Page 1

TRIBHUVAN UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING KATHMANDU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT TERMINAL AT BHAIRAHAWA

By RIJAN LAMICHHANE 067 B ARCH / 67032

A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE

DEPARMENT OF ARCHITECTURE KATHMANDU, NEPAL

November, 2015


CERTIFICATE This is to certify that this thesis entitled “INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT TERMINAL” at Bhairahawa, Rupandehi submitted by Mr. Rijan Lamichhane has been examined and it has been declared successful for the partial fulfillment of the academic requirement towards the completion of the Degree of Bachelor of Architecture.

P.Hada

..................................... Lect. Prajwal Hada (Thesis Supervisor) 04/10/2015 Date: ......................


DECLARATION I declare that this thesis represents my own work, except where acknowledged, and the work here in has not been previously included in a thesis submitted to this University or any other institution for the purpose of a degree, diploma or for publication. I state that this thesis is the result of my own independent work/ investigation, except where otherwise stated. I hereby give consent for my thesis, if accepted, to be available for photo copying and understand that any reference to or quotation from my thesis will receive an acknowledgement.

…………………………. Rijan Lamichhane (67032) 25/09/2015 Date: ……………………..


ABSTRACT

For the thesis of architectural bachelor program, I have chosen INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT as my thesis project for research and design. This report is a part of academic thesis project of 5th year 2nd part, International Airport. This report consists of the Literature Review, Case Study, Site Analysis, Program Formulation, Design Development and Final Drawings. An international airport is an airport typically equipped with customs and immigrations facilities to handle international flights to and from other countries. Such airports are usually larger, and often feature longer runways and facilities to accommodate the large aircraft commonly used for international or intercontinental travel. International airports often host domestic flights in addition to international flights. Airport is like a total city devoted to dynamic movement. These are among the busiest transportation centers and are composed of several areas and structures that are designed to serve the needs of both aircraft and passengers. Runways are the long, narrow areas where airplanes take off and land. Taxiways are paths that aircraft follow from runways to the terminal building, where passengers are bored and exit aircraft at areas called gates located within the terminal. The terminal also contains ticket and baggage counters. The control tower is located near the terminal from where people involved in air traffic control coordinate aircraft movement both in the air and on the ground. For security purposes, access to major airports is usually limited to special roads. Many airports have large automobile parking areas or multistory ramps to accommodate travelers. The proposed site for the project is the existing Bhairahawa airport, Bhairahawa, Nepal. The project will be as per the feasibility study and design approach used by the CAAN. As the planning and design of the airport is one of the mega project which could be rarely completed in this limited time. So, in this dissertation of airport, it is limited to the architectural features, planning and layout of the main components of airport and some part of the airport security.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the Department of Architecture, Kathmandu Engineering College for providing this opportunity to research and prepare this report which indeed helped me to gain the knowledge about the planning of airport. I would also like to express my gratification to my thesis supervisor, Ar. Prajwol Hada for his continual support and invaluable suggestions and guidance throughout the course of this research. I would like to express my gratitude towards the Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal and especially to Er. Murari Bhandari for providing me with the map of the proposed site.


TABLE OF CONTENTS CERTIFICATE ...................................................................................................... i DECLARATION................................................................................................... ii ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................... iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................... iv FIGURES ............................................................................................................. xi TABLES .............................................................................................................. xv 1.

INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... 2 1.1.

INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 2

1.2.

AIRPORT SYSTEM .................................................................................................... 3

1.3.

AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM ......................................................................... 3

1.4.

HISTORY AND MILESTONE OF CIVIL AVAITION OF NEPAL......................... 4

1.4.1.

CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS RELATED TO AIRPORT IN NEPAL ............................................... 4

1.5.

AIRPORTS IN NEPAL ............................................................................................... 5

1.6.

AVIATION SAFETY IN NEPAL ............................................................................... 5

1.7.

AIR TRAFFIC FORECAST ........................................................................................ 6

1.8.

PROJECT:INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT AT BHAIRAHAWA .............................. 7

1.9.

OBJECTIVES .............................................................................................................. 7

1.10.

JUSTIFICATION ..................................................................................................... 8

1.11.

PROJECT JUSTIFICATION ................................................................................... 8

1.12.

PROBLEM STATEMENT ...................................................................................... 9

1.13.

THE SITE ................................................................................................................. 9

1.14.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION ................................................................................. 12

1.15.

METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................. 12

2.1.

GENERAL BACKGROUND .................................................................................... 14

2.1.1.

HISTORY OF AVIATION ................................................................................................................. 14

2.1.2.

AVIATION ORGANIZATIONS ........................................................................................................ 15

2.2.

AIRPORT PLANNING ............................................................................................. 16


2.2.1.

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 16

2.3.

AIRPORT MASTER PLAN ...................................................................................... 17

2.3.1.

FACILITY REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................................................... 17

2.3.2.

DATA REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................. 18

2.4.

GENERAL BACKGROUND .................................................................................... 19

2.5.

AIRPORT CLASSIFICATION AND CODE STANDARD ..................................... 19

2.5.1.

ICAO CODE........................................................................................................................................ 19

2.5.2.

AIRPORT CAPACITY ....................................................................................................................... 20

2.6.

AIRPORT SITE SELECTION .................................................................................. 20

2.7.

LAND USE PLANNING .......................................................................................... 22

2.7.1.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY ............................................................................................................ 23

2.7.2.

GROUND ACCESS ............................................................................................................................ 23

2.7.3.

VECHILE PARKING ......................................................................................................................... 24

2.8.

CIRCULATION SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS.................................................... 25

2.8.1.

OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE REQUIREMENT ........................................................................... 27

2.8.2.

EVALUATION OF NOISE................................................................................................................ 28

2.9.

DESIGN METHODOLOGIES .................................................................................. 29

2.9.1.

GENERAL .......................................................................................................................................... 29

2.9.2.

FORECAST ......................................................................................................................................... 30

2.9.3.

TRANSLATING FORECAST TO PEAK DEMAND ........................................................................ 30

2.9.4.

PEAK DAILY ACTIVITY.................................................................................................................. 30

2.9.5.

PEAK HOURLY ACTIVITY ............................................................................................................. 31

2.9.6.

EQUIVALENT AIRCRAFT (EQA) FACTORS ................................................................................ 31

2.10. AIRPLANE BASIC PART ........................................................................................ 33 2.11. AIRSIDE AREA ........................................................................................................ 33 2.11.1. RUNWAY ........................................................................................................................................... 34 2.11.2. TAXIWAY AND TAXILANE ........................................................................................................... 37


2.11.3. HOLDING APRON ............................................................................................................................ 41

2.12. LANDSIDE AREA .................................................................................................. 41 2.12.1. TERMINAL BUILDING .................................................................................................................... 41

2.13. AIRCRAFT GROUND HANDLING ........................................................................ 45 2.13.1. LOADING BRIDGE ........................................................................................................................... 47 2.14.1. FLOW AND FUNCTIONS OF PASSENGERS IN TERMINAL AREA .......................................... 60 2.14.2. SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS IN PASSENGER TERMINAL DESIGN AND LAYOUT ......... 63

2.15. AIRPORT SAFETY AND SECURITY ..................................................................... 65 2.15.1. AIRPORT SECURITY ........................................................................................................................ 65 2.15.2. AIRCRAFT FIRE AND RESCUE STATION .................................................................................... 66

2.16. TERMINAL SPACE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................... 69 2.16.1. GROSS TERMINAL AREA PER GATE ........................................................................................... 69 2.16.2. SPACE ALLOCATIONS .................................................................................................................... 71 2.16.3. SECURITY INSPECTION STATIONS ............................................................................................. 75 2.16.4. TERMINAL CURB AREA ................................................................................................................. 77 2.16.5. BAGGAGE CLAIM FACILITIES ...................................................................................................... 80

3.

CASE STUDY ........................................................................................... 83 3.1.

TRIBHUVAN INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT ........................................................ 83

3.1.1.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................ 83

3.1.2.

POTENTIALITY OF SITE ................................................................................................................. 83

3.1.3.

TIA PROFILE ..................................................................................................................................... 84

3.1.4.

CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY OF NEPAL .................................................................................. 84

3.1.5.

AIRLINE AFFAIRS ............................................................................................................................ 85

3.1.6.

MASTER PLAN.................................................................................................................................. 85

3.1.7.

PHYSICAL FACILITIES OF TIA ...................................................................................................... 87

3.1.8.

APRON................................................................................................................................................ 88

3.1.9.

RUNWAY ........................................................................................................................................... 88


3.1.10. OTHER COMPONENTS .................................................................................................................... 88 3.1.11. SILENT FEATURES OF THE TRIBHUVAN INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT ................................ 89 3.1.12. CAPACITY IMPROVEMENT SCENARIO ...................................................................................... 93 3.1.13. ANALYSIS ......................................................................................................................................... 94

3.2.

DELHI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT TERMINAL 3 ........................................ 95

3.2.1.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................ 95

3.2.2.

FEATURES OF TERMINAL 3 .......................................................................................................... 97

3.2.3.

T3 TERMINAL BUILDING ............................................................................................................... 98

3.2.4.

FLOW IN THE TERMINAL 3 ......................................................................................................... 101

3.3.

DENVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (DIA) ................................................... 103

3.3.1.

OVERVIEW ...................................................................................................................................... 104

3.3.2.

ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................................................................. 106

3.3.3.

AIRPORT INFRASTRUCTURES .................................................................................................... 107

3.3.4.

JEPPESEN TERMINAL ................................................................................................................... 109

3.3.5.

FACILITIES ...................................................................................................................................... 113

3.3.6.

GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL LEADER ....................................................................................... 114

3.4.

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ................................................................................ 115

4.

PROGRAM FORMULATION ............................................................... 119

5.

SITE ANALYSIS .................................................................................... 130 5.1.

SITE INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 130

5.2.

GENERAL INFORMATION .................................................................................. 131

5.3.

AIRPORT ACTIVITIES SUBSYSTEM ................................................................. 132

5.4.

PHYSICAL FEATURES AND THE TOPOGRAPHY .......................................... 134

5.5.

AIRPORT OBSTRUCTION ZONE ........................................................................ 134

5.6.

PHYSICAL IMPACT .............................................................................................. 135

5.7.

CLIMETIC ANALYSIS AND THE LESSON LEARNED FROM MAHONEY

TABLE ................................................................................................................................ 136


5.8.

SWOT ANALYSIS ................................................................................................. 137

STRENGTH ........................................................................................................................ 137 WEAKNESS ................................................................................................................................................... 137 OPPURTUNITY ............................................................................................................................................. 137

6.

PLANNING AND CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT ................................. 139 6.1.

PLANNING CONCEPT .......................................................................................... 139

6.1.1.

Functional Consideration ................................................................................................................... 139

6.1.2.

Promoting National and Local Economy ........................................................................................... 139

6.1.3.

Environmental and aesthetic harmony ............................................................................................... 139

6.1.4.

Development of socio-cultural and religious value ........................................................................... 139

6.2.

PROPOSED ZONING ............................................................................................. 140

6.3.

Terminal Building .................................................................................................... 142

6.3.1.

Design Development phase I ........................................................................................................ 142

6.3.2.

Design Development phase II ............................................................................................................ 143

6.3.3.

Design Development phase III .......................................................................................................... 145

6.3.4.

Landscape Concept ............................................................................................................................ 148

6.4.

Structure ................................................................................................................... 150

Space frame system ................................................................................. 150

Pneumatic structures ................................................................................ 150

Cable structure ......................................................................................... 150

Pv cells ..................................................................................................... 150

Rainwater harvesting ............................................................................... 150

Water treatment plant............................................................................... 150 6.4.2.

Material Used .................................................................................................................................... 150

6.4.3.

Structural Foundation Systems .......................................................................................................... 151

6.4.4.

Pneumatic structure ......................................................................................................................... 151

6.4.5.

Tensile Structure ................................................................................................................................ 152


7.

3D VIEWS AND MODEL WORK ......................................................... 155

8.

REFERENCES ........................................................................................ 159


FIGURES Figure 2-1-1 Airport System..................................................................................................... 16 Figure 2-2ICAO code for Airport ............................................................................................. 20 Figure 2-3 Centralized Layout .................................................................................................. 25 Figure 2-4 Segmented Layout .................................................................................................. 25 Figure 2-5 Decentralized Layout .............................................................................................. 26 Figure 2-6 Unitized Layout ...................................................................................................... 26 Figure 2-7: Required Obstruction free areas for take-off/landing, Plan View Figure

2-8:

Surrounding

requirements

at

.................. 27 the

airport

.................................................................................................................................................. 28 Figure

2-9:

Preferential

Runway

for

Noise

Abatement

.................................................................................................................................................. 29 Figure 2-10: Length and wheel base of aircraft ........................................................................ 33 Figure 2-11:General System of Airside Area ........................................................................... 34 Figure 2-12:FAA design code for runway for category A &B................................................. 35 Figure 2-13:FAA design code foe runway for category C,D&E .............................................. 35 Figure 2-14:Runway Parts ........................................................................................................ 36 Figure 2-15: Runway Object Free Area ................................................................................... 37 Figure 2-16:Runway Protection Zone ...................................................................................... 37 Figure 2-17:Runway and Taxiway ........................................................................................... 38 Figure 2-18: Parallel Taxiway Seperation Clearance ............................................................... 39 Figure 2-19: Taxiway Curvature .............................................................................................. 40 Figure 2-20: Taxiway curvature dimension Standard By FAA ................................................ 40


Figure 2-21: Holding Apron ..................................................................................................... 41 Figure 2-22:Functional Diagram of terminal Building............................................................. 42 Figure 2-23: Linear Concept..................................................................................................... 42 Figure 2-24:Finger/Pier Concept .............................................................................................. 43 Figure 2-25:Satellite Concept ................................................................................................... 43 Figure 2-26: Midfield Concept ................................................................................................. 44 Figure 2-27: Transporter Concept ............................................................................................ 45 Figure 2-28: Dual vs. Single Taxilane Layout and Dimension

........................................ 46

Figure 2-29: Telescope to connect the departure lounge with aircraft Figure

2-30:

Linear

Concept

......................... 48 Plan

.................................................................................................................................................. 51 Figure 2-31: The Satellite concept Figure 2-32: Pier Concept

......................................................................... 53

................................................................................................... 52

Figure 2-33: The Transporter concept

................................................................................ 54

Figure 2-34: Concept Combination and Variation

....................................................... 57

Figure 2-35: (A), (B), (C), (D), (E), (F), G), (H), (I). Shows the typical Loading Methods .................................................................................................................................................. 59 Figure 2-36 Baggage loading and unloading sequence ............................................................ 62 Figure 2-37 passenger/baggage flow system ............................................................................ 62 Figure 2-38: ARFF (Aircraft Rescue Fire Fighting Vehicles) VEHICLES

...............................

.................................................................................................................................................. 68 Figure 2-39Gross Terminal Area Space Distribution ............................................................... 71 Figure 2-40 Linear Ticket Counter ........................................................................................... 73 Figure 2-41Flow -through Counters ......................................................................................... 73


Figure 2-42 Island Counter ....................................................................................................... 74 Figure 2-43 Security Inspection Layout ................................................................................... 76 Figure 2-44 Deplaning Curb ..................................................................................................... 78 Figure 2-45Mechanical Claim Device ...................................................................................... 81 Figure 3-1 TIA Terminal Building ........................................................................................... 83 Figure 3-2 Airline list for TIA .................................................................................................. 85 Figure 3-3 Master plan of TIA ................................................................................................. 86 Figure 3-4: Airport Apron ........................................................................................................ 87 Figure 3-5: Aircraft Arrangement in the Domestic Apron ....................................................... 88 Figure 3-6 Runway ................................................................................................................... 88 Figure 3-7 Departure Lobby lit by Clerestory Light ................................................................ 90 Figure 3-8: Departing Passenger Flow within the Terminal Building ..................................... 91 Figure 3-9: Departing Passenger Flow within First Floor ........................................................ 92 Figure 3-1 Delhi International Airport T3 ................................................................................ 95 Figure 3-2-0-1:Ground Floor Level-Arrival ............................................................................. 99 Figure 3-2-0-2:First Floor level-Departure............................................................................. 100 Figure 3-2-0-3 Floor Plan of T3 ............................................................................................. 101 Figure 3-0-4 Gate in T3 .......................................................................................................... 101 Figure 3-0-5 Arrival of T3 ...................................................................................................... 101 Figure 3-0-6 Arrival hall......................................................................................................... 102 Figure 3--2-0-7 Departure Checking and Immigration .......................................................... 102 Figure 3-0-1 Depature Hall..................................................................................................... 102 Figure 3-3-0-2 Ariel view of the airport ................................................................................. 103


Figure 3-3-0-1 Denver International Airport .......................................................................... 104 Figure 3-4-0-1 Iconic Roof Structure ..................................................................................... 104 Figure 5-1 Satellite image....................................................................................................... 130 Figure 5-2Curbside ................................................................................................................. 131 Figure 5-3Arrival .................................................................................................................... 131 Figure 5-4 Existing Airport .................................................................................................... 131 Figure 5-5 Parking .................................................................................................................. 131


TABLES Table 1-1 Chronology of events ................................................................................................. 4 Table 1-2 Air traffic forecast ...................................................................................................... 6 Table

2-1:

Base

Year

Total

Gate

EQA

Computation

.................................................................................................................................................. 32 2-2:ICAO code for runway width ............................................................................................. 36 2-3:Basic taxiway width ........................................................................................................... 38 Table 2-4 Flow of Passengers ................................................................................................... 60 Table 2-5 FAA terminal space design standardS ..................................................................... 70 Table 2-6 IATA level of service space standards for airport passenger terminal .................... 71 Table 2-7 Dwell time and vehicle slot lengths ......................................................................... 79 Table 4-4-1 Long Term Passenger Forecast ........................................................................... 119 Table 5-1 Category of Aircraft w.r.t speed ............................................................................. 134


INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT TERMINAL AT BHAIRAHAWA

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

RIJAN LAMICHHANE 067/B.ARCH/67032

P A G E |1


INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT TERMINAL AT BHAIRAHAWA

1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1.

INTRODUCTION

P A G E |2

“An airport can be described as an “aerodrome for the arrival and departure of passengers and goods” and can be termed as the “gateways to countries”. An airport is a location where aircraft such as fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, and blimps take off and land. Aircraft may be stored or maintained at an airport. An airport consists of at least one surface such as a runway for a plane to take off and land, a helipad, or water for takeoffs and landings, and often includes buildings such as control towers, hangars and terminal buildings. Airport is like a total city devoted to dynamic movement. Airports are among the busiest transportation centers. The United States has by far the greatest number of airports in the world. More than half the world’s airports and more than two-thirds of the world’s 400busiest airports are located in the United States. There are more than 19,000 civil landing areas in the United States, including heliports, seaplane bases, and “fixed-wing” landing facilities. Most of these facilities are privately owned, and for private use only 1. Since its beginning in the early twentieth century, civil aviation has become one of the most fascinating, important, and complex industries in the world. The civil aviation system, particularly its airports, has come to be the backbone of world transport and a necessity to twenty-first-century trade and commerce. In 2008, the commercial service segment of civil aviation, consisting of more than 900 airlines and 22,000 aircraft, carried more than 2 billion passengers and 85 million tons of cargo on more than 74 million flights to more than 1700 airports in more than 180 countries worldwide. Millions more private, corporate, and charter “general aviation” operations were conducted at thousands of commercial and general aviation airports throughout the world. In many parts of the world, commercial service and general aviation serve as the primary, if not the only method of transportation between communities 2.

1

2

Airport planning and management, Alexander T. Wells, Ed.D.Seth B. Young, Ph.D. Planning and Design of Airports, Robert Horonjeff, Francis X. McKelvey, William J. Sproule

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INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT TERMINAL AT BHAIRAHAWA

1.2.

P A G E |3

AIRPORT SYSTEM

For the purpose of identifying the location of functions, an airport can be considered to consist of two areas: •

Airside  Runway  Taxiway

Landside  Apron  Terminal  Ground transportation  Supportive facilities 

1.3.

AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

It has mainly 3 components. They are; 1. Users a. Passengers b. Cargo 2. Air transport operators a. Airport b. Airlines c. ATM/ATC 3. Aerospace manufactures a. Aircraft/engine b. Airport & ATC facilities/equipments

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INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT TERMINAL AT BHAIRAHAWA

1.4.

P A G E |4

HISTORY AND MILESTONE OF CIVIL AVAITION OF NEPAL

The chronicles of the Nepalese aviation reveal us some of the most interesting facts and figures especially how this tiny green cow-grazing pastures, the "Gaucharan", metamorphosed into the present TIA. The history of aviation in Nepal began with a glider in 1947 and vintage Beach-craft Bonanza aircraft landing at Gauchar, in 1949. It was followed by another flight in 1950 by Dakota Aircraft (DC3) of Indian Registration commenced the first ever schedule service linking Kathmandu to Patna, Calcutta and Delhi. In the year 1951 Nepalese people witnessed the historical and auspicious landing of Late H.M. King Trihhuvan B.B. Shah in the month of February, ushering in the waves of Democracy into Nepal. As such in the year 1955 Kathmandu airport was named as Tribhuvan Airport and later in 1964 it was declared as Tribhuvan International Airport after the establishment of Department of Civil Aviation in 1957 3. 1.4.1. CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS RELATED TO AIRPORT IN NEPAL Table 1-1 Chronology of events

1949

The date heralds the formal beginning of aviation in Nepal with the landing of a 4 seat lane powered vintage Beach-craft Bonanza aircraft of Indian Ambassador Mr. Sarjit Singh Mahathia at Gauchar.

1955

King Mahendra inaugurated Gauchar Airport and renamed it as Tribhuwan Airport

1957

Department of Civil Aviation founded

1958

Royal Nepal Airlines started scheduled services domestically and externally

1960

Nepal attained ICAO membership

1967

Landing of a German Airlines Lufthansa Boeing 707

1975

TIA runway extended to 10,000 feet from the previous 6600 ft

1977

Nepal imprinted in the World Aeronautical Chart

1989

Completion of the International Terminal Building and first landing od

3

www.tiairport.com.np/airport-guide/chronological-development-of-tia.html

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P A G E |5

Concorde 1990

New International Terminal Building of TIA inaugurated by King Birendra

1995

Domestic Terminal Building at TIA and Apron Expanded

1.5.

AIRPORTS IN NEPAL

At present there are 54 airports including six under constructions. Among these airports, 34 airports are operational with regular services: •

International Airport: o Tribhuwan International Airport (TIA), Kathmandu

Domestic Hub Airport: o Regional Airports: Biratnagar, Pokhara, Bhairahawa and Nepalgunj Airports o Domestic Airports: out of 36, only 29 are in operation

1.6.

AVIATION SAFETY IN NEPAL

Officially Civil Aviation in Nepal started with the promulgation of Civil Aviation Act 1959 by the parliament. Nepal became the member of ICAO in 1960. ICAO is the permanent body that sets the standard for aviation safety, security efficiency and regularity as well as the aviation environmental protection. Nepal adopted the liberal sky policy in 1992 to provide a healthy and competitive environment for the development of airline industry in an images shift from an environment for decades had been dominated by the state carrier. In concerned with the Nepal Flight Safety related issues are focused in Civil Aviation Policy 2063 B.S. according to which: •

For the enhancement of aviation Safety in Nepal all standard (limitations) and recommendations of ICAO shall be implemented by high priority.

Import of aging aircraft shall be discouraged by the required limitations and directives

The woks related to study and research of air transport, aircraft accident investigation, aviation safety oversight shall be of international standard level and well organized

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INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT TERMINAL AT BHAIRAHAWA

P A G E |6

legal mechanism shall be developed for the enhancement of monitoring capabilities of their activities. •

Satellite based communication; air navigation and monitoring system or similar type of facilities need to be developed in Nepal Air Traffic Management

Nepalese Airspace shall be restructured and revised for instrumental Air Traffic Management.

1.7.

AIR TRAFFIC FORECAST 25B

Table 1-2 Air traffic forecast

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Source: CAAN


INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT TERMINAL AT BHAIRAHAWA

1.8.

P A G E |7

PROJECT:INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT AT BHAIRAHAWA

The Regional International Airport has been proposed at Bhairahawa by the government.The government has already done necessary land acquisition work required for the construction of the airport. An agreement has been signed between Nepal Government and Asian Development Bank for US$28 million loan and US$6.41 million grant for the development of Gautam Buddha International airport under South Asian Tourism Infrastructure Development project to help develop tourism in Lumbini area and to diversify congestion at TIA. The Project is to upgrade GBA to an International Airport with similar standard to the Tribhuwan International Airport (TIA) in Kathmandu. With upgrading of GBA, it is envisioned to enable Nepal to provide more air seat capacity for visitors that will increase the current volume of travellers.

1.9.

OBJECTIVES •

To create an iconic airport in Nepal

To design a well-planned International Airport for the expansion of the air transportation, keeping in view the international standards with the modern facilities

To provide transit node for the International and domestic route, assisting present TIA from heavy traffic burden

To sustain tourism sector, business, market and industrial development

To provide high degree of safety and services to the air travelers

To help the process of decentralization from the capital city

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1.10.

P A G E |8

JUSTIFICATION

Nepal’s advantage in tourism signified by its access to the Himalayas, its unique culture, and its historical heritage are universally recognized. The tourism sector has been accorded high priority by the Government of Nepal. The sustained development of the tourism sector is an important way of: •

Promoting and managing the country’s cultural, ecological and environmental heritage

Generating a demand for goods and services through increased tourist arrivals and higher spending

Increasing foreign exchange earnings

1.11.

PROJECT JUSTIFICATION

Nepal’s advantage in tourism signified by its access to the Himalayas, its unique culture, and its historical heritage are universally recognized. The tourism sector has been accorded high priority by the Government of Nepal. The sustained development of the tourism sector is an important way of: •

Promoting and managing the country’s cultural, ecological and environmental heritage

Generating a demand for goods and services through increased tourist arrivals and higher spending

Increasing foreign exchange earnings

Reducing poverty by diversifying the benefits of tourism, throughout the country

Biratnagar, Bhairahawa and Nepalgunj are linked with India for business reasons, so there are chances to exploit this market segment too. There are many Buddhist tourists travelling to Lumbini, close to Bhairahawa, and that could offer another opportunity for air transportation development.

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INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT TERMINAL AT BHAIRAHAWA

1.12.

P A G E |9

PROBLEM STATEMENT 30B

Nepal is handicapped because of its landlocked situation: India and China borders the boundary of Nepal. The country has no route for sea access and thus air transport is the only alternative to drive in tourists and promote tourism in Nepal. TIA (Tribhuwan International Airport), the one and only International Airport in Nepal, has to bore 3.7 million (international and domestic) passenger in the upcoming decade as per the data obtained from CAAN: double the inflow of present passenger. TIA will not be able to cope with the human traffic and with the advancements in air traffic technologies and advancements. This drawback of TIA seems to have discouraged a great many international flight in Nepal. As a result, in cases of diversion, emergency or any other unusual situation the aircraft to/from TIA have to divert to India or Bangladesh. This weakness of the present TIA also justifies the construction of an International Airport at Bhairahawa. 1.13. THE SITE 31B

BHAIRAHAWA: In course to catch up Kathmandu Bhairahawa -- spelling variation Bhairahawa and also known as Siddharthanagar -- is a pleasant city of about 70,000 people on the Terai plains of Nepal. It is 265 km. (165 miles) west of the capital Kathmandu and three kilometers north of the Indian border at Sunauli. Bhairahawa is the main travel gateway to the Buddhist pilgrim's circuit of Lumbini, Kapilvastu and Kathmandu). Hindu pilgrims also enter Nepal here on pilgrimages to Kathmandu's Pashupatinath. Bhairahawa is also a gateway to Nepal for Figure 1-2 Existing GBA Terminal overland travelers and backpackers heading for jungle and mountain treks, river rafting and other adventures. Government of Nepal has long recognized tourism as a priority sector to boost the country’s economy and source of foreign exchange. Lumbini, the birth place of Lord Buddha, is one of the destinations for tourism development prioritized by Government of Nepal. Lumbini was declared a UNESCO Cultural World Heritage Site (WHS) in 1997 in recognition of its universal religious and archaeological significance. The four primary destinations of

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Lumbini, Bodh Gaya, Sarnath and Kushinagar hold particular significance for Buddhists all over the world. With an ever increasing flow of pilgrims and tourists in Lumbini, transportation service demand continues to grow rapidly. In this regard, the principal objective of the Project is to upgrade GBA to an International Airport with similar standard to the Tribhuwan International Airport (TIA) in Kathmandu. With upgrading of GBA, it is envisioned to enable Nepal to provide more air seat capacity for visitors that will increase the current volume of travelers. Another objective is to enhance the quality of tourism by creating employment opportunities to stimulate economic growth for poverty alleviation. There are currently no direct air services to Lumbini from South and Southeast Asian countries, and the proposed facility will assist development of the Nepal subcircuit linking Kathmandu, Pokhara, Tansen-Palpa, Lumbini, Chitwan and back to Kathmandu. Date of first service

July 4, 1958

Aerodrome reference point

273026N and 08832505E

Elevation

358ft AMSL

Land assets

84 bighas and 3 kattha

Runway designation

10/28

Runway dimension

5000 x 100 ft

Surface

Bitumen

Services

Air Traffic Control

RFF

Category V

Design aircraft

HS-748, ATR-42, SAAB-340

Table 1-2 Key Features of GBA Source: CAAN

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The Government of Nepal has agreed to buy a new aircraft for the national carrier, Nepal Airlines. The Airbus 320-200 series and Airbus 330-200 series will be able to land on the runway of Nepal soon. The 320 series could hold 180 passengers whereas the 330 series could hold up to 380 passengers. These models are developed by the world leading European Aircraft manufacturer Airbus, although these models are new to the Nepal Aviation but for the rest of the world, it is a common phenomenon as the latest aircraft developed by the Airbus is the A380 series which is the world’s largest aircraft and most country have adjusted their airport to accommodate the aircraft. Nepal should be aware of the ever changing international aviation scenario. Although once being listed as the world’s worst airports, CAAN and the concerned authorities should take heed and practice safe and sound aviation practice for Nepal.

Figure 1-3 Satellite Image of GBA

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SCOPE AND LIMITATION

Proposed airport design to bring an iconic image to the ciy of Bhairahawa and for international recognition in aviation

The study of the project and the design formulation has been done for the fulfillment of the Bachelor degree of Architecture (Final Year, Thesis).

Hypothetical design alternative to an airport design in preliminary construction phase

1.15.

METHODOLOGY

The general methodology for the project includes: •

General study of airports

History of aviation o Worldwide o In context to Nepal

Literature review

Case study o Case study targeted airport structure: 

TIA: Tribhuwan International Airport

Delhi Indira Gandhi Airport

Denver International Airport

o Analysis and findings (qualitative/quantitative) o Program formulation & requirements •

Site o Selection o Analysis

Design o Design concept o Design development o Final design

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

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2.1.

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GENERAL BACKGROUND

Transportation sector is one of the most important branches of planning which shouldn't be taken in hand independently from other sectors. It is necessary to evaluate also all modes of transportation together because of their interdependency. This attitude should be valid for preparation of macro level plans at different scales. Air transport is the newest mode of transport and safety, speed and comfort makes it preferable. Its incredible growth trend in less than a century shows that, it will be more widespread means of transport in the future. 2.1.1. HISTORY OF AVIATION French Joseph and Etienne Montgolfier Brothers invented that an object which is lighter than air can fly and by using hydrogen and helium gases they succeeded to hover a balloon to 5000 m height which had 12 m radius and 750 m3 volume in June, 4, 1783. All aircraft which sustain their weight by displacing an equal weight of air is called as lighter than air. The two milestones of aviation generated by lighter than air craft; the first control able flight by an aircraft was succeeded by a non-rigid airship and in the 1850s and the first passenger air service was generated by zeppelins. Zeppelin Company and its subsidiary Delag began carrying passengers on flights within Germany in 1910 and from 1929 to 1937 provided a unique transatlantic air service, but their weakness against strong winds because of their large body and the use of easily burned gases such as hydrogen and helium caused several accidents. Modem airship vehicle concepts are partly heavier than air and partly lighter than air and they are used for STOL (short take-off and landing) vehicles or some have VTOL (vertical takeoff and landing) capability. First flight of a heavier-than-air craft was succeeded by Otto Litienthal (1848-1896) by a glider in 1890. He determined the methods and techniques for flight of a heavier than-air craft so became the pioneer of the passage from glider to plane. Clement Ader who was the real pioneer of aviation history had flown 50 m with his glider in 1890. The first powered flight in a heavier-than air aircraft was succeeded by Orville Wright on December 17, 1903, in North Caroline. This 120 ft. flight was the first such statistic recorded in aviation history and bicycle repairer Wright Brothers' success was a real surprise in the aviation world.

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In July 25, 1909, French engineer Bleriot had flown over the English Channel (la Manche). Then for the construction of aircraft aluminum had begun used instead of wood and cloth. By using aluminum in bodies and wings and by adding high power engines, the time, speed and capacity of flight increased. Parallel to this growth in 1920 the first scheduled flights had begun between Hamburg-Copenhagen-Amsterdam. In May 21, 1921, Charles Lindberg became the first man who crossed the Atlantic Ocean with his aircraft named as 'Sprit of St. Louis'. His 5 883 Ian travel between New York and Paris had lasted 33 h 39 min and then aircraft have begun a safe and speedy transport means for human and freight. In 1930s the necessity of ground facilities for passenger became important and first air station was built in 1925, in Berlin and after 1930 during the 2nd World War, civil and military aviation had grown rapidly. By the introduction of jets into the arena airfields had turned to airports. Air transport is the newest mode of travel, safest, most expensive, and most speedy and also it uses the latest developments of related industries especially electronic at a maximum level. Higher prices caused by high costs of aircraft and by high construction costs of airports. 2.1.2. AVIATION ORGANIZATIONS ICAO is the most important international agency concerned with airport development which was formed during a conference of 52 nations held in Chicago in 1944. Annex 14 published by ICAO contains the international design standards and recommended practices for applicable to all commercial airports. There are also so many groups involved in technical and promotional aspects of aviation at international level such as HAI, ACI and IATA 400 large airports and airport authorities throughout the world are members of the Airports Council International (CACI) which is based in Geneva, Switzerland. The Helicopter Association International (HAI) is an association represents the interests of each manufacturers and users and located in Alexandria, Virginia. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is an association of scheduled carriers in international air transportation with headquarters in Montreal, Canada.

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AIRPORT PLANNING

2.2.1. INTRODUCTION Airport planning may be defined as the employment of an organized strategy for the future management of airport operations, facilities designs, airfield configurations, financial allocations and revenues, environmental impacts, and organizational structures. Airport planning requires more intensive study and forethought as compared to planning of other modes of transport. This is because aviation is the most dynamic industry and its forecast is quite complex. It is very difficult to predict for the airport, satisfying the present needs, whether this airport shall prove adequate for the new types of aircrafts which may emerge after 10 years. The airport design engineers, therefore, is required to keep in touch with the recent trends and also with likely future projections in the aviation activities.

Figure 2-1-1 Airport System

Source- Planning and Design of Airport McGraw

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AIRPORT MASTER PLAN

An airport master plan presents the planner’s conception of the ultimate development of a specific airport. It effectively presents the research and logic from which the plan was evolved and artfully displays the plan in a graphic and written report. The typical airport master plan has a planning horizon of 20 years. The Federal Aviation Administration notes that for a master plan to be considered valid it must be updated every 20 years or when changes in the airport or surrounding environment occur, or when moderate and major construction may require federal funding. The objectives of the master plan according to FAA are: •

To provide an effective graphic presentation of the ultimate development of the airport and of anticipated land uses adjacent to the airport.

To establish a schedule of priorities and phasing for the various improvements proposed in the plan.

To present the pertinent backup information and data that was essential to the development of the master plan.

To describe the various concepts and alternatives those were considered in the establishment of the proposed plan.

To provide a concise and descriptive report so that the impact and logic of its recommendations can be clearly understood by the community the airport serves and by those authorities and public agencies that are charged with the approval, promotion, and funding of the improvements proposed in the airport master plan.

2.3.1.

FACILITY REQUIREMENTS

They type of new facilities required, their scale, and the staging of their construction are determined as a result of the demand-capacity analysis. These elements are developed according to FAA standards in the United States and according to ICAO or applicable national standards elsewhere. The facilities required and the elements requiring consideration are as follows: 1. Runway: length, width, clearance, clear zone, approach slopes, orientation, crosswind runway provision, grades, capacity, staged construction, cost implications of delay to aircraft, and cost effectiveness. 2. Taxiway: Width, location, clearances, design and location of exits, grades, effect on

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runway capacity, staged construction, and cost effectiveness 3. Terminal Area: clearance, grades, gate positions, aircraft clearances, space requirements, and terminal design concepts. In addition to the general application of land use criteria, the following general considerations are important in integrating land side and air side functions: 2.3.2. DATA REQUIREMENTS For any master planning, the following data requirements are needed: Demand and Traffic Passengers: • • • • • •

Annual international movements over the last 10 years: aircraft, passenger, cargo Annual domestic movements over the last 10 years: aircraft, passenger, cargo Monthly movements Peak hour movements Scheduled patterns of operating airlines General socioeconomic data-economic base data on size and projected growth in locality and region of airport, including data on population, employment, income, tourism, building activity, retail sales, industrial outputs, etc. • Cost and service levels of competing land ( and, if applicable, sea) transport modes Environment data • •

Local planning regulations Local development plans, both detailed and structural, indicating plans for metropolitan and regional development • Existing land uses and status of development in the airport environs. • Local transportation plans • Relationship between local transportation plans and national transportation plans and investment strategies at various governmental levels • Local and national noise regulations, both current and planned. Physical data • • • • • • • • • •

Meteorological data: wind records, rainfall, snow, periods of low visibility Topographical details to approximately 30 km (18mi) around each airport with contours to 10m More detailed topography outside airport boundary to a limit of 3-5 km (2-3 mi) Architectural detail plans of terminal, designating usage to various facilities: immigration, customs, departure lounge, check-in, baggage claim, administration, concessions, etc. Details of construction of aprons, taxiways, runways, and major buildings. Condition of lighting on runways, taxiways, aprons, and approaches. Condition of markers. Condition, type and capability of aviation and telecommunication aids Detail of services/firefighting/apron services, etc. Physical data including environment data on flora and fauna

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General • •

Other transportation and major development plans in the environs of the airport site Commercial, tourist, industrial and governmental development plans

2.4.

GENERAL BACKGROUND

The term “Airport” comes under the board heading of “Civil Aviation”. The civil aviation can be divided into four types. They are; 1. Commercial service aviation(Primary Airport): These are those type which serves more than 10000 enplaned pax/yr. 2. Air cargo:These are those type which carry freights only. 3. General aviation: These range from local recreational flying to global business transport,performed on aircraft not operating under the federal aviation regulations for commercial air carriers. They seves less than 2500 enplaned pax/yr. 4. Reliever airport: They do not serve regularly. They come as alternative airport to general and commercial aviation when passenger enplanements exceed 250.000 annually. 2.5.

AIRPORT CLASSIFICATION AND CODE STANDARD

There are two governing bodies for the airport design standard. They are Federal Avaiation Administration(FAA) and International Civil Avaition Organisation(ICAO). FAA is body of United States Of America(USA) while ICAO is devised by UN. They both have their own design standards and are very much similar. Both have devised codes of airport category based on aircraft parts and reference length. They are as follows; 2.5.1.

ICAO CODE

For any type of airplane,the first element of the ICAO code is determined by the airplane reference field length, the minimum field length required by that aircraft for takeoff at maximum certificated takeoff weight (MTOW), sea level, standard atmospheric conditions,* no wind, and level runway. The second element is determined by the most demanding of two physical characteristics of the airplane: its wingspan and the distance between the outside edges of the wheels of the main gear. The reference code of an airport thus corresponds to the code for the most demanding type of aircraft (“critical aeroplane”) served by the airport in each element.

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Figure 2-2ICAO code for Airport

2.5.2. AIRPORT CAPACITY

Up to 1 million passengers Single deck road, single or 1 Regional

per year

½ level terminal, apron access to aircraft

1-5 million passengers per Single deck road, double National

year

level

terminal,

elevated

access to aircraft Over 5 million passengers Single deck road, two to International

per year

four

storey

terminal,

elevated access to aircraft

2.6.

AIRPORT SITE SELECTION

The location of an airport will be influenced by the following factors; •

Type of Development Of The Surrounding Area A study of current and prospective uses of land adjacent to an airport site is essential. Proximity to residential area and school should be avoided whenever possible. If the site is sparsely developed, enactment of zoning ordinances controlling the use of land adjacent to the airport should be considered in order to avoid future conflicts. It is desirable to provide buffer zones between the runways, taxiways and aprons etc. and

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the boundary of the airport property. Noise is also an extremely important factor where jet aircraft operations are anticipated. In several large urban areas the FAA has prescribed specific flight patterns for aircraft arriving and departing from the airport. •

Atmospheric Conditions The presence of fog, haze and smoke reduces visibility and thereby has the effect of lowering the traffic capacity of the airport, since the capacity when the visibility is poor is less than that when the visibility is good.

Accessibility to Ground Transport Transit time from the passengers’ point of origin to the airport is a matter of major concern. The lack of concentration of origins and destinations of air passengers in a metropolitan area and the popularity of the automobile as a personal means of transportation, the use of public transit up to now has not been large. In large urban areas whenever the normal peak vehicular traffic periods coincide with the peak traffic periods at the airport, some cities a train connects the airport with a downtown terminal. In any event, the private automobile will continue to be an important means of transportation to the airport; consequently the planning of streets and highways to the airport and parking at the airport are important factors which must be given consideration

Availability of land for Expansion It is necessary to acquire in advance or be able to acquire sufficient real estate in the future for expanding the airport plant. Runways have had to be lengthened, Terminal facilities expanded and additional support facilities provided.

Presence of other Airports in the General Area Presence of other airports in the general area must be given consideration when a site for a new airport is being selected or when additional runways are provided at an existing airport. Airports should be located at a sufficient distance from each other to prevent aircraft which are manoeuvring for a landing at one airport from interfering with the movements of aircraft at other airports.

Surrounding Obstructions Sites for airports should be so selected that approaches necessary for the ultimate development of the site are free of obstructions or can be cleared if obstructions exist. The provision and protection of adequate approach to an airport will necessitate height restrictions in the airport turning zones and in line with the runways.

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Economy of Constructions If alternative sites are available and they are equally adequate, the site which is more economical to construct should be given considerations. Sites lying on submerged lands are much more costly to develop than those on dry land.

Availability of Utilities An airport requires large quantities of water, natural gas or oil, electric power, and fuel for aircraft and surface vehicles. Most of these utilities will have to be transported to the airport by truck, rail or sea. In the case of electric power, most large airports must provide generating plants of their own to be used in emergency in the event a commercial source fails.

Proximity to Aeronautical Demand In the selection of a new airport site it is quite important that the location be such as to result in the shortest access time possible. Locating an airport a considerable distance from the centre of population not only generates the increased speed provided by short range turbojet transports but results in loss patronage as well.

2.7.

LAND USE PLANNING

The land use plan on and off the airport is an integral part of an area wide comprehensive planning program, and therefore it must be coordinated with the objectives, policies and programs for the area which the airport is to serve. Zoning is used as a method for controlling land use adjacent to an airport; it is not effective in areas which are already built up. Airports become involved in two types of zoning. One type is height and hazard zoning. The extent of land use in the airport depends a great deal on the amount of acreage available. Uses can be classified as either closely related to aviation or remote. Those closely related to aviation use include the runways, taxiways, aprons, terminal buildings, parking and maintenance facilities. Non-aviation uses include space for recreational, industrial, and commercial activities. Recreational facilities such as golf courses may be suitable within the airport boundary. Certain agricultural uses are also appropriate as long as they do not attract birds. The principal objectives of the land use plan for areas outside the airport boundary is to minimize the disturbing effect of noise, the zoning define the area which are or are not suitable for residential use and likewise those which are suitable for light industrial, commercial or recreational activity. RIJAN LAMICHHANE 067/B.ARCH/67032


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2.7.1. ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY Environmental factors must be considered carefully in the development of a new airport or the expansion of an existing one. Studies of the impact of the construction and operation of a new airport or the expansion of an existing one upon acceptable level of air and water quality, noise levels, ecological processes, and demographic development of the region must be conducted to determine how the airport requirements can best be accomplished. Effective means of reducing noise is through proper planning of land use for areas adjacent to the airport. For an existing airport this may be difficult as the land may have already been built up. Every effort should be made to orient air traffic away from built up areas. Other important factors include air and water pollution, industrial wastes, and domestic sewage originating at the airport, and the disturbance of natural environmental values. The construction of a new airport or expansion of an existing one may have major impacts on the natural environment. This is particularly true for large developments where streams and major drainage courses may be changed, the habitats of wildlife may be disrupted, and wilderness and recreational areas may be reshaped. The environmental study should indicate how these disruptions may be alleviated.

2.7.2. GROUND ACCESS Statistics have shown that the private automobile is the major form of access to the airport; this includes air passengers and employees. It is expected that this trend will continue in the future despite the greater availability of mass transit. The number of trips the airport employees is often larger than the number generated by the airline passengers. The circulation of traffic in an airport should generally be one way and counter clockwise. The roads should be wide enough to permit passing. Direction information to locations of specific airlines arrivals and departures and public parking facilities should be adequate in number, size, and legibility.

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Pedestrian routes should be direct, well-marked, and adequately lighted. Covered walkways from public parking lots or to entrance of the terminal building should be considered if bad weather occurs a substantial amount of the time and walking distances are long.

2.7.3. VECHILE PARKING A major goal for locating parking facilities for airline passengers is to minimize walking distances and therefore bring the auto mobile as close as possible to the aircraft. Parking at an airport must be provided for a. airline passengers b. visitors accompanying passengers c. spectators d. people employed at the airport e. car rentals and limousines and f. People having business with the airport tenants. Separate parking areas should be provided to the employees. They should be located as close as possible to the facilities in which they work. It is desirable to locate car rental parking areas as close as possible to the terminal building in order to minimize the passengers walking distance. The recommended basic parking stall is 8ft 6 in. wide and 18 ft. long. The choice of pattern for parking is dictated by the shape of the area available. For 90’ parking about 300 sq. ft. is required per parking space.

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CIRCULATION SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS

The layout and types of terminal concepts at an airport determine the integration of the components to form the airport circulation system. The following paragraphs discuss some of the more typical airport circulation configurations: a. Centralized Layout When the terminal complex consists of a single building or a contiguous series of buildings, the ground transportation system usually consists of sequentially and centrally located components. Except for vertical or horizontal separation, which may exist for originating and terminating passenger vehicles, all passenger-related vehicles normally pass through the same series of roadways. Also, public parking and car rental facilities are centrally Figure 2-3 Centralized Layout

located.

Source- Planning and Design of Terminals, FAA

b. Segmented Layout Division of the terminal building into originating and terminating passenger sides or grouping of airlines on either side of the building achieves flow separation on a horizontal basis. Originating passengers use one set of terminal frontage roads and terminating passengers the other; or specific airlines may group themselves on either side of the terminal unit. Orlando International, Jacksonville, and Greater Cincinnati airports use this type of ground access system layout called the segmented ground access concept. Figure 2-4 Segmented Layout Source: FAA

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c. Decentralised layout When the terminal complex consists of unit terminal buildings, vehicle flow separation on terminal access and frontage roads is possible. Airport access and terminal access roads funnel traffic to and from separate terminal facilities. Parking and car rental facilities are grouped on a terminal unit basis. Examples of this type of system use, the decentralized ground access concept, include Kennedy International and Kansas City International airports.

Figure 2-5 Decentralized Layout Source: FAA

d. Unitized Layout In some cases, the terminal system’ may consist of a series of terminal building located in linear fashion. Access is from a centrally ‘located roadway. Dallas-Fort-Worth International and Houston Intercontinental airports use this type of system, the unitized ground access system concept.

Figure 2-6 Unitized Layout Source: FAA

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OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE REQUIREMENT 78B

When aircraft is landing or taking off, it loses or gains altitude very slowly as compared to the forward speed. For this reason, long clearance areas are provided on either side of runway known as approach areas over which the aircraft can safely gain or lose altitude. The areas should be kept free of obstructions. The obstructions may consist of fences, trees, pole lines, building and other natural or many made objects. Sometimes the ground itself may slope upward from the end of the runway to such an extent that it forms an obstruction to the aircraft operation. If obstruction exists around a site over which an airport is to be built, the removal is imperative at any cost. The future growth of undesirable structures is controlled by zoning laws.

Figure 2-7: Required Obstruction free areas for take-off/landing, Plan View (Source: Ernst and Peter Neufert Architect's Data, Blackwell Series)

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Figure 2-8: Surrounding requirements at the airport (Source: Ernst and Peter Neufert Architect's Data, Blackwell Series)

2.8.2.

EVALUATION OF NOISE

The effect of noise from aircraft operations on communities surrounding airports presents a serious problem to aviation. The extent of noise depends upon the climb-out path of aircraft, type of engine propulsion and the gross weight of aircraft. The problem becomes more acute with jet engine aircrafts. Therefore, the site should be so selected that the landing and takeoff paths of the aircrafts pass over the land which is free from residential or industrial development. Sometimes Buffer zone may have to be provided between the takeoff end of a runway and a nearby residential area. If buffer zone cannot be provided, some acoustical barrier may have to be installed. Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) recommends that to minimize community disturbance due to noise should be kept free from the residential development and places of public assembly.

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Figure 2-9: Preferential Runway for Noise Abatement (Source: Airport Planning Design, Khanna S.K., Arora M.G., Jain S.S.)

Sometimes it so happens that the area under the flight path which is oriented along the direction of prevailing winds is highly developed with residences and industries. However, if runway is constructed at right angles to the previous direction, the area is found to be scarcely developed. If the wind intensity over the site is low for large percentage of time, it will be possible to use the latter direction of runway for take-off. This is explained in the given figure below. Thus, sometimes an extra runway may have to be constructed merely to reduce the noise nuisance. 2.9.

DESIGN METHODOLOGIES

2.9.1.

GENERAL

Effective planning and design of the terminal area involve the active participation of airport Management, the airlines, concessionaires, and the consultants engaged by the parties. The process normally includes: compiling surveys, questionnaires, and forecasts, usually for short and intermediate periods; developing design day and peak hour activity tables; establishing passenger, aircraft, and vehicular traffic relationships; taking inventory and evaluating existing facilities; analyzing space requirements for alternative layouts; and estimating costs and developing financial plans.

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FORECAST

Airport master plans are developed on the basis of forecasts. From forecasts, the relationships between demand and the capacity of an airport’s various facilities can be established and airport requirements can be determined. Short-, intermediate-, and long-range (approximately 5-, 10-, and 20-year) forecasts are made to enable the planner to establish a schedule of development for improvements proposed in the master plan. Depending on the various types of facilities being planned, the principal annual forecasts include passenger enplanements, passenger originations, and aircraft movements (by aircraft size). The most useful sources for this information include: the current airport master plan; the FAA published terminal area forecasts; forecasts developed by the Air Transport Association (ATA); and those forecasts developed by the individual airlines serving the airport. The airlines should be consulted for assumptions on trend changes in the ratio of originators to enplanements in scheduled service. Normally, nonscheduled operations are not considered the primary basis for terminal planning and should be evaluated separately. 2.9.3.

TRANSLATING FORECAST TO PEAK DEMAND

Airport terminal facilities are planned, sized, and designed to accommodate peak passenger demands for a selected forecast period. Generally, the initial stage of construction is designed for a selected year (or years) within 5 to 10 years of the current period. Master plans look 20 years into the future. Planning for absolute peak demands, i.e., the greatest demands anticipated, will result in facilities impractically oversized and underutilized. Accordingly, the planner should be cautious in the use of data on absolute peak traffic volumes. 2.9.4.

PEAK DAILY ACTIVITY

The Average Day/Peak Month (ADPM) represents the most common method of converting planning statistics to a daily and ultimately to an hourly demand baseline. A determination of the ADPM demand for the design year involves first identifying peak month enplanements as a percent of annual enplanements based on historical data. This percentage may be adjusted up or down as local circumstances and/or other factors dictate (seldom necessary). Applying this percentage to the annual enplanement forecast for the design year results in a peak month demand forecast for that year. Demand for the average day of the peak month of the design year is determined simply by dividing the peak month demand by the number of days in that month. The same ratio of annual originating passengers (or transfers) to annual enplanements can be assumed for ADPM passengers unless indicated otherwise by seasonal data or surveys. This ratio may vary during the peak hour at some airports. RIJAN LAMICHHANE 067/B.ARCH/67032


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PEAK HOURLY ACTIVITY

Many aspects of terminal facility planning require hourly volumes or statistics consistent with the average day baseline. An airport may have peak hour operations as high as 12 to 20 percent of daily total operations. As schedules increase, peaks tend to spread out over the day. A theoretical absolute low is 6.25 percent which assumes uniform distribution of domestic operations over 16 hours. Such a theoretical low normally never happens. In actual practice, some peaking will always occur, both in aircraft movements and, even more so, in passenger activity. The latter occurs even with a relatively uniform distribution of aircraft movements, since larger aircraft are normally scheduled in the prime hours of the day so as to best meet public demand. 2.9.6.

EQUIVALENT AIRCRAFT (EQA) FACTORS

a. The sizing of most terminal elements is based on passenger volumes for a selected design hour or some part thereof--enplanements, deplanements, peak 20 minutes, etc. However, forecasts of these activities are not always readily available. When they are not, approximations can be developed by considering aircraft seating capacities, as estimated for the peak hour of the average day-peak month. Applying EQA factors, which represent the aircraft’s passenger capacity (seats divided by 100), is useful in estimating the impact of future growth on various terminal components. b. The EQA methodology is based on aircraft movements as the primary generators of passenger flows. The magnitude of each flow is related to aircraft seating capacities and load factors. However, average seats per aircraft movement increase in future years, often with larger aircraft being introduced first during peaks for prime time flights. c. The EQA technique provides a common denominator for numbers of gates and aircraft seats useful for sizing terminal components and evaluating capacities in airport master planning. Specific sizing applications of EQA in this document include airline ticket office, ticket counter frontage areas, baggage areas, lobbies, departure lounges, etc.

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Table 2-1: Base Year Total Gate EQA Computation (Source: Planning and Designing Guidelines for Airport Terminal Facilities)

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2.10.

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AIRPLANE BASIC PART

Figure 2-10: Length and wheel base of aircraft

The length of the airplane is the length from the tip of the nose to the tip of the tail. The wheel base of the airplane is the length from the center line of nose gear to center line of main gear. 2.11.

AIRSIDE AREA

The airside area basically consists of the following area; 1. Runway 2. Apron 3. Taxiway 4. Hanger 5. Holding area 6. Control Tower

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Figure 2-11:General System of Airside Area

2.11.1. RUNWAY A runway is a rectangular area on the airport surface prepared for the takeoff and landing of aircraft. Airport runways are typically oriented into the prevailing winds of the area known as Primary Runways. The runways oriented towards crosswind are known as Crosswind Runways. There are various complex formula to calculate the length of the runway but they can be generalized as follows;  2000 M : Regional And Business Jets(A318,A319,A320, B737)  2200M :Short To Medium Range  2700 M : Medium-Haul Transports(A330)  3200 M : Most Long-Haul Traffic(B747, A380, B777, A340)  3500-4000 M : Long-Haul Traffic In All Weather Conditions(B747, A380, B777, A340) The FAA has devised the standard dimension for the runway as shown in figure below;

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Figure 2-12:FAA design code for runway for category A &B

Figure 2-13:FAA design code foe runway for category C,D&E

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RUNWAY WIDTH

ICAO also has devised the basic runway width which is as follows; 2-2:ICAO code for runway width

CODE NO.

CODE LETTER A

B

C

D

E

F

1

18

18

23

-

-

-

2

23

23

30

-

-

-

3

30

30

30

45

-

-

4

-

-

45

45

45

60

2.11.1.2.

RUNWAY TERMINOLOGY

1. Shoulder: It resists jet blast erosion and accommodates maintenance and emergency equipment . 2. Structural pavement: It supports the aircraft with respect to structural load, maneuverability, control, stability. 3. Runway Safety Area: It is the area surrounding the runway prepared for reducing the risk of damage to aircraft in the event of an undershoot, overshoot, or excursion from the runway 4. Blast pad: It is the area to prevent erosion of surfaces adjacent to the ends of runways due to jet blast or propeller wash.

Figure 2-14:Runway Parts

5. Runway Object Free Area: It is the two-dimensional ground area surrounding the runway which must be clear of parked aircraft and objects other than those whose location is fixed by function .

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Figure 2-15: Runway Object Free Area

6. Runway Protection Zone: It is the volume of airspace centered above the runway which supports the transition between ground and airborne operations

Figure 2-16:Runway Protection Zone

2.11.2. TAXIWAY AND TAXILANE Taxiways are defined paths on the airfield surface which are established for the taxiing of aircraft and are intended to provide a linkage between one part of the airfield and another A taxilane is a portion of the aircraft parking area used for access between the taxiways and the aircraft parking positions Taxiways are identified as parallel taxiways, entrance taxiways, bypass taxiways, or exit taxiways. Parallel taxiway is aligned parallel to an adjacent runway. Exit and Entrance taxiways-oriented perpendicular to the runway, connecting the parallel taxiway with the runway. Entrance taxiways is located near the departure ends of runways. Exit taxiway are located at various points along the runway to allow landing aircraft to efficiently exit the runway after landing.Bypass taxiways are located at areas of congestion at busy airports,allow aircraft to bypass other aircraft parked on the parallel or entrance taxiways in order to reach the runway for takeoff.

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Figure 2-17:Runway and Taxiway

2.11.2.1.

BASIC TAXIWAY WIDTH

The basic taxiway width by ICAO is as follows; 2-3:Basic taxiway width

Airport Code

Taxiway Width(m)

A

7.5

B

10.5-18

C

15-23

D

18-23

E

23

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RUNWAY TO TAXIWAY SEPERATION

The detail of runway and taxiway dimension are given by FAA as follows; Design Item Taxiway Center Line to:

Aeroplane Design Group

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

Parallel Taxiway center line

21

31

46

68

75

102

Fixed Movable object and property line

13.5

20

28

41

46

61.5

Fixed or immovable object

12

16

25

36

39

51

Runway Centerline

120

120

120

120

Varia ble with airport ele.

180

Figure 2-18: Parallel Taxiway Seperation Clearance

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TAXIWAY CURVATURE DIMENSION STANDARD BY FAA

The FAA has devised a set of dimension standard for the curvature of taxiway so that the accidents do not occur.

Figure 2-19: Taxiway Curvature

Figure 2-20: Taxiway curvature dimension Standard By FAA

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2.11.3. HOLDING APRON They are used as storage areas for aircraft prior to takeoff. The design consideration for minimum seperation between aircraft and holding apron is same as taxiway center line to immovable object.

Figure 2-21: Holding Apron

2.12.

LANDSIDE AREA

It basically consists of;  Terminal Building  Ground Access System 2.12.1. TERMINAL BUILDING 2.12.1.1.

INTRODUCTION

The terminal buildings are one of the components of landside area of the airports. The function of the terminal buildings are to provide space to move around from time to purchasing tickets to time of sitting in an airplane. It is a hub that provides information, shelter, food and security until a passenger is boarded to an airplane. Location, accessibility and infrastructure are three important aspects that determines the proper functioning of the terminals.

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Figure 2-22:Functional Diagram of terminal Building

2.12.1.2.

CONFIGURATION OF TERMINAL BUILDING

There are 5 tyoes of configurations or concept of terminal building. They are as follows; 1. Linear Concept: It is simply an extension of the simple terminal concept providing more gates and more room within the terminal for ticketing and passenger processing. The Concourses connect the various terminal functions with the aircraft gate positions.

Figure 2-23: Linear Concept

 • • • • •  • • •

Advantages Shortest walking distances from landside and airside Clear orientation Simple construction Lower baggage systems costs(conveying/sorting) using decentralized system Eg; Munich airport Disadvantages Longer walking distances for transfer pax Special logistics for handling of transfer bags Decentralized concept-more staff and facilities needed

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2. Finger/ Pier Concept : It is the type where passengers are usually processed at the simple terminal location and then routed down a "pier“ where aircraft are parked in the "finger" slots or gates for boarding. The access to the terminal area is at the base of the connector (pier).

Figure 2-24:Finger/Pier Concept

 Advantages •

Centralized resources, economies of scale (human, facilities, amenities)

Efficient use of land

Preferable when transfer traffic is low

 Disadvantages •

Long walking distances

Reduced aircraft circulation & manoeuvrability

Limited compatibility of future aircraft design development

3. Satellite Concept: It consists of a building, surrounded by aircraft, which is separated from the terminal and usually reached by a surface, underground, or above-grade connector, may be mechanical system. The satellite can have common or separate departure lounges.

Figure 2-25:Satellite Concept

 Advantages

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Centralized resources (human,facilities and amenities)

Facilitates pax management

Additional satellites can be designed to accommodate future aircraft design developments

 Disadvantages •

Requires high technology, underground transportation System

High capital, maintenance & operating cost

4. Midfield Concept :Aircrafts are parked along the concourse. There is no connection between terminal building and aircraft.  Advantages •

Very efficient for aircraft parking and taxiing

Suitable for transfer pax

Figure 2-26: Midfield Concept

 Disadvantages •

Requires high technology, underground transportation System

High capital, maintenance & operating cost

5. Transporter Concept: Aircraft and aircraft-servicing functions in the transporter concept are remotely located from the terminal.The connection to the terminal is provided by vehicular transport.

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Figure 2-27: Transporter Concept

 Advantages •

Easy compatibility of terminal/ apron geometry and future aircraft design development

Ease of aircraft manoeuvrability

Ease of expansion capability for aircraft stands

Simple and smaller central terminal

Cost savings

 Disadvantage •

High capital, maintenance & operating costs

Susceptible to industrial disputes with vehicle drivers

Increased vehicular movement

2.13.

AIRCRAFT GROUND HANDLING

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Figure 2-28: Dual vs. Single Taxilane Layout and Dimension (Source: Airport Planning and design, S.K.Khanna, M.G.Arora, S.S.Jain)

AIRCRAFT GROUND TRANSPORT FACILITY

It consists of two primary activities: a. Traffic entering or exiting the airport. b. Traffic generated on the airport grounds. Traffic entering or exiting the airport, sometimes identified as airport access is part of a much larger transportation network surrounding the airport and is outside the jurisdiction and control of airport authorities. Traffic generated on airport ground s requires system carrying intra airport movements principally between support facilities and the passenger terminal complex. Constraints in airport access can seriously affect terminal capacity, forcing passengers in anticipation of access traffic delays to arrive earlier at the terminal than would otherwise be necessary, thus causing an undue accumulation of passengers and visitors. •

AIRCRAFT TERMINAL ROAD AND RIGHTS-OF –WAY

Airport ground transportation system, accommodating passengers, vehicular parking and service systems for baggage, freight and aircraft are an integral part of the passenger terminal concept. In general only originating and terminating passenger arrive and depart by ground transportation. The continuously circulating traffic intensifies the use of terminal roads and curbs. Every terminal complex has parking requirements for almost all modes of ground transportation but parking requirements for almost all modes of ground transportation but parking for passengers, visitors and employees has the largest requirements. Vehicular parking requirements for passengers and visitors can be divided into two categories each serving different types of traffic: short-term parking for under 8-10 hours and longterms parking of more than 8-10 hours. At airports with less than 1,000,000 enplanements per year, long and short term parking occupy the same parking are in front of the terminals. Airports with more than the 1,000,000 enplanements may provide two distinct vehicular parking areas. Close in parking will be short-term at prime rates. The majority of those parking here are visitors. Generally, the composition will be as follows: a. Passengers returning the same day: a small percentage b. Passengers parking an average of 1 to 2 days.

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c. Visitors (escorts) who deliver or pick up passengers. d. Visitors (escorts) very short term metered parking. 2.13.1. LOADING BRIDGE At very low activity airports, passengers usually board aircraft using integral aircraft stairs or mobile passenger stairs. At more active airports, the use of passenger loading bridges is quite common. Two types of loading bridges arc illustrated in the figures below. They are used for boarding passengers from an upper level and have many possible design variations. At some airports, loading bridges are employed to load passengers from grade level by constructing a stairway or ramp connection at the loading bridge entrance. Some characteristics of loading bridges which influence terminal design are discussed as follows: a. The primary constraint in considering passenger boarding now rates normally is one of three elements: the entrance doorway to the loading bridge; the aircraft door; or the aircraft aisle width. If stairs are used at the loading bridge entrance, a fourth constraint is added. The width of the loading bridge usually is not a constraining factor. Approximately 25 passengers and 40 passengers per minute. A 36-inch (91 cm) entrance doorway /accommodates approximately 37 passengers per minute.

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Figure 2-29: Telescope to connect the departure lounge with aircraft (Source: Ernst and Peter Neufert Architect’s Data, Blackwell series)

b. Since aircraft aisle width can influence the flow rate of a loading bridge. Airline studies indicate a flow rate of 30 passengers per minute for a single-aisle aircraft. c. A stairway at the loading bridge entrance reduces flow rates to approximately 20-25 passengers per minute, the same rate achieved when integral aircraft or mobile stairs arc employed. A stairway or ramp not constructed within the terminal building should be provided with an enclosure for weather protection.

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d. Two loading bridges for larger type aircraft are used at some airports to facilitate loading and deplaning. In most cases, however, one bridge is adequate. The decision to USC more than one bridge should take into account the average peak-hour “boarding” load factor by type of aircraft at each aircraft position. At through stations, it is very likely that the boarding load factor will be low enough that only one bridge will be required for a B-747 position. e. The positioning of an individual aircraft is, to a great extent, a product of its door alignment with doors of other aircraft types. This facilitates the utilization of one type of loading bridge to serve a variety of aircraft. However, this is not the only consideration to be met in determining the interchangeability of a series of aircraft parked on one apron area.

I.FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP OF TERMINAL COMPONENTS Activities within the terminal building can be categorized primarily into three functional areas: Processing and servicing passengers, handling and processing of belly cargo (including passenger baggage) and aircraft servicing. Consequently, a good terminal design necessitates a layout in which the various components are located in a sequence or pattern which coincides with the natural movement and services each requires, and those activities and operations which are functionally dependent on each other. Such a .design will minimize passenger walking distances, airline servicing and processing times, and congestion caused by the intermingling of nonrelated activities. A. Objectives of Selecting Terminal Concepts The objective of the terminal area plan should be to achieve an acceptable balance between passenger convenience, operating efficiency, facility investment, and aesthetics. The physical and psychological comfort characteristics of the terminal area should afford the passenger an orderly and convenient progress from an automobile or public transportation through the terminal to the aircraft and vice versa. The terminal complex’s functional arrangement should be flexible enough for expeditiously handling passengers and ground-servicing aircraft to achieve minimum gate occupancy time and maximum airline operating economy. The ultimate plan should strive to meet these

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objectives within acceptable funding levels while considering not only capital investment but also maintenance and operating costs. 1) CENTRALIZED AND UNIT TERMINALS There are two basic concepts for the arrangement of the terminal area. In a centralized terminal, all passengers and baggage are processed in one building. Most airports utilize this arrangement. At some high activity airports, however, each airline (or several airlines combined) may be located in a separate terminal building. This is referred to as a unit terminal concept. These two design concepts are often combined in varying degrees. Examples of airports having a unit terminal concept include John F. Kennedy International, Kansas City International, and Dallas Fort Worth Regional Airports. A single centralized terminal building has many advantages and for most situations is preferable. It represents a reasonably compact operation without the significant problem of transferring passengers and baggage between buildings. Building maintenance and operating costs for the centralized terminal will generally be significantly lower than the total costs for operating all unit terminals. A unit terminal concept can be justified only at the very high activity airports, particularly where the percentage of airline transfer passengers is relatively low. An efficient transportation system for passenger and baggage transfer between buildings is a must and should be incorporated in the design at an early stage. 2) ALTERNATIVE TERMINAL BUILDING CONCEPTS A terminal building design can be categorized as one of five basic concepts or a variation or combination of them. The connector is the single element that distinguishes between the various concepts, since it is different in each case. Terminal building concepts are categorized in the following manner:

Simple Terminal Concept: The simple terminal consists of a single common waiting and ticketing area with exits leading to the aircraft parking apron. It is suitable at airports

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with low airline activity with an apron providing close-in parking for three to six commercial transport aircraft. A simple terminal normally consists of a single level structure with two to

four gates with access to aircraft by walking across the aircraft parking apron. The layout of the simple terminal should take into account the possibility of pier or linear extensions for terminal expansion.

Figure 2-30: Linear Concept Plan (Source: Time-Saver Standards for Building Types, edited by Joseph De Chiara and John Hancock Callender)

Linear Concept: In the linear concept (Figure 2.41), aircraft are parked along the face of the terminal building. Concourses connect the various terminal functions with the aircraft gate positions. This concept offers ease of access and relatively short walking distances if passengers are delivered to a point near gate departure by vehicular circulation systems.

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Expansion may be accomplished by linear extension of an existing structure or by developing two or more linear-terminal units with connectors.

Pier Concept: The pier concept provides interface with aircraft along piers extending from the main terminal area. In the pier concept, aircraft are usually arranged around the axis of the pier in a parallel or perpendicular parked relationship. Each pier has a row of aircraft gate positions on both sides, with the passenger right-of-way or concourse running along the axis of the pier and serving as the circulation space for enplaning and deplaning passengers. Access to the terminal area is at the base of the connector (pier). If two or more piers are used, spacing for aircraft maneuvering between the piers by means of an apron taxilane.

Figure 2-31: Pier Concept (Source: Time-Saver Standards for Building Types, edited by Joseph De Chiara and John Hancock Callender)

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Satellite Concept: The satellite concept consists of a building, surrounded by aircraft, which is separated from the terminal and usually reached by a surface, underground, or above-grade connector. Aircraft are normally parked in radial or parallel positions around the satellite. The satellite can have common or separate departure lounges. Since enplaning and deplaning of aircraft are accomplished from a common area, mechanical systems may be employed to transport passengers and baggage between the terminal and satellite.

The Satellite Connector may consist of: A CONCOURSE BELOW, AT OR ABOVE GRADE CONNECTING

THE

SATELLITE

BUILDING

WITH THE TERMINAL

Figure 2-32: The Satellite concept (Source: Time-Saver Standards for Building Types, edited by Joseph De Chiara and John Hancock Callender)

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Transporter Concept: Aircraft and aircraft-servicing functions in the transporter concept are remotely located from the terminal. The connection to the terminal is provided by vehicular transport. The advantages of the transporter concept include flexibility in providing additional aircraft parking positions to accommodate increases in schedules; ease and speed in maneuvering aircraft in and out of parking positions under their own power; separation of aircraft servicing activities from the terminal; and reduced walking distances for passengers. Transporters may also be used in establishing remote gates for charter flights. The disadvantages mainly relate to the initial, operational, and maintenance costs associated with the transporter vehicles, although the increased transfer times required in changing airplanes can also be detrimental to airport efficiency.

Figure 2-33: The Transporter concept (Source: Time-Saver Standards for Building Types, edited by Joseph De Chiara and John Hancock Callender)

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II. SINGLE LEVEL/ MULTILEVEL TERMINALS The decision on whether the terminal building design should incorporate single or multilevel for processing passengers and baggage is influenced primarily by the volume of traffic. Variations of these designs are explained on the basis of the above figures of the alternative terminal building concepts. a. Single-level Terminal: The single level terminal is the preferred design at the majority of small and non-hub airports. The processing of passengers and baggage takes place at the same level as the apron, and the entire layout is quite simple and economical. b. Multilevel Terminal: At a traffic level of over 500,000 annual enplaned passengers, structures of more than one story should be investigated. In this concept, arriving and departing passengers are vertically separated. Enplaning passengers are usually processed on the upper level and deplaning passengers on the lower level. The fingers or piers leading to the aircraft are usually two stories, whereas, the terminal enplaning and deplaning curbs may be on single or multilevel. The principal advantage of a multilevel terminal is the reduction of congestion by segregating opposing flows of passengers and baggage. The disadvantages are the higher initial investment and the continuing higher operation and maintenance costs. In evaluating the design of a multilevel terminal, the physical limitations of the site, terrain, and airline station characteristics are important considerations. c. Multilevel Curbs: While single level curbs may be utilized with all concepts and traffic volumes, multilevel curbs are appropriate only at multilevel terminals. Construction of multilevel curbs should be considered when passenger volumes exceed one million enplanements or when physical limitations within the terminal area or building frontage make curb separation desirable. Multilevel curbs, with their corresponding structural roads and ramps, are costly to construct and should be considered only after investigation of singlelevel alternatives. d. Second Level Aircraft Boarding: Boarding and deplaning aircraft from the second story is the usual procedure at multilevel terminals for reasons of simplicity and efficiency, unless limited by terrain features. Conversely, for the same reasons, apron-level boarding is the norm for single-level terminals. However, severe or extreme weather conditions, or other considerations, may justify second-level boarding at a single-level terminal. In such cases, RIJAN LAMICHHANE 067/B.ARCH/67032


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two story connectors, raised pier structures, or inclined loading bridges can be utilized. Airports with over 500,000 annual enplanements are candidates for second-level boarding installations. In some situations, a combination of apron and second-level boarding gates may be a desirable alternative. III. TERMINAL CONCEPT COMBINATION AND VARIATION An airport may have many types of passenger activity, varying from originating and terminating passengers using the full range of terminal services to passengers using limited services on commuter flights. The predominant type of activity usually affects the initial terminal concept selected. In time, the amount of traffic may increase, necessitating modification or expansion of the facilities. Growth of aircraft size, a new combination of aircraft types serving the airport, or a change in the type of service may affect the suitability of the initial concept. Similarly, physical limitations of the site may cause a pure conceptual form to be modified by additions or combinations of other concepts. Combined concepts acquire some of the advantages and disadvantages of each basic concept used. A combination of concept types can be advantageous where more costly modifications would be necessary to maintain the original concept. For example, while an airline may be suitably accommodated within an existing transporter concept terminal, a commuter operation with rapid turnovers is best served by a linear concept extension. In this case, concept combination is desirable. Thus, the appearance of concept variations and combinations in a total apron-terminal plan may reflect an evolving situation in which altering needs, growth, or physical limitations have determined the final terminal configuration. Figure below, depicts concept combinations and variations typically utilized in airport terminal designs.

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Figure 2-34: Concept Combination and Variation (Source: Time-Saver Standards for Building Types, edited by Joseph De Chiara and John Hancock Callender)

IV.PASSENGER LOADING METHODS FROM TERMINAL BUILDING TO AIRCRAFT

(A).From the single level terminal building the passengers walk across the apron to the aircraft. This method is presently being employed by many airports in use today.

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(B) From the two level terminal building the passengers walk down a flight of stairs and then across the apron to the aircraft. This is an intermediate phase in use, where the future

(C) This method shows a jetway which is rotates into position and has the capability of telescoping to accomplish the interface between aircraft of different sill height. This diagram demonstrates a power-in, push-out rate position.

(D) This is the same as method (C) above; however, it differs only in that this diagram demonstrates a power-in, power-out gate positions.

(E) This diagram demonstrates a fixed jet way of short length and with a small amount of telescoping capability. This jetway also has the capability of making some adjustments in sill height. The gate position can only be a power-in, push-out condition. RIJAN LAMICHHANE 067/B.ARCH/67032


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47B

(F) This method which is used in some present-day airports consists of a train of carts designed to carry passengers or it may consists of the use of bused to deliver the passengers to a remote aircraft parking position. The terminal building can be either a one –level or two-level structure.

(G) This method is known as the Mobile-lounge and consist of a elaborately furnished bus with a scissor lift and a telescoping front to achieve the interface between both the aircraft and the terminal building. The aircraft is parked at a remote position from the terminal

(H) This method is used for the wide bodies aircraft and will accept the B-&$&, DC-10 and L-1011. The two main corridors are fixed in their location; however, the four short jetways have telescoping capability in order to achieve the interface with the aircraft. The gate position requires a power-in, push-out condition.

(I) This method is also used for the wide-bodies aircraft and will accept all three aircrafts as listed above. It is based upon the concept of cantilevered jet way over the wing to reach the back door. Here again, the gate position requires a power-in, push-out condition. Figure 2-35: (A), (B), (C), (D), (E), (F), G), (H), (I). Shows the typical Loading Methods (Source: Time-Saver Standards for Building Types, edited by Joseph De Chiara and John Hancock Callender) RIJAN LAMICHHANE 067/B.ARCH/67032


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2.14.1. FLOW AND FUNCTIONS OF PASSENGERS IN TERMINAL AREA The major flow of people, baggage and vehicles at air carrier airports is generated by schedule departures.

aircrafts

arrivals

and

Each

aircraft

and

departure precipitates movements of passengers, visitors, baggage and vehicle which must proceed through a coordinated arrangement of functions. These

functions

have

common

characteristics worldwide and are identified in generally agreed upon terms,

differences

in

flow

and

function can be caused by varying degree of traffic volumes there are basically Table 2-4 Flow of Passengers two types of flow. Source- Airport Terminals, Unknown Author

 Primary Flow Aircraft and passengers and baggage constitute the primary flow in an airport terminal complex. The flow of arriving and departing is different for each terminal concept due to different terminal aircraft gate configurations and different runway/taxiway arrangements The flow of passengers could be divided into three categories → ORIGINATING Departing passengers arriving at the terminal by the ground transportation (outbound traffic) subdivide into the following major functions:    

Ground transportation facilities, roads, guide ways vehicular parking facilities Curb with the curb platform and baggage check in for passengers with tickets baggage is dispatched from there to the outbound baggage room Ticket processing at counters, with baggage check in baggage is dispatched to outbound baggage room Outbound baggage sorting, baggage is expedited to aircraft for loading

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   

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Security check Ticket lift at aircraft gates, passengers waiting lounges Aircraft boarding stairs Loading bridges

→ TERMINATING  Incoming or deplaning passengers arriving at the terminal by aircraft ( inbound traffic) subdivided into the following major functions  Passengers disembarking  Baggage claim,  Immigration baggage claim, customs, international arrivals  Curb side, passengers leaving by ground transportation → TRANSFERS Passengers transferring from one flight to another, interline from one airline to another or interline on the same airline. Baggage is handled by airline, except for passengers transferring from an international flight to a domestic flight in which the passenger must claim his bag and pass through immigration and custom inspection.  Secondary Flow There are three components to secondary flow in an airport terminal  

Airfreight flow between airfreight terminal and aircraft Catering flow between catering facility and passenger terminal/apron

Fuel flow between fuel farm and aircraft apron. This flow increasingly takes place via pipeline, eliminating the need for large fuel trucks and requiring only hydrant pump vehicles on the apron.

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Source: Airport Engineering; Ashford, Norman & H. Wright, Paul

Figure 2-36 Baggage loading and unloading sequence

Figure 2-37 passenger/baggage flow system

Source: Airport Engineering; Ashford, Norman & H. Wright, Paul

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2.14.2. SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS IN PASSENGER TERMINAL DESIGN AND LAYOUT Since the early 1960s, threats to civil aviation from acts of terrorism in civil aircraft and airports have become commonplace. Originally these problems were almost exclusively associated with aerial hijackings, but the threat to civil aviation now involves terrorist bombing or aircraft and airports and terrorist attacks on airport passengers. Countermeasures against terrorism and other illegal acts against civil aviation are now virtually universal. Different countries have adopted different degrees of security which can even differ depending on the type of airport (e.g. local domestic and international). Most of the aspects of airport security are operational, but the form of security operation required has significantly affected the design, such that security considerations have become a fundamental element of the design and layout of airport passenger terminals. A satisfactory terminal design can be achieved only if the procedures required for aviation security are understood and integrated into any terminal design. The following considerations have to be taken into account: • •

• • • •

Physical separation of arriving and departing passengers on the air side. This may involve passenger movement on different levels of the terminal and will certainly involve additional circulation space for corridors, walkways, and so on. Security combs for passenger and hand baggage search may be either centralized or decentralized at the gates. Centralized security will require one large area with space for search equipment. Decentralized gate search will require more space and equipment, decentralized at the individual gate lounges. Prohibition of visitors into the secure air side parts of the terminal. In some jurisdictions, only passengers are permitted through the security combs. Security procedures which prohibit visitors from general circulation throughout the domestic terminal cause large number of visitors at the entry and exit points of the air side, necessitating the provision of extra terminal space in those areas. Isolation of piers by physical barriers, for example: fast-acting drop grills, at times of terrorist activity. X-raying or bomb detecting of all hold baggage requires additional space, either at check-in or in the outbound baggage hall, depending when this activity is carried out. Provision of extra space at check-in for very high security flights to allow passenger interviewing and search. Division of terminal into “clean air side- dirty land side” arrangement. This is a byproduct of the decision to centralize or decentralize security combs. The provision of a “clean air side” may significantly reduce the market potential of commercial concessions on the air side. Removing car parking from the terminal building. Integral car parks either above or below the terminal are attractive targets for car bombers. In times of high terrorist activity, these facilities may be rendered unusable.

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• • • Many

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Prohibition of left luggage areas for unsearched baggage will require the provision of a manned left luggage depository. Observation decks overlooking aprons and other operating areas must be secure. Avoidance of open mezzanine balconies in unsecure areas of the terminal will discourage terrorist attacks on passengers. Construction of buildings to minimize injury from blast damage, consideration should be given to the use of extensive areas of glass, which in the past have caused considerable injuries to passengers attacked in the terminals by bombs or hand grenades. People movers to satellites may have to ensure that enplaning and deplaning passengers cannot mix. For very sensitive flights, check-in areas where passengers gather in identifiable groups will have to be inside a secure area. Gate arrival terminal systems which are based on a simply “bus stop” type of operation may be infeasible. existing terminals were designed prior to the need to provide aviation security.

Consequently ad hoc alteration procedures have had to be adopted where existing terminals cannot be physically modified to achieve the desired form of security operation. The designs of a passenger terminal should be careful not to assume that current procedures can be extrapolated into future designs.

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AIRPORT SAFETY AND SECURITY

2.15.1. AIRPORT SECURITY In airport it requires the screening of passengers and baggage before entering an aircraft or areas accessible to an aircraft. The terminal designer should take these requirements into account in developing an effective terminal design. Some important aspects of airport security are discussed in succeeding paragraphs. a. Access to Air Operations Area. The Air Operations Area (AOA) is that portion of an airport designed and used for landing, taking off, or surface maneuvering of airplanes. Airport operators have the responsibility to secure this area and prevent access by unauthorized persons and vehicles. This can be done by installing security fencing, and limiting and controlling the use of gates, doors, and passageways providing direct or indirect access to the AOA. Passengers are permitted access to the AOA only after undergoing screening. Vehicles using service roads are required to pass through controlled gates. b. Doors. Doors leading from unsecured areas of the terminal to the AOA which are not under the visual control of authorized personnel are required to be locked or equipped with alarms signaling unauthorized use. Fire codes usually permit the locking of emergency exits provided they contain panic knockout devices. c. Security Fencing. Security fencing can vary in design, height, and type, depending on local security needs. Generally, it is recommended that the fencing be, as a minimum, No. 10 gauge, galvanized steel, chain link fabric installed to a height of 8 feet (2.5 m), and topped with a three strand (12 gauge) barbed wire overhang. Fence posts should be installed at no greater than 10 feet (3 m) intervals and be located within 2 inches (5 cm) of any wall or structure forming part of the perimeter. It is suggested that a 10 to 20 feet (3 to 6 m) wide cleared area be provided adjacent to and immediately outside of the perimeter fencing. Gates should be constructed with materials of comparable strength and durability and open to an angle of at least 90 degrees. Hinges should be such as to preclude unauthorized removal. d. Observation Decks. Terminal observation areas or decks should be enclosed or contain effective barriers to deter and prevent unauthorized AOA access or the hurling of dangerous objects at parked aircraft. e. Security Lighting. Security lighting of airports and terminal areas is generally an inexpensive means of providing additional deterrence/protection against unauthorized RIJAN LAMICHHANE 067/B.ARCH/67032


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intrusion into aircraft operating areas. Lighting requirements are dependent on the local situation and the areas to be protected. Light units should be oriented and shielded to prevent an unwanted glare safety hazard to aircraft operations and adjacent vehicular roadways and unnecessary irritation to nearby residences. f. Security Office. Lockers, toilets, and rest rooms should be provided for security screening personnel. In addition, an area for a security/police office and a detention/interrogation room is recommended. At large airports, those facilities may be a part of the airline leased space; at small airports the use of common facilities may make an area under direct airport control preferable. g. General Aviation Access. Airport legislation requires that passengers using general aviation aircraft be provided access to the terminal building if Federal funds were utilized for terminal development. For security reasons, such access also requires control so that the screening system within the terminal building is not circumvented.

2.15.2. AIRCRAFT FIRE AND RESCUE STATION Although the incidents of fires and emergencies occurring at an airport are rare, when they do occur, especially on an aircraft, the firefighting and rescue capabilities at the airport may mean the difference between life and death for pilots, passengers, and other airport personnel. Because of this, aircraft rescue and firefighting (ARFF) services are strongly recommended at all airports. The characteristics of aircraft fires are different from those of other structures and equipment because of the speed at which they develop and the intense heat they generate. Because of this, FAR Part 139 designates specific ARFF requirements based on the type of aircraft that typically use any given airport. Index determination based on aircraft length is as follows: Index A: Aircraft less than 90 feet in length Index B: Aircraft more than 90 feet but less than 126 feet in length Index C: Aircraft more than 126 feet but less than 159 feet in length Index D: Aircraft more than 159 feet but less than 200 feet in length Index E: Aircraft greater than 200 feet in length

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ARFF uses combinations of water, dry chemicals, and aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) to fight aircraft-based and other airfield fires. These minimum requirements are as follows: Index A airports require one ARFF vehicle carrying at least: 1. 500 pounds of sodium-based dry chemical or 2. 450 pounds of potassium-based dry chemical and 100 pounds of water and AFFF for simultaneous water and foam application Index B airports require either of the following: 1. One vehicle carrying at least 500 pounds of sodium-based dry chemical, and 1,500 gallons of water, and AFFF for foam production or 2. Two vehicles, with one vehicle carrying the agents required for Index A and one vehicle carrying enough water and AFFF so that the total quantity of water for foam production carried by both vehicles is at least 1,500 gallons.

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Figure 2-38: ARFF (Aircraft Rescue Fire Fighting Vehicles) VEHICLES (Source: Planning and Management, McGraw-Hill, New York)

Index C airports require either: 1. Three vehicles, with one vehicle carrying the agents required for Index A, and two vehicles carrying enough water and AFFF so that the total quantity of water for foam production carried by all three vehicles is at least 3,000 gallons or RIJAN LAMICHHANE 067/B.ARCH/67032


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2. Two vehicles, with one vehicle carrying the requirements for Index B, and one vehicle carrying enough water for foam production by both vehicles is 3,000 gallons. Index D airports require three vehicles, including: 1. One vehicle carrying the agents required for Index A 2. Two vehicles carrying enough water and AFFF so that the total quantity of water for foam production carried by all three vehicles is at least 4,000 gallons. Index E airports require three vehicles, including: 1. One vehicle carrying the agents required for Index A 2. Two vehicles carrying enough water and AFFF so that the total quantity of water for foam production carried by all three vehicles is at least 6,000 gallons. Today, nearly every major airport is equipped with rapid intervention vehicles (RIVs) able to reach runways within 2 minutes of an alarm. Heavy-duty vehicles are designed to cross rough ground to reach a distant runway or go into rough terrain, where many accidents tend to occur (Fig. 7-1). RIVs are fast trucks that carry foam, water, medical and rescue equipment, and lights for use in fog and darkness. Their crews begin holding operations to contain the fire and clear escape routes. Heavy-duty foam tenders follow. They are large, but fast and maneuverable, and carry about 10 times more foam than the RIV. Turret-mounted foam guns swivel to project the foam up to 300 feet. 2.16.

TERMINAL SPACE REQUIREMENTS

To assure orderly and smooth functioning of the terminal, the individual facility areas that form the constituent parts should be designed to accommodate the level and type of passenger loading they are expected to experience. 2.16.1. GROSS TERMINAL AREA PER GATE The relationship between annual enplaned passengers and gross terminal area per gate for a 10-year and 20-year forecast is approximated. The profile of the curves is based on predicted growth in seats per aircraft for each forecast period; specifically, the growth in predicted aircraft mix during the peak hour of the average day of the peak month of the design year.

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With a 10 or 20 year forecast of annual enplanements and an approximate required number of gates determined, an approximation of gross terminal area can be made. Rule-of-Thumb A rule-of-thumb of about 150 square feet (14 m2) of gross terminal building area per design peak-hour passenger is sometimes used for rough estimating purposes Another rule using 0.08 to 0.12 square feet (0.007 to 0.011 m2) per annual enplanement at airports with over 250,000 annual enplanements can similarly be applied. At small airports with less than 250,000 enplanements, estimates should be based on peak hour considerations and simple sketches.

Table 2-5 FAA terminal space design standardS Source: Airport Engineering; Ashford, Norman & H. Wright, Paul *TPHP=Typical Peak Hour Passenger

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Table 2-6 IATA level of service space standards for airport passenger terminal Source: Airport Engineering; Ashford, Norman & H. Wright, Paul

2.16.2. SPACE ALLOCATIONS The terminal building area is comprised of both usable and unusable space. Unusable space involves those areas required for building columns and exterior and interior walls, about 5 percent of the total gross area. The usable space can be classified into the two broad categories of rentable and non-rentable space. Usually, 50 to 55 percent is allocated to rentable space and 45 to 50 percent to non-rentable space. The below Figure presents a further breakdown of these basic categories.

Figure 2-39Gross Terminal Area Space Distribution

Source- Planning and Design for Airport Terminal facilities, FAA

2.16.2.1.

WAITING LOBBY

Apart from providing for passenger and visitor circulation, a centralized waiting area usually provides public seating and access to passenger amenities, including rest rooms, retail shops, food service, etc. The sizing of a central waiting lobby is influenced by the number, seating capacity, and location of individual gate waiting areas. If all gate areas have seating, the central waiting lobby may be sized to seat 15 to 25 percent of the design peak hour enplaning passengers plus visitors. However, if no gate seating areas are provided or planned, seating for 60 to 70 percent of design peak hour enplanements plus visitors should be provided.

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Visitor-passenger ratios are best determined by means of local surveys. In the absence of such data, an assumption of one visitor per peak hour originating passenger is reasonable for planning purposes.

2.16.2.2.

BAGGAGE CLAIM LOBBY

This lobby prides public circulation space for access to baggage claim facilities and for egress from the claim area to the deplaning curb and ground transportation. It also furnishes space for such passenger amenities and services as car rental counters, telephones, rest rooms, limousine service, etc. Allowance for public circulation and passenger amenities outside the claim area ranges from 15 to 20 feet (5 to 6 m) in depth at small hub airports, 20 to 30 feet (6 to 9 m) at medium hubs, and 30 to 35 feet (9 to 11 m) at those airports serving large hubs. Lobby lengths range from 50 to 75 feet (15 to 23 m) for each baggage claim device. For approximating lobby length and area, one claim device per 100 to 125 feet (30 to 38 m) of baggage claim frontage should be assumed. 2.16.2.3.

COMBINED LOBBIES

Airports handling less than 100,000 annual enplanements frequently provide a single combined lobby for ticketing, waiting, and baggage claim. An assumed seating for 100 percent of peak hour enplanements, may be used to obtain a gross approximation for lobby space. This usually allows adequate space for visitors and circulation. Also, AC 150/5360-9 presents space requirements for low activity airports.

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AIRLINE TICKET COUNTER/OFFICES

The Airline Ticket Counter (ATO) area is the primary location for passengers to complete ticket transactions and check-in baggage. It includes the airline counters, space and/or conveyors for handling outbound baggage, counter agent service areas, and related administrative/support offices. In almost all cases, ticket counter areas are leased by an airline for its exclusive use. Therefore, the planning, design, and sizing of these areas should

be

closely

coordinated

with

individual airlines. Ticket Counter Configurations Three ticket counter configurations are in general use. They include: 1. Linear Linear configuration frequently

used

is

one.

the

most

Source - Planning and Design for Airport Terminal facilities, FAA

Multi-purpose

positions indicated are those in which the

Figure 2-40 Linear Ticket Counter

agent performs several functions such as ticketing, baggage check-in, and the other services an airline may consider appropriate. During peak periods, multi-purpose positions may be utilized for a single function to expedite passenger processing for those requiring only one type of service. At high volume

airports, permanent special-purpose positions may be justified.

2. Flow-through Counters Flow-through counters, as depicted in Figure, are used by some airlines, particularly at high-volume locations with a relatively high percentage of “baggage

only�

transactions.

This

configuration permits the passenger to check-in baggage before completing ticketing transaction and

increases

outbound

baggage

handling Figure 2-41Flow -through Counters

capability by providing additional belt conveyors. This type of counter requires more floor space, an additional 50-70 square feet (4.7-5.1 m2),

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than the linear type and involves increased investment and maintenance costs. Future application will probably be limited to relatively few airports. 1. Island Counters The island counter shown in Figure combines some features of the flow through and linear arrangements. The agent positions form a “U� around a single baggage conveyor belt (or pair of belts) permitting interchangeability between multipurpose or specialized positions. As with flow through counters, this configuration has relatively limited application.

Figure 2-42 Island Counter

2. Office Support The airline ticket counter/office provides space for a number of airline support activities. These activities include: accounting and safekeeping of receipts; agent supervision; communications; information display equipment; and personnel areas for rest, personal grooming, and training. At low activity locations, the ticket counter area may provide space for all company administrative and operational functions, including outbound baggage. At high activity locations, there is more likelihood that additional space for airline support activities will be remotely located from the ticket counters.

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2.16.3. SECURITY INSPECTION STATIONS Air carriers using over 60 passenger seat aircraft in scheduled or public charter operations are required by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) 121.538 to screen all passengers prior to boarding in accordance with the provisions of FAR Part 108. This activity is normally handled inside the terminal building at a security screening station. There are three types of passenger inspection stations, depending on the location of the station in relation to the aircraft boarding area. These include: • Boarding Gate Station • Holding Arc Station: and • Sterile Concourse Station. A sterile concourse station, from both the standpoint of passenger security facilitation and economics, is the most desirable type of screening station. It is generally located in a concourse or corridor leading to one or several pier finger(s) or satellite terminal(s) and permits the screening and control of all passengers and visitors passing beyond the screening location. It thus can control a considerable number of aircraft gates with a minimum amount of inspection equipment and personnel. Pier and satellite terminal concepts arc well suited for application of the Sterile Concourse Station, since the single point entrance connector element facilitates isolation of boarding arcs Because of building geometry especially that associated within car and transporter terminal concepts) the Sterile Concourse Station is not always feasible. Under these circumstances, several inspection stations may be required to control a number of holding areas or departure lounges. In the worst situation, a screening station may be required at each boarding gate. Except at low activity airports, where manual search procedures may be employed, a security inspection station will generally include a minimum of one walk-through weapons detector and one’s-ray device. Such a station has a capacity of 500 to 600 persons per hour and requires an area ranging from 100 to 150 square feet (9 to 14 sq.m). Examples of security inspection station layouts arc illustrated in Figure. Space leading to the security inspection station should allow room for queuing as the flow of passengers through security is often interrupted when a passenger requires a rescreening or physical search. Queuing space should not extend into or block other circulation elements.

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The boarding area beyond a security screening checkpoint, whether a holding area concourse or departure lounge, requires a design which will enable security to be maintained. In this respect, the design and location of entrances, exits, fire doors, concessions, etc., require special consideration.

Figure 2-43 Security Inspection Layout

Source- Planning and Design for Airport Terminal facilities, FAA

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2.16.4. TERMINAL CURB AREA Curb areas are required at terminals for loading and unloading of passengers and their baggage. Curb frontage. The length of curb to be provided is related to the mix of vehicle types and expected curb dwell time. The following table shows typical curb dwell times and required vehicle slot lengths for different types of vehicles. It should be noted that, in the case of deplaning passengers, larger volumes of passengers, baggage, and ground transportation requirements peak over shorter periods of time. Strict policing is highly effective in optimizing the vehicle curb slot occupancy rate.

2.16.4.1.

SIDEWALK PLATFORMS

Sidewalk platforms are located immediately adjacent to curb/manoeuvring lanes and terminal building entrances and exits to provide passenger walkways and safety areas for loading and unloading of vehicles. At high activity airports, traffic curb islands are often provided to increase the curb area and, in some cases, to segregate different types of ground transportation vehicles. Airports with relatively low passenger levels may be able to accommodate both enplaning and deplaning passengers from one curb face. Generally, the curb area is divided functionally into enplaning and deplaning curbs. It is separated physically, either horizontally at each end of the terminal building or vertically by means of structural vehicular ramps. With a one level operation, the deplaning curb is located at the far end of the terminal with respect to approaching vehicular traffic. In the case of vertical separation, deplaning is on the lower level. Such separation minimizes the congestion which will result if opposing flows and volumes of persons, baggage, and ground vehicles are concentrated in the same curb area.

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At most terminals, specific curb areas are designated for buses, limousines, courtesy cars, and taxi queues. These designated areas should be located at reasonable distances from terminal exits to reduce congestion. Overhead coverings are desirable to protect disembarking passengers from inclement weather.

Figure 2-44 Deplaning Curb

Source- Planning and Design for Airport Terminal facilities, FAA

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CURBSIDE BAGGAGE CHECK-IN

Curb side baggage check-in permits baggage to be checked directly to the appropriate airline flight. The area which accommodates this service normally requires space for a baggage check-in desk (usually portable), baggage hand trucks, and a baggage conveyor or belt. Baggage may be either taken by hand truck to the ticket counter or transported directly by an adjacent conveyor belt to the outbound baggage room. The system used is economically related to passenger activity volumes, manpower, and installation cost. Terminal plans should consider design provisions to facilitate both present and future conveyor installations.

2.16.4.3.

TERMINAL ENTRYWAYS

Terminal entrances should be located at enplaning curb

areas and open directly into

airline ticket counter lobbies. Similarly, terminal exits should be located in close proximity to baggage claim facilities and open to deplaning curbs.

Table 2-7 Dwell time and vehicle slot lengths Source- Planning and Design for Airport Terminal facilities, FAA

Automatic doors are highly recommended for: passenger baggage carrying convenience; as a weather buffer; and to increase the efficiency of passenger movement in energy conservation measures. 2.16.4.4.

PEDESTRIAN CROSSINGS AND WALKWAYS

Pedestrian crossings and walkways from terminal curbs to island platforms and parking facilities should be well marked. At high activity locations, consideration should be given to traffic-controlled crosswalks or, preferably, to grade separation by means of overpasses and tunnels.

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2.16.5. BAGGAGE CLAIM FACILITIES Inbound baggage handling requires both public and non-public building areas. The public space (claiming area) is that in which passengers and visitors have access to checked baggage displayed for identification and claiming. Non-public space is used to off-load bags from carts and containers onto claim devices or conveyor systems for moving into the public area. The claiming area should be located adjacent to a deplaning curb and have convenient access to ground transportation service and auto parking facilities. Passenger access from arriving flights should be direct and avoid conflicting with enplaning passengers. The claim area should also be readily accessible from the aircraft apron by means of carts, tractors, or mechanical conveyors for quick and direct baggage delivery. At low activity airports, a simple claim shelf is the most common baggage claim scheme. As passenger activity increases, several types of mechanical claim devices, as illustrated in Figure, may be utilized to help reduce the overall required claim area length. A discussion of the more common claim schemes follows. The simple shelf or counter is merely a shelf or counter provided in a public area on which baggage from an arriving aircraft is placed for passenger identification and retrieval. Width of the shelf is generally 30 to 36 inches (75 to 90 cm). Passengers merely move laterally along the shelf until there, baggage is located and claimed. Flat-bed plate devices are particularly applicable when direct feed loading areas are immediately adjacent and parallel to the claiming area and on the same floor level. Sloping-bed devices are somewhat more adaptable for remote feed .situations where the loading area cannot be immediately adjacent to the claiming area or must be located on a different floor level. In some cases, the width of the sloping bed is sufficient to provide storage of two rows of bags. At low volume airports, exclusive-use facilities are not usually economically justified and claim facilities are shared or assigned preferentially to several airlines. The use of a Design Day Activity Analysis a public claiming area may require railings or similar separation from other public space and controlled egress to enable inspection of removed baggage for assurance of “positive claim.� At some terminals, additional space may be needed adjacent to

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the claiming area for storage and security of unclaimed baggage and for airline baggage service facilities (lost and found). For planning purposes, claim display frontage can be estimated by the use of either These monographs utilize “Equivalent Aircraft Arrivals”) to approximate deplaning passengers in a 20 minute peak period, assuming an average of 1.3 bags per deplaning passenger. The claiming frontage requirements may be converted to baggage claim facility area requirements by the value presented includes: space for public circulation; area normally required within a controlled “positive-claim*’ facility; and space for airline baggage service facilities. It should be recognized that considerable variance in space requirements occurs between airports due to airline company policies and the number of airlines using a claim area.

Source- Planning and Design for Airport Terminal facilities, FAA

Figure 2-45Mechanical Claim Device

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CASE STUDY

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CASE STUDY 7B

3.1.

TRIBHUVAN INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT 50B

3.1.1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION 10B

The Tribhuvan International Airport (TIA) at Sinamangal the only international airport of Nepal. It is situated between three ancient cities, namely: Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur (over 2.0 million inhabitants) with its location about 5.56 km. east from the core of the ‘tricity’. Tribhuwan international airport is the only entryway to Nepal through airways; it is located in the Kathmandu district and is situated between three ancient cities Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur. Tribhuwan international airport is the only International airport that is standing here in the country of the Himalayas; many tourists enter this sacred land through this airport. The Tribhuwan international airport is named after the late king Tribhuwan bikram Shah, before the international airport was established the vacant land was a Gaucharan i.e. open land for cows to gaze. It is also known as Tribhuwan international Airport, Gauchar.

Figure 3-1 TIA Terminal Building

3.1.2. POTENTIALITY OF SITE 10B

Ground access: Consist of a road at the North side of the area which connects to the main cities. Expansibility: Consists of land on the East side which is used as golf course Surroundings: Major residential areas like Sinamangal, Koteshwor and Gaushala Availability of utilities: It is situated at the prime location between 3 main cities so there is plenty of utility and resources Atmospheric conditions: Moderate, Average temperature= 27.8 degree Celsius Visibility: It is situated at a certain height above the city so, has better visibility

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3.1.3. TIA PROFILE Coordinates: 27041’50”N – 085021’28”E Elevation: 4390 ft. AMSL Reference Temperature: 27.80 C Runway Designation: 02/20 Runway Dimension: 10000 ft. x 150 ft. Runway Surface Strength: 54 F/A/W/T Apron Capacity: Int'l - 9 Medium and Wide Body Category Aircraft Domestic - 15 Small Aircraft Fire Fighting Category: Cat VIII Service: Air Traffic Control Service (aerodrome Control, Approach Control and Area Control) Aeronautical Communication Service Aeronautical Information Service

3.1.4. CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY OF NEPAL Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal (CAAN) was established as an autonomous regulatory body on 31 December 1998 under Civil Aviation Act, 1996. CAAN has been set up with the objective of making aviation safe, regular, standard and efficient. Its prime goal is to ensure flight safety and sustainability of civil aviation. It has the responsibilities of constructing, operating and maintaining airports. Besides, it has also to equip the airports with necessary communications and navigational facilities. The head office is situated in Babarmahal, Kathmandu Nepal the main functions of Civil Aviation authority Nepal have been mentioned below; a. Permitting Airlines operation b. Airworthiness Certification and Manpower c. Regulating Air Transport and Civil Aviation activities d. Constructing operating and maintaining airports e. Equipping and maintaining airports with necessary communication and navaids

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3.1.5. AIRLINE AFFAIRS 104B

In the year 2010, a total of 27 airlines (international) comprising scheduled, non-scheduled and charter operated. In terms of aircraft movement, airport preceded 99291 number of flight in 2010. During 2010, a total of 13 domestic airlines transported 1036586 kg of cargo was carried by these airlines.

Figure 3-2 Airline list for TIA Source- CAAN

3.1.6. MASTER PLAN 105B

TIA has the total land area of 319097.415 square meters; the international terminal building can be seen in the western part of the premises. The international terminal building is of two storey and divided into half, the first half serves for the departure and the second half for the arrival. The VIP section divides the building in two terminal units. The first half consist of baggage and ticket check in the ground floor then the passengers have to carryon up to the first floor for the immigration then head towards the gate and to the aircraft. The second half consists of the immigration on the first floor for the arriving guests then the passenger boards

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down for the baggage claim on the ground floor and heads towards the custom and comes out through the arrival section to the curb area. On the back of the terminal area there is baggage handling units of both arriving and departing passengers, the luggage are carried to and from the aircraft from this same area. The Cargo building is at the south end of the premises and the control tower is situated besides the international terminal building, control tower is the main center for the traffic control and management of the airport. On the northern end there is the VVIP units and the

Figure 3-3 Master plan of TIA

domestic terminal building, the firefighting system is situated at the eastern part of the premises along with the radar. It has only one operating runway, which is oriented north – south. According to the magnetic bearing the runway is named 02-20, 02 at the south and 20 at the north end. It has a holding apron at the north end of the runway, and we have one taxiway which is linked with the parallel runway with five exits. The international terminal area has an apron which has the capacity of 9 bays for the international airlines. This apron is situated just besides the terminal building area, It also we have an apron for the domestic airplanes at the north end which can hold up to 15 small sized aircraft

End of the left half comprises of the operational building with the control tower over it. This control tower is the main center for the traffic control and management of the airport. On the farthest southern side of the terminal, the main cargo unit is located and on the far northern side there is VVIP units and the terminal building of the domestic airport. Similarly on the eastern side there is firefighting unit and also the radar is on the side of it. The main runway is oriented to north-south and is supported by the sideways of taxiway. There is an apron of RIJAN LAMICHHANE 067/B.ARCH/67032


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capacity 9 bays for the international airline situated just back of the terminal building after the departure lounge and also there is also a hanger on the side of the terminal building of capacity 2 no. of domestic aircrafts. 3.1.7. PHYSICAL FACILITIES OF TIA 106B

3.1.7.1.

FACILITIES IN THE TERMINAL BUILDING 156B

The Airport has two Public Terminals; one for international and one for domestic Traffic. It also has a Terminal for VIP Guests. Radisson Hotel Kathmandu operates an executive lounge for first and business class passengers for some airlines and Thai Airways International operates a business lounge for its business-class passengers, as well as Star Alliance Gold card holders. •

Main Air Terminal

• • • •

Hangars and parking facilities – located north of the terminal Fuel tanks – located south of the terminal Parking – outdoor area located next to terminal fire station – crash tenders operated by the Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal Fire Division air cargo complex Operation and airline building

• • • :International Terminal area

Terminal Building Floor area: 10,750sq.m. Operation and airlines building Peak hour capacity:1300psx/hr Departure lounge: 350 seats Flight information display Board International Parking Bay: 9 Domestic Terminal building Terminal Building Floor Area: 288.17 sq.m. Baggage claim: 117.44 sq. m. aggage dispatch passage: 174 sq.m. Departure Hall: 724.45 sq.m Arrival Passage: 343.22 sq.m. Airline Check-in-counter: 6 Security Check-in Area: 42.21 sq.m

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Figure 3-4: Airport Apron


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Aircraft maintenance Hanger: 2 Total area = 13,800 sq. m (NAC+ ARMY) 3.1.8. APRON Domestic Apron Area: 5640 sq. m 107B

International apron Area: 35474 sq. m VVIP Apron: 9130 sq. m Surface: Cement concrete PCN: 53 R/B/W/T 3.1.9. RUNWAY Orientation: North-south direction 108B

Designation: 02/20 Single Runway Dimension of Runway: 3050x46m Dimension of Clearway: 245x 150m/150x150m Surface: Bitumen PCN: 54/F/A/W/T Taxiway Width: 23m. Parallel Runway Taxiway Surface: Bitumen

Figure 3-5: Aircraft Arrangement in the Domestic Apron

3.1.10. OTHER COMPONENTS 109B

A. Airport Fire Station and Airfields maintenance Building Fire Station Floor Area: 1300 sq. m Maintenance Building: 850 sq. m B. Cargo Complex Cargo Building Floor Area: 7700 sq. m Mezzanine/ Two Storey Office: 2500 sq. m Access Road: 1.5 Km Apron Expansion: 2000 sq. m

Figure 3-6 Runway

C. Operation and Airline Building: 2000 sq. m

4

3F

Ground Floor 1. Snacks and confectionaries 2. Souvenir Shop 3. Nepal Telecommunication Corporation (Tele-fax, International and Domestic direct dial telephones, free local phones are in the concourse nearby)

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4. Currency Exchange (Nabil Bank) 5. Post office 6. TIA Aerodrome Duty Office with information services 7. Hotel Association Nepal - Reservation counter for hotels. 8. Tourist Information Center - Center provide a variety of information for visitors, including brochures in English and other languages. First Floor 9. CIP Lounge 10. Duty Free Shop 11. VIP Lounge 12. Press room -1 13. Press room -2 14. Transit Security Check 15.HandicappedFacilities Tribhuvan International Airport is also equipped with lifts, escalator, special washrooms and other facilities for handicapped persons. 3.1.11. SILENT FEATURES OF THE TRIBHUVAN INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT Concept: Transporter Architecture style: Modernism with essence of Nepal Type: Linear Height: 3 storied Airport Security and Safety: Armed and patrolling security and Nepal Army Airport Access system configuration: Centralized layout Passenger Building Concept: single road/ double terminal Walking distance: nominal Planning consideration for handicapped: Yes Connection between passenger and aircraft: transporters (shuttle bus) Circulation: 2 escalators foe the passenger; 2 lifts and 2 stairs for the employees area Security lapse: No (separate passage for enplaning and deplaning) Security hold area: not well planned Architecture features: Brick exposed facade, essence of Nepal Symmetrical terminal building  Sloped terrain like structure  Wood carving decorated pillars Material: brick, wood, R.C.C and glass  

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Sound insulation: terminal further away from apron area

Figure 3-7 Departure Lobby lit by Clerestory Light

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Figure 3-8: Departing Passenger Flow within the Terminal Building

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Figure 3-9: Departing Passenger Flow within First Floor

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3.1.12.

CAPACITY IMPROVEMENT SCENARIO

Fig. TIA proposed master plan 2028 Source: CAAN

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Implemented in four phases by 2028 B.S. International Terminal Building (ITB) 36,000 sq.m. expanded to 90,000 sq.m. Runway lengthened to 3350m from present 3000m

3.1.13. ANALYSIS 12B

TIA, the only gateway to the nation, fails to impress the incoming guests arriving or departing from the airport. Various aspects are at play when it comes to the mortification to the opinion about the maintenance and the operations of the airport. The terminal building is sometimes not able to handle the passengers during the peak day and the peak hour. The immigration line would extend and the immigration would be flocked with passengers 1. Many of the terminal building parts don’t have provision for natural lights, especially the lobby area of offices 2. Most of the part of the departure lounge is being lit with the artificial light. 3. The departure lounge has only capacity of 350 seats giving problems and some passengers have to even stand during peak hours 4. The expansion of the terminal building is not possible as there are no separated areas for the expansion. 5. The domestic terminal building and the international terminal building’s design does not match 6. The apron gates are not sufficient for the peak hour passengers and the design is also not good and elegant

The drop-off and pick-up on the curb side at peak hours seems much more chaotic with departing passengers and their visitors flocking the entire walkway and spilling out onto the road. Personally, the separation of the employment-seeking departing passengers to other social visiting passengers degrades the passengers as a whole. It also segregates them into categories which should not be practices at all. All passengers should be treated with respect and acknowledged properly. Many of the internal parts of the terminal building don’t have provision for natural lights, especially the lobby area or offices. The artificial lights, normal fluorescent lights, provide lighting during the night and most of them do not work. The signage need to be maintained and there should be more flight display monitors placed all over. These drawbacks suggest TIA has reached its saturation point and any further delay in building another full-fledged international airport would worsen the situation at a time when Nepal’s tourism is expected to boom.

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DELHI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT TERMINAL 3 GENERAL INTRODUCTION 13B

Indira Gandhi International Airport serves as the primary civilian aviation hub for the National Capital Region of Delhi, India. The airport, spread over an area of 5,106 acres (2,066 ha), is situated in Palam, 15 km (9.3 mi) south-west of the New Delhi railway station and 16 km (9.9 mi) from New Delhi city centre. Named after Indira Gandhi, a former Prime Minister of India, it has been the busiest airport in India by passenger traffic since 2009. Terminal 3 is the expanded passengers’ terminal of New Delhi’s Indira Gandhi International Airport. Considered one of the largest airport terminals in the world. With the commencement of operations at Terminal 3 in 2010, it became India's and South Asia's largest aviation hub, with a current capacity of handling more than 62 million passengers. The planned expansion program will increase the airport's capacity to handle 100 million passengers by 2030.In 2014, the airport was among the top 30 busiest airports in the world with 39.7 million passengers handled, registering a 7.8% growth in traffic over the previous year.

Figure 3-1 Delhi International Airport T3

Designed by HOK working in consultation with Mott MacDonald, the new Terminal 3 is a two-tier building spread over an area of 20 acres (8.1 ha), with the lower floor being the arrivals area, and the upper floor being a departures area. The terminal is divided into two storey where the ground floor is used for arriving areas and the upper floor is used for departure areas. The terminal consist of 240 check in counters, 78 aerobridges at 65 contact stands, 54 parking bays, 96 immigration counters, 15 X-ray screening areas, duty free shops. This terminal will be connected with the Delhi by an eight lane motorway. The arrivas is also equipped with 18 baggage carousels and about 20,000m2 of space separated for restaurants, cafes and food outlets and the terminal have around 10,000 m2 of landscaped area The terminal is a glass and metal frame structure which has spacious interiors and features arts and graphical design that shows Indian culture, the building is oriented north which reduces direct sunlight. The terminal is equipped with sustainable and energy efficient equipments to save energy and resources.

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Figure 3-3 Departure Hall

The entire new system, including runways, aprons and taxiways is fully compliant with Code (F) aircraft requirements. The new passenger terminal building (Terminal 3) accommodates the bulk of the full service international and domestic traffic streams operating at the airport Subsequent phases develop the terminal envelope, aprons and landside pavements in a manner, which provides maximum flexibility, in terms of a response to a fluctuating market, as well as an underone-roof terminal environment.

Figure 3-4 Master Plan of Indira Gandhi International Airport

Source: Internet

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Indira Gandhi International Airport has 6 terminal building, 1A,1B for domestic purpose, 1C,

1Dand 2 are at unused state and T3 as international terminal building and domestic terminal building . It has 2 parallel runway, both 3900m long and 1 auxillary runway, 4600m long. It covers the total area of 1600 hectares. There is the railway train served by Dehli Metro Airport Express that is 22.7km to T3 and runs every 15 min. 3.2.2. FEATURES OF TERMINAL 3

a. RUNWAY It’s one of the Asia’s longest runway having a length of 4.45 km, Runway 11-29 is capable to land and takeoff the largest aircraft in the world The Airbus A380. b. BAGGAGE HANDLING SYSTEM There are about five levels of checking and it is provided by the Common User passenger processing system (CUPPS). The Baggage claim area consists of 14 belts with two belts for out of gauge bas (OOG) bags. c. TRANSPORTATION IN TERMINAL The terminal building consists of 97 travelators, 63 elevators and 34 escalators and eight inclined walkways that connect the international arrival and departure levels. d. PARKING The T3 have 30 parking bays for 2,200 cars. A new seven level automated parking management and guidance system has been built for 4,300 cars which are connected to the terminal by travelators. The park and Fly service have also been initiated to the passengers for their easiness where passengers could drive themselves to the airport and park their car and fly and receive their vehicle when they come back. e. AIRPORT SERVICES There are various means that a passenger can spend their waiting time in the airport without going out there is Eaton Airport hotel, Premium Plaza lounge, Sams snooze at my space Eaton Hotel is located after security check (Security Hold Area). Departing passengers are allowed entry to the security hold area 6 hours prior for International passengers, 24 hours for Transit passengers and 3 hours prior for Domestic passengers. Sams snooze at my space is the new concept of providing space to the passengers they provide you with the sleeping pods and pay-per-use lounges, offering personal comfort rooms, and its for the first time in India. It is located just a step away at the departure area at the T3, available for all the esteemed passengers, on an hourly basis. Airport Premium Services provider Plaza Premium Lounge Management Limited operates 5 new lounges at the new Terminal 3, Indira Gandhi International Airport. The new lounges feature facilities ranging from shower rooms, napping rooms, spa treatment rooms, business centre, to wine and dine, to provide travelers with the best level of comfort and hospitality at the terminal.

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Terminal 3 : SALIENT FEATURES Integrated Terminal – International and Domestic 34 million passengers per annum capacity 5.4 million sq ft. area 9 level passenger terminal building and 2 piers each 1.2 km long. In-line Baggage Handling System with capacity to handle 12,800 bags per hour 6 Common check-in islands -168 check-in counters 95 Immigration counters (49 Outbound and 46 Inbound Immigration counters) 78 Passenger Boarding Bridges (including 3 Passenger Boarding Bridges for A380 or similar sized aircraft) 14 Baggage reclaim belts including 2 belts for Out of Gauge (OOG) bags 6.7 million sq ft. of apron area 100 room Transit Hotel for Domestic and International passengers (68 rooms for domestic transit and 32 rooms for international transit) 96 automatic travelators /walkways (Longest one being 118 mts in length) Over 20,000 sq mters. of retail space. Multi Level Car Park to accommodate 4300 cars 7 MLD Water and 10 MLD Sewage Treatment Plant (total quantity for entire airport, treatment plant inside airport premises only) Table 3-2-2 Salient Features of Terminal 3

3.2.3.

T3 TERMINAL BUILDING

It is the terminal building that both serves the international and domestic passenger.

Figure 3-3-4:T3 Terminal where left half is domestic and right is international terminal

    

The T3 terminal is Finger Pier building. Design peak hr. pax= 3400 pax It covers the area of 540,000 m2. Concept: Centralized Two lvl Building It has Arrival at the Ground Floor and Departure at the First Floor.

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3.2.3.1. GROUND FLOOR LEVEL

Figure 3-2-0-1:Ground Floor Level-Arrival Source: Internet

At the ground floor level there is arrival. The passenger from the aircraft reach the terminal building through concourses where they undergo Immigration check,baggage claim and custom. After that they can leave the building. Beside that there are also retail shops, ATM,gaming zone, press room, napping area, 12 health counters, restuarants,etc at the arrival lounge. The transit passenger proceed directly to upper lvl through transit hall.

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3.2.3.2. FIRST FLOOR LEVEL

Figure 3-2-0-2:First Floor level-Departure Source: Internet

The first floor level consists of the Departure area. The passenger can reach directly to the first floor level via elevated 3-lane road. It consists of 28 immigration desk and 168 check in counter. There are also the facilities of restaurants, toilets, reading area, handicapped area, napping area in this departure lounge. After the passenger reach the departure area, they go through the check in counter where they leave their luggages and to the security and immigration and to their respective aircraft through concourse.

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3.2.4. FLOW IN THE TERMINAL 3 17B

Figure 3-2-0-3 Floor Plan of T3

a. ARRIVAL The arrival of the International Passenger is at the ground floor level of the building. After the aircraft lands then the passengers are directed to the gate and then the passengers are required to use the travellators provided in the gates area to reach to their next destination i.e. IMMIGRATION. There is large no. of duty free shops in the arrival gate section of the T3 international airport. The passengers take the escalators or any other medium of transport and reach to the immigration counters before they go on with the immigration checking they have to first fill up the arrival card for the custom clearance. Then the passengers are required to go on to their destined counters, the delhi

airport provides counters for Figure 3-0-4 Gate in T3  Passengers with special needs  Business Class / First Class Passengers  Passengers with Indian Passport  Passengers with Foreign Passport  Passengers of Indian Origin/ Overseas Citizen of India  Diplomats/ Officials  Passengers from SAARC Nations Figure 3-0-5 Arrival of T3

After their clearance in the immigration counters they are required to move to the Baggage claim areas

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where there are around 6-8 baggage conveyers displaying the luggage of the passengers After the passengers have claimed their luggage they are required to move to the customs checking, if they have any things to declare they could do it in the Red Channel or else they could proceed to the green channel. Then they are directed to the Arrival main hall where there are lots of Restaurants, ATMs and other services The passenger then exits the Main hall to the curbside area the T3 is connected with the Delhi metro service as well.

Figure 3-0-6 Arrival hall

b. DEPARTURE The departure is on the upper floor of the Terminal 3 after entering the building the passengers are welcomed with the amazing interior of the checkin counters. After the checking in has been done the baggage would be weighed and they are placed on the conveyers and then the passengers proceeds to the immigration for their passport check The passengers are then boarded into the security portion where they are checked thoroughly then the passenger boards the departure lounge where there are lots of restaurants and shopping centers along with a smoking zone. Figure 3--2-0-7 Departure Checking After the announcement has been made the passengers and Immigration are directed to the apron gate they travel through the travellators, passengers get off to their destined gates , the gate nos are clearly visible when the passengers travel through the travelators. The top floor of the departure lounge consist many more Restaurants, Private lounges, Internet. The passengers board into this section by an escalator and the below floor could be viewed from opening.

Figure 3-0-1 Depature Hall

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DENVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (DIA)

Figure 3-3-0-2 Ariel view of the airport

Denver International Airport (IATA: DEN, ICAO: KDEN, FAA LID: DEN), often referred to as DIA, is an airport in Denver, Colorado. At 34,000 acres (53 sq mi), it is the largest airport in the United States by total area. Runway 16R/34L is the longest public use runway in the United States. DIA has non-stop service to destinations throughout North America, Latin America, Europe and Asia. The airport is in northeastern Denver and is operated by the City & County of Denver Department of Aviation. DIA was voted Best Airport in North America by readers of Business Traveler Magazine six years in a row (2005–2010)and was named "America's Best Run Airport" by Time Magazine in 2002. DIA is the main hub for low-cost carrier Frontier Airlines and commuter carrier Great Lakes Airlines. It is also the fourth-largest and Central US hub for United Airlines, and a major focus city for Southwest Airlines. Since commencing service to Denver in January 2006, Southwest has added over 50 destinations, making Denver its fastest-growing market.

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Figure 3-3-0-1 Denver International Airport

Figure 3-4-0-1 Iconic Roof Structure

3.3.1. OVERVIEW 18B

• • • • • • • • •

Establishment o City and County of Denver Municipal Charter o Department of Aviation enterprise defined by the Colorado Constitution Management o The manager of aviation is appointed by Denver’s mayor and serves as a member of the mayor’s cabinet Total Employees at DEN o More than 31,000 Total City and County of Denver Employees at DEN o More than 1,000 Opening Date o February 28, 1995 Location o 24.4 miles (39.9 kilometres) northeast of downtown Denver Latitude o 39 degrees, 50 minutes, 57.8 seconds Longitude o 104 degrees, 40 minutes, 23.9 seconds Elevation o 5,431 feet (1,655 meters)

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• • •

• • •

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Size o 34,000 acres (53 square miles/137.8 square kilometres) Runways o Six runways: five 12,000 feet in length (3,600 meters); o One 16,000 feet in length (4,800 meters) o 12 runways at complete build-out Elrey B. Jeppesen Terminal o 1.5 million square feet – (139,355 square meters) o Passenger Facilities Ticketing – Level 6 o Baggage Claim – Level 5 o Passenger Drop-off – Level 6 o Passenger Pick-up – Level 4 o Ground Transportation – Level 5 (construction) o International Arrivals – Level 5 north o Security Screening: three locations in the terminal o Parking more than 40,000 spaces o Automated “people mover” underground train serving the terminal and gate areas Gate Areas o Three airside gate areas – A, B, and C o A Gates  1,900 feet (579 meters) long,  1,220,000 square feet (113,342 square meters) o B Gates  3,300 feet (1,006 meters) long,  2,033,872 square feet (188,953 square meters) o C Gates  1,500 feet (457 meters) long,  750,000 square feet (69,677 square meters) Gates o 95 with loading bridges; 62 regional aircraft positions Annual Passenger Capacity o 53.2 million in 2012 Airlines o 16 commercial airlines, not including charter and regional carriers, offer nonstop service to more than 180 destinations worldwide (more details on p. 11). Average Daily Passengers o 145,235 (2012) 5 percent originate in Denver, 45 percent connect through Denver Average Daily Flights o 1,625 (2012) Average Daily Cargo o 647 metric tons per day (2012) Annual Economic Impact o Denver International Airport is the primary economic engine for the state of Colorado and generates US$22.3 billion in economic impact (Colorado Department of Transportation, 2008)

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Figure 3-3-5 Lighting arrangement

3.3.2. ARCHITECTURE 19B

DEN’s award-winning architecture and magnificent views of the Rocky Mountains create a unique atmosphere for travellers. Jeppesen Terminal’s internationally recognized peaked roof, designed by Fentress Bradburn Architects, is reflective of snow-capped mountains and evokes the early history of Colorado when Native American tepees were located across the Great Plains.

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AIRPORT INFRASTRUCTURES

Figure 3-3-7 Airport layout

Source: Denver Intl Airport Press Kit

Terminal and Gate Areas Denver International Airport’s signature roof houses the Jeppesen Terminal, and passengers catch flights at A, B, and C Gates. To reach A Gates, passengers can choose to walk over a pedestrian bridge or take the passenger train. Access to B and C Gates is limited to the passenger train.

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JEPPESEN TERMINAL

Jeppesen Terminal, named after aviation safety pioneer Elrey Jeppesen, is the land side of the airport. Road traffic accesses the airport directly off of PeĂąa Boulevard, which in turn is fed by Interstate 70 and E-470. Two covered and uncovered parking areas are directly attached to the terminal: three garages and an economy parking lot on the east side; and four garages and an economy lot on the west side.

Figure 3-3-4 Jeppesen Terminal

The terminal is separated into west and east terminals for passenger drop off and pickup. The central area of the airport houses two security screening areas and exits from the underground train system. The north side of the Jeppesen Terminal contains a third security screening area and a segregated immigration and customs area. Passengers are routed first to airline ticket counters or kiosks for checking in. Since all gates at Denver are in the outlying concourses, passengers must pass through any one of the three separate security screening areas for admittance into the secure air side of the airport (one at each end of the main terminal, with escalators down to the trains, plus one at the end of the walkway to Concourse A). After leaving the main terminal via the train or pedestrian bridge, passengers can access 95 full-service gates on 3 separate concourses (A, B, & C), plus gates for regional flights. Stone used in the terminal walls was supplied by the Yule Marble Quarry, also used for the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and the Lincoln Memorial. 5 4F

5

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Runways and Airfield DEN currently has six runways – five measure 12,000 feet in length, and the sixth measures 16,000 feet (nearly three miles long). The 16,000-foot runway (16R/34L) is the longest commercial runway in North America. Because of Denver’s high elevation and summer heat, this extra length often is needed for departures. With 53 square miles (137.8 square kilometres) of land, DEN is one of the few major U.S. airports with room to expand its current facilities to accommodate future growth. DEN has capacity for six additional runways, for a total of 12.

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The midfield concourses allow passengers to be screened in a central location efficiently and then transported via a people mover to three different passenger concourses. Unlike Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport upon which the midfield design was based, Concourses B and C are not connected by any kind of walkway; they are only accessible via train. The taxiways at Denver have been positioned so that each of the midfield concourses can expand significantly before reaching the taxiways. Concourse B, used by United Airlines, is longer than the other two concourses, but all three concourses can be expanded as needed. Once this expansion is exhausted, space has been reserved for future Concourses D and E. All international flights requiring customs and immigration services currently fly into Concourse A. Currently eight gates are used for international flights. These north facing gates on Concourse A are equipped to divert incoming passengers to a hallway which connects to the upper level of the air bridge, and enters Customs and Immigration in the north side of the Jeppesen Terminal. These gates could also be easily modified to accommodate the Airbus A380 and other large planes by allowing simultaneous boarding on both the upper deck and the lower deck

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3.3.5. FACILITIES Parking DEN has more than 40,000 city-operated parking spaces. In addition to terminal parking (garage and shuttle lots), DEN has two remote shuttle lots.

Shopping and Dining DEN’s shopping and dining program consists of more than 170,000 square feet inside the airport, including more than 140 locations offering an exciting culinary, fashion and retail experience. In 2012, the shopping and dining program generated $281 million in gross sales and more than $49 million in revenue to the airport. DEN’s 38 Retail Merchandising Units (RMU’s) and kiosks throughout the airport is one of the largest programs in the airport industry, contributing $12 million in annual gross sales. Over the next several years, more than 75 percent of DEN’s shopping and dining locations will transform due to expiring leases. Many new businesses will have the opportunity to compete for space at the airport, and travellers will benefit from world-class, fresh new products and services. Ground Transportation and Rental Cars DEN charges all commercial ground transportation vehicle operators fees on the basis of the frequency and duration of using the terminal roadways and curb sides. The city has concession agreements with 12 rental car companies at DEN.

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3.3.6. GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL LEADER DEN’s environmental management has established many firsts in the United States and internationally: • • • • •

First airport in the United States to be accepted into the EPA’s National Environmental Performance Track Program (2006) Received FAA Environmental Stewardship Award (2007) Accepted into Colorado’s environmental leadership program as a Gold level member (2004) Active participation in local and state sustainability initiatives including Greenprint Denver and Colorado Action Climate Plan DEN currently recycles or reuses 21 different types of materials, including approximately 68 percent of collected aircraft de-icing fluids. (2012)

Air •

• • • • Water • • • Waste • •

Alternatively fuelled, hybrid, and electric vehicles in the airport fleet (DEN maintains 322 alternatively fuelled vehicles, including 211 buses, sweepers, and other vehicles using com-pressed natural gas, 112 electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Alternative vehicles make up 32 percent of the airport’s fleet. (2012) Reduced access fees charged for hybrid taxis and vans A greenhouse gas emissions inventory for DEN in 2010 Employee carpool and bus pass programs “No-Idling” signs and education program

Maintaining an aircraft de-icing fluid applied-to-collected ratio of at least 69 percent (among the best in the world) Low-flush toilets and waterless urinals Storm water and erosion management programs

Composting food and other organic wastes Recycling or reusing more than 20 different types of materials. 250 recycling containers in the public areas

Energy • • •

Three solar power installations with a combined power output of 8 MW Fleet vehicle retrofits and replacements provide energy savings EcoStart motor controllers installed on escalators and moving walkways, which reduce the power draw of the motors 24 hours a day (total savings of about 1.7 million kWh per year)

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

TRIBHUWAN

DELHI

DENVER

INTERNATIONAL

INTERNATIONAL

AIRPORT

AIRPORT

AIRPORT

Inference

Maintain appropriate distance LOCATION Kathmandu, Nepal

New delhi, india

Denver, usa

between

city

& the airportneither

too

close nor too far

DESIGN

Traditional design Modern design with with sloped terrain curtain walls and eco structure and adding friendly of the metal roof on the gate and arrival concourse does not blend

Internationally recognized iconic peaked roof -

Not sufficient for peak hour AREA

Sufficient

for

the Sufficient for the Design pax.

peak hour

peak hour

16,000,000.00 sq.m

137.8 square kilometres

313,097.415 sq. m.

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PARKING

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parking space is not provides

innumerable three parking options

a

sufficient when there storey building for is peak passenger

RUNWAY

parking purpose

single- not sufficient two

parallel,

one six runway

during peak aircraft auxiliary – no traffic

AIRPORT

traffic

disorder

not present

around 200 room for 519 room hotel conference

and international pax

centre

finger/pier type

satellite

required

concept

single level road, no single level road, ground transportaion ground transportation inside terminal inside terminal -bldg building, railway system inside terminal bldg

/pier

concept

-

passengers

can

choose to walk over a pedestrian bridge or take the passenger

train

between gates

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movement

disorder

transit pax, domestic and

TERMINAL BUILDING transporter concept TYPE

RTATION

no

aircraft

movement

HOTEL

TRANSPO

-

-


INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT TERMINAL AT BHAIRAHAWA

DEPARTU RE

very small space for the peak hour passengers and with less facilities

P A G E | 117

the departure lounge serves the passengers with great facility and private lounges

the departure lounge serves the passengers with great facility and private lounges

sufficient no. of

sufficient no. of

LOUNGE

BAGGAGE CLAIM

COUNTER S

congested space on the baggage claim & the conveyers are full of baggage for display, the no. of conveyors are not sufficient

conveyors are present conveyors

are

-

present

14, low no. of counters and the space for thecounters are not sufficient

168,more sufficient counters and the space for the passengers are well designed

no. of counters are sufficient and d.t.=30 min the space for the passengers are well designed

transporter

boarding device

boarding device

BOARDIN G TYPE

SECURITY

-

traditional methods high tech methods and old technologies have been used with are still being used 5 level of baggage checking

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various high tech methods have been used and well planned, exception to the automated baggage system disaster


INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT TERMINAL AT BHAIRAHAWA

CHAPTER 4

Program Formulation

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INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT TERMINAL AT BHAIRAHAWA

4.

P A G E | 119

PROGRAM FORMULATION 8B

The area calculation for airport is basically done with the PEAK DEMAND HOUR PASSENGER. According to the AIR TRAFFIC DEMAND FORECAST DRAFT made in September 2012 for the Capacity Development of Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal the forecasted passengers are presented below. Normally the airport are designed for the period of 10 to 20 years. Once the new airport has been constructed the potentialities for attracting and generating international traffic can be due to 1. Diversion from the existing Tribhuwan International Airport 2. Immergence of international air traffic due to attraction as a new regional airport for international passengers visiting Nepal for vacation, trekking and other purpose 3. Transit with existing TIA and other future airports

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From the general rule as set by the ICAO the peak hour passenger could be calculated by taking around 0.05- 0.03 % of total annual passengers hence, PEAK HOUR CALCULATION Design Year- 2030 PEAK HOUR PASSENGER FOR 2030 Total annual passengers for Nepal- 6,865,000 Assume Total diverted passenger for Bhairahawa International airport-(6,865,000 / 2) 3,432,500 Peak hour passenger- 0.05 % X 3,432,500 1716 passengers say 1700 passengers International= 1700/hr [Assuming 8 working hour] DESIGNED AIRCRAFT:   

Fokker-100, DHC-8 and equivalent for domestic movement Boeing B-767 and B-777 for international movement Airbus 320-200 series and Airbus 330-200 series for international movement

INTERNATIONAL TERMINAL Aircraft stand calculation S= [T/60xN]+D Gate occupancy time T= 45 min No of arriving aircraft N= 10 No of aircraft stand S=7.5+1= 8.5~8 Aircraft gate= 8 APPROXIMATE AREA [24~27 sq.m. per PHP] 27 sq.m. x 1700= 45900 sq.m. [+/-5%]

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No of departing passengers= 45% of 1700=765/hr No of arriving passengers= 40% of 1700= 680/hr No of transit passengers= 15% of 1700= 255/hr

Parking 1. Public parking 25% of 1700x25= 10625 sq.m. 2. Hired mode parking @25 sq.m. each= 10% of 1700x25= 4250 sq.m. 3. Buses and airlines vehicles @35 sq.m. each= 1700/100x35= 595 sq.m. 4. Staff parking a. Car @25 sq.m.= 71x25= 1775 sq.m. b. Bike @4 sq.m.= 287x4= 1148 sq.m. c. Cycle @2 sq.m.= 35x2= 70 sq.m. 5. Staff and general parking seperated

Total parking area= 18,463 sq.m.+circulation area MAIN TERMINAL BUILDING Departing and boarding side No of departing passengers= 45% of 1700= 765/hr a. Departure curb Curb length required= A*P*I*T/60n Where, A= no of peak hour departing passenger=765 pax P= proportion of car using passengers= 0.5 N= average no of pax per car/taxi= 1.7 I= average curb length required per taxi= 6.5m T= average curb occupancy time= 1.5min Curb length= (765 x 0.5 x 6.5 x 1.5)/ (60 x 1.7)= 36.5m

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b. General inquiry @10 sq.m. for each counter For 8 counters= 80 sq.m. [additional 1 counter for CIP or no check baggage pax)

c. Departure concourse Ratio of visitors=1:0.5 No of pax= 765 Dwell time for pax= 10 min Area required per pax= 2 sq.m. Area required per visitor= 1.5 sq.m. At a given time, No of pax= (765/60x10)= 127.5 No of visitors= (765x0.5)/60x30)= 191.25 Area required= 127.5x2+191.25x1.5= 541.8 sq.m.

d. Security check-in area Dwell time= 10 min Service time of X-ray machine= 30 sec Required area per pax= 2 sq.m. Required area per machine= 35 sq.m. Capacity of machine= 150 pax per hour At a given time, No of pax cleared= 10x15( one counter can handle 15 pax)x150/60= 375 pax No of machine required= 810/150= 5.4 nos~ 6 nos

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Area required for machine= 6x35= 210 sq.m. Area required for pax= 375@2 sq.m.= 750 sq.m. Total area= 960 sq.m.

e. Check-in area Dwell time= 30 min Service time per counter= 3 min Queue length per pax= 1m Back-up corridor for pax= 3m Peak hour pax= 765 Cleared per counter= 60/3= 20 pax No of pax in queue= 30/3= 10 pax Queue length per counter= 10 x 1= 10m Counter area= 5x2.5 sq.m. No of counter required= 765/20= 38.2~38 Ticket confirm and baggage book/airline support room= [5+10+3]x2.5x38= 1,710 sq.m.

f. Departure immigration, passport and visa check Dwell time= 10 min Service time per counter= 2 min Queue length per pax= 0.75sm Back-up corridor for pax= 3m Peak hour pax= 765

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Cleared per counter= 60/2= 30 pax Counter area= 3.6x1.75 sq.m. No of counter required= 765/30= 25 No of pax in queue= 10/2= 5 pax Queue length per counter= 5x0.75= 3.75m Area= [3.6+3.75+3]x1.75x25=452.8 sq.m. g. Departure lounge Duration in transit lounge= 30min Area per pax= 2 sq.m. No of passenger lounge= departure+transit=765+255= 1020 Area= 1020x2= 2040 sq.m. h. Security hold, final checking and waiting= 700 pax @3 sq.m.= 2100 i.

Custom, item check and quarantine = 6 counters@35 sq. m =210 sq. m Total Area=8,094.5 sq. m For smooth passenger traffic flow can be achieved by providing twice thetotal calculated space Total definite area calculated= 8,094.5 sq. m Total definite area required= 8094.5 sq. m x2= 16,189 sq. m

DEPARTURE FACILITIES 1. Concessionaries, shops, food beverage and bars 10% of total departure space= 1.5% of 16189= 242.8 sq.m. 2. Ticketing, information and ariline back-up For 20 airlines @35 sq.m.= 700 sq.m. 3. Post and telegraph office 10 employees running it= 200 sq.m. RIJAN LAMICHHANE 067/B.ARCH/67032


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4. Vip lounge For 100 pax per @5 sq.m.= 500 sq.m.+ meeting hall 5. Toilet 10% of dept. area= 10% of 16189 sq.m.= 1619 sq.m. Total=19451 6. Circulation and recreational area 15% of dept. area.(19,451 sq.m.)= 2,917.6 sq.m.

Total departure area= 22,368.6 sq.m. ~ 22,300 sq. m ARRIVAL HALL No of arriving passengers= 40% of 1700= 680/hr No of transit passengers= 15% of 1700= 255/hr a. Arrival concourse hall Same boarding bridge is used to collect the arrival passenger. Travelator is provided beneath security hold areas b. Arrival hall Dwell time for pax= 20 min Area per passenger= 2 sq.m. Total peak hour passenger= 680+255= 935 At a given time, no of passenger= [935x20]/60= 311 sq.m. Area= 311x2= 622 sq.m. c. Immigration (passport and visa) Dwell time for pax= 10 min Service time= 1 min Queue length per pax= 0.75m Back-up corridor= 3m

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No of pax cleared/counter= 60 Total peak hour passenger= 680 pax No of counter required=680/60= 11.33 say 12 Area= [3.6+7.5+3]x1.75x12= 296.1 sq.m. d. Baggage claim Dwell time for pax= 20 min In one hour, pax handled by one conveyor belt= 100x60/20= 300 pax Area for one conveyour belt= 600 sq.m. Total peak hour passenger= 680 pax No of belt required= 680/300=2.26 ~ 3 Area= 3x600= 1,800 sq.m. e. Customs (duty check and payment) Ratio of red channel and green channel= 3:7 Dwell time for red channel= 30 min Service time= 30 sec Dwell time for green channel= 4 min Service time= 30 sec No of pax in green channel= 680x 0.7= 476 No of pax in red channel= 680x0.3= 204 No of pax cleared/ green channel= 60x60/30= 120 No of pax cleared/ red channel 60/10= 6 No of green channel required= 476/120= 3.9~4 Pax in queue= 4x60/30= 8 pax No of red channel required= 204/6= 34

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Pax in queue= 30/10= 3 pax Area of green channel counter= 4 @15 sq.m.= 60 sq.m. Queue= 8x3x4= 96 sq.m. Area of red channel counter= 34 @15 sq.m.= 510 sq.m. Queue= 3x3x34= 306 sq.m. Total area= 60+96+510+306= 972 sq.m. f. Arrival concourse No of arriving passengers per hour= 680 Ratio of visitors= 1:1 Occupancy time for visitor pax= 60 min Occupancy time for pax= 20 min At a given time, No of pax= 680x20/60= 226 No of visitors= 680x60/60= 680 Area required per pax= 2 sq.m. Area required per visitors= 1.5 sq.m. Area required= 226x2+680x1.5= 1,472 sq.m. g. VIP lounge Meeting+ gathering hall Same as departure Area required= 500 sq.m. For smooth passenger traffic flow can be achieved by providing twice the space of it is calculated: Total definite area calculated= 5,662 sq.m. Total definite area required= 5,662x2= 11,324 sq.m.

ARRIVAL FACILITIES 1. Concessionaries, shops

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1.5% of total arrival space= 1.5% of 11,324= 169.86 say 170 sq.m. 2. Ware house= 400 sq.m. 3. Post and telegraph office Employee running it= 200 sq.m. 4. Supporting offices [Approximately 10 different office spaces] Immigration, health, bank, custom, etc. for each 150 sq.m. Area= 1500 sq.m. 5. Toilet 10% of arrival. area [ 11,324] = 1132.4 sq.m. Total=14,726 sq. m 6. Circulation and recreation area 15% of arrival area [14,726 sq.m] = 2209 sq.m. Total arrival area= 16,935 sq.m. ~ 17,000 sq.m.

TRANSIT No of transit passengers= 15% of 1700= 255/hr 1. Transit hall No of transit passengers per hour= 255 Area required per pax= 4 sq. m. (luxury) Area required= 255x4=1020 sq.m. 2. Restrooms No of transit passenger per hour= 75 Area required per room= 25 sq.m. (luxury) Area required= 75x25= 1875 sq.m. 3. Toilets Around 20% of hall area Area required= 20% x1020=204 sq.m. 4. Facilities Around 40% of transit area (1020+1875)= 2895 sq.m. Concessionaire, shops, bar, cyber cafe, restaurant, duty free shop, telephone and all necesseties Area required= 40% x2895= 1158 sq.m. 5. Circulation Around 20% of total area (1040+ 1875+ 204+ 1158)= 855.4 sq.m.

Total transit area= 5,132.4 sq.m.~ 5,100 sq.m. Terminal building floor area= departure+arrival+transit= 22,300 +17,000 +5,100= 44,400 sq.m. SUPPORTING FACILITIES • Cargo= 6250 sq.m. • Fire station= 500 sq.m. • Administration=2000 sq.m. • Fuel farm= 6500 sq.m. • Security hold area= 500 sq.m. • Physical facilities= 1500 sq.m. • Airport maintenance hangar= 16000 sq.m. • Runway configuration= 2600x60 (for B757)

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CHAPTER 5

SITE ANALYSIS

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SITE ANALYSIS 9B

The proposed site for the project is the existing Bhairahawa airport, Bhairahawa, Nepal. The site already consists of the existing domestic airport, also known as Gautam Buddha Airport. The existing airport occupies the area of 84 bighas (about 57 hectares). The existing airport is the major domestic hub airport. The total land is 97.27 ha (869 plots) including land acquisition for up gradation. The existing Bhairahawa Airport, GBA (Gautam Buddha International Airport) is located in Siddhartha Nagar, about 20 km east from Lumbini connected by an all-weather road.

Source: Google Earth Figure 5-1 Satellite image

5.1.

SITE INTRODUCTION 54B

Bhairahawa is the main travel gateway to the Buddhist pilgrim's circuit of Lumbini, Kapilvastu and Kathmandu). Hindu pilgrims also enter Nepal here on pilgrimages to Kathmandu's Pashupatinath. Bhairahawa is also a gateway to Nepal for overland travelers and backpackers heading for jungle and mountain treks, river rafting and other adventures. Lumbini was declared a UNESCO Cultural World Heritage Site (WHS) in 1997 in recognition of its universal religious and archaeological significance. The four primary destinations of Lumbini, Bodh Gaya, Sarnath and Kushinagar hold particular significance for Buddhists all over the world. With an ever increasing flow of pilgrims and tourists in Lumbini, transportation service demand continues to grow rapidly. In this regard, the principal objective of the Project is to upgrade GBA to an International Airport with similar standard to the Tribhuwan International Airport (TIA) in Kathmandu. With upgrading of GBA, it is envisioned to enable Nepal to provide more air seat capacity for visitors that will increase the current volume of travellers.

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Figure 5-3Arrival

P A G E | 131

Figure 5-2Curbside

The current development project from CAAN will upgrade GBA to an international airport will

expand the runway from 1,500x30m to 3,000x45m. It includes runway expansion; side strip improvement; runway and taxiway widening; runway and taxiway pavement strengthening; airside and landside drainage improvement; runway drainage expansion; Ghaghara Khola(stream) diversion; road relocation; fire station and fuel farm expansion; water supply and security fence improvement; and construction of a new apron with rigid pavement, terminal building, control tower, airlines building, customs and cargo building, aircraft maintenance building, and security post.

Figure 5-4 Existing Airport

5.2.

Figure 5-5 Parking

GENERAL INFORMATION 5B

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Area Available: 332 Bighas(4418.92 ropani) (2248513.16m2) One Runway- 5000 X 100 ft. One control tower with one tower console One domestic terminal An office building

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5.3.

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AIRPORT ACTIVITIES SUBSYSTEM

Navigation and landing aids The airport has an approach light system. Sensor equipment are located at both ends of the runway. Traffic is managed by air traffic controllers in the Control Tower. It is one of the nine controlled airports where Air Control Traffic Service (ATC) is being provided on VHF frequency. The airport has a meteorological office to hourly provide METAR and SPECI data to the TWR during operation hours. It comes with a surface wind sensor and a temperature and pressure sensor to provide wind direction, wind shear, and temperature. Markings and lightings Centrelines are marked in RWY and TWY. Furthermore, RWY has Designation, THR, TDZ and edge marks. TWY has holding positions at all TWY/RWY intersections marked. In the apron, the taxiing guidance signs at intersections with TWY and RWY and at holding positions and guidelines are marked. Apron lights are also available. Rescue and firefighting service Category V ICAO. The available rescue equipment as per category is present. Fueling facilities Jet A1 is available during operation hours. It is provided by Nepal Oil Corporation. Passenger facilities: Terminal building and parkingThere is a terminal building, but there are no offices for customs and immigration. There is a car parking area in front of the main building. Handling facilities/ Hangar There are no hangars in the airport. Cargo handling Cargo handling is available with local airlines operator Operating capacity and obstacles The airport is available throughout the year. Sometimes cases of bird concentration in the vicinity of the aerodrome may be encountered. Installation of LP gas cannon bird scaring device has controlled the bird movement in areas adjacent to the runway. This has helped in unhindered movements of air carriers. Visibility is not adequate for VFR flight about 25% of the time. The airspace within Nepalese borders (Indian border is 20km away) does not offer enough space for landing/departure for large-sized aircrafts.

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There is only a chimney as an obstacle, but critical obstacle zones lie here in the form of hills, which will limit the holding pattern of big aircrafts. No forest exists in the surroundings of Bhairahawa Airport.

Figure A

Figure C

Figure B

Figure D

Figure 5.5- Figure A: Existing plain agricultural land Figure B: Ghangri Khola, following through proposed land Figure C: Bhairahawa-Lumbini Highway way towards airport (right) connected to Siddhartha Highway Figure D: Residential zone leading to central market (4 km from airport)

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PHYSICAL FEATURES AND THE TOPOGRAPHY

i. Land (Sisawa Deposit): Grey, brown to yellow clayey silt underlain by fine to medium sand. Thickness more than 9m.

ii. Engineering/ Hydrological Properties Low to moderate bearing capacity up to 5m depth with N-values 4 to 8 Slightly denser layer exists with N-values 18 to 30 at depth 4m to 8m below which very stiff clay exists Water table at 1.40 to 2.60m Low to medium permeability and highly susceptible to liquefactions

   

iii. Climate analysis High temperature: 36.7 degree Celsius High humidity: 76.4% Average precipitation: 1526 mm

   

5.5.

AIRPORT OBSTRUCTION ZONE

The most prominent obstructions are situated towards North. The Chure hills (3000’) are located at a distance of 30km (16.2 NM) and much higher Mahabharat range (5000’ and over) starts from 35km (18.9 NM) onward. Aircraft maneuvers, such as circling, climbing, approach, missed approach, descend, turning, landing, etc. are highly dependent on aircraft speed. Therefore, aircraft are divided into following five categories of aircraft; procedure may be based on lower speed aircraft with restrictions to higher category. Aircraft category

Speed in NM

Category A

<169

Category B

169-224

Category C

224-261

Category D

261-307

Category E

307-391

Table 5-1 Category of Aircraft w.r.t speed

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In order to achieve smooth straight - in arrival and departure procedures for a big aircraft (at cruising level of 29,000’), it is essential to have at least 100nm (186km) of obstruction free airspace on both sides of the runway. This requirement is fully met at Bhairahawa Airport as there are no prominent obstacle on either side. Remains of some isolated forest area can be cleared without any significance impact on the environment. Since the Indian border is over 20km, south of the proposed airport area there is no need to cross the Indian border while making straight -in approach from either direction. In case of unsuccessful landing attempts or missed approach, there is enough air space available for circling. For category E, a 13km of radius is recommended from threshold. Terminal procedures toward south of the proposed SIA site is not possible due to closed proximity of the internal boundary. For holding, enough air space is available towards north. Holding is an ATC procedure in which an aircraft holds in a flight as required for the proposed of established separation, and for absorbing delays caused by traffic peaks or due to adverse weather conditions. ICAO recommends a minimum of 15nm *15nm of air space for holding procedure, which is available to the North. Geographical location of Bhairahawa permits straight- in arrivals from Nepalgunj without crossing the Indian Territory. However, for departures and arrivals from East, up to 15 degrees turn to the left may be needed. Therefore, the entire east and the north bound traffic have to go via Bharatpur. This is just to avoid the aircraft from crossing the Indian territory. Therefore, Bharatpur would be a major point of convergence and divergence of air traffic. This however would no cause much deviation in terms of mileage for East bound flights.

5.6.    

PHYSICAL IMPACT Ghangri River in West is to be rerouted without complications Electrical facilities are to be installed Installation of sound barriers in East and South side of the airport Zoning and bye-laws have to be setup for the surrounding areas with respect to the airport

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5.7. CLIMETIC ANALYSIS AND THE LESSON LEARNED FROM MAHONEY TABLE 6 The following conclusions are the derivation of the Mahoney table. 1. Layout: Summer orientation is dominant than winter orientation. Hence, south orientation is not preferred

2. Spacing: Space planning is done to reduce air conditioning load 3. Air movement: The summer breeze is almost from Northwest, which should be considered while designing

4. Openings: Medium sized openings with 25-35% are preferred. Windows should be placed in North and South walls at body height on windward side. The openings need protection from the rain.

5. Walls: Use heavy external and internal walls of 8hour time lag. Double walls/cavity are preferred.

6. Roofs: Light, insulated roofs 7. Rain protection: Protection from heavy rain necessary 7. Energy considerations: a) Light and humidity Sensors b) High performance building envelope c) Waste water technology and water efficient landscaping d) High technology ventilation e) Insulated chilled water supply systems

6

Koenigsberger, Ingersoll, Mayhew, Szokolay, Manual of Tropical Housing and Building

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SWOT ANALYSIS

STRENGTH •

Proper site with proper road access

20 km away from birth place of Gautam Buddha, Lumbini that will attract the International tourists which is again helpful for sustaining the project. • • •

Adequate human resources Required facilities Suitable Topography-relatively flat area

close proximity to Indian border that will attract Indian tourists and promote tourism and business

WEAKNESS • •

Requirement of larger road Climatic temperature of the region is high

Project cost to divert Gharghar nala that exist in the site at west

OPPURTUNITY •

economic opportunity to the whole city promoting tourism sector

• •

Trade and currency To introduce Lumbini as the birthplace of Buddha throughout the world

THREAT •

River Ghangri diversion could be ineffective on its failure

threat for environmental hazards and sound pollution.

The existing houses and it people could suffer from its environmental impact

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CHAPTER 6

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

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PLANNING AND CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT 10B

6.1.

PLANNING CONCEPT 63B

Conceptually, my airport planning is structured like a town, with a center (where the terminal buildings are located), industrial areas (hangars and warehouses), an effective road system, and residential areas (hotels in the center, motels at the edges). The concept is to design a terminal which is well planned, efficient and aesthetically sound to make the terminal an iconic infrastructure of the country. The planning of the airport makes sure the technological advancement and future expansion with growing passenger flow in the country. Following consideration was done for the planning of the airport.

6.1.1. Functional Consideration 128B

One of the major consideration for master-planning of the airport is to provide an efficient interaction between airport system and infrastructure. The operating capacity has been calculated for the future design year 2030 B.S. The functional purpose of various airport infrastructure is provided with the different level of security system which are ensured through the planning system of the airport.

6.1.2. Promoting National and Local Economy Airports are large, complex and generally highly profitable industrial enterprises. They are part of a nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s essential transportation infrastructure, which, besides providing thousands of jobs at the airport itself, supports a much wider area in social and economic terms. Therefore, to promote the airport city and surrounding settlement is one of the important factors for planning the airport with the least environmental impacts to the built environment. Bhairahawa is in the course to catch up rapid the development. The proposed airport would uplift the business and tourism potential to a whole new level in Bhairahawa. 6.1.3.

Environmental and aesthetic harmony

Currently fourth generation airport are focusing on eco-friendly airport all around the world with more environmental design. Energy efficient lightening, Water harvesting, solar panels, water treatment plans and interior-landscaping are incorporated with aesthetic harmony.

6.1.4. Development of socio-cultural and religious value 13B

Since the location of the proposed International airport is close to the birthplace of Lord Gautam Buddha, development of the various socio-cultural value as a tourist hub is proposed for future development. The airport design reflects the Buddhist values and essence of

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Buddha’s preaching. The design would reveal the tranquil and spiritual ambience and promote the playful passenger experience.

6.2.

PROPOSED ZONING

A key factor in the layout of the zoning and masterplan is the configuration of the runways and the relationship between runways and the terminal building. The existing runway of Gautam Buddha Airport is extended

to 3200m x 45m to meet ICAO standard for an

International Airport. The runway align parallel with the

access airport road. Another

important zoning concept involve parallel segregation of the function. Parallel zoning of the airport function helps to minimize the walking distance and avoid cross flow of passengers. As the walking distance and the parking distance should be kept minimum, to reach the gate. Following criteria are used for the zoning of different airport system: Runway areas • Separate airline, general aviation and commuter traffic on apron. • Design for efficient and flexible apron-handling operations. • Minimize taxiing lengths. • Locate crash and rescue services close to main runway. • Encourage joint airline use of airside facilities. Administration buildings • Locate airport administration close to road and rail system. • Centralize administration facilities with direct access to landside and airside. Road layout • Keep landside road system simple. • Provide public transport at terminal curbside and administration building. • Locate car parks close to terminals or linked by tram system. Terminal buildings • Minimize walking distances. • Facilitate inter-airline transfers of passengers. • Separate air carrier functions (international, national, commuter) but provide easy interconnections. • Maximize marketing and rental opportunities. • Encourage joint airline use of facilities. • Link terminal buildings directly to public transport. • Link terminal buildings to hotels and short-stay car parks.

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Figure 6-1 Airport Zoning Concept

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Terminal Building 65B

Architectural Expression The inspiration of the from for the main terminal building came from the ancient Buddhist stupa structure and other Buddhist symbols. Since the location carries the iconic value of birth land of Lord Buddha, the essence should be reflected on the gateway i.e. terminal building of Bhairahawa. The main objective of choosing the concept was to find a structurally safe and efficient form with aesthetically pleasing and iconic structure. Through the research in Buddhist art and architecture, Stupa is found to be most progressive form developed throughout the world. The hemispherical shape would provide a perfect space frame structural solution. 6.3.1.

Design Development phase I

Stupa The perfect proportions of the Buddhaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body corresponds to the design of religious monuments. A stupa

is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing "relics",

typically the remains of Buddhist monks or nuns , used as a place of meditation. Worship of a stupa consists in walking around the monument in the clockwise direction. Even when the stupa is sheltered by a building, it is always a freestanding monument. dhist stupas were originally built to house the earthly remains of the historical Buddha and his associates and are almost invariably found at sites sacred to Buddhism. The concept of a relic was afterward extended to include sacred texts. Miniature stupas and pagodas are also used by Buddhists throughout Asia as votive offerings.

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Symbolism The shape of the stupa represents the Buddha, crowned and sitting in meditation posture on a lion throne. His crown is the top of the spire; his head is the square at the spire's base; his body is the vase shape; his legs are the four steps of the lower terrace; and the base is his throne

• • • • •

Five purified elements Although not described in any Tibetan text on stupa symbolism, the stupa may represent the five purified elements: The square base represents earth The hemispherical dome/vase represents water The conical spire represents fire The upper lotus parasol and the crescent moon represents air The sun and the dissolving point represents the element of space

6.3.2.

Design Development phase II

The hemispherical structure of stupa has to represent the stupa’s symbolism of Buddha sitting with crown on the head. The hemispheriacal shape represent the Buddha body whereas the spire represent the crown and head with it. My concept was to merge the cultural aspect with technology in a fresh way. The spire element in my terminal concept gives it a better structural solution later. One of the best solution for long span structure is Cable structure. The pylon above the stupa with cable supporting roof structure could represent the spire of Stupa and provide the completeness in the form. The pylon to support the cable structure create a peak point of the terminal structure and represent the technical advancement adding the cultural value. The gradual development of ideas for the overall form is came out of structural solution for longspan space and the functional value with its architectural expression intact all the way.

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Figure 6-2 Design Development

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6.3.3. Design Development phase III 134B

Roof Form Roof form of an airport plays an important factor to reflect its architectural expression. While working on the form and structural expression of the airport, I developed a roof form for the entrance and opening expression of the airport. One of the interesting facts of The Buddha image is its perfect proportion. I studied various symbols and Buddhist art and one of the oldest and the most iconic idea comes from the Buddha Image. I played with various lines and shapes of the proportion and developed a roof structure for the airport.

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The Buddha Image Canon of the Physical Proportions of a Great Being The image of Buddha, who was called The Greatest Yogin of all Times, expresses serene quiescence. The harmony of his physical proportions is the expression of great beauty. The required measurements are laid down in the canon (or standard pattern) of Buddhist art, which corresponds to ideal physical proportions. The span is the basic measure, i.e. the distance from the tip of the middle finger to the tip of the thumb of the outspread hand. This distance corresponds to the space between the dimple in the chin and the hair-line. Each span has twelve finger-breadths. The whole figure measures 108 finger-breadths or 9 spans corresponding to the macro-micro-cosmic harmony measurements. The perfect proportions of a Buddha, the graciousness of his physical form, represent one of the ten qualities or powers of a Buddha. They are the characteristics of the physical harmony and beauty of a Great Being, and are described in Story of the Life of Buddha Shakyamuni. There are thirty-two major and eighty minor characteristics. The lines of the eight-spoked on the soles and palms of a Buddha are among them. The appearance and the measurements of a Buddha are perishable and a worldly conception: they describe the ideal picture of a Heavenly Body. They are not subject to change like growth, sickness and death, which can only affect the earthly incarnation of a Buddha. The ideal proportions of any image of the Buddha are described in books on iconography. The canonic prototype shows the seated Buddha with his legs crossed and the soles of his feet visible. 7 6F

7

http://www.buddhanet.net/budart.htm

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6.3.4. Landscape Concept 135B

Landscape element in and outside a public building helps to detoxify the air impurities generated from public mobility. In my airport design I have incorporated both interior and exterior landscape area focusing a Buddhist garden style landscaping. A peace park with Buddha monument in a Bodhi tree along with interior planting scape is added in the arrival hall. The purpose of peace park is to soothe the hectic environment of an airport and to create a tranquil ambience for people by reflect Budhha preaching and ideology as well. Whereas the bigger landscape area of outside the airport create the sense of joyful journey around the airport premises. Generally landscape element outside an airport is ignored but I saved the space for greenery as it reflects the zen garden style with monumental theme of Buddha which are prevailing landscape style of Lumbini area. The landscape motive is to provide a glimpse of Lumbini and most importantly it signifies the land of Buddha with the oldest symbol Dharma Chakra as the theme landscape form.

Figure 6-3 Dharmachakra landscape

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Dharmachakra The dharma chakra (literally, ‘wheel of Law’) Buddhist emblem resembling a wagon wheel, with eight spokes, each representing one of the eight tenets of Buddhist belief. The circle symbolizes the completeness of the Dharma, the spokes represent the eightfold path leading to enlightenment: Right faith, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right endeavor, right mindfulness, and right meditation. It is drawn from an Indian symbol, but instead of representing Samsara, or endless rebirth, it symbolizes overcoming obstacles. The Dharma wheel is one of the eight Ashtamangala, or auspicious symbols of Tibetan Buddhism. Sometimes, the wheel is flanked by deer, which refer to the deer park in which the Buddha is said to have given his first sermon. Buddhist Usage It is one of the oldest known Buddhist symbols found in Indian art, appearing with the first surviving post-Indus Valley Civilization Indian iconography in the time of the Buddhist king Ashoka. The Buddha is said to have set the dhammacakka in motion when he delivered his first sermon, which is described in the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta. The wheel itself depicts ideas about the cycle of saṃsāra. Buddhism adopted the wheel as the main symbol of the cakravartin "wheel-turner", the ideal king or "universal monarch", symbolising the ability to cut through all obstacles and illusions. According to Harrison, the symbolism of "the wheel of the law" and the order of Nature is also visible in the Tibetan prayer wheels.The moving wheels symbolizes the movement of cosmic order. 8 7F

8

http://symboldictionary.net/?p=1708

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Structure 6B

The role of the primary elements of structure – columns, walls and beams – is both to support the terminal physically and to support the perception of major routes psychologically. A row of columns in a concourse is doing more than merely holding up the roof: they are guiding passengers through a complex space. Architectural structure is a means by which direction can be indicated and the rhythms of movement can be articulated. The relative scale of structural elements should, like the management of interior space, reflect directly the movement or use hierarchy of that part of the terminal. Large columns around general hall obviously indicate large public spaces, small columns smaller ones. The floors are supported by structural steel column forming a circular steel truss of diameter 5 m diameter forming a structural truss column as the grid covers long span. The open hall roof structure of the terminal is supported by the cable structure, which one of the best tensile structure for long span structure. The gate wing part of terminal are RCC column structure. The floor of the terminal would be composite floor truss system. Floor systems at Terminal buildings is designed to eliminate excessive vibrations from pedestrian and people-mover car traffic with horizontal framing system. 6.4.1. Technology Used 136B

• • • • • •

Space frame system Pneumatic structures Cable structure Pv cells Rainwater harvesting Water treatment plant 1B

12B

13B

14B

15B

16B

6.4.2. Material Used 137B

• Concrete • Structural steel • Reinforcing steel • Pre-stressed steel • Synthetic fibres which are coated in a pvc, polyester tension cable

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6.4.3. Structural Foundation Systems 138B

Foundations - Allowable foundation capacities would be determined from geotechnical investigations under the direction of a professional structural engineer. Foundations is designed to prevent uplift and differential settlement, as well as load bearing requirements. Minimum ground cover over footings shall be 12".

Pneumatic structure

6.4.4. • •

• •

Pneumatic structure is a membrane which carries load devolped from the tensile stresses. Its stabilization is done by prestressing the membrane either by:a) applying an external force which pulls the membrane taut b) internal pressurizing if the membrane is volume enclosing. such structures are called “Pneumatic structures” . These structures can create artificial environments adaptable to human use . The pneumatic forms are bound to increase popularity, owing to the tremendous freedom they provide to the architects in designing large free spaces within them. General Characteristics a) Light Weight 1. the weight of the structure as compared to the area it

covers is very less

2. the weight of the membrane roof , even when it is stiffened by cables, is very small low air pressure is sufficient to balance it 3. even with spans of more than 100mts, the weight of the structure does not exceed 3kg/square metre . b) Span Another advantage over other structures is that, for pneumatic membrane , there is no theortical maximum span as determined by strength, elasticity, specific weight or any other property. c) Safety Pneumatic structures are safer than any other structure. Pneumatic structures are safer than any other structure. They can’t be destroyed by fire quickly and totally.

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d) Economy The cost per squre foot of air supported structures is among the lowest for large span roofs. e) Lighting Gives good natural light as translucent/transparent plastic sheets are used to cover air bags.we can even bring the whole sun inside. There is a lot of flexibility in getting sun light(50%80%).

6.4.5. Tensile Structure A tensile membrane structure is most often used as a roof, as they can economically and 140B

attractively span large distances. Tensile structure is a construction of elements carrying only tension and no compression or bending. Tensile structures are the most common type of thin-shell structures.

Advantages and functional benefits of tensile membrane structures •

Flexible Design Aesthetics - It provide virtually unlimited designs of distinctive elegant forms that can be realized because of the unique flexible characteristics of membrane resulting in an iconic and unique structure or feature for any building owner, city or even region. Outstanding Translucency – In daylight, fabric membrane translucency offers soft diffused naturally lit spaces reducing the interior lighting costs while at night, artificial lighting creates an ambient exterior luminescence. Excellent Durability – With several different membranes in the market place such as PTFE fiberglass, ETFE film, PVC, and ePTFE, the durability and longevity of tensile membrane structures have been proven and built in climates ranging from the frigid artic to the scorching desert heat. Lightweight Nature - The lightweight nature of membrane is a cost effective solution that requires less structural steel to support the roof compared to conventional building materials, enabling long spans of column-free space. Low Maintenance – Tensile membrane systems are somewhat unique in that they require minimal maintenance when compared to an equivalent-sized conventional building.

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Cost Benefits – Most tensile membrane structures have high sun reflectivity and low absorption of sunlight, thus resulting in less energy used within a building and ultimately reducing electrical energy costs. Code Compliance – Depending on the type of membrane and overall project design, tensile membrane systems appropriately meet the various associated building code requirements. Variety of Membranes – Whether it’s a permanent durable structure that needs to last longer than 30 years, an insulated membrane system for thermal performance, or a deployable flexible application, there are a variety of tensile membranes to choose from to meet specific performances for your next building project.

Cable Structure Cables can be of mild steel, high strength steel (drawn

carbon

steel, polyester or aramid

steel), stainless fibres.

Structural

cables are made of a series of small strands twisted or bound together to form a much larger cable. Steel cables are either spiral strand, where circular rods are twisted together and "glued" using a polymer, or locked coil strand, where individual interlocking steel strands form the cable (often with a spiral strand core). Highly efficient, cable structures include the suspension bridge, the cable-stayed roof, and the bicycle-wheel roof. The graceful curve of the huge main cables of a suspension bridge is almost a catenary, the shape assumed by any string or cable suspended freely between two points. The cable-stayed roof is supported from above by steel cables radiating downward from masts that rise above roof level.

Figure 6-4 Cable-styaed Roof

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CHAPTER 7

FINAL DRAWINGS

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WATER SUPPLY REQUIREMENT AIRPORT (INTERNATIONAL) ---->70(LIT/CAPITA/DAY) PEAK HOUR CAPACITY OF AIRPORT ---->1700 PAX WORKING HOUR ----->8 HOUR/10 HOUR TOTAL PAX PER DAY ---->17,000 PAX TOTAL WATER SUPPLY REQUIREMENT ---->1100,000 LIT CAPACITY OF STORAGE TANK ---->1/2 -DAY WATER DEMAND STORAGE FOR FIRE FIGHTING PUMPING RATE ---->2400 LIT/MIN DURATION ----> 90-120 MIN STORAGE TANK ---->100,000 LIT

services

Services

SCALE 1:2000

Project Title -International Airport Terminal, Bhairahawa

Tribhuwan University Kathmandu Engineering College

Name : Rijan Lamichhane A

16


CONCEPT Flow plan

Project Title -International Airport Terminal, Bhairahawa

Tribhuwan University Kathmandu Engineering College

Name : Rijan Lamichhane A

4


N

FLOOR PLAN

Project Title -International Airport Terminal, Bhairahawa

Tribhuwan University Kathmandu Engineering College

Name : Rijan Lamichhane A

6


N

FLOOR PLAN

Project Title -International Airport Terminal, Bhairahawa

Tribhuwan University Kathmandu Engineering College

Name : Rijan Lamichhane A

7


N

FLOOR PLAN

Project Title -International Airport Terminal, Bhairahawa

Tribhuwan University Kathmandu Engineering College

Name : Rijan Lamichhane A

8


N

FLOOR PLAN

Project Title -International Airport Terminal, Bhairahawa

Tribhuwan University Kathmandu Engineering College

Name : Rijan Lamichhane A

9


Scale 1:500

GATE LEVEL

DEPARTURE GATE LEVEL

AIRCRAFT STAND CALCULATION GATE OCCUPANCY TIME ----> 45 MIN NO. OF ARRIVING AIRCRAFT ----> 10 AIRCRAFT GATE ----> 8 DESIGNED AIRCRAFT BOEING B-767 & B-777 AIRBUS 320-200 SERIES & AIRBUS 330-200 SERIES

ARRIVAL GATE LEVEL SCALE 1:500

Project Title -International Airport Terminal, Bhairahawa

Tribhuwan University Kathmandu Engineering College

Name : Rijan Lamichhane A

10


2 B

3 B

1 B

LVL +28.00m A

LVL 18.00m A

LVL +10.00m A LVL +5.00m A LVL 0.00m

A

LVL - 4.00m

A

SECTIONS

6 A

5 A

4 A

3 A

2 A

1 A

SCALE 1:500

LVL +28.00m A

LVL 18.00m A

LVL +10.00m A LVL +5.00m A LVL 0.00m

A

SCALE 1:500

Project Title -International Airport Terminal, Bhairahawa

Tribhuwan University Kathmandu Engineering College

Name : Rijan Lamichhane A

11


TECHNOLOGY      

SPACE FRAME SYSTEM PNEUMATIC STRUCTURES CABLE STRUCTURE PV CELLS RAINWATER HARVESTING WATER TREATMENT PLANT

MATERIAL

PNEUMATIC STRUCTURES

    

CONCRETE STRUCTURAL STEEL REINFORCING STEEL PRE-STRESSED STEEL SYNTHETIC FIBRES WHICH ARE COATED IN A PVC, POLYESTER  TENSION CABLE

STRUCTURE

TENSILE STRUCTURE the most common type of thin-shell structures CABLE STRUCTURE

TRUSS COLUMN

COMPOSITE FLOOR TRUSS SYSTEM

Form of long-span structure that is subject to tension cABLE-STAYED ROOF Project Title -International Airport Terminal, Bhairahawa

Tribhuwan University Kathmandu Engineering College

Name : Rijan Lamichhane A

13


INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT TERMINAL AT BHAIRAHAWA

7.

3D VIEWS AND MODEL WORK 17B

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REFERENCES •

Horonjeff R., McKelvey F. X., Sproule W.J., Young S.B., (2010), Planning and Design of Airports, The McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, USA, (ISBN: 978-007-164255-2), Fifth Edition

FAA(Federal Aviation Administration); Planning and design for Airport Terminal Facilities

Air Mobility Command; Passenger Terminal Facility Design Guide

• •

Neufert E. and Neufert P., Architects’ Data, Blackwell Science, Third Edition Wells A. T., Young S. B., (2004), Airport Planning and Management, The McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, USA, Fifth edition

INTERNET SOURCES •

Google earth

www. wikipedia.com

• •

www.flydenver.com www.airbus.com

• •

www.delhiairport.com www.tiairport.com.np

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Thesis airport terminal 2015  

The project was proposed on the site which is in the same district known as birthplace of Buddha in Nepal. The design have inspiration from...

Thesis airport terminal 2015  

The project was proposed on the site which is in the same district known as birthplace of Buddha in Nepal. The design have inspiration from...

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