most active investors of the time. In the 1870s, its president was Henry Meynier, also one of the managers of the Paper Mill, president of Rijeka’s Credit Bank, one of the first shareholders of Stabillimento technico fiumano, board member of the oil company Hungaria and, for a while, president of the Chamber of Craft and Commerce.290 The factory processed the imported phosphates into phosphorus and superphosphates, and pyrite into sulphur and other derivates.291 In 1873, it supposedly used a steam engine of 25 horsepower and employed thirty workers.292 The successful business operation of the company led to a gradual increase in the number of workers. Thus, it welcomed the beginning of the

Stabillimento prodotti chimici – zgrada iz 1899. Stabillimento prodotti chimici – facility from 1899

20th century as a manufacturing plant with a hundred employees.293

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

153


40 Tvornica kakaa i ~okolade danas srušena (postojala uz današnju Zvonimirovu ulicu, raskrižje Zvonimirove ulice i Ulice Vinka Benca) 1896. Giacomo Zammatio

Od 1896. može se pratiti rad Rije~ke tvornice kakaa i ~okolade,294 prvoga pogona indu-

Nacrt rije~ke Tvornice kakaa i ~okolade, Giacomo Zammattio,1896., DARI, JU 51, kutija 137. Draft of Rijeka’s Cocoa and Chocolate Factory, Giacomo Zammattio, 1896, State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 137

strijske proizvodnje takve namjene.295 Gra|evina u kojoj se nekada nalazila tvornica nije sa~uvana, ali se prema arhitektonskom nacrtima može ustvrditi da je to bila planski izra|ena zgrada upravo za potrebe tvornice ~okolade. Za projekt te gra|evine bio je angažiran Giacomo Zammattio, poznati rije~ki arhitekt, što pokazuje da se radilo o fi-

294 Nada Sablji}, Reklama na prijelazu stolje}a, u: Reklama u Rijeci 1890.– 1840., Muzej grada Rijeke, Rijeka, 2008., str. 17.; Povijest Rijeke, n. d. (1988.), str. 260. 295 U spisima magistrata iz 1824. u Hrvatskom državnom arhivu u Rijeci može se iš~itati da je u to vrijeme postojala manufaktura ~okolade u Rijeci koja je prema popisu spadala me|u fabbrice koje nikada nisu dobile status privilegiranih radionica. Imala je dva zaposlenika i bila je u vlasništvu Giovannija Battista Martinollija. To svjedo~i o tome da je tradicija prerade ~okolade u Rijeci postojala i u prvoj polovici 19. stolje}a. Radnja je imala i svoj trgova~ki znak, G.B.M.(DARI, PR-1, kutja 264., fascikl VIII, 1824.)

Tvornica ~okolade Chocolate Factory (Iz enciklopedije/from encicopedia: Magyarország vármegyéi és városai, Fiume és a magyar-horvát tengerpart, Budimpešta/Budapest, 1896.)

154


40 Cocoa and Chocolate Factory demolished (existed in today’s Zvonimirova Street, intersection of Zvonimirova and Vinka Benca Street) 1896 Giacomo Zammattio

Zammattijev projekt zgrade za administrativne potrebe Tvornice ~okolade iz 1896. Prona|en je nacrt dogradnje iste gra|evine iz 1898., koji uz Zammattija potpisuje i arhitekt Giovani Maria Curet. Zammattio’s design of the chocolate factory’s administration building from 1896. A draft of the extension design of the same building from 1898 was also found and, apart from Zammattio, it was also signed by architect Giovanni Maria Curet. (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 137)

294 Nada Sablji}, Reklama na prijelazu stolje}a, in: Reklama u Rijeci 1890.–1840., Muzej grada Rijeke, Rijeka, 2008, p. 17; Povijest Rijeke, ibid. (1988), p. 260

The beginning of the operation of Rijeka’s Cocoa and Chocolate Factory,294 the first industrial production plant with such a purpose, dates back to 1896.295 The building which

295 The Municipal Documents from 1824, stored in the Croatian State Archives in Rijeka, indicate that a chocolate manufacturing plant (fabbrica) existed in Rijeka at the time. According to the list, it was among the fabbricas that never received the status of a privileged workshop. It had two employees and it was owned by Giovanni Battista Martinolli. These facts testify that the tradition of chocolate processing existed already in the first half of the 19th century in Rijeka. The workshop had its own trademark, G.B.M. (State Archives in Rijeka, PR-1, box 264, folder VIII, 1824)

housed the factory has not been preserved, but according to architectural designs it is safe to conclude that it was a facility designed just for the purposes of the chocolate factory. The project engineer hired for the design of the factory’s building was Giacomo Zammattio,

Projektni nacrt za izgradnju dimnjaka, Tvornica ~okolade Blueprint for the construction of the chimney, Chocolate Factory (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, kutija 169)

155


296 DARI, JU 51, kutija 137.

nancijski imu}nom i ozbiljnom naru~itelju.296 Objekt je napravljen zahvaljuju}i razgrana-

297 Velid Đeki}, Rije~ka tvornica kakaa i ~okolade, http://www.mojarijeka. hr/kolumne/rijecka-tvornica-kakaa-i-cokolade/ (13. 02. 2014.)

nost direktora tvornice obavljao je Arturo Steinacker. Od 1919. do 1944., promjenom

tim poslovnim interesima Ma|arske op}e kreditne banke na rije~kom podru~ju, a dužvlasnika, tvornica mijenja ime u Tvornica ~okolade Gerbaud.297 Osim iscrpnih nacrta gra|evine tvornice potpisanih Zammattijevom rukom, a dokumentiranih u arhivu, od nekadašnje Tvornice ~okolade sa~uvano je nekoliko plakata u boji, što govori o tome da je vodstvo Tvornice puno ulagalo u reklamu. Naj~eš}i su motiv žene i djeca koji uživaju u zalogajima ~okolade, zatim slon kao zajedni~ki motiv Ljuštionice riže i Tvornice škrobnog štirka, tako|er zna~ajnih industrijskih investicija Ma|arske op}e kreditne banke u Rijeci. Postojale su i reklamne razglednice s motivom šumskih patuljaka dok na vatri pripremaju kakao-napitak, pustinjskih razbojnika koji vrebaju karavanu s teretom kakaa i drugih zanimljivih prizora.

Reklamni plakat u boji za prodaju rije~ke ~okolade i kakaa, krajem 19. stolje}a. Advertisement poster for the sale of Rijeka's chocolate and cocoa at the end of the 19th century (Nacionalna knjižnica Széchényi, Budimpešta/Budapest)

156


Reklamni plakat u boji za prodaju rije~ke ~okolade i kakaa, krajem 19. stolje}a Advertisement poster for the sale of Rijeka's chocolate and cocoa at the end of the 19th century (Nacionalna knjižnica Széchényi, Budimpešta/Budapest)

a well-known architect from Rijeka, which points to the fact that it was made for a serious and financially wealthy client.296 The facility was made thanks to the diversified business interests of the Hungarian General Credit Bank in and around Rijeka, and the director of the factory was Arturo Steinacker. From 1919 to 1944, after changing the owner, the factory also changed its name to Gerbaud Chocolate Factory.297 In addition to the detailed designs of the factory facilities signed by Zammattio and documented in the archives, several colour posters of the former chocolate factory have also survived and show that the management of the company invested a lot in advertising. The most common themes were women and children enjoying a snack of chocolate as well as the elephant as a common motif of the Rice Mill and the Starch Factory, which were both

296 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 51, box 137

significant industrial investments of the Hungarian General Credit Bank in Rijeka. There were also advertising postcards with forest gnomes preparing hot chocolate on fire, desert bandits preying on a station wagon with a cargo of cocoa and other interesting scenes.

297 Velid Đeki}, Rije~ka tvornica kakaa i ~okolade, http://www.mojarijeka. hr/kolumne/rijecka-tvornica-kakaa-i-cokolade/ (13 Feb 2014)

157


Isto~na industrijska zona

158


Eastern Industrial Zone

159


41 Pala~a Littorale Šetalište XIII. divizije broj 16 1905. projektant nepoznat Od druge polovice 19. do prvih godina 20. stolje}a na mjestu današnje pala~e Littorale

298 Povijest Rijeke, n. d. (1988.), str. 260.

djelovala je tvornica likera Pfau&Co. Gra|evina je tada bila u posjedu obitelji Ruži}, a izgra|ena je 1867. godine. Navodno je tvornica dobro poslovala jer se u prvim godinama 20. stolje}a planiralo proširenje pogona u Rijeku.298 Tvorni~ar Bluhweiss je 1905. na mjestu propale tvornice likera dao izgraditi pala~u Littorale u koju }e smjestiti Tvornicu limenih konzervi. Gra|evina je imala stambenu i tvorni~ku namjenu. Vrlo je zanimljiva njezina arhitektonska realizacija. Sjeverno jednokatno pro~elje zgrade okrenuto je prema Šetalištu XIII. divizije i isti~e se raskošnim historicisti~kim i secesijskim motivima. Na južnoj, morskoj strani ovo zdanje nije ni približno reprezentativno i spuštaju}i se niz liticu produžuje se s još tri dodatna kata namijenjena tvorni~kom pogonu. Nakon Prvoga svjetskog rata kompleks s pala~om kupio je Oskar Mikši}. Osim stambenog dijela koji je osobno koristio, ostatak zgrade iznajmljivao je za razli~ite djelatnosti.

Pala~a Littorale Littorale Palace

Nakon Drugoga svjetskog rata pala~a je nacionalizirana, a od 50-ih godina u njezinim je prostorima djelovala tiskara Tipograf.

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

160


41 Littorale Palace Šetalište XIII divizije no. 16 1905 unknown The liquor factory Pfau & Co. operated at the location of today’s Littorale Palace from the

298 Povijest Rijeke, ibid. (1988), p. 260

second half of the 19th century until the early years of the 20th century. At the time, the building was owned by the Ruži} family and it was erected in 1867. The expansion of the production drive in Rijeka was planned in the early years of the 20th century, which means that the factory operated very successfully.298 In 1905, on the site of the collapsed liqueur company, the industrialist Bluhweiss built the Littorale Palace in order to accommodate his Tin Can Factory. The facility had both a residential and a factory purpose. Its architectural design is highly interesting: the northern two-storey facade of the building faces the XIII Division Promenade and stands out with its luxurious historicist and Art Nouveau motifs. On the southern side, facing the sea, the facility is not nearly as representative: it has three additional floors descending alongside the cliff which were used as production facilities. After World War I, the complex, together with the palace, was bought by Oscar Mikši}. He used the residential part for himself and rented the rest of the building for various activities.

Pro~elje pala~e Littorale (detalj) Facade of the Littorale Palace (detail)

After World War II, the palace was nationalized and the print shop Tipograf started operating in its premises in the 1950s.

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

161


42 Alga ljekarni~ko-kozmeti~ki laboratorij Šetalište XIII. divizije 11 1937. David Bunetta (nacrt), Boren Emili (izvo|a~ radova)

299 Milica Trkulja, Reklama u Rijeci 1890–1940, Muzej grada Rijeke, 2008., str. 39. 300 "Alga" apotekarsko kozmeti~ki laboratorij, Almanah grada Sušaka, 1934., str. 133.; 1938., str. 102. 301 Tvrtka je vrlo rano imala izvrsno razvijenu strategiju promocije i plasiranja svojih proizvoda u Kraljevini SHS i šire. Njezino je vodstvo isticalo važnost razvoja lokalne privrede, zbog ~ega je više puta isticano da Alga zapošljavata doma}e radnike. U skladu s time, tvrtka je svoje reklamne brošure tiskala isklju~ivo u doma}im tiskarama. Zapaženo je i njezino humanitarno zalaganje u obliku donacije lijekova potrebitima u dje~jim socijalnim institucijama. (Almanah grada Sušaka, 1931., str. 100.)

Tehnologijski suvremenija povijest ljekarništva u Rijeci može se pratiti od druge polovice 19. stolje}a otkad u Gradu djeluje Farmacia All'Arcangelo u vlasništvu ljekarnika Giovannija Prodama. Prodamovi su kemijsko-farmaceutski proizvodi bili nagra|ivani brojnim medaljama, a navodno je upravo proizvodima ove ljekarne bio opskrbljivan nadvojvoda Josip u vrijeme svoga boravka u Rijeci.299 Malo manje uspješno u Rijeci je djelovalo još niz ljekarni – Farmacia di G. Catti Successore, Alla Salute, Indeficienter, All Madonna dell'aiuto, Hrvatska ljekarna na Rijeci, Ljekarna k Srcu Isusovom i druge. Te su ljekarne nudile doma}e i strane farmaceutske proizvode. Godine 1926. ljekarnik Vladimir Kezele dobio je odobrenje od Ministarstva narodnog zdravlja u Beogradu da u Ruži}evoj ulici pokrene Ljekarni~ko-kozmeti~ki laboratorij Alga. Ve} sljede}e godine udružio se s jednako ambicioznim Dinkom Budakom, ina~e majstorom u pripravljanju doma}ih lijekova, od kojih je jedan i pripravak ljekovite teku}ine Alga.300 Uspješan rad ove farmaceutske tvrtke kulminirao je tridesetih i ~etrdesetih godina 20. stolje}a kada njezini proizvodi nadilaze lokalno tržište i postaju poznati u cijeloj Kraljevini Jugoslaviji. Iz tog je razdoblja sa~uvan i najve}i broj reklama koje su izlazile u dnevnim novinama, raznim periodikama i prospektima te natpisi na voznim redovima i kalendarima. Alga je izdavala i brošure nazvane Pu~ki lije~nik i priru~ni savjetnik ili Zdrava hrana – dugo zdravlje, koje su uz reklamnu, imale i edukativnu poruku.301 Algu je od ostalih ljekarni razlikovala samostalna proizvodnja velikog dijela proizvoda. Najpoznatiji su bili Alga proizvod za masažu, Energin za ja~anje krvi, živaca, apetita i cijelog tijela, krema Vema za brže zarastanja rana te plo~ice Vale kao lijek za respiratorne organe.

Laboratorij Alga u izgradnji Alga laboratory under construction (Almanaha grada Sušaka, 1931./Sušak’s Town Almanac, 1931)

162


42 Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Laboratory Alga Šetalište XIII divizije no. 11 1937 David Bunetta (design), Boren Emili (contractor) The technologically more recent history of pharmacy in Rijeka can be traced back to the second half of the 19th century, when the city had the Farmacia All’Arcangelo, owned by the pharmacist Giovanni Prodam. Prodam’s chemical and pharmaceutical products were awarded numerous medals and allegedly the pharmacy’s products were supplied to Archduke Joseph during his stay in Rijeka.299 Rijeka also had a number of other, somewhat less successful pharmacies, among them Farmacia di G. Catti Successore, Alla Salute, Indeficienter, All Madonna dell’aiuto, Hrvatska ljekarna na Rijeci, Ljekarna k Srcu Isusovom. The mentioned pharmacies had both domestic and foreign pharmaceutical products in their assortment. In 1926, pharmacist Vladimir Kezele received the approval of the Ministry of Public Health in Belgrade to start the Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Laboratory Alga in Ruži}eva Street. The very next year, he teamed up with an equally ambitious Dinko Budak, otherwise a

299 Milica Trkulja, Reklama u Rijeci 1890.–1940., Muzej grada Rijeke, 2008, p. 39 300 "Alga" apotekarsko kozmeti~ki laboratorij, Almanah grada Sušaka, 1934, p. 133; 1938, p. 102 301 Very early, the company developed an excellent strategy for promoting and placing their products in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and beyond. Its leadership emphasized the importance of supporting the local economy which is why it repeatedly emphasized that Alga employs domestic workers. Accordingly, the company had its advertising brochures printed exclusively in domestic print shops. Its humanitarian efforts in the form of donations of medicines to needy children in social institutions were also well known. (Almanah grada Sušaka, 1931, p. 100)

master in the preparation of domestic remedies, one of which was the elixir Alga.300 The successful operation of this pharmaceutical company culminated in the 1930s and 1940s,

302 Ibidem, 1931, p. 99

when its products transcended the local market and became known throughout the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. A large number of advertisements from that period that were published in daily newspapers, various periodicals, brochures and inscribed on itineraries and calendars have been preserved. Alga also issued instant educational brochures called The People’s Physician and Reference Guide and Healthy Food – Long-Term Health, which, apart from advertising, also had an educational purpose.301 What distinguished Alga from other

303 In the already mentioned year of 1931, the Town Almanac of Sušak announced the construction of a large laboratory which was to accommodate all the technical and administrative staff of Alga. It was particularly emphasized that it was a domestic industry of Sušak with 50 to 60 workers, mostly from Sušak. (Almanah grada Sušaka, 1931, p. 100)

pharmacies was the independent production of a large portion of its products. Very well-

304 Milica Trkulja, ibid. (2008), p. 43

known were its Alga product for massage, Energin for strengthening one’s blood, nerves, appetite and the whole body, the Vema cream for accelerating wound healing and the Vale platelets as a remedy for respiratory organs. Following the increasing demand for Alga’s pharmaceutical drugs on the domestic and foreign markets, which resulted in a series of awards on health fairs in Paris, London, Brussels and elsewhere, the owners invested in the construction of a new facility to accommodate the operation and administration.302 This building, located at XIII Division Promenade No 11, has been preserved to this day. The blueprint of the building was made by David Bunetta in 1931, and the construction work was carried out in several stages by Boren Emili.303 The operating permit was issued in 1937. Considering that the building was constructed in a planned manner with a strong focus on the needs of the laboratory and the administration, it is not surprising that the project was a success and produced a design completely subordinate to the facility’s functionality. The operation of Alga can be traced back to the end of the Second World War, after which it was liquidated and some of its pharmaceutical assortment was inherited by the companies Pliva and Neva.304 163


Zbog sve ve}e potražnje lijekova ove tvrtke na doma}em i inozemnom tržištu te niza

302 Isto, 1931., str. 99. 303 Ve} je spomenute 1931. u Almanahu grada Sušaka najavljena izgradnja velikog laboratorija u kojemu bi se smjestilo sve tehni~ko i upravno osoblje tvrtke Alga. Posebno je istaknuto da je rije~ o doma}oj industriji u Sušaku gdje je ve} bilo zaposleno izme|u 50 i 60 radnika, pretežito Suša~ana. (Almanah grada Sušaka, 1931., str. 100.) 304 Milica Trkulja, n. d. (2008.), str. 43.

odlikovanja na zdravstvenim izložbama u Parizu, Londonu, Bruxellesu i drugdje, vlasnici su uložili u izgradnju novog objekta za smještaj pogona i uprave.302 Rije~ je o do danas sa~uvanom objektu na Šetalištu XIII. divizije 11. Idejni nacrt gra|evine izradio je David Bunetta 1931., a radove je nakon višegodišnjih etapa izveo Boren Emili.303 Uporabna dozvola izdana je 1937. godine. S obzirom na to da je gra|evina sagra|ena planski za potrebe laboratorija i smještaj administracije, ne za~u|uje uspješnost ovoga gra­|e­ vinskog zahvata u potpunosti podre|enog njegovoj funkcionalnosti. Djelovanje Alge može se pratit sve do završetka Drugoga svjetskog rata, nakon ~ega je likvidirana, a dio njezina ljekarni~kog asortimana naslijedile su Pliva i Neva.304

Plakat Ladislaoa de Gaussa za laboratorij Alga i karakteristi~no pakiranje pripravka za masa`u Poster of Ladislao de Gauss for the Alga laboratory and typical packaging of massage products (Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka)

164


Pala~a Alga, danas/Alga Palace, today (fotografija/photo: Kristijan Vu~kovi})

165


43 Rije~ka parna tvornica konjaka i žestokih pi}a Šetalište XIII. divizije broj 28 oko 1895. Giovanni Randich 1899. izvodi preinake postoje}e gra|evine

Smještaj, tlocrt, presjek i pro~elje Rije~ke parne tvornice konjaka i žestokih pi}a Location, layout, cross section and facade of Rijeka’s Brandy and Spirits Steam Plant (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU49, kutija 51)

Godine 1895. tvorni~ar I. Csillag dao je zahtjev za otvaranje Rije~ke parne tvornice konjaka i žestokih pi}a. Cjelokupan pogon bio je smješten na zemljištu Eugenija Ba~i}a na Pe}inama ispod Ceste Prijestolonasljednika Petra uza samo more, danas Šetalište XIII. divizije 28. Iako prenamijenjen i pregra|en, objekt je do danas ostao sa~uvan. Rije~ je o jednostavnoj dvokatnici pravokutna oblika s nizom prozorskih otvora i stubištem s bo~nih strana. Pro~elje je skromno, ali upe~atljivo, arhitektonski profilirano prozorskim 166


43 Rijeka’s Brandy and Spirits Steam Plant Šetalište XIII divizije no. 28 around 1895 Giovanni Randich modified the existing building in 1899 In 1895, the industrialist I. Csillag filed a request for the opening of Rijeka’s Brandy and Spirits Steam Plant. The entire production plant was located on the property of Eugenio Ba~i}, on Pe}ine, directly by the sea, beneath the Crown Prince Peter’s Road, today’s

305 Julija Lozzi Barkovi}, ibid. (2001), p. 50; State Archives in Rijeka, JU 49, box 51 6 306 Ibid.

street Šetalište XIII divizije no. 28. Although refitted and remodelled, the facility has remained preserved to this day. It is a simple three-storey rectangular building with a series of windows and staircases on the sides. The facade is modest but impressive, architecturally moulded with window openings with brick gables and a prominent keystone.305 The mentioned feature is visible only on the northern facade of the building, which needed to fit into the architectural context of the adjacent buildings as regards its decoration. The facility gained its historicist looks with the above mentioned elements in 1899, when it was renovated according to the design of engineer Giovanni Randich.306 It can be assumed that the factory became property of the Cosulich family,307 known for its shipping activity, at the beginning of the 20th century, which is evident from a Modiano

307 Luigi Cosulich, Sušak’s businessman and wholesaler, a native of Lošinj, owned several properties and facilities along today’s Šetalište XIII divizije. He hired the architect Giovanni Randich for most of his construction projects, therefore it can be assumed that the liquor factory became Cosulich’s property in 1899, when Randich was in charge of renovating the existing building at this location. In his book on the history of the town of Sušak from 1929, Andrija Ra~ki states that the factory was the property of Vjekoslav Kozuli} from 1898 onwards, while one of the later owners was Ivan Bakar~i} (co-owner of the Simoni}-Bakar~i} Tannery). (Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929), p. 286) 308 Piero Delbello, ibid. (2013), poster from the eponymous exhibition, Kortil, October 2013

commercial made for the promotion of the factory.308

Rije~ka parna tvornica konjaka i žestokih pi}a Rijeka’s Brandy and Spirits Steam Plant (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

167


305 Julija Lozzi Barkovi}, n d. (2001.), str. 506.; DARI, JU 49, kutija 51 306 Isto.

otvorima s ciglenim zabatom i naglašenim zaglavnim kamenom,305 što je vidljivo samo na sjevernom pro~elju zgrade koje se svojom dekoracijom trebalo uklopiti u arhitektonski kontekst susjednih gra|evina. Historicisti~ki izgled s prije navedenim elementima

307 Luigi Cosulich, suša~ki gospodarstvenik i veletrgovac rodom s Lošinja, posjedovao je niz terena i objekata uz današnje Šetalište XIII. divizije. Na ve}ini njegovih gra|evnih projekata bio je angažiran arhitekt Giovanni Randich, zbog ~ega se može pretpostaviti da i tvornica likera ulazi u Cosulichevo vlasništvo upravo 1899. kada je Randich zadužen za adaptaciju ve} postoje}e gra|evine na ovoj lokaciji. Andrija Ra~ki u Povijest grada Sušaka iz 1929. navodi da je tvornica u vlasništvu Vjekoslava Kozuli}a od 1898., a jedan od kasnijih vlasnika bit }e Ivan Bakar~i} (suvlasnik Kožare Simoni}-Bakar~i}). (Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.), str. 286.) 308 Piero Delbello, n. d. (2013.), plakat s istoimene izložbe, Kortil, listopad 2013.

gra|evina je dobila 1899. kada je adaptirana prema rješenju projektanta Giovannija Randicha.306 Pretpostavlja se da je tvornica u prvim godinama 20. stolje}a prešla u vlasništvo obitelji Cosulich,307 poznatoj po brodarskoj djelatnosti, što je vidljivo iz Modianove reklame napravljene u svrhu promocije tvornice.308 Postupak proizvodnje konjaka do danas je ostao isti; jedina su promjena moderniji tvorni~ki ure|aji. Nakon fermentacije slijedi proces destilacije, izrazito važan za nastanak konjaka i jakih alkoholnih pi}a. Cilj destilacije u procesu pravljenja jakih alkoholnih pi}a jest izdvajanje

309 Ibrahim Muji}, n. d. (2010.), str. 91.

etilnog alkohola u povoljnom omjeru s ostalim primjesama kako bi potom zajedno destilatu dali specifi~nost i kvalitetu. Govorimo o fizi~ko-kemijskom procesu separacije

310 Isto, str. 111.

zbog kojega se hlapivi proizvodi fermentacije vina koji sadrže alkohol zagrijavanjem, uz pomo} destilacijskog ure|aja, dovode u plinovito stanje, potom se kondenziraju u destilat (tal. acquavite) koji se najve}im dijelom sastoji od etilnog alkohola i vode309 Ure|aj tipa Najkom pod oznakom B (per cognac) koristi se za destilaciju alkohola iz vina, to jest za dobivanje vinskog destilata. Može se zagrijavati otvorenom vatrom ili vodenom parom niskog tlaka. Sastoji se od stupa za destilaciju, stupa za kondenzaciju, posude za vino i destilata.310 Nacrt naprave za destilaciju konjaka iz 1895. Draft of a still from 1895 (DARI/ State Archives in Rijeka, JU 49, kutija 51)

168


Process of producing brandy, we can say that it has remained the same, the only change being the modern factory equipment applied today. The fermentation is followed by the distillation process which is extremely important for

Zgrada u kojoj je nekad bila smjeťtena Rije~ka parna tvornica konjaka i Şestokih pi}a, a potom Talionica kovina i kemijska industrija The facility which once housed Rijeka’s Brandy and Spirits Steam Plant and, later, the Smelter and Chemical Industry (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

producing brandies and spirits. The role of distillation in the process of making strong alcoholic beverages is to extract ethyl alcohol in a favourable ratio compared to other additions, so that they can together give the distillate its uniqueness and quality. It is a physical and chemical separation process by means of which volatile products of wine fermentation, containing alcohol, are heated and brought into gaseous state in stills and, afterwards, condensed into a distillate (Italian acquavite), which is mainly composed of ethyl alcohol and water.309 A still of the type Najkom, marked B ("per cognac"), is used for distilling alcohol from wine, i.e. for obtaining a wine distillate. It can be heated by open flame or low-pressure steam. It consists of a still column, a condensing tube and buckets for wine and distillate.310

309 Ibrahim Muji}, ibid. (2010), p. 91 310 Ibidem, p. 111

169


44 Talionica kovina i kemijska industrija Šetalište XIII, divizije broj 28 prvo desetlje}e 20. stolje}a Giovanni Randich 1899. izvodi preinake postoje}e gra|evine Od prvog desetlje}a 20. stolje}a, na istome mjestu gdje je nekada bila smještena Rije~ka

311 DARI, JU 49, kutija 52.

parna tvornica konjaka i žestokih pi}a, radila je Talionica kovina. Arhivski dokumenti vezani uz Talionicu kovina i kemijsku industriju ve}inom su administrativno-tehni~ke naravi vezani uz rad talionice i uklju~uju dozvole za rad, razne nacrte samih objekata te objašnjenja na~ina rada industrijskog pogona za taljenje olovnih i bakrenih ruda~a. O razdoblju intenzivnog rada tvornice izvještava nas pritužba gospo|e Pajkuri} udane Blondina od 17. travnja 1913., koja se žali Kotarskoj oblasti Sušak zbog rada tvornice. Tužiteljica jasno prigovara zbog otrovnih plinova i smrada koji su izlazili iz talionice. Iz teksta se može iš~itati i da }e tužiteljica dane probleme iznijeti pred povjerenstvom zaduženim za ta pitanja.311 Ovi podaci idu u prilog ~injenici da je smještaj tvornice zaista bio nepogodan, vjerojatno zbog toga što sam objekt prvotno nije bio namijenjen tvornici.

45 Tvornica Redlich na krajnjemu isto~nom dijelu Ulice XIII. divizije (ispod ceste) 90-ih godina 19. stolje}a projektant nepoznat Željezna blagajna iz Tvornice Redlich, druga polovica 19. st. Iron till from the Redlich Factory, second half of the 19th century (Muzej grada Rijeke/City Museum of Rijeka)

170


44 Smelter and Chemical Industry Šetalište XIII divizije no. 28 first decade of the 20th century Giovanni Randich modified the existing building in 1899 Beginning with the first decade of the 20th century, Rijeka’s Smelter occupied the same

311 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 49, box 52

location where there was once Rijeka’s Brandy and Spirits Steam Plant. Archival documents related to the Smelter and Chemical Industry are mainly of administrative and technical nature, giving information on the operation of the Smelter and including operation licences, various drafts of the facilities and explanations of the operating mode of the industrial plant for smelting lead and copper ores. A complaint of Mrs. Pajkuri} (married name Blondina) regarding the factory’s operation, dated 17 April 1913 and addressed to Sušak’s authority, informs us about the plant’s period of intensive work. She strongly objected to the toxic gases and smells emitted from the smelter. The document also states that the plaintiff intended to present these problems before the committee in charge of these issues.311 This shows that the location of the plant was really inconvenient, probably because the building was not originally intended for such a factory.

45 Redlich Factory at the eastern end of the street Šetalište XIII divizije (beneath the road) 1890s project engineer unknown Reklama radionice Redlich, 15. velja~e 1884. god. Advertisement of the Redlich workshop, La Bilancia, 15 Feb 1884 (La Bilancia)

171


Zamolba Leopolda Redlicha upu}ena Slavnoj kotarskoj oblasti Sušak Request of Leopold Redlich directed to the Great District Authority of Sušak (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 49, kutija 51)

U arhivskim gradivu Kotarske oblasti Sušak spominje se Tvornica Redlich na Pe}inama. Godine 1892. Leopold Redlich traži dozvolu za izgradnju i rad tvornice na svom zemljištu. Kraj 19. stolje}a vrijeme je razvoja industrije u Sušaku pa govorimo o prilagodbi gradske infrastrukture na nužnost spajanja industrijske i stambene funkcije. Poznato je da su se mnogi stanari žalili na tvornice koje su nerijetko bile smještene na donjim katovima stambenih gra|evina. Pri pisanju zamolbe, uz objašnjenje kojom granom industrije se obitelj Redlich bavi, a bila je to radionica željeznina, u molbi se posebno isti~e da uz spomenuti objekt u kojem se pogon nalazi nema susjeda pa nema razloga za pritužbe uzrokovane neugodnim mirisima, bukom ili drugim smetnjama koje mogu uzrokovati probleme stanarima okolnih objekata.312 Pretpostavlja se da je Tvornica Redlich djelovala i prije na nepoznatom lokalitetu, s prodavaonicom u Via Corso, što se može iš~itati iz La Bilancije iz velja~e 1884., u kojoj se nalazi reklama za tvornicu Fabbrica lime e raspe u vlasništvu Leopolda Redlicha. Tvornica se bavila izradom štednjaka, grijalica na paru, raznih ku}anskih aparata, vaga

312 DARI, JU 49, kutija 51.

i drugih predmeta od lima, željeza, mesinga i bakra. 172


The archival material of the District Authority of SuĹĄak mentions the Redlich Factory on Pe}

312 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 49, box 51

ine. In 1892, Leopold Redlich sought permission to build and operate a factory on his property. The end of the 19th century was a time of industrial development in SuĹĄak, but also a time of adjustment of the urban infrastructure to the necessity of interconnecting industrial and residential functions. It is well known that many tenants complained about factories which often occupied lower floors of residential buildings. In his request, besides explaining which branch of industry the Redlich family is engaged in (namely hardware manufacturing), Leopold Redlich particularly pointed out that the said plant facility had no neighbours. There was no reason for complaints about odours, noise or other nuisances which could cause problems with the residents of the surrounding buildings.312 The newspaper La Bilancia from February 1884 had a advertisement for the Fabbrica lime e raspe, owned by Leopold Redlich, so it is safe to assume that the Redlich factory also operated earlier at an unknown location, with a shop on Via Corso. The factory produced stoves, steam heaters, various household appliances, scales and other items made of tin, iron, brass and copper.

Reklama radionice Redlich, 15. velja~e 1884. Advertisement of the Redlich workshop, La Bilancia, 15 Feb 1884 (La Bilancia)

173


46 Lazaret u Martinš}ici Martinš}ica od 1833. do Prvoga svjetskog rata projektant nepoznat

313 Jakov Karmeli}, Lazaret u Martin}ici, Suša~ka revija, godina I., br. 2/3, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 1993., str. 73. 314 Marijan Bradanovi}, Rije~ki lazareti, u: Rije~ka luka – povijest, izgradnja, promet, Muzej grada Rijeke, Rijeka, 2001., str. 101.; Rude Pauer-Paškvan, Ivan Paškvan, Martinš}ica u srcu – naša stara Martinš}ica i život u njoj, Katedra ^akavskog sabora Kostrena, Kostrena, 2012., str. 34. 315 Jakov Karmeli}, n. d. (1993.), str. 73.

Otkad je Rijeka 1719. dobila status slobodne luka, lazaret se nalaže kao preduvjet njezina razvoja. Zbog toga je 1726. na mandra}u (danas Brajda) izgra|en Lazaret sv. Karla Boromejskog, kompleks od nekoliko zgrada za raskuživanje robe i ljudi. Osnovni tehni~ki problem za rad lazareta bilo je poplavljivanje Škurinjskog potoka i propisi koji su mu nalagali prihvat brodova s "~istim zdravstvenim listom", dok su brodovi s "ne~istim zdravstvenim listom" preusmjeravani u karantenu luke Trst.313 Lazaret sv. Karla prestao je s radom u vrijeme francuske vladavine, zbog ~ega su od 1812. brodovi usmjeravani u Kraljevicu.314 Kraljevica je bila tek privremena lokacija jer nije imala odgovaraju}e

316 Rude Pauer-Paškvan, Ivan Paškvan, n. d. (2012.), str. 33.

uvjete za potrebe lazareta – nije bilo dovoljno vode, skladišta za raskuživanje bila su

317 Lazaret je izgra|en na mjestu nekadašnje kapele sv. Martina iz 1445. godine. Od sredine 15. stolje}a u Martinš}ici je postojao mlin koji 1780. kupuje Simeon Adami}. (Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.), str. 254., 256.)

podalje od obale, nije bilo redovite poštanske veze i drugo. Ti su problemi uzrokovali

318 Radmila Matej~i}, n. d. (2007.), str. 188.

stom od Piramide do Martinš}ice uz more omogu}ena dobra komunikacija sa zalje-

velike troškove pa se požurivala izgradnja lazareta u Martinš}ici.315 Važan segment bila je izgradnja ceste Dorotheje, nazvane tako u ~ast žene nadvojvode Josipa. Tom je cevom316 i Lazaretom sv. Franje, otvorenim istovremeno s cestom 1833. godine.317 Frekventnost ovog lazareta govori o tome koliko je Rije~ki gubernij dobio njegovom izgradnjom. U razdoblju od 1833. do 1851. kroz lazaret je prošlo 557 jedrenjaka, a u vrijeme kolere, 70-ih godina 19. stolje}a, to~nije od 1873. do 1874., u njega je pristalo 119 brodova.318 Lazaret je primao brodove s "~istim i ne~istim" listovima. U njemu su se koristile provjerene metode raskuživanja – novac za sitnu trgovinu dezinficirao se u

Položajni nacrt Lazareta i isto~nog dijela luke Martinš}ica Layout of the Lazaretto and the eastern part of the port of Martinš}ica (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 48, kutija 30)

174


46 Lazaretto in Martinš}ica Martinš}ica from 1833 until World War I project engineer unknown After Rijeka gained the status of a free port in 1719, the existence of a lazaretto was required as a prerequisite for the ports development. Therefore, the Lazaretto of St. Charles Borromeo, a complex of several buildings for decontamination of goods and people, was built in the bay (today Brajda) in 1726. The main technical problems concerning the operation of the Lazaretto were the flooding of the Škurinje stream and regulations which stipulated that the Lazaretto can only receive ships with a "clean bill of health" while ships with

313 Jakov Karmeli}, Lazaret u Martin}ici, Suša~ka revija, godina I, br. 2/3, Klub suša~ana, 1993, p. 73 314 Marijan Bradanovi}, Rije~ki lazareti, in: Rije~ka luka-povijest, izgradnja, promet, Muzej grada Rijeke, Rijeka, 2001, p. 101; Rude Pauer-Paškvan, Ivan Paškvan, Martinš}ica u srcu-naša stara Martinš}ica i život u njoj, Katedra ^akavskog sabora Kostrena, Kostrena, 2012, p. 34

an "unclean bill of health" were diverted to the quarantine of the port of Trieste.313 The La-

315 Jakov Karmeli}, ibid. (1993), p. 73

zaretto of St. Charles Borromeo stopped working in 1812, at the time of French rule in Ri-

316 Rude Pauer-Paškvan, Ivan Paškvan, ibid. (2012), p. 33

jeka. After its closure, all ships were routed to Kraljevica.314 Kraljevica was a temporary location and did not have the proper conditions for a lazaretto. There was not enough water, the decontamination storages were too far away from the coast, there was no regular postal link and so on. These problems lead to high maintenance costs and, therefore, urged the construction of a lazaretto in Martinš}ica.315 An important segment was

317 The Lazaretto was built at the location of the former Chapel of St. Martin from 1445. Also, from the mid-15th century there was a mill in Martinš}ica which was bought by Simeon Adami} in 1780. (Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929), p. 254, 256)

also the construction of the Dorothea Road, named in honour of the wife of Archduke

318 Radmila Matej~i}, ibid. (2007), p. 188

Joseph. The said road, leading from Piramida to Martinš}ica at the seaside, allowed for good communication with the bay316 and the Lazaretto of St. Francis, which was put into operation concurrently with the road, in 1833.317 The number of ships passing through the Lazaretto shows how much Rijeka’s Governorate profited from its construction. In the period from 1833 to 1851, passengers of 557 sailing ships passed through the Lazaretto and 119 ships docked at the Lazaretto in the time of cholera in 1870s (from 1873 to 1874).318

Lazaret u Martinš}ici 1937. Lazaretto in Martinš}ica in 1937 (Muzej grada Rijeke/ City Museum of Rijeka)

175


octu, pisma su se kadila u dimu od sumpora, teret se raskuživao provjetravanjem,

319 Jakov Karmeli}, n. d. (1993.), str. 74.

sun~evim zrakama i ka|enjem. Službenik lazareta zadužen za prihva}anje brodova i

320 DARI, JU 48, kutija 30.

kontrolu njihova zdravstvenog lista, traženi bi dokument dohvatio trstikom ili željeznom

321 Ljetovalište je prvotno bilo u vlasništvu Jadranske straže, od 1929. preuzima ga Ministarstvo socijalne politike i narodnog zdravlja, da bi naposljetku bilo predano Higijenskom zavodu u Zagrebu. Ljetovalište je bilo otvoreno od 1. srpnja do 26. kolovoza svake godine, bilo je namijenjenom odmoru djece, uz popratne kulturno-edukativne sadržaje. (Radmila Matej~i}, n. d. (2013.), str. 331.); Rude Pauer i Ivan Paškvan navode postojanje |a~kog ljetovališta od oko 1928. godine. (Rude Pauer-Paškvan, Ivan Paškvan, n. d. (2012.), str. 56.) 322 Rude Pauer-Paškvan, Ivan Paškvan, n. d. (2012.), str. 39.

hvataljkom, papir okadio sumporom i tek potom ga uzeo u ruke.319 Cijeli kompleks danas je interpoliran u Brodogradilište Viktor Lenac pa je od nekadašnje arhitekture lazareta sa~uvano razmjerno malo. Rije~ je prije svega o paviljonima iznim­ nih klasicisti~kih karakteristika, uz koje se nalazio park u ~ijem je središtu bila okrugla kapela s kupolom posve}ena sv. Franji. U sklopu lazareta postojao je i parlatorij, mjesto susreta pomoraca iz karantene i njihovih posjetitelja te groblje podijeljeno na katoli~ko, pravoslavno i židovsko.320

323 Brodogradilište Viktor Lenac nastaje 1948. iz nekadašnjeg Lazarusova brodogradilišta smještenog u luci Baross. Pove}ana potražnja za ve}im i opsežnijim remontom brodova potaknula je šezdesetih godina 20. stolje}a preseljenje brodogradilišta u zaljev Martinš}ica koji se odlikuje izvrsnim prirodnim karakteristikama, a od središnjeg dijela rije~ke luke udaljen je oko dvije nauti~ke milje.

Lazaret je bio u funkciji sve do Prvoga svjetskog rata kada je u njegovim prostorijama djelovala vojna bolnica za zarazne bolesti. Nakon rata, 1922., tu su bile smještene talijanske ~ete, a od 1922. do 1925. zamijenile su ih ~ete Kraljevine SHS-a. Godine 1926. namjena se u potpunosti mijenja i lazaret postaje ljetovalište za djecu iz cijele Jugoslavije.321 Usporedno s djelovanjem lazareta, od prve polovice 19. stolje}a u zapadnom dijelu zaljeva radio je škver ~iji se rad, s promjenama vlasnika, može pratiti do Drugoga

Dio kompleksa nekadašnjeg lazareta u Martinš}ici Part of the former Lazaretto complex in Martinš}ica

svjetskog rata.322 Tek 60-ih godina 20. stolje}a u Martinš}icu }e se, iz bazena luke Baross, premjestiti Brodogradilište Viktor Lenac.323

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

176


Dio kompleksa nekadašnjeg brodogradilišta u Martinš}ici iz 30-ih godina 20. stolje}a, danas sa~uvan bitno izmijenjen. Vlasnik brodogradilišta bio je Sre}ko Turina, a upravitelj Marijan Turina. Part of the complex of the former shipyard in Martinš}ica from the 1930s, now preserved in a substantially altered form. The owner of the shipyard was Sre}ko Turina and the manager Marijan Turina. (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

The lazaretto accommodated ships with "clean and unclean" bills of health and it used proven methods of decontamination. Banknotes for retail trade were treated in vinegar, letters were fumed in sulphur smoke, cargo was decontaminated by means of ventilation, sunlight and fuming. Also, the clerk of the Lazaretto who was in charge of accepting vessels and controlling their health bill fetched the requested document with a reed or with an iron clamp, fumed the paper with sulphur smoke and only then took it in his hands.319 The whole complex is now interpolated within the Viktor Lenac shipyard, so relatively little of the former architecture of the Lazaretto has been preserved. It was primarily a complex

319 Jakov Karmeli}, ibid. (1993), p. 74

of pavilions with exceptional classicist characteristics, with a park in the centre of which there was a circular chapel with a dome dedicated to St. Francis. Within the Lazaretto

320 State Archives in Rijeka, JU 48, box 30

there was a parlatorium, which served as a meeting place for sailors from the quarantine and their visitors, as well as a cemetery divided into a Catholic, an Orthodox and a Jewish part.320 The Lazaretto kept on working until the First World War, during which it operated as a military hospital for infectious diseases. After the war, in 1922, the Lazaretto housed the Italian troops and, from 1922 to 1925, the troops of the Kingdom of SHS took the place of

321 The resort was originally owned by the Adriatic Guard and, in 1929, it was taken over by the Ministry of Social Policy and Public Health until it was finally assigned to the Hygienic Institute in Zagreb. The resort was open each year from 1 July to 26 August and it was intended for the vacation of children with accompanying cultural and educational activities. (Radmila Matej~i}, ibid. (2013), p. 331). Rude Pauer and Ivan Paškvan date the start of the existence of the children’s resorts back to 1928. (Rude Pauer-Paškvan, Ivan Paškvan, ibid. (2012), p. 56)

the Italians. In 1926, the purpose of the Lazaretto changed completely; it became a sum-

322 Rude Pauer-Paškvan, Ivan Paškvan, ibid. (2012), p. 39

mer resort for children from all over Yugoslavia.321 From the first half of the 19th century, a shipyard operated in parallel with the Lazaretto on the western part of the bay. Its work and the changes of its ownership can be traced back to the Second World War.322 It was not until the 1960s that the Viktor Lenac shipyard was moved from the pool of Port Baross to Martinš}ica.323

323 The Viktor Lenac shipyard developed in 1948 from the former Lazarus shipyard, which was built in Port Baross. The increased demand for larger and more comprehensive overhauls of ships prompted the relocation of the shipyard to the bay of Martinš}ica in the 1960s. Martinš}ica is characterized by excellent natural features and it is about two nautical miles away from the central part of the port of Rijeka.

177


47 Tvornica Plumbum Podvežica, danas prostor poviše isto~nog dijela Ulice Janka Poli}a Kamova 1911. projektant nepoznat Talionica olova poznata pod nazivom Plumbum bila je smještena na Podvežici. Izgradnja

324 Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.) str. 282. 325 Unato~ ekološkim nastojanjima tvornice, ve} na samome po~etku njezina rada gradskim vlastima po~inju pristizati pritužbe gra|ana vezane za zaga|enje zraka i neugodne mirise koji su dolazili iz nje. (Nedjeljko Ipši}, Suša~ka luka, Suša~ka revija, godina II., br. 6/7, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 1994., str. 9.)

je zapo~eta neposredno prije Prvoga svjetskog rata kada je dioni~ko društvo Metallverhüttungs und chemische Industrie-Aktien-Gesellschaft iz Frankfurta na Majni kupilo gra|evinsko zemljište od zemljišne zajednice Podvežica. Izgra|eni kompleks sastojao se od devet zgrada.324 Pri izgradnji talionice posebno se isticao ekološki segment.325 Vlasnici su donijeli proglas vezan uz higijenu radnika, u kojem isti~u da je svaki radnik

326 Nedjeljko Ipši}, n. d., (1994.), str. 9.

dužan kupati se barem svaki drugi dan, a mogli su koristiti i kupalište.

327 Andrija Ra~ki, n. d. (1929.), str. 282.

Na samom po~etku rada tvornica je uspostavila komunikaciju sa zaljevom Martinš}ica.

328 ^edomil Miškovi}, n. d. (1994.), str. 12.; Marijan Kolombo, Tranzitnoprometno d.d. Sušak, Suša~ka revija, godina II., br. 6/7, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 1994., str. 15.) 329 Novi vlasnici proveli su arhitektonsku preinaku tako da su izgra|eni prostori za skladištenje žita, smještaj stoke i ostalih proizvoda kojima su trgovali. Cijeli kompleks bio je pogodan za špediterske poslove s obzirom na to da je imao željezni~ku prugu i izravan kontakt sa zaljevom Martinš}ica te rije~kom i suša~kom lukom. 330 Tijekom Drugoga svjetskog rata Plumbum je doživio znatnu devastaciju. Izme|u ostalog, srušen mu je dimnjak jer se sumnjalo da služi kao orijentir savezni~kim zrakoplovima. 331 Marijan Kolombo, n. d. (1994.), str. 16.

Godine 1911. sagra|en je dio obale s lu~kom instalacijom za prihvat brodova u zaljevu ne bi li se do talionice omogu}io dovoz ruda~e vise}im vagonima (žicovodna željeznica).326 Uz uspinja~u i vezu s morem u Martinš}ici, Talionica je posjedovala i vlastiti željezni~ki kolosijek. Sirovine potrebne za rad tvornice dovozile su se iz Australije i njema~kih kolonija u Africi, a olovo se potom izvozilo u Njema~ku, Austriju i drugdje. Prije rata u tvornici je bilo zaposleno oko pet stotina radnika.327 Tvornica nije dugo radila. Ve} s Prvim svjetskim ratom proizvodnja je obustavljena, a malo nakon rata ponovno se obnavlja. Godine 1923. osnovano je Dioni~ko društvo za taljenje kovina i kemijsku (kemi~ku) industriju Plumbum. Dvadesetih godina tvornica se ponovno našla u problemima, a 1929. završila je u ste~aju.328 Cijeli kompleks tada je dospio u vlasništvo Jugoslavenske udružene banke d.d., a potom ga otkupljuju poduzetnici Ivo Kolombo i bra}a Vitomir i Zvonimir Richtmann za potrebe svojih tvrtki – Kolombo & Richtmann za veletrgovinu i Tranzitno-prometno d.d. za špediciju.329 Svaka djelatnost ovih tvrtki prestaje dolaskom Talijana 1941.; tada su u skladištima bile smještene talijanske okupacijske jedinice.330 Tek 1948. u prostore nekadašnje Talionice smješta se Tvornica Vulkan.331

178


47 Plumbum Factory Podvežica, today the area above the eastern part of Janka Poli}a Kamova Street 1911 project engineer unknown The lead smelter, known as Plumbum, was located on Podvežica. The construction began

324 Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929), p. 282

shortly before World War I, when a joint stock company from Frankfurt am Main, Metallverhüttungs- und Chemische Industrie-Aktien-Gesellschaft, bought a building plot from the Podvežica land community. The built complex consisted of nine buildings.324 During the construction of the smelter, great attention was placed on ecological matters.325 Aware of the kind of work that takes place at the factory, the owners issued a proclamation related

325 Despite the environmental efforts of the company, at the very beginning of its operation, the city authorities started receiving citizens’ complaints related to air pollution and odours emitted by the factory. (Nedjeljko Ipši}, Suša~ka luka, Suša~ka revija, godina II., r. 6/7, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 1994, p. 9)

to the hygiene of workers, in which they stated that every employee was obliged to bathe

326 Nedjeljko Ipši}, ibid. (1994), p. 9

at least every other day and that he had the right to use the bathing area.

327 Andrija Ra~ki, ibid. (1929), p. 282

Already at the very beginning of its operation, the factory established a communication with the bay of Martinš}ica. In 1911, a part of the coast with a port installation for the reception of ships was built in the bay in order to enable the transportation of ore to the smelter by using cargo cableways (cable railway).326 In addition to the cable railway and the connection to the sea at Martinš}ica, the smelter had its own railway track. The raw materials required for the operation of the company were brought from Australia and the German colonies in Africa and the lead was then exported to Germany, Austria and elsewhere. Before the war, the factory employed around five hundred workers.327 The operation of the factory did not last long. With the start of World War I, the production was suspended, only to be continued shortly after the war ended. In 1923, the joint stock company for smelting metals and for chemical industry, Plumbum, was founded. In the

328 ^edomil Miškovi}, ibid. (1994), p. 12; Marijan Kolombo, Tranzitnoprometno d.d. Sušak, Suša~ka revija, godina II., br. 6/7, Klub Suša~ana, Rijeka, 1994, p. 15) 329 The new owners made architectural modifications to the complex. They built facilities for the storage of grain, accommodation of livestock and other products which they traded in. The entire complex was suitable for freight forwarding jobs since it had a railroad and a direct contact with the bay of Martiniš~ica and with the ports of Rijeka and Sušak. 330 During World War II, Plumbum experienced considerable devastation. Among other things, the chimney was torn down because it was suspected that it served as an orientation landmark for the allied aircrafts.

1920s, Plumbum again faced financial difficulties and, in 1929, the factory went bank-

331 Marijan Kolombo, ibid. (1994), p. 16

rupt.328 The entire complex became ownership of the Yugoslav United Bank Inc. and was subsequently bought by the entrepreneurs Ivo Kolombo and the brothers Vitomir and Zvonimir Richtmann for the needs of their companies Kolombo & Richtmann (wholesale) and Tranzitno-prometno d.d. (freight forwarder).329 All activities of these companies ceased with the arrival of the Italians in 1941 and the occupation of the warehouses as temporary accommodation by the Italian troops.330 In 1948, the Vulkan Factory moved into the buildings of the former smelter.331

179


48 Tvornica Vulkan od 1929. do 1948. Ruži}eva ulica; od 1948. u prostorijama nekadašnjeg Plumbuma 1929. projektant nepoznat Tvornica Vulkan zapo~ela je raditi kao ljevaonica i mehani~arska radionica u Ruži}evoj

332 http://www.vulkan-nova.hr/, (14. 01. 2014.)

ulici. Isprva to nije bio veliki pogon, ali je pove}anjem proizvodnje trebalo tvornicu smjestiti u ve}i prostor. Zbog toga je 1948. Vulkan preseljen u kompleks ugašene Talionice olova Plumbum. U tom razdoblju Vulkan svoj proizvodni asortiman usmjerava na industrijsku djelatnost vezanu uz izradu i održavanje brodskih strojeva, dizalica, vitla i ostale palubne opreme te proizvodnju ~eli~nih odljevaka za razne strojeve i brodske motore. Tvornica je djelovala sve do 2000. kada odlazi u ste~aj. Kompleks je danas djelomi~no revitaliziran te u sklopu njega djeluje hostel, trgova~ki centri, stanica za tehni~ki pre-

Tvornica Vulkan (unutrašnjost) Vulkan factory (interior)

gled vozila i drugo. Dio prostora koristi privatna tvrtka Vulkan – Nova, tvornica dizala i brodske opreme kao nominalni nasljednik nekadašnjeg Vulkana.332

(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

180


48 Vulkan Factory from 1929 until 1948, in Ruži}eva Street; from 1948, in the facilities of the former Plumbum complex 1929 project engineer unknown The Vulkan Factory began its operation as a foundry and mechanical workshop in Ruži}eva

332 http://www.vulkan-nova.hr/, (14 Jan 2014)

Street. At first, it was not a big operation, however, with the increase of production, it was necessary to provide the plant with a larger facility. Therefore, in 1948, the Vulkan factory moved into the complex of the former lead smelter Plumbum. During this period, Vulkan specialized its product portfolio by reorienting to industrial activity related to manufacturing and maintenance of marine machinery, cranes, winches and other deck equipment and the production of steel castings for various machinery and marine engines. The factory operated until 2000, when it went bankrupt. The complex is now partially revitalized and contains a hostel, shopping centres, a test centre for technical inspection of vehicles and more. Part of the complex space is used by the private company Vulkan-Nova, factory of cranes and ship’s equipment as the nominal successor of the former Vulkan. 332

Tvornica Vulkan (unutrašnjost) Factory Vulkan (interior) (fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

181


49 Prva jugoslavenska tvornica uko~enog drva Podvežica, Sušak arhivski izvori od 1930. Hinko Emili (dvije tvorni~ke zgrade 1930.), R. Koller (konstrukcija dizalice), Marijan, Mari} Ve~erina (nakon 1938.)

333 U arhivskim spisima nalaze se dokumenti vezani uz gra|evinske dozvole za izgradnju zgrade vrtlara i blagavaonice radnika, zahtjev i dozvola za izgradnju 55 metara visokog dimnjaka potrebnog u proizvodnji, dozvole za izgradnju skladišta i radionica te dozvola za konstruiranje korpa i vodilica te postavljanje na predvi|eno mjesto dizalice bez koje bi rad u tvornici bio bitno ograni~en. (DARI, JU 48, kutje 31., 11.) 334 Almanah grada Sušaka, Turisti~ka biblioteka Jadran, Sušak, 1938., str. 103. 335 Isto.

Prva jugoslavenska tvornica uko~enog drva (poslije poznata kao Tvornica uko~enog drva i furnira) djelovala je u Sušaku, to~nije na Podvežici, od 30-ih godina 20. stolje}a. Dio kompleksa do danas je sa~uvan u sklopu pogona Istravino d.d., a od velikog broja dimnjaka nije sa~uvan niti jedan. Prema arhivskim izvorima zaklju~uje se da se radilo o velikom industrijskom pogonu koji je sa~injavao cijeli kompleks zgrada stambene i, prije svega, tvorni~ke namjene.333 Godine 1938. u tvornici radi dvije stotine radnika. Proizvodila je unakrsno lijepljene furnire (Sperplatten) za izradu poku}stva, ure|enje unutrašnjosti željezni~kih vagona, automobilske karoserije te za unutarnje ure|enje parobroda, aviona i drugo. Kapacitet je tvornice oko 10.000 kubika sirovine ili otprilike 4.000 kubika gotovih proizvoda.334 Tvornica je skladišta imala u Beogradu, Zagrebu, Ljubljani, Splitu i Sarajevu. Isti~e se kako je ovo bila prva takva tvornica u Jugoslaviji.335

Nacrt zapadnog pro~elja tvorni~ke zgrade (detalj) Draft of the west facade of the factory building (fragment) (DARI/State Archives in Rijeka, JU 48, kutija 23)

182


49 First Yugoslav Plywood Factory Podvežica, Sušak from 1930, according to archival sources Hinko Emili (two factory facilities in 1930), R. Koller (crane construction), Marijan, Mari} Ve~erina (after 1938) The First Yugoslav Plywood Factory (later known as Plywood and Veneer Factory) operated in Sušak, at Podvežica, in the 1930s. Part of the complex has been preserved to this day as part of the Istravino d.d. plant, but none of its many chimneys have survived. According to archival sources, it can be concluded that it was a large industrial plant consisting of an entire complex of buildings with primarily industrial but also residential purposes.333 In 1938, the factory employed two hundred workers. It produced cross-glued veneers (Sperrplatten) for making furniture, for decorating the interior of railway wagons, automotive bodies, steamships, airplanes and more. According to sources, the factory’s produc-

333 Archive records contain documents related to the permits for the construction of the gardener’s building and workers’ dining room as well as the request and permission to build a 55 m high chimney necessary for production purposes. Furthermore, there is a permit for the construction of warehouses and workshops as well as permits for the construction of guide rails and buckets and a request for mounting a crane at a designated place, because, without it, the operation of the factory was substantially limited. (State Archives in Rijeka, JU 48, boxes 31, 11) 334 Almanah grada Sušaka, Turisti~ka biblioteka Jadran, Sušak, 1938, p. 103

tion capacity amounted to about 10,000 cubic meters of raw material or about 4,000 cubic meters of finished products.

334

335 Ibidem

The factory had warehouses in Belgrade, Zagreb, Ljubljana,

Sarajevo and Split. As its name says, it was the first factory of its kind in Yugoslavia.335

Prva jugoslavenska tvornica uko~enog drva d.d., 1938. The First Yugoslav Plywood Factory d.d., 1938 (Almanaha grada Sušaka/Almanac of Sušak)

183


(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

184


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Arhivski izvori/Archival sources DAR, JU 51, kutije 92, 113,137, 139, 140, 142, 145, 152, 169, 173 DAR, PR-1, kutija 264., fascikla VIII, 1824. DAR, Spisi Magistrata 1822–1825. Državni arhiv u Rijeci, JU 4, I-4, br. 1246, 3.IV 1824., kutija 919. Državni arhiv u Rijeci, JU 2, kutje 425/2., 471/2., 353/2, 441/2, 443/1, 423/1 DAR, JU 48, kutija 30. DAR, JU 48, kutije 47. (svezak 92), 31,11, 8 DAR, JU 49, kutije 51., 52. Reklama radionice Redlich, La Bilancia, 15. velja~e 1884. Novi list, Tvornica ambalaže "8. Mart" – Rijeka, B. T., 28. i 29. studenoga 1964.

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(fotografija/photo: Stanislav Beli~ka)

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Ema Ani~i} Ema Ani~i} (Rijeka, 1987.) diplomirala je povijest umjetnosti – konzervatorski smjer i povijest na Filozofskom fakultetu u Rijeci. Suradnica je Muzeja grada Rijeke i Centra za industrijsku baštinu Sveu~ilišta u Rijeci. Sudjelovala je na V. me|unarodnoj konferenciji o industrijskoj baštini u Rijeci (Rije~ka parna tvornica kognaka i žestokih pi}a). U sklopu suradnje s udrugom Pro Torpedo i Centrom za tehni~ku kulturu sudjeluje na više projekata posve}enih rije~koj povijesti i baštini (Živi Mrtvi kanal, Upoznajmo grad da bismo ga više voljeli). Iz recenzije dr. Julije Lozzi Barkovi} o Rije~koj industrijskoj pri~i: ...autorica ukazuje na postojanje više prostornih industrijskih zona grada Rijeke (centar, zapadna i isto~na industrijska zona sa završetkom u Martinš}ici) unutar kojih popisuje i opisuje odabrane industrijske komplekse i gra|evine, što je temeljni zadatak publikacije koja ujedno prati i opsežnu multimedijalnu izložbu u Muzeju grada Rijeke. No knjiga-katalog, uz sintezu postoje}ih saznanja, donosi i nove, dosad neobjavljene ~injenice kao rezultat sustavno provedenih istraživanja izvorne nacrtne i druge dokumentacije pohranjene u Državnom arhivu u Rijeci, ali i rada na terenu. Knjiga }e stoga zasigurno biti korisna istraživa~ima industrijske baštine kao još jedan dodatan i vrijedan izvor, ali i široj publici... Govore}i u cjelini, u knjizi-katalogu Rije~ka industrijska pri~a Eme Ani~i} na jednome mjestu sakupljeni su i interpretirani izvori koji daju novo svjetlo povijesti rije~ke industrije upozoravaju}i, izme|u ostalog, još jednom na nužnost njezine što hitnije konzervacije, revitalizacije i prenamjene.

Stanislav Beli~ka Stanislav Beli~ka (Pore~ 1956.) od 1963. do 1991. živi u Rijeci gdje završava fotote~aj i stje~e prva znanja o fotografiji te u Šibeniku 1971. sudjeluje na dje~joj izložbi jugoslavenske djece pod nazivom Sedmi kontinent. Potkraj sedamdesetih sura|uje u Sportskim novostima. Od 1983. do 1986. ~lan je fotokluba Color Rijeka. a 1987. ima prvu samostalnu izložbu u klubu Ivo Lola Ribar (poznatiji kao Palach) u Rijeci. Od 1991. živi u Njema~koj, no redovito dolazi u Rijeku. U više od desetak godina aktivnosti u njema~kim fotoklubovima, sudjeluje na brojnim izložbama, fotografskim salonima i natje~ajima, najviše u Njema~ko, Austriji i SAD-u, te redovito osvaja nagrade i priznanja. Na rang-listi Ameri~kog udruženja fotografa (Photographic Society of America) Who' s Who i Photography za 2005. godinu, svrstan je na šesto mjesto u svijetu u kategoriji digitalne fotografije. Godine 2006. na drugom je mjestu na popisu me|unarodnih uspjeha njema~kog udruženja fotografa (DVF), a 2008. dodijeljena mu je titula Excellence de la FIAP Me|unarodne fotografske federacije (FIAP). Budu}i da potje~e iz industrijskog miljea, jer je po struci precizni mehani~ar, posljednjih ga godina osobito privla~e rije~ki industrijski ambijenti. U mladosti je nakratko radio u Torpedu i bio zadivljen uzornom tvornicom. I danas, u Njema~koj, radi u tvornici strojeva. Više od tri desetlje}a poslije, 2009., dolazi u pustoš u kojem je nekad bio Torpedo, no koja ga po~inje naro~ito privla~iti. Potom 2012. i 2013. u suradnji s Muzejom grada Rijeke sustavno snima sve rije~ke, i žive i mrtve, industrijske pogone od Kantride do Martinš}ice. Prve fotografije iz toga opusa ve} je izlagao (Stare Makine, Galerija Paladin, Rijeka 2010., Dekadencija torpeda, Muzej grada Rijeke 2011.), no u Rije~koj industrijskoj pri~i prvi put sustavno i kreativnim pristupom predstavlja "dosje" preostalih tragova industrijske Rijeke.

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Ema Ani~i} Ema Ani~i} (Rijeka, 1987) graduated in History of Art – Curatorship as well as History at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in Rijeka. She is an associate at the City Museum of Rijeka and the Centre for Industrial Heritage of the University of Rijeka. She participated in the Fifth International Conference on Industrial Heritage in Rijeka (Rije~ka parna tvornica kognaka i žestokih pi}a/Rijeka’s Brandy and Spirits Steam Plant). As part of a cooperation with the Association Pro Torpedo and the Centre for Technical Education, she also participated in several projects dedicated to the history and heritage of Rijeka (Živi Mrtvi kanal/Dead Channel Comes to Life, Upoznajmo grad da bismo ga više voljeli/Get to Know the City to Love it Even More). From Dr. Julija Lozzi Barkovi}’s review of Rijeka’s Industrial Past: ...the author points to the existence of several spatial industrial zones in the city of Rijeka (Centre, the Eastern and the Western Industrial Zone ending in Martinš}ica), within which she lists and describes selected industrial complexes and facilities. This process is the main goal of this publication, which also accompanies an extensive multimedia exhibition at the City Museum of Rijeka. This book/catalogue not only provides a synthesis of the existing knowledge, but also brings forward new, previously unpublished facts, which are the result of systematically conducted research of original drafts and documents stored in the State Archives in Rijeka as well as of field work. The book will, therefore, be useful not only to researchers of industrial heritage as an additional and valuable source, but also to a wider audience... In conclusion, in her book book/catalogue Rijeka’s Industrial Past, Ema Ani~i} gathered and interpreted sources which shed a new light on the history of Rijeka’s industry, warning, among other things, once again about the necessity of its urgent conservation, revitalization and reuse.

Stanislav Beli~ka Stanislav Beli~ka (Pore~, 1956) lived in Rijeka from 1963 to 1991, where he completed a photography course and gained his first knowledge of photography. He participated in the children’s exhibition of Yugoslav children called Sedmi kontinent/The Seventh Continent in Šibenik in 1971. At the end of the 1970s, he was an associate at the sports newspaper Sportske Novosti. From 1983 to 1986, he was a member of the photo club Color Rijeka, and, in 1987, he had his first solo exhibition at the Ivo Lola Ribar Club (better known as Palach) in Rijeka. From 1991, he has been living in Germany, but he comes to Rijeka regularly. In more than ten years of active participation in several German photo clubs, he has taken part in numerous exhibitions in photographic showrooms and contests, mostly in Germany, Austria and the US, where his work regularly won awards and recognition. In 2005, the Photographic Society of America, Who’s Who and Photography ranked him 6th in the world in the category of digital photography. The following year, 2006, he was ranked second on the list of international successes of the German Photography Association (DVF), and, in 2008, he was awarded the title of Excellence de la FIAP by the International Federation of Photographic Art (FIAP). Since he comes from an industrial milieu and is a precision mechanic by profession, he has been particularly attracted by Rijeka’s industrial atmosphere in the last few years. In his youth, he briefly worked at the Torpedo and was amazed by this exemplary factory. Even today, he is working at an engineering works in Germany. More than three decades later, in 2009, he came to the wasteland where the Torpedo plant once was and the sight captured his photographic eye. Afterwards, in 2012 and 2013, in collaboration with the City Museum of Rijeka, he systematically recorded all of Rijeka’s industrial plants from Kantrida to Martinš}ica, both existent and non-existent. The first photographs from this opus were already exhibited earlier (Stare Makine/Old Machines, Paladin Gallery, Rijeka, 2010; Dekadencija torpedo/ The Decadence of the Torpedo), City Museum of Rijeka, 2011). However, in Rijeka’s Industrial Past the photos are presented in a systematic and creative way for the first time in order to form a “dossier” of the remaining traces of industrial Rijeka.

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Kazalo imena/Index Clauti, Ugo 76, 77

Gorup, Milan 118, 119, 121

Conradi 100, 101

Grguri}, Mladen 108, 109

Adami}, Simeon 174, 175

Cosulich, Luigi 166, 167

Gyule, Hühn 40, 41

Ambrosini, Emilio 54-57, 64, 65, 70, 71, 118, 119

Curet, Giovanni Maria 70, 71, 142-145, 155

Ambrosini, Mario 56, 57

Curti, Luigi 70

Hajnal, Antal 18, 19

Andrijaševi}, Mihovil 18, 19

Cussar, Luigi 32, 33, 74, 75

Heindlhofer, Josip 128, 129

Ani~i}, Ema 4, 5, 188, 189

Crespi, Nicolò 6, 7, 54, 55

Hill, Charles Thomas 8, 9

Arnoldt, Urban 46-49

Crespi, Teodoro 54, 55

Holfeld, Pal 84, 85

Csillag, I. 166, 167

Holstein 22, 23

Adami}, Andrija Ljudevit 8, 9, 12, 13, 38, 39, 106, 107, 110

Hraba, Nina 72, 73, 76, 77, 80, 81

Bacci, Nereo 64-69 Bacsák, Istvan 20, 21

^abrijan, Boris 62, 63, 88-93

Ba~i}, Eugenije 166, 167

^alogovi}, Milan 20, 21, 24-29

Bainville, József 38, 39

^iki}, Dolores 112, 113

Hreljanovi}, Viktor 64, 65 Ipši}, Nedjeljko 178, 179 Ivandi}, Drago 47

Bakar~i}, Anton 122, 123 Bakar~i}, Ivan 122, 123, 166, 167

de Orlando, Luigi 8, 9

Bakar~i}, Pavao 122, 123

de Ridder, Villem Jan 48, 49

Jagodnik, Josip 6,7

Bara~, Milutin 136-139

de Vierendeels, Peter 48, 49

Josip (nadvojvoda) 162, 163, 174, 175

Baranyaj, Aladar Vladimir 22, 23

de Zanchi, Giuseppe 8, 9

Barbali}, F. Radojica 152, 153

Dechler, Josip 51, 52

Karlo VI 18,19

Bar~i} (bra}a) 100, 101

Delbello, Piero 56, 57, 166, 167

Karmeli}, Jakov 34, 35, 174-177

Barkovi}, Julia Lozzi 24, 25, 76-78, 140, 141, 166, 167, 188, 189

Deseppi, Domenico 8, 9

Kennedy, Archibald 48, 49

Desselbrunner, Davorin 38, 39

Kezele, Vladimir 162, 163

Beli~ka, Stanislav 4, 5, 20, 21, 24-29, 32-34, 36, 38, 39, 42-45, 48-51, 53-55, 62,63, 66, 68, 70, 74, 75, 78-80, 83-86, 88-90, 92, 93, 98, 99, 102-104, 106, 107, 112-115, 117, 120-122, 127, 139, 140, 142, 143, 146, 148, 149, 152, 153, 160, 161, 167, 169, 176, 177, 180, 181, 188,189

Dinssic, Luigi 64, 65 Dmitrovi}, Saša 48-53,102-105

Klen, Danilo 8, 9, 58, 59, 94, 95, 108, 109, 136-139, 152, 153

Doix, Mattia Rocco 8, 9

Koller, R. 182, 183

Dorig, Giovanni 76, 77

Kolombo, Ivo 178, 179

Dubrovi}, Ervin 4, 5, 80, 81

Kolombo, Marijan 136, 137, 138, 139, 178,179

Benedik, Slavko 22, 23

Duimich, Julije 118, 119

Kozuli}, Vjekoslav 166, 167 Krizmani}, Damir 24, 25, 28, 29, 32, 33, 118, 119

Bereny, Ignác 22-25 Bianchini, G. 146, 147

Đeki},Velid 156, 157, 138, 139

Bi~ani}, Rudolf 100, 101,108,109 Bienenfeld, Adam 50, 51

Enyedi, Béla 24, 25

Biliscok, Enrico 146, 147

Emili, Boren 124, 125, 162-164

Binovski, Franjo 104, 105

Emili, Hinko 182, 183

Blondin 50, 51 Bluhweiss 160, 161

Fontana, Carlo d' Ottavio 100, 101

Bonomo, Francesco Saverio 46, 47

Frankopan, Martin 98, 99

Bradanovi}, Marijan 120, 121, 174, 175

Fremont, Eugen 108, 109

Brajni}, A. 8, 9

Fremont, Karlo 100, 101

Budak, Dinko 162, 163

Fulvi, Giuseppe 6, 7

Bunetta, David 162-164 Burgstaller, Lajos (Luigi) 20, 21, 34, 35

Gavrani}, Jasna 58, 59

Butorac, Nada Sablji} 98, 99, 122, 123, 154, 155

Giordano, Giuseppe 84, 85

Labus, Nenad 24, 25, 28, 29, 32, 33, 112, 113, 118, 119 Lado, Guido 76, 77 Lang, Fritz 22, 23 Lazarus, Josip 30-33 Leard, Giuseppe 20, 21 Lubina, Melita 72, 73, 76, 77, 80, 81 Lu~i}, Ivana 20-23 Lukeži}, Irvin 8, 9, 30, 31-33, 48, 49, 106, 107, 108, 142, 143, 148, 149, 150-153 Luppis, Ivan 142, 143, 145 Luppis, Luigi 80-83, 150-153

Glavan, Mate 54,55,118,119 Celligoi, Eugenio 22, 23, 42, 43

Magaš, Olga 44, 45, 62-78, 88, 89, 94, 95, 100-105, 108, 109, 118, 119, 132, 133, 136, 139, 142, 143

Glavo~i}, Daina 36, 37, 48, 49, 56, 57

Celligoi, Vjenceslav 20, 21, 80, 81, 148, 149

Majer, Giuseppe Antonio 8,9

Golob, Ivana 34, 35, 62-65, 68, 69, 74, 75, 77, 78, 8689, 114, 117-119, 126, 127

Majer, Krasanka 46-49

Ciotta, Giovanni 132, 133, 139

192

Malvi}, Rotim Jasna 18-21, 30, 31, 54, 55, 140, 141,


144, 145, 150, 151

Pillepich, Santo 64, 65

Steinacker, Arturo 156, 157

Manatti, Michiele 8, 9

Polak, Eduard 124, 125

Sterner 22, 23

Martinoli, Giovanni Battista 154,155

Poli}, Nikola 100, 101

Stojanovi}, Željko 18, 19, 22, 37, 56, 111

Massart, Leo Johann 48, 49

Poski} 100, 101

Straži~i}, Nikola 6, 7, 38, 39

Matej~i}, Radmila 138, 139, 174-177

Prodam, Giovanni 162, 163

Strohal, Rudolf 8, 9, 102, 103

Mateši}, Antonio 102, 103

Proli, Charles 46, 47

Stulli, Bernard 38, 39

Matkovich, Bartolo 8, 9

Puhmajer, Petar 46, 47, 48, 49

Szüko 84-86

Matkovi}, Gašpar 100, 101, 107, 108

Pustišek, Deborah 54, 55

Matkovi}, Luka 100, 101 Mattiassi, F. 150-153

Šiki}, Franjo 80-83, 118, 119

Mattich, Giacomo 64, 65, 72-75

Ra~ki, Andrija6, 7, 92, 93, 98-109, 122, 123, 126-129, 166, 167, 174, 175

Maurovi}, Željko 140, 141

Rak 100, 101

Menini, Andrea 46, 47

Randich, Giovanni 64, 65, 88, 89, 132, 133, 166-168, 170, 171

Mennini 46, 47 Meynier, Charles 108-111 Meynier, Henry 110, 111, 152, 153 Meynier, Louis 108, 109 Mikši}, Oskar 160, 161 Minolli, L. 8, 9 Miškovi}, ^edomil 178, 179 Mohovich, Natale 76, 77 Moline, Sparks 106, 107 Moline, William 8, 9, 106, 107 Muji}, Ibrahim 166, 167 Negovetich, Giuseppe 8, 9 Negovetich, Luigi 8, 9 Ossoinack, Luigi 133 Oštri}, Dolores 72, 73, 76, 77, 80, 81 Pajkuri}, Blondina 170, 171 Palese, Francesco 94, 95 Palese, Giovanni 94, 95 Palini}, Nana18-23, 26-29, 38, 39-43, 84, 85, 88, 89, 100-105

Redlich, Leopold 172, 173 Richtmann, Vitomir 178, 179

Terezija, Marija 48, 49 Träxler, Theodor 22, 23 Trkulja, Milica 6-9, 18, 19, 98, 99, 122, 123, 162-164 Turato, Lada 24, 25, 28, 29, 32, 33, 72, 73, 76, 77, 80, 81, 118, 119 Turina, Sre}ko 126, 127

Richtmann, Zvonimir 178, 179 Richtnitz 38-41

Vannini, Augusto 52, 53

Rinaldi, Francesco 8, 9

Ve~erina, Marjan 182, 183

Rodak, Grzegorz Jan 146, 147

Veltens, Antun J. 8, 9

Rolberitz 20-23

Verpoorten, Ignazio 8, 9, 48, 49

Rubinich, Giovanni 76, 77, 80-82, 84-87

Vidalin, V. 122-125

Rudan, Dragutin 6, 7

Vodopivec, Ivor 72, 73, 76, 77, 80, 81

Rühr, Adalbert 104, 105

von Mayr 46

Rup~i} 84-86

Vranicani, Simo 100, 101

Ruži}, Gjuro 12, 13, 64-67

Vu~kovi}, Kristijan 22, 116, 126, 165

Ruži}, Ljudevit 122, 123

Zammattio, Giacomo 72, 73, 142-147, 154, 155

Sabali}, Damir 72, 73, 76, 77, 80, 81

Zielinski, Szilárd 140, 141

Scarpa, Iginio 100, 101

Zorovi}, Dinko 144, 145

Scharm, Adam Karl 50, 51

Zrn~i}, Anamarija 24, 25, 28, 29, 32, 33, 72, 73, 76, 77, 80, 81, 118, 119

Seeman, Francesco 64-66 Seiler, Andrija 48, 49 Silviani, Silvio 80, 81

Žgalji}, Josip 138, 139

Simonetti, Antonio 8, 9 Simoni}, Antun 122, 123

Wehler 20-23

Pascal, Hilarion 18, 19

Simpson, John 8, 9

Wellens, Jean Antoine 48, 49

Paškvan, Ivan 174-177

Sirola Giovanni 54, 55

Wellens, Pierre 48,49

Paškvan, Rude Pauer 174-177

Skodnik, Franjo 51, 52

Whitehead, John 100, 101

Pandža, Kristina 118, 119

Skull, Matteo 32, 33, 66, 74, 75

Whitehead, Robert 100, 101, 142-147

Pergoli, Carlo 76-78, 118, 119

Smith, Edgar Crafton 110, 111

Pernjak, Gordan 144, 145

Smith, Walter Crafton 106-108, 152, 153

Perugini, Eneo 138, 139

Smith, Walter Glennie 110, 111, 152, 153

Pessi, Josip 6, 7

Smokvina, Miljenko 34, 35, 142-145

Pfaff, Ferenc 20-23, 38-43

Spadoni, Antonio 6, 7

Pigazzi, Marco 100, 101

Spadoni, Giovanni 6, 7

Pilepi}, Nepomuk Ivan 6-9

Spadoni, Francesco 6, 7 193


Ervin Dubrovi}, Pri~a o baštini ili o ostacima i krhotinama? – 4 5 – Ervin Dubrovi}, A Story About Heritage or one About Remnants and Fragments? Ema Ani~i} RIP – Rije~ka industrijska pri~a – 6 7 – R.I.P. – Rijeka's Industrial Past Industrijska zona centar – 16 17 – industrial zone of the centre Rije~ka luka –18 19 – The Port of Rijeka Lu~ka skladišta – 20 21 – Port warehouses Tvornica Lazarus, Fabbrica macchine caldaie e piroscafi – 30 31 – Lazarus Factory, Fabbrica macchine caldaie e piroscafi Pokretni željezni~ki most – 32 33 – Movable railway bridge Svjetionik – 34 35 – Lighthouse Lu~ke dizalice – 36 37 – Port Cranes Željezni~ka skladišta – 38 39 – Railway Warehouses Željezni~ki kolodvor– 42 43 – Railway Station Remiza – 44 45 – Traction Maintenance Depot Rafinerija še}era – 46 47 – Sugar Refinery Tvornica duhana – 50 51 – Tobacco Factory Rije~ka tvornica konopa – 54 55 – Rijeka's Rope Factory Modiano – tvornica igra}ih karata – 56 57 – Modiano – Playing Cards Factory Rije~ka tvornica poku}stva – 58 59 – Rijeka's Furniture Factory Školji} i Vodovodna ulica – 60 61 – [kolji} and Vodovodna Street Tramvajska remiza na Školji}u – 62 63 – Tram depot Kožara Ruži} – 64 65 – Ruži} Tannery Ljevaonica i kovnica Matteo Skull – 64 65 – Matteo Skull Foundry and Mint Tvornica tjestenine Cartesio, Curti & Co – 70 71 – Pasta Factory Cartesio, Curti & Co Ljevaonica metala Cussar –72 73 – Cussar Metal Foundry Klaonica –76 77 – Slaughterhouse Tvornica sapuna Levi& Bianchi – 80 81 – Levi & Bianchi Soap Factory Termoelektrana – 84 85 – Thermal Power Plant Spalionica sme}a – 88 89 – Waste Incineration Plant Izvor i crpna stanica Zvir – 90 91 – Zvir spring and pumping station Kožara Palese – 94 95 – Palese Tannery Mlinovi na Rje~ini i Ruži}eva ulica – 96 97 – Mills on the Rje~ina River and Ruži}eva Street Mlin u Žaklju – 98 99 – Žakalj Mill Mateši}ev mlin – 102 103 – Mateši} Mill Tvornica papira – 106 107 – Paper Mill Ledana – 118 119 – Icehouse Kožara Bakar~i}-Simoni} – 122 123 – Bakar~i}-Simoni} Tannery Ljuštionica riže – 124 125 – Rice Mill Mlin Sre}ka Turine – 126 127 – Sre}ko Turina Mill Tvornica sapuna Heindlhofer – 128 129 – Heindlhofer Soap Factory Zapadna industrijska zona – 130 131 – Western Industrial Zone Ljuštionica riže – 132 133 – Rice Mill Kompleks rije~ke Rafinerije nafte – 136 137 – Rijeka's Oil Refinery complex Hotel Emigranti – 140 141 – Hotel Emigranti Ljevaonica metala Robert Whitehead & Co – 142 143 – Metal Foundry Robert Whitehead & Co Vila Whitehead – 146 147 – Vila Whitehead Brodogradilište 3. maj – 148 149 – Third May Shipyard (3. maj) Pogon kemijske industrije – Stabilimento prodotti chimici – 150 151 – Stabilimento prodotti chimici Tvornica kakaa i ~okolade – 154 155 – Cocoa and Chocolate Factory Isto~na industrijska zona – 158 159 – Eastern Industrial Zone Pala~a Littorale – 160 161 – Littorale Palace Alga ljekarni~ko-kozmeti~ki laboratorij – 162 163 – Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Laboratory Alga Rije~ka parna tvornica konjaka i žestokih pi}a – 166 167 – Rijeka's Brandy and Spirits Steam Plant Talionica kovina i kemijska industrija – 170 171 – Smelter and Chemical Industry Tvornica Redlich – 170 171 – Redlich Factory Lazaret u Martinš}ici – 174 175 – Lazaretto in Martinš}ica Tvornica Plumbum – 178 179 – Plumbum Factory Tvornica Vulkan – 180 181 – Vulkan Factory Prva jugoslavenska tvornica uko~enog drva – 182 183 – First Yugoslav Plywood Factory Literatura – 185 185 – References Kazalo imena – 192 1 92 – Index


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RIJEČKA INDUSTRIJSKA PRIČA- R.I.P.  

Autorica: Ema Aničić Izdavač: Muzej grada Rijeke Dvojezično izdanje: hrvatski i engleski Format: 28 x 23 cm, meki uvez, ilustracije u boji,...

RIJEČKA INDUSTRIJSKA PRIČA- R.I.P.  

Autorica: Ema Aničić Izdavač: Muzej grada Rijeke Dvojezično izdanje: hrvatski i engleski Format: 28 x 23 cm, meki uvez, ilustracije u boji,...

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