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‫وزارة اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ واﻟﺒﺤﺚ اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ اﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ اﻟﺨﻀﺮاء‬ ‫ﻛﻠﯿﺔ اﻟﺰراﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻢ اﻻﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﺤﯿﻮاﻧﻲ‬

‫اﻟﺤﯿﻮان ﺑﯿﻦ اﻟﺒﯿﺌﺔ واﻟﺴﻠﻮك‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎب ﻣﻨﮭﺠﻲ ﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ‪ /‬ﻗﺴﻢ اﻻﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﺤﯿﻮاﻧﻲ‬

‫ﺗﺄﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫أ‪ .‬م‪ .‬د‪ .‬ﻓﺎﺿﻞ ﻋﺒﺎس راﺿﻲ اﻟﺸﻤﺮي‬

‫ا‪ .‬م‪ .‬د‪ .‬رﺣﺎب ﻏﺎﻟﺐ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ اﻟﺰھﯿﺮي‬

‫‪ 1439‬ھـ‬

‫‪ 2017‬م‬ ‫‪II‬‬


‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬

‫اﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪1 ...........................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺎب اﻻول‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺒﯿﺌﺔ ‪Ecology‬‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻻول‪ :‬ﻣﻔﮭﻮم ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺒﯿﺌﺔ ‪3 ......................Concept of Ecology‬‬ ‫اﻗﺴﺎم ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺒﯿﺌﺔ‪5 .................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺒﯿﺌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻻﺧﺮى ‪9 .........................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﺒﯿﺌﻲ وﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﮫ‪11 .......................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺒﺎﯾﻦ اﻟﺤﯿﻮي‪13 .............................................Biological Diversity‬‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع اﻟﻤﻮارد اﻟﺒﯿﻮﻟﻮﺟﯿﺔ اﻟﻄﺒﯿﻌﯿﺔ‪16 ........................................................‬‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎس اﻟﺘﺒﺎﯾﻦ اﻟﺤﯿﻮي‪17 ..........................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ :‬اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺧﯿﺔ وﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮاﺗﮭﺎ‪18 ...........................................‬‬ ‫اھﻤﯿﺔ اﻻﻧﻮاء اﻟﺠﻮﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺰراﻋﺔ وﺗﺮﺑﯿﺔ اﻟﺤﯿﻮان‪18 .......................................‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻻﻧﻮاء اﻟﺠﻮﯾﺔ ‪18 .................................................. Meteorology‬‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮ اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﺎﺋﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﯿﺌﺔ اﻟﺤﯿﻮان‪20 ...............................................‬‬ ‫درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة ‪21 .................................................The Temperature‬‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮات درﺟﺎت اﻟﺤﺮارة ﻓﻲ اﻻﻧﺸﻄﺔ اﻟﺤﯿﺎﺗﯿﺔ واﻟﻤﻈﮭﺮﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﯿﻮاﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪22 ...........................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ درﺟﺎت اﻟﺤﺮارة‪...............................................‬‬

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‫ﻣﺼﺎدر اﻟﺤﺮارة‪30 ...............................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎدر اﻟﺤﺮارة ﻓﻲ ﺟﺴﻢ اﻟﺤﯿﻮان ‪30 ......................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬اﻟﺘﻮازن اﻟﺤﺮاري ‪31 ...............................Heat Balance‬‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة اﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ ‪31 ..........................................................Heat Gain‬‬ ‫أ( اﻟﺤﺮارة اﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻻﺷﻌﺔ اﻟﺸﻤﺴﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮة‪31 ................................‬‬ ‫ب( ﻣﺼﺎدر اﻟﺤﺮارة اﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ اﻟﻨﺸﺎط اﻷﯾﻀﻲ ‪32 ..............................‬‬ ‫‪III‬‬


‫ﻏﻄﺎء ﺟﺴﻢ اﻟﺤﯿﻮاﻧﺎت ودور اﻟﺠﻠﺪ واﻟﺸﻌﺮ اﻟﻤﺤﯿﻂ‪35 ................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻘﺪ اﻟﺤﺮاري ‪37 .............................................................. Heat Loss‬‬ ‫اﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎس اﻟﺤﺮاري ﻓﻲ اﻟﺪواﺟﻦ‪39 ...........................................................‬‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮ درﺟﺎت اﻟﺤﺮارة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﺒﯿﺾ ‪40 .............................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺮطﻮﺑﺔ ‪41 ....................................................................... Humidity‬‬ ‫اھﻤﯿﺔ اﻟﺮطﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻔﺴﯿﻮﻟﻮﺟﯿﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﯿﻮاﻧﺎت ‪41 ......................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺮطﻮﺑﺔ وﻧﻮﻋﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ‪42 .....................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮ اﻟﺮطﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺪواﺟﻦ ‪42 ..............................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻮء‪42 ............................................................................................‬‬ ‫اھﻤﯿﺔ اﻟﻀﻮء ﻟﻠﺪواﺟﻦ ‪45 ......................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﯿﺎرات اﻟﮭﻮاﺋﯿﺔ ‪46 .............................................................................‬‬ ‫اھﻤﯿﺔ اﻧﺴﯿﺎب وﺣﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﮭﻮاء ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﯿﻮاﻧﺎت ‪46 ....................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺮب ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺤﯿﻮاﻧﺎت‪47 ................................. Stress in the Animal‬‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺮاﺑﻊ‪ :‬اﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻢ اﻟﺤﺮاري‪49 ..........................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮق ‪49 ......................................................................... Sweating‬‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ اﻟﺘﻌﺮق‪51 ..................................................‬‬ ‫اﺟﮭﺰة اﻟﺴﯿﻄﺮة واﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻢ اﻟﺤﺮاري ‪Heat- Regulating and‬‬ ‫‪52 ........................................................................Control System‬‬ ‫درﺟﺔ ﺣﺮارة اﻟﺒﯿﺌﺔ وﻧﻤﻮ اﻟﺤﯿﻮاﻧﺎت‪55 .....................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﺒﯿﺌﯿﺔ واﻟﺨﺼﻮﺑﺔ‪55 ..................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻤﺎل واﻟﺒﯿﺌﺔ اﻟﺼﺤﺮاوﯾﺔ ‪56 ................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺠﻮل واﻟﺒﯿﺌﺔ‪57 .................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺰل اﻟﺤﺮاري ﻟﻠﻌﺠﻮل واﻟﺤﺮارة اﻟﺤﺮﺟﺔ‪58 ..........................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﮭﺮﻣﻮﻧﺎت واﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻢ اﻟﺤﺮاري‪58 ............................................................‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة اﻟﻤﺤﺎﯾﺪة ‪59 ................. Thermal Neutral Zone‬‬ ‫‪IV‬‬


‫اﻻدراك اﻟﺤﺴﻲ ﻟﺪرﺟﺎت اﻟﺤﺮارة‪59 ........................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼت اﻟﺤﺮارﯾﺔ اﻟﻤﺤﯿﻄﯿﺔ ‪60 .........Periphral Thermoreceptors‬‬ ‫دور ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺤﺖ اﻟﻤﮭﺎد وﻣﺮاﻛﺰھﺎ‪62 ......................................................‬‬ ‫اﻻﺿﻄﺮاﺑﺎت اﻟﻤﺮﺿﯿﺔ ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ اﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻢ اﻟﺤﺮاري ‪Disturbances in‬‬ ‫‪63 ....................................................................Thermoregulation‬‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت اﻟﻐﺬاﺋﯿﺔ واﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻢ اﻟﺤﺮاري‪67 .........................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت اﻟﻐﺬاﺋﯿﺔ وﻋﻼﻗﺘﮭﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﺒﯿﺌﻲ‪67 ...........................................‬‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎس اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪67 .....................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﻌﯿﺮ اﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ)ﻗﯿﺎس اﻟﺴﻌﺮات( ‪69 ....................Direct Calorimetry‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﻌﯿﺮ ﻏﯿﺮ اﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪71 ...................................Indirect Calorimetry‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﺎول اﻟﻐﺬاء ‪Factors Affecting Feed‬‬ ‫‪73 ........................................................................................ Intake‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻻﯾﺾ اﻻﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪73 ................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﯾﺾ اﻟﻜﻠﻲ‪74 .....................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻢ اﻟﺤﺮاري واﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻨﺎول اﻟﻐﺬاء‪75 .............................................‬‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮ اﻟﻈﺮوف اﻟﺠﻮﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎدة اﻟﻐﺬاﺋﯿﺔ‪76 .........................................‬‬ ‫أ( اﻟﺘﺄﺛﯿﺮات اﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮة‪......................................................................‬‬

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‫ب( اﻟﺘﺄﺛﯿﺮات ﻏﯿﺮ اﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮة‪...............................................................‬‬

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‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺴﺎدس‪ :‬اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻛﻦ وﻣﻮاﺻﻔﺎﺗﮭﺎ اﻟﺒﯿﺌﯿﺔ‪78 .......................................‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻛﻦ اﻟﺤﯿﻮاﻧﺎت ‪78 ............................................. Animal Housing‬‬ ‫اﺧﺘﯿﺎر اﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﻨﻰ ‪79 .......................................... Site of Building‬‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎه اﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ ‪79 ............................................ Direction of Building‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪاﺧﻞ و ﻣﺨﺎرج اﻟﮭﻮاء ‪80 ........................... Air Inlets and Outlets‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﮭﻮﯾﺔ اﻻﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ ‪81 ..................................Artificial Ventilation‬‬ ‫اﻻرﺿﯿﺔ ‪81 ......................................................................The Floor‬‬ ‫‪V‬‬


‫اﻟﺴﻘﻒ ‪82 ..........................................................................The Roof‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺰل اﻟﺤﺮاري ‪84 ........................................... Thermal Insulation‬‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺮﯾﻒ اﻟﻔﻀﻼت ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﻈﺎﺋﺮ وﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮھﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺒﯿﺌﺔ اﻟﺤﯿﻮاﻧﯿﺔ‪84 ................‬‬ ‫طﺮق ﺣﻤﺎﯾﺔ اﻟﺒﯿﺌﺔ اﻟﺤﯿﻮاﻧﯿﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀﻼت اﻟﺤﻈﺎﺋﺮ‪85 ..................................‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﺻﻔﺎت اﻧﺸﺎء اﻻﺳﻄﺒﻼت ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺎﺣﯿﺔ اﻟﺒﯿﺌﯿﺔ‪85 .....................................‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻛﻦ اﻟﻌﺠﻮل‪85 .................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺣﻈﺎﺋﺮ اﻟﺨﯿﻮل ‪86 .................................................... Horse Housing‬‬ ‫ﺣﻈﺎﺋﺮ اﺑﻘﺎر اﻟﺤﻠﯿﺐ ‪87 ..................................Dairy Cattle Housing‬‬ ‫ﺣﻈﺎﺋﺮ اﻻﻏﻨﺎم ‪88 .....................................................Sheep Housing‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻛﻦ اﻟﺪواﺟﻦ ‪89 ................................................ Poultry Housing‬‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺎب اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ :‬اﻟﺴﻠﻮك ‪Behavior‬‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻻول‪ :‬ﻣﻔﺎھﯿﻢ اﺳﺎﺳﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﻠﻮك ‪91 .............................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻮك‪91 ............................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺴﻠﻮك )‪91 ............................ .Ethology (Behavior Science‬‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﺤﯿﻮان ‪91 ................................................Animal Behavior‬‬ ‫ﻓﺴﻠﺠﺔ اﻟﺴﻠﻮك‪92 ..................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎدئ ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺴﻠﻮك ‪92 ................................. Principles of Ethology‬‬ ‫اھﻤﯿﺔ ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﺤﯿﻮان ‪93 ........................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺒﺎﯾﻦ اﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻲ ‪94 .................................... Diversity of Behaviour‬‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮق ﺑﯿﻦ ﺳﻠﻮك اﻻﻧﺴﺎن وﺳﻠﻮك‬

‫اﻟﺤﯿﻮان‪....................................................‬‬

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‫ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ اﻟﺴﻠﻮك‪96 ........................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻧﻈﻢ ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﺤﯿﻮان‪98 ............................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻮك اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ‪98 ........................................... Social Behaviour‬‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻮك اﻟﺠﻨﺴﻲ ‪99 .................................................Sexual Behavior‬‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮك ﻣﻨﺢ اﻟﺮﻋﺎﯾﺔ ‪100 .................................. Care giving Behavior‬‬ ‫‪VI‬‬


‫اﻟﺘﺪﺟﯿﻦ ‪101 ............................................................... Domestication‬‬ ‫اﻻﺑﻘﺎر ‪104 .............................................................................. Bovine‬‬ ‫اﻟﻀﺄن واﻟﻤﺎﻋﺰ ‪105 .................................................Sheep and Goats‬‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻼب ‪106 ..................................................................................Dogs‬‬ ‫اﻟﻄﯿﻮر ‪106 ................................................................................. Birds‬‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺸﺮات ‪108 .......................................................................... Insects‬‬ ‫راﺣﺔ ورﻓﺎھﯿﺔ اﻟﺤﯿﻮاﻧﺎت‪109 .............................. Welfare of Animals‬‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﺎﺷﯿﺔ‪110 ........................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮﻛﯿﺎت ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺎﺷﯿﺔ‪110 ..................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺤﯿﻮاﻧﺎت‪111 ...............................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻀﺞ اﻟﺠﻨﺴﻲ‪112 .................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻨﻀﺞ اﻟﺠﻨﺴﻲ‪113 ..................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻀﺞ اﻟﺠﺴﻤﻲ‪114 ................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻻﺑﻘﺎر‪115 ..............................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻣﺎت اﻟﺸﺒﻖ‪115 ..................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎﻣﯿﻊ اﻻﻧﺜﻮﯾﺔ اﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﺟﻨﺴﯿﺎ‬

‫‪Sexually Active Female‬‬

‫)‪117 ......................................................................... Groups (SAGs‬‬ ‫طﺮق اﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺸﺒﻖ ‪117 ....................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ اﻟﺸﺒﻖ‪118 ....................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺬﻛﻮر ‪118 ................................................................................ Males‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ اﻟﻘﻔﺰ او اﻟﺼﻌﻮد ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺬﻛﺮ‪119 .......................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ اﻟﺠﻨﺴﯿﺔ ﻟﺪى اﻟﺬﻛﻮر‪120 ................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺜﯿﺮان وﺟﻤﻊ اﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﻤﻨﻮي ‪120 ..............................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺜﯿﺮان وﺳﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﺸﺨﺺ اﻟﺬي ﯾﻘﻮم ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺎﯾﺔ ﺑﮭﺎ‪120 .....................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻘﯿﺢ او اﻟﺘﺰاوج‪121 ..............................................................................‬‬ ‫‪VII‬‬


‫اﻟﻮﻻدة‪122 ..............................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻮك ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻮﻻدة‪122 .............................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻮك ﺧﻼل اﻟﻮﻻدة‪132 ..........................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﯿﻦ اﻟﺒﻘﺮة واﻟﻤﻮﻟﻮد‪124 ..................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﯿﺔ واﻟﺮﻋﺎﯾﺔ‪127 ................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺤﯿﺎة اﻟﯿﻮﻣﯿﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻟﻮد واﻻم ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺮﻋﻰ ‪127 ...............................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻋﺎﯾﺔ اﻻﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‪127 ..........................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺗﯿﺐ اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺠﻮل‪129 ...........................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﯿﺎت اﻟﺸﺎذة او اﻟﻤﻀﻄﺮﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺠﻮل‪129 ..............................................‬‬ ‫اﺳﺒﺎب اﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﯿﺎت اﻟﺸﺎذة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺠﻮل‪131 ....................................................‬‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮك اﻻﺑﺘﻼع‪ :‬اﻻﺟﺘﺮار‪ ،‬ﺷﺮب اﻟﻤﺎء‪ ،‬اﻟﻮﻗﻮف )ﺑﺪون اﺟﺘﺮار او اﻛﻞ( ‪135 ..‬‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﻨﻮم ‪137 .....................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﺎدة واﻟﺘﻐﻠﺐ اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ‪138 .................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ اﻟﺮﺿﺎﻋﺔ‪140 ..............................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻨﻲ اﻟﻌﺠﻮل ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ اﺑﻘﺎر ﻣﺮﺿﻌﺎت‪141 ..................................................‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻛﻦ اﻟﻌﺠﻮل ‪141 ................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﻌﺠﻮل اﻟﻔﺎﺋﻀﺔ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪142 .....................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻋﺎﯾﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺬﺑﺢ‪143 ..............................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺘﺎج ‪143 ....................................................................... Production‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ اﻟﻘﻄﻌﺎن اﻟﻜﺒﯿﺮة‪145 ......................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻠﺐ ‪145 .............................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺗﺪرﯾﺐ اﻻﺑﺎﻛﯿﺮ ‪146 ................................................................................‬‬ ‫ادارة اﺑﻘﺎر اﻟﺤﻠﯿﺐ‪147 .............................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻮس‪148 ...............................................................Water Buffalo‬‬ ‫اﻻﻏﻨﺎم ‪150 ............................................................................... Sheep‬‬ ‫‪VIII‬‬


‫اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﺮ اﻟﻨﻀﺞ اﻟﺠﻨﺴﻲ ﻟﻸﻏﻨﺎم‪153 ...............................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻋﺰ‪154 ....................................................................................Goat‬‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻣﺎت دورة اﻟﺸﺒﻖ ﻓﻲ اﻻﻏﻨﺎم واﻟﻤﺎﻋﺰ‪...........................................‬‬

‫‪155‬‬

‫دورة اﻟﺸﺒﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻻﻏﻨﺎم واﻟﻤﺎﻋﺰ ‪155 .......................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻧﻈﺮة ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﻄﯿﻮر ‪157 ......................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻄﯿﻮر ‪157 ............................................................................... Birds‬‬ ‫ﺗﻜﯿﻔﺎت ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﯿﻮر‪157 ......................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺣﻮاس اﻟﻄﯿﻮر‪158 ..................................................................................‬‬ ‫اوﻻ‪ :‬ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﺘﻐﺬي ﻓﻲ اﻟﻄﯿﻮر‪158 ............................................................‬‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮ اﻟﻐﺬاء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﻄﯿﻮر‪159 ...........................................................‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺎ‪ :‬ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻄﯿﻮر‪161 ............................................................‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﮭﺠﺮة ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﻄﯿﻮر‪164 ..........................................................‬‬ ‫راﺑﻌﺎ‪ :‬ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﮭﻨﺪﻣﺔ و اﻟﺤﻤَﺎم اﻟﺮﻣﻠﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﻄﯿﻮر‪167 ................................‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ‪ :‬ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﻨﻮم ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﻄﯿﻮر‪170 ..........................................................‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎدﺳﺎ‪ :‬ﺳﻠﻮك اﻻﻓﺘﺮاس‪171 ..................................Predation Behavior‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻌﺎ‪ :‬ﺳﻠﻮك ﺗﺒﺪﯾﻞ اﻟﺮﯾﺶ او اﻟﻘﻠﺶ ‪175 ................ Moulting Behavior‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ اﻟﻘﻠﺶ‪176 .......................................................‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻣﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﺮﻗﺎد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺒﯿﺾ‪178 ...........................................................‬‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮﻛﯿﺎت اﻻﻓﺮاخ‪179 ..............................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻮك اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ واﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻢ اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺪﺟﺎج‪181 ................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺮاﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺗﻤﺎﯾﺰ اﻟﺴﻠﻮك اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪184 ..............................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻮك اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﻐﯿﺮ ﺗﻤﺎﯾﺰ‪184 ............................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻤﺎﯾﺰ اﻟﺒﯿﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻮك‪185 ..................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻤﺎﯾﺰ اﻟﺴﯿﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻮك‪186 ...............................................................‬‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺣﯿﻮاﻧﻲ ‪188 ........................................................................‬‬ ‫‪IX‬‬


‫اﺳﺎس اﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻢ اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪191 ....................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬اﻟﻮراﺛﺔ واﻟﺴﻠﻮك‪193 .......................................................‬‬ ‫اﺧﺘﺒﺎر آﺛﺎر اﻟﻮراﺛﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﻠﻮك‪193 ............................................................‬‬ ‫اوﻻ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﺪﯾﻞ اﻟﺒﯿﺌﺔ‪194 ...............................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺎ‪ :‬آﺛﺎر اﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎب‪197 ............................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬اﻻﺛﺎر اﻟﻔﺴﯿﻮﻟﻮﺟﯿﺔ ﻟﻠﻮراﺛﺔ‪198 ..........................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮراﺛﺔ وﺳﻠﻮك اﻻﻧﺴﺎن ‪200 .....................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻼﺻﺔ‪202 ..........................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر ‪203 ..........................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر اﻟﻌﺮﺑﯿﺔ‪203 ...............................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر اﻻﺟﻨﺒﯿﺔ‪205 ..............................................................................‬‬

‫‪X‬‬


‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ اﻻﺷﻜﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬

‫ﻋﻨﻮان اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(1‬اﻗﺴﺎم ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺒﯿﺌﺔ‪) :‬أ‪ -‬ب( ﺑﯿﺌﺔ اﻟﺒﺤﺎر‪ ) ،‬ت‪ -‬ث( ﺑﯿﺌﺔ اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬

‫اﻟﻨﻘﯿﺔ‪) ،‬ج‪ -‬ح( ﺑﯿﺌﺔ اﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎت‪) ،‬خ‪ -‬د( ﺑﯿﺌﺔ اﻻراﺿﻲ او اﻟﯿﺎﺑﺴﺔ‪8 ..............‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ : (2‬اﻟﻄﯿﻒ اﻻﺣﯿﺎﺋﻲ ‪10 .......................Biological Spectrum‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(3‬اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﺒﯿﺌﻲ ‪ Ecosystem‬وﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﮫ‪13 ................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(4‬اﻟﺘﺒﺎﯾﻦ اﻟﺤﯿﻮي‪15 ............................Biological Diversity‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(5‬ﻋﻠﻢ اﻻﻧﻮاء اﻟﺠﻮﯾﺔ ‪20 ...................................Meteorology‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(6‬اﻟﻘﻮاﻧﯿﻦ اﻟﺒﯿﺌﯿﺔ ‪24 .................................Ecological Rules‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪) :(7‬أ( اﻟﻐﺪة اﻟﺪرﻗﯿﺔ ‪) ،Thyroid Gland‬ب( اﻟﻐﺪة اﻟﻜﻈﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫‪35 ...........................................................................Adrenal Gland‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(8‬اﻟﻐﺪة اﻟﻌﺮﻗﯿﺔ ‪49 ...........................................Sweat Gland‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(9‬طﺮق اﻟﻔﻘﺪ اﻟﺤﺮاري ﻓﻲ‪) :‬أ( اﻟﻨﮭﺠﺎن و اﻟﻠﮭﺜﺎن ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﺐ‪،‬‬ ‫)ب( ﺑﻘﺎء اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻮس ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺎء‪50 ...............................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(10‬ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ اﻟﺠﻤﺎل ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒﯿﺌﺔ اﻟﺼﺤﺮاوﯾﺔ اﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ‪57 ........................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(11‬اﻻدراك اﻟﺤﺴﻲ ﻟﺪرﺟﺎت اﻟﺤﺮارة‪61 .....................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(12‬ﻣﻘﯿﺎس اﻟﺤﺮارة اﻟﻤﻘﺬاﻓﻲ ‪68 ..............Bomb Calorimeter‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(13‬اﻟﺘﺴﻌﯿﺮ اﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪71 ..........................Direct Calorimetry‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(14‬اﻟﺘﺴﻌﯿﺮ ﻏﯿﺮ اﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪72 ................Indirect Calorimetry‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(15‬ﻣﺪاﺧﻞ و ﻣﺨﺎرج اﻟﮭﻮاء ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻛﻦ اﻟﺤﯿﻮاﻧﺎت‪80 .......................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(16‬ارﺿﯿﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﻛﻦ اﻟﺤﯿﻮاﻧﺎت ‪The Floor of Animal‬‬ ‫‪82 .......................................................................................Housing‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(17‬اﻧﻮاع اﻟﺴﻘﻮف ﻓﻲ ﻣﺴﺎﻛﻦ اﻟﺤﯿﻮاﻧﺎت ‪Types of Animal‬‬ ‫‪83 ...........................................................................Housing Roofs‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(18‬ﺣﻈﺎﺋﺮ اﻟﺨﯿﻮل ‪87 ..................................Horse Housing‬‬ ‫‪XI‬‬


‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(19‬ﺣﻈﺎﺋﺮ اﺑﻘﺎر اﻟﺤﻠﯿﺐ ‪88 ...............Dairy Cattle Housing‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(20‬ﺣﻈﺎﺋﺮ اﻻﻏﻨﺎم ‪89 ..................................Sheep Housing‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(21‬ﻣﺴﺎﻛﻦ اﻟﺪواﺟﻦ ‪90 ..............................Poultry Housing‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(22‬ﻧﻈﻢ ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﺤﯿﻮان‪) ،‬أ‪ -‬ب( ﺳﻠﻮك طﻠﺐ وﺗﻘﺪﯾﻢ اﻟﺮﻋﺎﯾﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫)ت( اﻟﺴﻠﻮك اﻟﺠﻨﺴﻲ‪) .‬ث( ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﻤﺸﺎﺟﺮة‪) .‬ج( ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﺮﻓﻘﺔ‪) .‬ح(‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻈﻞ‪97 .....................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(23‬اﻟﺴﻠﻮك اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ‪) .Social Behavior‬أ‪-‬ب(‪:‬ﺳﻠﻮك‬ ‫اﻟﺼﯿﺪ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺬﺋﺎب‪) .‬ت‪ -‬ث(‪ :‬طﺮق اﻟﻨﺠﺎة ﻣﻦ اﻻﻓﺘﺮاس ﻓﻲ ﺛﯿﺮان‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﻚ‪98 ..............................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(24‬اﻻﺷﻜﺎل اﻟﺒﺪاﺋﯿﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﺪﺟﯿﻦ ‪101 ............Domestication‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪) :(25‬أ( اﻟﺜﻮر اﻟﺒﺮي ‪) ،Bos primigenus‬ب( اﻟﻤﺎﺷﯿﺔ اﻟﮭﻨﺪﯾﺔ‬ ‫)‪104 ..............................................................................(Zebu Cattle‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(26‬أ‪ -‬اﻟﻀﺄن‪ .‬ب‪ -‬اﻟﻤﺎﻋﺰ‪105 ....................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(27‬اﻟﻜﻼب‪106 .........................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(28‬اﻧﻮاع اﻟﻄﯿﻮر‪107 ................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(29‬أ‪ -‬دودة اﻟﻘﺰ واﻟﺤﺮﯾﺮ اﻟﺬي ﺗﻨﺘﺠﮫ‪ .‬ب‪ -‬ﻧﺤﻞ اﻟﻌﺴﻞ‪108 ..............‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(30‬ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﺒﻘﺮة ﻋﻨﺪ وﺻﻮﻟﮭﺎ اﻟﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺸﺒﻖ‪) :‬أ( اﻧﺘﻔﺎخ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ اﻟﺤﯿﺎ‪) ،‬ب( ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻮﻗﻮف ﻟﻠﺜﻮر‪117 ..................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪) :(31‬أ‪-‬ت( اﻟﻮﺿﻌﯿﺎت اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﺮأس اﻟﺜﯿﺮان ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺘﺸﺎﺟﺮ‪119 .......‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪:(32‬ﺳﻠﻮﻛﯿﺎت اﻟﺒﻘﺮة ﻗﺮﯾﺐ ﻣﻮﻋﺪ اﻟﻮﻻدة‪) ،‬أ( طﺮﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﺠﻠﻮس‪.‬‬ ‫)ب( ﻋﻼﻣﺎت اﻟﻮﻻدة اﻟﻮﺷﯿﻜﺔ ‪123 ....................Impending Parturition‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(33‬اﻟﺴﻠﻮك ﺧﻼل اﻟﻮﻻدة‪124 ......................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(34‬ﻟﺤﺲ اﻟﺒﻘﺮة ﻣﻮﻟﻮدھﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ اﻟﻮﻻدة‪125 ......................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(35‬ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﻤﻮﻟﻮد اﺗﺠﺎه اﻟﺒﻘﺮة اﻻم‪) ،‬أ( اﻟﻀﺮع اﻟﺒﻨﺪوﻟﻲ‪) .‬ب(‬ ‫رﺿﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻮﻟﻮد ﻣﻦ اﻟﺒﻘﺮة وھﻮ ﻣﻼﺻﻖ ﻟﮭﺎ‪126 .........................................‬‬ ‫‪XII‬‬


‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(36‬اﻟﺮﻋﺎﯾﺔ اﻻﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‪) ،‬أ‪-‬ب( ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﻣﺤﺪدة ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل اﻟﺴﻄﻞ‬ ‫‪) .Bucket‬ب( اﻟﺤﻠﻤﺎت ‪128 .....................................................Nipples‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(37‬اﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﯿﺎت اﻟﺸﺎذة‪) ،‬أ( ﻟﻌﻖ اﻟﻌﺠﻞ ﺟﺴﺪه‪) .‬ب‪-‬ث( ﻛﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﺸﻌﺮ ‪ Hair Balls‬او اﻟﺤﺼﻮات ‪130 ...............................Beazoars‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(38‬اﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﯿﺎت اﻟﺸﺎذة‪ ،‬ﻟﻌﻖ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ اﻟﺴﺮة ‪Navel sucking‬‬ ‫وﻋﺾ ﻛﯿﺲ اﻟﺼﻔﻦ ‪ Bite Scrotum‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺠﻮل اﻟﺬﻛﻮر‪131 ......................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(39‬ﺳﻠﻮك اﻻﺑﺘﻼع‪ :‬اﻻﺟﺘﺮار‪136 ................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(40‬ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﻨﻮم‪137 ...................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ : (41‬ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ اﻟﻘﺎﺋﺪ واﻟﺘﺮﺗﯿﺐ اﻟﮭﺮﻣﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻻﺑﻘﺎر‪138 .........................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪:(42‬اﻟﻌﻠﻒ اﻟﺨﺸﻦ )اﺧﻀﺮ او ﺟﺎف( ‪144 ......................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(43‬اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻮس ‪...................................................Buffalos‬‬

‫‪149‬‬

‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(44‬اﻻﻏﻨﺎم‪ ،‬أ‪ -‬اﻟﻌﻮاﺳﻲ‪ .‬ب‪ -‬اﻟﻌﺮاﺑﻲ‪ .‬ت‪ -‬اﻟﻜﺮادي‪ .‬ث‪-‬‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺠﺪي‪151 .............................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(45‬اﻟﻤﺎﻋﺰ ‪ :Goat‬أ‪ -‬اﻟﻤﺎﻋﺰ اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ اﻻﺳﻮد‪ .‬ب‪ -‬اﻟﻤﺎﻋﺰ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺎﻣﻲ‪154 .............................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(46‬اﺷﻜﺎل ﻣﻨﺎﻗﯿﺮ وارﺟﻞ اﻟﻄﯿﻮر‪161 ...........................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪:(47‬اﺷﻜﺎل اﻟﻤﻐﺎزﻟﺔ ﻛﺈﺣﺪى ﺳﻠﻮﻛﯿﺎت اﻟﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻄﯿﻮر‪163 ............‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(48‬اﺷﻜﺎل اﻟﮭﺠﺮة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻄﯿﻮر‪167 ...............................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(49‬اﻟﺤﻤﺎم اﻟﺮﻣﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺪﺟﺎج اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‪169 .....................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(50‬اﺷﻜﺎل اﻟﻨﻮم ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﻄﯿﻮر‪171 .................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(51‬اﻻﻓﺘﺮاس ﻓﻲ اﻟﻄﯿﻮر )اﻟﺪﺟﺎج( ‪172 .......................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(52‬ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ ﻗﺺ اﻟﻤﻨﻘﺎر واﻻدوات اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‪174 ...........................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(53‬ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﻘﻠﺶ او ﺗﺒﺪﯾﻞ اﻟﺮﯾﺶ‪175 ...........................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(54‬اﻟﺮﻗﺎد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺒﯿﺾ‪179 .........................................................‬‬

‫‪XIII‬‬


‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ اﻟﺠﺪاول‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬

‫ﻋﻨﻮان اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول )‪ :(1‬ﻋﺪد اﻟﺴﻌﺮات اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻣﻦ اﺳﺘﮭﻼك )‪ 1‬ﻏﻢ( ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻮاد‬

‫اﻟﻐﺬاﺋﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪68 ................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول )‪ :(2‬ﻗﯿﻤﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة اﻟﻔﺴﻠﺠﯿﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮاد اﻟﻐﺬاﺋﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪69 ....................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول )‪ :(3‬ﻋﻤﺮ اﻟﻨﻀﺞ اﻟﺠﻨﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﯿﻮاﻧﺎت اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪112 .......................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول )‪ :(4‬اﻟﻨﻀﺞ اﻟﺠﺴﻤﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﯿﻮاﻧﺎت اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪114 ..............................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول )‪ :(5‬ﻣﻌﺪﻻت اﻋﻤﺎر اﻟﺤﯿﻮاﻧﺎت اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﮭﺮ ﻓﯿﮭﺎ ﻋﻼﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻀﺞ اﻟﺠﻨﺴﻲ و اﻟﺠﺴﻤﻲ‪ ،‬اﻣﻜﺎﻧﯿﺔ اﻻﻧﺘﺎج‪ ،‬اﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮي و ﺳﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﯿﺄس‪114 ...............................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول )‪ :(6‬اﻟﺘﻐﯿﺮات اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﯿﺎت اﻻﺑﻘﺎر ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﺘﻐﯿﺮ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﻮﻗﻊ اﻻﺑﻘﺎر‪148 ...................................................................................‬‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول )‪ :(7‬ﺗﺒﺎﯾﻦ طﻮل دورة وﻓﺘﺮة اﻟﺸﺒﻖ ﻓﻲ اﻧﻮاع ﺣﯿﻮاﻧﺎت اﻟﻤﺰرﻋﺔ‪156 .‬‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول )‪ :(8‬اﻟﻌﻤﺮ واﻟﻮزن ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺒﻠﻮغ اﻟﺠﻨﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻧﻮاع ﺣﯿﻮاﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺰرﻋﺔ‪156 ..........................................................................................‬‬

‫‪XIV‬‬


XV

الحيوان بين البيئة والسلوك  
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