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MODUS APRIL 2018 RICS.ORG/MODUS THE GROW TH ISSUE
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Contents MODUS APRIL 2018 RICS.ORG/MODUS
D • MO
S • RI C
A Z I NE • AG
16 HOW TO SHAPE A MEGAREGION A three-part investigation into the rise of the “megaregion”, viewed through the prism of China’s explosive growth rate, demographic shifts in California and devolution in northern England 26 THE THIN GREEN LINE The green belt: vital protector of habitats or outmoded choker of growth? 30 IN A FIELD OF ONE How do rural populations adapt to a shifting economic and demographic landscape?
D • MO
13 PRESIDENT’S COLUMN John Hughes FRICS looks forward to this month’s World Built Environment Forum Summit
10 THINKING: PROF GREG CLARK CBE The Business of Cities chairman on how the built environment should respond to the rapid pace of urbanisation
L CP D
09-11 NEWS IN BRIEF Industry news, advice and information for RICS members
08 DIFFERENCE OF OPINION How do we provide people living in informal settlements with good-quality, safe, affordable housing? We hear two points of view
S I NF O
• RI C S
• RI C S
PAUL SWINNEY, CENTRE FOR CITIES RURAL DEPOPULATION, P30
D • MO
MAGA S MAG S AZ “As we’ve moved to the knowledge economy, companies are looking Z DU DU for city-centre locations. They want access to workers and networks of other highly skilled businesses. Rural areas don’t offer that”
38-39 CAREERS Keeping your networking professional; Newmark Knight Frank’s John Busi FRICS 40 BUSINESS Lessons from the collapse of Carillion 41 LEGAL 101 Data protection and your insurance liabilities 42 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Brush up on your contaminated land skills 43 SURVEYED The latest products for professionals
34 SHAPE OF THE WATERS Liverpool is building again, but future success hinges on a controversial dockside scheme
58 MIND MAP Jonathan Reynolds of Saïd Business School ponders Amazon Go’s impact on grocery retail
36 BURIED TREASURE The Tate Gallery reaches new depths with an enlightened extension to its Cornish outpost
PLUS 44 Benefits 45 Salary survey
46 Events 47 Obituaries + Conduct 48 Recruitment
Views expressed in Modus are those of the named author and are not necessarily those of RICS or the publisher. The contents of this magazine are fully protected by copyright and may not be reproduced in any form without the prior permission of the publisher. All information correct at time of going to press. All rights reserved. The publisher cannot accept liability for errors or omissions. RICS does not accept responsibility for loss, injury or damage or costs that result from, or are connected in any way to, the use of products or services advertised. All editions of Modus are printed on paper sourced from sustainable, properly managed forests. This magazine can be recycled for use in newspapers and packaging. Please dispose of it at your local collection point. The polythene and paper in this pack are recyclable. The polythene wrap can be recycled at carrier bag recycling points.
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Join the debate REACTIONS AND RESPONSES FROM PREVIOUS ISSUES
Do you have a comment about this issue of Modus? Email firstname.lastname@example.org, or tweet us using #RICSmodus UNKNOWN QUANTITY Sir, In the past year we’ve had news of the Grenfell Tower tragedy, the Carillion collapse and yet more cases of government procurement dysfunction. As these stories unfolded, we heard how it was important to understand whether any failures might have given rise to the events in question and, if they had, how they might be prevented from happening again. Studying the news reports into these cases, it was noticeable how seldom RICS and chartered quantity surveyors got a mention. Why should that be? Have I and my fellow CQS professionals nothing to contribute in these cases? My exciting, varied and interesting 45-year career has involved assignments around the world in the fields of energy, property, specialist services and manufacturing. The demand for my services arises from the procurement and contract management skills that are the purview of all CQSs, and which are vital constituents of almost all business transactions, regardless of the end product or service concerned. RICS describes the chartered surveyor as “the property professional” but, to my mind, I’m rather more than that. For example, a team of CQSs brought in by Carillion’s corporate backers could well have prevented the collapse of their client. And this begs the question: “Does RICS really know what its CQSs do and, if the answer is yes, why doesn’t it tell the business world?” My guess is that Carillion’s financiers weren’t aware of the help they could have summoned. The list of cases outside the construction and property sectors involving the skills of the CQS is endless. It is time our venerable institution took notice of the uniquely capable professionals it represents, and set about raising the awareness of them in the minds of our government officials and the Great British business public alike. David RD Ainsley FRICS
@RICSnews // #RICSmodus @Wondermentalz Thanks for changing the rough cover of #Modus to glossy! It always made me cringe when I touched it, like scraping nails down blackboard @atamverdi Automation article in
#RICSmodus on #AutonomousVehicles skirts over social and political effects of loss of low skilled jobs. @lizzieannallen Interesting read about conflicts guidance in @RICSnews #RICSmodus Need to download the new statement!! @empropexpert Good article in #RICSmodus – 16% of London street space is for parking...
GUIDING PRINCIPALS Sir, I would like to endorse James Offen’s views about the way in which RICS is trying to influence members’ voting intentions (p5, February). It also shows a lack of respect for our ability to evaluate the candidates’ statements. We are all professionals who deal with this type of situation all the time, and certainly don’t need any attempt at “guidance” from a committee. It is another example of high-handedness from RICS, which seems to be more involved in the international world than the interests of individual chartered surveyors based in the UK. Alex Fitzgerald MRICS, Kent
THAT SMARTS Sir, Reading the current crop of professional magazines, Modus among them, I am becoming increasingly concerned about the glaring omissions made in discussions about our “brave new world”. Let us briefly take three subjects that are regularly aired, and sanitised with new labels which claim that part of the cure is the application of “smart” technology. First, there is nothing smart about placing a card into a reader and gaining entry to a mass transit system that 45-120 minutes later disgorges you near your place of work. The answer is to integrate our work and residential areas so we are able to walk such distance. Second, who can say whether the experience of using an automated vehicle will be stressless? The whole process is out of your control from the moment you enter the vehicle. You will have no power to intervene and presumably should you do so, you will be issued some form of penalty. Finally, there can be no such thing as pollutionfree electric generation. Mining the magnetic material for wind generators, for example, creates toxic lakes of tailings. The adoption of fast-charging vehicles ignores the total rebuilding of urban infrastructure that will be required to provide rapid-recharge points. And if the cities of the world all upgrade their electrical infrastructure, is there enough copper available to do so, and at what carbon cost? I was taught that if something is wrong, then throwing money at it makes it expensively wrong. Nothing I have mentioned is beyond the wit of us to solve, but it will require some hard engineering decisions. Just because we invented the wheel does not mean we have to roll it for miles. Glyn Luff 81,731 average net circulation 1 July 2016 - 30 June 2017
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A PRIL 2018_MODUS
News / Reviews / Opinions / Reactions
DIFFERENCE OF OPINION
How do we improve living conditions in rapidly developing cities such as Delhi and Lagos? Discuss.
ANSWER THE BIG QUESTIONS As part of RICS’ 150th anniversary, throughout 2018 we are asking how we safeguard the future of our cities, making them better places to live, work and do business
neArly one-third of indiA’s populAtion lives in urbAn AreAs, And thAt figure is slated to reach 50% by 2031. Planners and policymakers in cities like Delhi are faced with the daunting task of easing the massive urban housing shortage in a country where lower-income groups constitute more than 95% of the population. Moreover, given high land costs in urban areas, private participation in very low-income housing has been limited so far, while supply mostly caters to the middle- and high-income groups. The government has introduced affordable home loans. However, addressing the housing gap in a sustainable and scalable fashion requires the creation of an enabling ecosystem for affordability and accessibility. EMEKA ELEH FRICS SENIOR PARTNER, UBOSI ELEH & CO, Prohibitive land costs and a shortage of adequately sized LAGOS, NIGERIA plots has resulted in most affordable housing being built on city peripheries. Better connections to business districts are lAgos hAs grown from A couple of million people in the needed to facilitate easy commutes for affordable home 1960s to about 18 million today. Existing infrastructure owners, thereby incentivising development in these locations. cannot meet the demand and with that comes the development of slums. Planning and zoning also has a role to play. Relaxation of Meanwhile, housing delivery has not increased. In a country of more than rules that govern space norms would encourage dense, 180 million people, less than 200,000 mortgages were issued between 2010 vertical development. Currently, developers have to approach and 2016. Delivery is so low compared with demand that there is a housing multiple departments for permissions, so timely, singledeficit of around 17 million units, and that number is going up. window clearances and fast-tracked approvals would help The first step towards a sustainable solution must be for inclusive to reduce project development costs, speed up timelines and economic growth that will reduce the poverty level in the country. The incentivise private participation in affordable housing. government also needs to tackle the housing supply problem. It doesn’t have Finally, financial education and assistance for prospective the funds to do it alone, but it could partner with the private sector. buyers of affordable homes is required, as many will be Growth is limited by poor infrastructure and only about 3% of land in unable to produce formal pay slips and other documentation Nigeria is titled, so most of it cannot be used to raise money. There are pilot to establish creditworthiness and secure housing finance. schemes titling land in a few states but they need to be encouraged to do a lot more. The government can effectively provide a subsidy for development by contributing titled land to the developers. That would help to cover the What are the biggest challenges facing cost of infrastructure and reduce the price of housing. our cities? Be part of the solution. Another way forward would be for the government to provide home loans Find out more at citiesforourfuture.com at zero interest. Mortgage rates in Nigeria are around 22%. It is difficult to solve the housing problem without an affordable mortgage culture. An affordable home in Nigeria can cost 5 million naira ($13,900), but that is out of reach of many when the minimum wage is 18,000 naira ($50) a month. 08
INTERVIEW STUART WATSON ILLUSTRATION FAUSTO MONTANARI
SANGEETA PRASAD MRICS CEO, INTEGRATED CITIES & INDUSTRIAL CLUSTERS, MAHINDRA LIFESPACE DEVELOPERS, CHENNAI, INDIA
Between 2012 and 2017, the region with the highest real-term increase in house prices (tracked across 28 cities) was Asia Source: Knight Frank, 2018
MIDDLE EAST NORTH AMERICA
NEWS IN BRIEF
INFOGRAPHICS IAN DUTNALL IMAGE BROWN HARRIS STEVENS; CANAL DE PANAMÁ
Leaders’ Summit set to disrupt London this month RICS’ World Built Environment Forum Summit takes place in London on 23-24 April, featuring POOLED FUNDS an extraordinary line-up of In February this house in Miami speakers and an impressive and became the growing delegate list. Headlined most expensive by Tesla Motors’ co-founder and to be bought by chief technical officer, JB Straubel, bitcoin, selling a theme of disruption will run for $6.5m through the two-day programme. The Summit is an opportunity to hear some of the world’s leading industry voices on property, investment and infrastructure share and discuss the challenges and opportunities facing our sector. Senior contributors from JLL, the Financial Times, Aecom, CBRE, Intel, Deliveroo, Volvo, Mott MacDonald, BCG, IBM, Capgemini and Skanska, as well as speakers 2 10 from some of the world’s leading 2012 2013 universities and cities, form an unrivalled programme. Featuring panel sessions and interaction throughout, you can expect insightful discussion on the themes of competition and cooperation between cities and regions, the development of collaborative infrastructure, the role of intelligent technology and the likely impacts of digitalisation on developed DO YOU HAVE and developing nations. A SURVEYING With such a strong focus on STORY TO the future, we are particularly SHARE? encouraging industry leaders to Submit your Pride in the identify and sponsor their “rising Profession stars” to also attend the Summit. nomination at We want to add their voices to rics.org/150 the debate and inspire the next generation of built environment leaders through the Summit. Stay abreast of the latest Forum developments by following its dedicated LinkedIn page, and view the full programme for the Summit at rics.org/summit.
Bitcoin properties What’s that? Before dropping off sharply in early February 2018, bitcoin’s value rose over 1,500% over 2017, but the use of the cryptocurrency in the global property market is only just beginning. Last October, a £17m mansion in London’s Notting Hill became the UK’s first property for sale where the owners would only accept bitcoin. The most expensive bitcoin-to-bitcoin real estate transaction to date took place in February in Miami, when a sevenbedroom home sold for $6.5m – with 455 bitcoin worth $6m at the time. Should agents get used to bitcoin buyers? Bitcoin seems like it would be an ideal fit for international real estate buyers. Because the cryptocurrency is borderless, it can be transferred with a minimum of third- or fourth-party 24 32 68 70 involvement, circumventing banks and reducing middlemen and processing 2014 2015 2016 Q3 2017 fees. However, this could also potentially make it easier for criminals to launder money by purchasing real estate, or to move wealth across borders without detection. Furthermore, because bitcoin does not have a fixed rate, it experiences large swings in price – the currency dropped from around $20,000 on 17 December 2017 to $8,000 on 4 February 2018. Nevertheless, how long before we see the rise of bitcoin-only property listings websites?
The Panama Canal may already be one of the world’s biggest canals, but thanks to the work of Arènso Bakker MRICS, now it is even longer. Bakker was commissioned to carry out the Third Set of Locks
ARÈNSO BAKKER MRICS: UNLOCKING POTENTIAL ON THE PANAMA CANAL expansion, extending the waterway by 25 miles (40 km). As well as the more traditional features of a canal, the plans also include a solar farm, a reservoir, a power plant and a host of industrial and business parks. Panama City has always been a strategic port-city, but the Third Set of Locks project has now positioned it as a logistically strategic hub between Asia, Europe, Colombia and Mexico. One year on from the project’s completion and authorities have already recorded a 22% increase in the annual tonnage of cargo using the canal. A PRIL 2018_MODUS
“New zones, districts, quarters and precincts are emerging as new populations and economic activities find their spatial logic”
nly 25% of the world’s population lived in cities in 1980. By 2080 that figure is expected to be 85%. This is the metropolitan century. In the developing world this means the expansion of established cities, the fast growth of new cities and the rediscovery of ancient trade routes as catalysts for development. In the developed world it means a process of metropolitanisation: where larger cities grow and neighbouring cities form inter-linked agglomerations. This urbanising century is synchronised with four other major trends: global population will stabilise at just under 10 billion (we think); the climate emergency drives new energy and transport systems; new technologies spur science, medicine and trade; and the global centre of economic gravity shifts decisively to south and east. Other things being equal, cities are good for us. A new science of cities is evolving. The World Bank’s 2009 World Development Report showed that the rise in living standards in lower-income countries is strongly correlated with urbanisation: cities reduce poverty, they don’t cause it. Recent OECD studies have shown the economic advantages of urban proximity and exchange: cities help make businesses more productive. The IPCC observes that cities are the key sites for climate change action: smarter cities can be very environmentally efficient. Reports from the UN highlight the importance of well-run cities to secure development goals. In almost all fields of daily life, the city is an important context, or shaper, of life chances and human outcomes. The promise of global urbanisation is a better life and a better planet.
An exciting but complex jigsaw emerges as we assess how to use new technologies, new sources of wealth and capital, and the surge of interest in cities to shape better futures and secure the promises of urbanisation. This involves major reforms in how cities are planned and managed, and much more ambitious agendas about urban restructuring and infrastructure investment. The number and range of successful cities is expanding, and we will see more than 50 cities with populations greater than 10 million by the end of this century. Growth in cities is now a certainty; but whether that is bad growth or good growth depends on other crucial variables. These include the quality of urban leadership, infrastructure investment and metropolitan planning, and how far they are combined. It also includes how the five new urban economies will drive land and systems reform: the knowledge and innovation economies, sharing economy, circular economy and experience economy can all act as catalysts for better urbanisation. They also drive new real estate business models. The built environment of cities is undergoing profound change. Real estate must take on three new pressures and adjust to the changes they bring: the integration of public and private space presents a stewardship conundrum; the specialist requirements of new industries and enterprises involves new amenities and infrastructures, changed business models and increased flexibility; and the more intensive use of all space means a new life-cycle approach and distinct asset management tactics. New zones, districts, quarters and precincts are emerging as new populations and economic activities find their spatial logic. We are only one-third of the way into this metropolitan century, but we can already see that real estate is in reform. And that change will be more radical than any of us imagined. FIND OUT MORE Greg Clark will be one of the lead speakers at the RICS World Built Environment Forum Summit, to be held 23-24 April at the Intercontinental Hotel – The O2, London. To book your place, visit rics.org/wbef
ILLUSTRATION ANDREA MANZATI
PROFESSOR GREG CLARK CBE CHAIRMAN, THE BUSINESS OF CITIES
NUMBER CRUNCH SINCE 2013 CHINA HAS BEEN ACCELERATING ITS INVESTMENTS IN COUNTRIES ALONG ITS BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE Source: Thomson Reuters; Statista, 2018
“There is some reassurance to be found in coming across familiar patterns – or so I thought”
MINING AND METALS
OIL AND GAS
hen encountering a problem it is sometimes possible to overthink an issue. When any property professional is confronted with a problem there is some reassurance to be found in coming across familiar patterns as a basis on which to start that rational and diagnostic approach towards a resolution to keep clients happy. Or so I thought. My particular case was a discolouration to the internal walls of a house. Tackling of it with detergent and anti-mould wipes appeared to have been successful in the short term but the problem had returned. I was called in to try to provide the answers. The external shell of the house was, visually, as good as new, with no cracked, damaged or missing elements. Moisture and humidity testers went back in their cases along with binoculars, compass and mobile-phone-sourced Met Office records. I now had to call upon technology. My boroscopic camera was put on charge but I would need a scaffolding rig to reach the area of investigation. Enlisting additional trades as chargeable services may not be acceptable to the client. I thought laterally. The environmental company that I approached did not reply to my enquiry about using its thermal imaging camera. The drone operator, regularly lobbying for an opportunity to show off his aircraft, felt that the urban locality was too tight to take off and fly about in. These further thoughts took a bit of time and although grateful for my efforts, the client was still a bit anxious. A good rule is to keep things in context. Yes, it was an inconvenience, but no, it was not a major health hazard. We had reached the stage of mutually accepted defeat. The actual cause was something that I could not have anticipated. In the course of a bit of adjustment to plumbing services, the actions – or rather inactions –of a slug in an overflow pipe had been the problem. Who’d have thunk it?
REAL ESTATE, HOSPITALITY AND CONSTRUCTION
DIVERSIFIED INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS
TECHNOLOGY, MEDIA AND TELECOM
AUTOMOTIVE AND TRANSPORT
POWER AND UTILITIES
As well as huge investments in infrastructure, mergers and acquisitions (M&A) activity from China’s Belt and Road initiative has increased significantly since 2013. Knight Frank reports that more than $33bn in deals were concluded between January and August 2017, up 136% on the same period in
$13.57bn $30.01bn $44.68bn 2015
2016. To put it in a wider context, in 2012 the figure was just over $2bn, while by the end of 2017 M&A activity surpassed $44bn. With $900bn of investments forecast over the next 30 years, One Belt, One Road is one of the clearest manifestations of China’s vision and influence on the world stage. A PRIL 2018_MODUS
LET THE TRAIN TAKE THE STRAIN China’s New Year Spring Festival is the world’s biggest annual human migration, with a reported 385 million people leaving major cities to return home to family in the countryside this year. This is itself a 12% increase on last year’s figures, reflecting both how fast the country is urbanising, and the way in which massively improved transport infrastructure – particularly China’s high-speed rail network – is facilitating mass mobility (Megaregions, p16). Indeed, last year’s rush saw a greater number of such journeys undertaken on high-speed trains than on conventional ones: a shift that is unlikely to reverse.
Intelligence SUSTAINABLE GROWTH Green bonds – issued to finance renewable energy, energy efficiency or clean water projects – are becoming more popular Source: KfW/Statista, 2017
NEWS IN BRIEF
Entries pour in for £50,000 Cities for our Future prize Cities for our Future is RICS’ global competition to find innovative but practical solutions to the most pressing issues facing the world’s rapidly expanding cities. Aimed particularly at students and young people, we are seeking entrants to add to the more than 50 submissions we have received so far, addressing issues such as resource scarcity, climate change and the consequences of rapid urbanisation. Submitted proposals have tackled issues in New Delhi, London, São Paulo and Glasgow, among many others. Entry is open until 31 May, and the best 12 will be shortlisted for the grand prize of £50,000 or local equivalent. The winner will also receive mentoring from an RICS professional to turn their idea into a reality. For submission criteria visit citiesforourfuture. com. Interested in being a judge or mentor? Contact 150@rics. org for further information.
IMAGE GETTY ILLUSTRATION BERND SCHIFFERDECKER
Have your say in how RICS can improve firms’ accountability RICS is running a consultation on its firm-based regulation model and internationally respected quality mark, Regulated by RICS. The proposals aim to increase accountability for meeting RICS’ standards at senior levels in the firms that it regulates. Among the issues under consideration are: strengthening the eligibility rules that determine which firms can register for regulation, and strengthening the role played by principals in ensuring RICS’ standards are implemented. The consultation runs until 20 April. Take part at rics.org/firmregulation.
“The free exchange of ideas is crucial if our cities are to thrive” JOHN HUGHES FRICS RICS PRESIDENT STRONGER TOGETHER Cities succeed when business, culture and people can coalesce, and professionals are uniquely qualified to help shape such places, says RICS’ President
in 2007 the proportion of the world’s populAtion thAt lives in cities passed 50% for the first time. Urban populations are now predicted to grow by more than 2 billion people in the next 30 years. As the UN’s director of population, John Wilmoth, says: “Managing urban areas has become one of the most important development challenges of the 21st century.” Land, property and construction are fundamental to growth, and RICS professionals play a vital role in planning, developing and managing the infrastructure and buildings that growing communities need. Besides using numbers, it is difficult to appreciate the pace of growth in the built environment – except, perhaps, from the vantage of space. Since Google Earth started beaming images to computers 15 years ago, cities like Seoul, Mexico City and Mumbai have crept far into their surrounding hills and countryside. Using Google Earth Engine’s Timelapse app, we can even see this spread in motion. Back on the ground, innovations affecting urban life, such as energy storage, delivery services and personal transportation are changing how we behave in cities. The way we plan and develop our cities must evolve. Radical innovations entering the market are likely to disrupt business models, and as custodians and shapers of the built environment, RICS professionals are well placed to make these changes. Commercial opportunities will arise in ensuring cities are places in which people can thrive. Crucially, we must learn from our allied professions and share our knowledge to address our common challenges. From achieving energy efficiency to constructing affordable homes, we’ll have much greater success if we work together. That’s why I’m eager to hear from Tesla’s co-founder, JB Straubel, at the World Built Environment Forum Summit, later this month in London. Cities succeed when people want to live there; when the opportunities in business, culture and people are compelling enough to outweigh the inevitable challenges of urban life. We know that cities will be the focus of the next chapter of the human story, but the pages have yet to be written. I hope you will join us in London this month, where the world’s best minds in tech, property, finance and engineering will help us to discern where the plot is leading. Follow John on Twitter @JohnHughesTO A PRIL 2018_MODUS
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Water Management Library | Birmingham
REWRITING THE BOOK The Library of Birmingham is the largest of its kind in Europe and the flagship for the cityâ€™s redevelopment. Located on Centenary Square, it is at the heart of an area that has constantly evolved and adapted since the 1700s, from housing to canals to industry, and more recently, to open space. For over two decades, the square has been part of the cityâ€™s central pedestrian route as well as home to major events of all sorts, from Christmas markets and big wheels to radio station gigs. Since 1991, ACO has helped provide water management solutions to ensure visitors to the square are able to move, relax and socialise safely, and today we continue to help, providing solutions for the years to come. We worked in the engineering to make the journey smoother. We know the difference it makes. WWW.ACO.CO.UK
Globalisation has created a top tier of cities whose economic clout far outstrips their neighbours. A cohesive
HOW TO SHAPE
set of policies would help to share the spoils of their success. But with so many competing interests, thatâ€™s easier said than done
ILLUSTRATION MIKE LEMANSKI
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THINK BIG… NO, BIGGER CHINA
Vast, interconnected districts of 100 million people are not the result of unchecked urban sprawl, but evidence of a successful strategy to redistribute economic growth across the entire country
WORDS WADE SHEPARD
hina is expected to have between 30 and 40 cities of more than 10 million people by 2030 – that fateful year when the country is slated to cross the 1 billion urban dwellers threshold. However, this continued onslaught of urbanisation can hardly be thought of as haphazard: the era when masses of rural migrants poured into eastern cities from the countryside unchecked is, for the most part, over. China’s seemingly breakneck, decades-long urbanisation push now has a masterplan: a network of 10 megaregions spanning across the country. A megaregion is the product of a strategic clustering of cities into regional conglomerations by interlinking them infrastructurally, economically and, to a certain extent, politically. In theory, this deeper integration will allow individual cities to benefit from working in partnership with each other and for nascent development zones and smaller municipalities to bask in the synergy of more established regional economies. These interconnected urban clusters are generally organised on a hub-and-spoke model that will see arrays of megacities (those with more than 10 million people) connected together and surrounded by smaller cities, which themselves will be hubs for their own scaled-down networks of cities and towns – spiderwebs inside of spiderwebs of urbanisation. These conurbations are almost unbelievably massive. The Jing-Jin-Ji megaregion, which consists of Beijing, Tianjin and part of Hebei province, will contain at least 110 million people
TRACK AND FIELD The Chinese notion of a city encompasses both urban and rural elements, while growth is achieved through investments in large-scale infrastructure
and cover 82,000 square miles (212,000 km2) – nearly the total expanse of the UK. The Yangtze River Delta megaregion is made up of 16 cities and 80 million people. The Pearl River Delta economic cluster totals at least 11 big cities and 80 million people, while the Chuanyu megaregion in Sichuan boasts Chongqing, Chengdu and 13 other cities with a combined population that tops 100 million. But before we can talk about megaregions and conglomerations of cities, we first need to understand what a city in China really is. The best place to start is to look at them as administrative units. China has provinciallevel cities, sub-provincial-level cities, prefecture-level cities and county-level cities. Although not perfect comparisons, provincial-level cities are much like US states, sub-provincial and prefecture-level cities are somewhat similar to counties, and county-level cities are what Americans would refer to as a municipality – or district in the UK. So when we talk about big Chinese cities such as Shanghai and Chongqing, we are talking about administrative entities that are more akin to New York state, which contains cities such as Buffalo and Rochester as well as New York City – plus swathes of agricultural land. Nearly 30% of Shanghai’s 2,700 square miles (7,000 km2) is cropland. Chongqing is a “city” of 30 million people that is the size of the US state of North Carolina, but is actually 99% rural with only around 8 million legitimate city dwellers. This is relevant to the megaregion story because if we look at a map of these city clusters they often appear to be dominated by single, gigantic core cities. But hidden within these large dots are many smaller cities and new development areas that are »
Turning the tide of migration Since 2015 the rate of urbanisation in China has started to slow down as the governmentâ€™s policy of pumping billions of dollars into connecting cities in less developed regions starts to bear fruit.
Source United Nations, 2014
AVERAGE ANNUAL RATE OF CHANGE OF URBAN POPULATION (%)
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“ [ YOU ] CRE ATE THE L ARGE-SCALE INFRASTRUC TURE FIRST AND THEN EXPEC T THE GROW TH TO COME” BRECHTJE SPREEUWERS MLA+
undergoing rampant economic and social transitions of their own. Although the historic cores of China’s biggest cities continue to be major drivers of economic output, these places are starting to lose some of their momentum as new towns on their peripheries and other cities within their boundaries gain economic vitality, sucking businesses and people away from them. In many ways, China’s megaregions are direct reactions against the country’s historic and more organic patterns of development and population dispersal. Starting in 1990, hundreds of millions of rural migrants have flowed into the booming economic centres of the east: Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen. But since 2015 this movement has been gradually tapering off as China’s “Go West” strategy matures, and central and western regions begin making good on the billions of dollars of infrastructure investment and excessive political will that has been pumped into them. Among other initiatives, Go West brought business parks to interior cities, national transport networks to link them, and incentivised – or coerced – companies to move out to them from the coast. It worked. China’s most vibrant areas of economic and population growth are now inland cities such as Chengdu, Chongqing, Xi’an, Changsha, Wuhan and Guiyang – former backwaters that were developed by all-out fiat to curb the flow of eastern migration and to extract China’s full amount of economic potential. A report published last September by thinktank the Milken Institute found that seven out of China’s 10 best-performing cities are located inland.
18 RICS.ORG/MODUS 20
China’s megaregion plan seeks to take the Go West strategy a step further. Now that central and western cities are firmly entrenched within the dominant economic grid of the country, redistributing their resources throughout their broader megaregions has become imperative. The McKinsey Institute’s list of the world’s 75 Most Dynamic Cities of 2025 includes Chinese cities such as Xuzhou, Wuxi, Foshan, Dongguan, Changzhou and Tangshan – boom-towns that sit within the bosom of megaregion clusters. The benefits of megaregions for private business are also immense.“Due largely to agglomeration impacts, companies across industries are located within the megaregion, allowing for whole supply chains to be sourced from within the region,” explains Nathan Hayes, an economist at analyst Timetric who has studied China’s megaregion movement. “This facilitates closer integration between companies, allowing for greater cross-learning, better access to a larger pool of better-trained workers, as well as reduced production times and costs. This greatly increases the value added produced within the region, and begets further investment, more jobs growth, and greater increases in productivity.” Holding these massive regional city clusters together are layers of new transportation networks. Over the past 20 years, China has paved 37,300 miles (60,000 km) of new highways, laid more than 15,500 miles (25,000 km) of high-speed rail tracks, and built more than 100 airports. This national nervous system is linked into by regional transport networks, which better interconnect the cities within megaregion clusters, which are then linked into by local municipal transport networks. More than 240 high-speed trains traverse the Yangtze River Delta megaregion each day, connecting rapidly emerging cities such as Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou, and Zhenjiang with the more established urban centres of Shanghai and Nanjing. Brechtje Spreeuwers, an architect at MLA+ in Rotterdam who has done extensive work in the Pearl River Delta, says that transportation plays a crucial role in the development of megaregions.“It also shows the typical‘Chinese’view of how to create city growth: first create the large-scale infrastructure and stations and then expect the growth to happen, instead of passively waiting for growth and afterwards setting up infrastructure.” In China, a megaregion is not a euphemism for sprawl. In fact, by spreading economic growth across whole regions, it is a direct reaction against it.
DELTA FORCE The Yangtze River Delta megaregion covers 16 cities and is home to 80 million people. At its centre is Shanghai (at the bottom of the picture), but with more than 240 high-speed trains crossing the region every day, emerging locations are being pulled into its orbit
The success of San Francisco’s tech industry has created a property price boom that is forcing an affluent and educated workforce out of the city and into poorer, neighbouring counties. How to rebalance this inequality is one of the principal challenges facing the Northern California megaregion
CASH IN THE MICROCHIPS
ast August, the New York Times reported the story of Sheila James, who works in central San Francisco. She makes $81,000 a year, but because of the astronomical house prices in the San Francisco Bay Area, she chooses to commute three hours each way by two trains and a bus from Stockton, 80 miles east in the San Joaquin Valley. And James is not alone. As the Bay Area’s techfuelled economy has boomed without adding enough new housing, an increasing number of people are looking further afield. Stockton’s median home price of $260,000 compares with $1.2m in San Francisco. Those economic disparities are driving growth and decision-making in the Northern California megaregion, which stretches up from Monterey Bay, north through the Bay Area – San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose and Silicon Valley – to the gilded highlands over the Golden Gate Bridge. It also runs east to the state capital, Sacramento, and the scrappy agricultural heartland of the San Joaquin Valley. “Every time someone in Modesto gets in their car and drives to San Jose – that’s what makes it a megaregion,”argues Alex Schafran, author of Resegregating the Region: Northern California and the Failure of Politics. The percentage of the labour force that commutes from the San Joaquin Valley to the Bay Area
WORDS GREGORY SCRUGGS
quadrupled between 1970 and 2000, but its population has only doubled, evidence that the valley has absorbed a significant amount of the latter’s economic growth. But the demographic realities of people like Sheila James are slower to dawn on the region’s planning and political institutions. This vast area of distinct geographies is home to 12.2 million people with different regional identities, and where neighbours like the Bay Area and the San Joaquin Valley used to have minimal daily contact but are increasingly interconnected. As a result, there is no cohesive mega-regional policy. For example, the Altamont Corridor Express that James takes to work only came into existence thanks to concerted effort by San Joaquin County and without much help from the Bay Area next door, even though this critical new mass transit artery allows the region’s workers to get to their jobs. This is part of why Schafran believes“the formation of the megaregion is an extremely unequal process”, largely invisible in San Francisco but felt acutely in Stockton. That is because the train crosses the Altamont Pass, which forms a cultural boundary between two very different regions even as the physical geography is increasingly porous – and choked with traffic. But it is high time that those attitudes change, says Ken Kirkey, director of the
Integrated Regional Planning Program for the Association of Bay Area Governments. “We should not look at the Altamont Pass as some sort of national border,” he says. Since 2016, there have been formal talks across that border in the form of quarterly meetings of the Mega-Region Working Group, which comprises the Bay Area Association of Governments, Sacramento Area Council of Governments, and the San Joaquin Valley Council of Governments. Kirkey is hopeful that the group will break down boundaries, but he confesses that even his own nine-county region does not think and act cohesively. “We’re still working to make this place work,” he says. If one organisation has long had a broader view of the megaregion, it is the century-old thinktank Spur, whose historic focus on housing in San Francisco has morphed into a mega-regional approach advocating for high-speed rail, increased housing density in the Bay Area, and a renewed economic future for the long-struggling legacy cities of the San Joaquin Valley. As Egon Terplan, Spur’s regional planning director, explains: “The longer-term vision frankly is about how some of the economic dynamism of the Bay Area can move out into some of these Central Valley communities and they can relate back and forth.” James Gavin FRICS, managing director at Duff & Phelps in San Francisco, has already observed the first inklings of this trend in the real estate market. “[All of the] people in our business – evaluation, consulting, accounting, telecoms, appraisal, title companies – have expanded out into those marketplaces,” he says. Furthermore, the San Joaquin Valley is becoming a major distribution hub for ecommerce throughout Northern California. “We’ve begun to see a significant increase in demand for big-box developments,” he says. “That’s pushed valuations up in some of these markets.” The good news for Northern California is that unlike, say, New York City, which must contend with the political jockeying of three states, the entire megaregion is under the jurisdiction of a single state. As a result, Terplan argues, “We don’t need megaregional government. We need the state of California to create the incentives that require cities and regions to work together more effectively. Are we moving in the right direction? Yes, but probably too slowly.”
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WORDS MATT ROSS
ARE FRIENDS IN THE NORTH? UK
The one thing on which private and public sector leaders in northern England can agree is the enormous, unrealised potential of the region. But if they can’t figure out how to set aside local rivalries and work together, that’s how it’s likely to stay
am rather smitten by this thing,” says Jim O’Neill. “It could change the long-term economic trend of the UK, in terms of its productivity and its excessive dependence on the south-east and London.” Lord O’Neill knows a thing or two about long-term trends – it was he who, in 2001, coined the term “BRIC” for the world’s emerging economic powers. Now, the thing with which he is smitten is the Northern Powerhouse: former chancellor George Osborne’s vision for a megaregion across the north of England. Managing the north as a single economic player could give it the scale to compete on the global stage, says Manchester-based Ed Cox, director of thinktank IPPR North. The optimal size for an economic unit is 6-15 million people, he adds, arguing that overseas investors see in the north “an economic geography that’s worth getting out of bed for”. The Northern Powerhouse region has a population of 16 million, “which would make it Europe’s 10th largest country”, notes David Furniss FRICS, head of BNP Paribas Real Estate’s Newcastle office. As things stand, he adds, international investors too often “look at the UK and see London or nothing”, and as long as that remains true, “the whole country has a problem. The north needs to be seen as an opportunity to grow the UK economy, not as an issue to fix.”Coherent, strategic management of the north’s economy, Furniss believes, would also “give the region political clout at a domestic level, because it’s too big to ignore”. Atam Verdi MRICS, chairman of consultant Aspinall Verdi, which has offices in Leeds and London, agrees that the north currently punches below its weight in government decision-making. If it had a strong, unitary voice, he says,“I don’t believe it would have been politically possible to delay electrification of the trans-Pennine [rail] route.” Osborne launched the Northern Powerhouse in May 2014 – reviving his Labour predecessors’“Northern Way” scheme. O’Neill, who joined the Treasury to lead the project
in 2015, soon found his agenda blocked by the incoming prime minister Theresa May’s special advisers. “[They] tried to quash it because of their dislike of Osborne – it’s that petty,”he explains.“But once they were fired, May immediately brought it back. That’s a sign that it’s something of substance.” With no Osborne or O’Neill to champion the project inside government, it has lost some of its top-down impetus. But Verdi believes that public and private sector leaders are now picking up the baton: “Local authorities and economic development organisations understand that doing nothing is not an option,” he says. To turn that energy into action, the Northern Powerhouse needs coherent, strategic decision-making bodies and delivery channels – presumably built around the city-regional mayors and unitary authorities slowly coalescing under the devolution agenda. Their development has also hit political obstacles as authorities in some areas wrestle over footprints and powers.“Because of the politics of Yorkshire and the north-east you can’t get a devolution deal there, which is preposterous,” fumes O’Neill. “If they can’t pull that off, how can you take seriously the idea of giving a pan-northern entity more powers?” But Cox believes that “northern leaders are perfectly able to choose where strategic investments need to be made”. City-regional deals can actually be harder to broker than pan-regional ones, he says, “because local rivalries are felt more acutely than those at a wider level”. But central government must take its share of the blame for the failure of talks in Yorkshire and the north-east, he »
POWER STRUGGLE Former British chancellor George Osborne outlines his Northern Powerhouse vision in May 2014, before government upheaval threatened the initiative
All travelling in the same direction
INTO LEEDS FROM Doncaster, Sheffield, Barnsley, Calderdale, York, Selby, Harrogate, Kirklees, Wakefield, Bradford
The movement of commuters across the four main cities of the Northern Powerhouse – particularly Leeds and Manchester – highlights how important a unified transport policy is to the success of the project.
INTO LIVERPOOL FROM Manchester, Wigan, Warrington, West Lancashire, Cheshire West and Chester, Halton, St Helens, Wirral, Knowsley, Sefton
INTO MANCHESTER FROM Wigan, Bolton, Rochdale, Cheshire East, Oldham, Bury, Tameside, Salford, Trafford, Stockport
FROM LEEDS TO Doncaster, Sheffield, Barnsley, Calderdale, York, Selby, Harrogate, Kirklees, Wakefield, Bradford
FROM LIVERPOOL TO Manchester, Wigan, Warrington, West Lancashire, Cheshire West and Chester, Halton, St Helens, Wirral, Knowsley, Sefton
51,845 FROM MANCHESTER TO Wigan, Bolton, Rochdale, Cheshire East, Oldham, Bury, Tameside, Salford, Trafford, Stockport
Source Nomis, 2011
INTO SHEFFIELD FROM Wakefield, Leeds, Bolsover, Derbyshire Dales, Bassetlaw, Chesterfield, Doncaster, Barnsley, NE Derbyshire, Rotherham
FROM SHEFFIELD TO Wakefield, Leeds, Bolsover, Derbyshire Dales, Bassetlaw, Chesterfield, Doncaster, Barnsley, NE Derbs, Rotherham
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argues, for dangling inadequate incentives while meddling in local negotiations. As evidence of the north’s ability to unite around a shared strategy, Cox cites Transport for the North (TfN), which brings together 19 local transport authorities and 11 local enterprise partnerships. “We hear civil servants saying that [northern leaders] are rats in a sack and can’t make a decision,” he comments. “But TfN are coming up with a single plan and a prioritised list of projects.” Indeed, TfN’s interim strategy director, Jonathan Spruce, explains that the body has just gained statutory status, which bestows on it a duty to “make recommendations to the secretary of state for transport on how money is spent on road and rail, telling them where investment is needed”. Following the publication in January of TfN’s draft Strategic Transport Plan, the autumn will bring “the first attempt at a proper, 30-year pipeline of transport improvements across the north”, says Spruce. For the north to function as an economic unit will require difficult trade-offs over, for example, how different cities develop their specialisms: “In health and life sciences, for example, we need to focus on one place and spread the benefits, rather than having Leeds and Newcastle compete,” says Furniss. Northern leaders will also have to choose between two competing visions of the Northern Powerhouse. For O’Neill, it is the economic heft and proximity of Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool and Sheffield that makes the region a“game-changer: there’s nowhere
“ WE HE AR CIVIL SERVANTS SAYING THAT [ NORTHERN LE ADERS ] ARE RATS IN A SACK AND CAN’T MAKE A DECISION” ED COX IPPR NORTH
MANCUNIAN WAY Given its size, economic heft and proximity to Liverpool, Leeds and Sheffield, Manchester is widely regarded as crucial to the success of the Northern Powerhouse. But disagreements continue to arise over whether it is fair to focus on one city at the expense of others
else in Britain that has that”. Other areas “need to be included, but that can’t distract from making sure the core concepts surrounding that single market area are focused on”. John Hicks FRICS, Aecom’s London-based head of public and government, agrees that “Manchester is the key. Get it going – and reaching up into Cumbria’s energy industries, and across into Sheffield’s advanced manufacturing – and the others will get pulled up.” However, Spruce points out that the project is about“transformational”as well as absolute growth, “and some of the greatest opportunities for that lie outside the core area: in the north-east for energy, or Cheshire and Warrington for health”. The key, he argues, is to identify each area’s economic strengths, “and the transport requirements flow from that”. Asked how the government can help, commentators ask for clear ministerial leadership, longer-term investment commitments, and greater devolution of fiscal and statutory powers. But they are agreed that it’s the job of northern leaders to make it happen. “People in government come and go,”says O’Neill.“It’s for northern council leaders, mayors, business leaders and civic society to take ownership of this agenda.” In Spruce’s view, TfN’s formation has catalysed growing commitment to wider collaboration across the north. His member bodies already discuss wider issues informally; and Ed Cox argues for the formation of a “Council of the North” to “make decisions about prioritisation and where it wants to see investment. The onus is on northern leaders to build on the success they’ve made of TfN.” Perhaps the factor most likely to prompt that kind of collaboration is evidence of success. And O’Neill, who these days sits – with Osborne – on the board of the public-private Northern Powerhouse Partnership, points out that in January the north-west’s regional purchasing managers’ index “reached its highest level in 39 months; it continues to be the best-performing area in the UK. Employment trends are stronger than London.” So there is a carrot, and there is also, when northern leaders contemplate the alternatives to action, a stick. For if the north does not begin to act as a single super-region,“it will carry on its relative decline of the last 50, 60 years”, O’Neill concludes. “If we don’t get this right, the north will continue its slow demise into nothingness.” n
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WORDS ADAM BRANSON ILLUSTRATION MUTI
THE THIN GREEN LINE
For years it’s been a battle ground between those who argue it’s vital for stopping urban sprawl, and those who complain it restricts growth. Is it time to reassess the green belt?
as the time come to review or even dismantle our cities’ green belts? Not so long ago, such a question would only have been posed by radical free-market fundamentalists, but with most parts of the world experiencing rapid urbanisation that is no longer the case. In recent years, publications ranging from the Economist to the Guardian have questioned whether the green belt remains an appropriate tool for preventing urban sprawl. The Adam Smith Institute went a step further, publishing a paper in January 2015 entitled The Green Noose – no prizes for guessing its attitude to the policy.
The argument is that green belts hold back economic development and lead to escalating housing costs. Surely, the argument goes, it is time to think again? However, experience from around the world varies greatly. So, what should policymakers and city leaders take on board before taking a knife to the red tape? One of the world’s youngest green belts is to be found in Southern Ontario, Canada. In 2005 the government of Ontario passed legislation to permanently protect a vast area of land surrounding Greater Toronto and Hamilton – the so-called Golden Horseshoe. The protected area covers more than 2 million acres (8,000 km2), making it one of the largest green belts in the world. The motivation for introducing the green belt was simple. At the time, Greater Toronto was one of the fastest growing urban areas in North America, with the region’s population having risen from 4.2 million to 5.1 million between 1991 and 2001. As a result, the government of Ontario felt that action was required if Toronto was to be prevented from becoming another Los Angeles – a city of sprawling suburbs dependent almost entirely on private transport.
Introducing a green belt did nothing to hold back the region’s population growth. In 2016, 9.2 million people were living in the Golden Horseshoe, and this is projected to rise to 11.5 million by 2031. Such growth put huge pressure on the region’s housing stock, with the effect that house prices boomed. Annual house price growth between the first quarters of 2016 and 2017 was 33% in Greater Toronto, leading Bank of Montreal chief economist Doug Porter to declare that the city had entered bubble territory. Porter was right about that. In the second quarter of 2017, home sales were down by more than 50%, while prices fell by 19%. In an official note in August, Porter likened the market to Monty Python’s dead parrot: “This is a late bubble. Bereft of life, it rests in peace.” Porter was also quick to counter developers’ claims about the green belt, pointing out that the bursting of the bubble coincided with the implementation of new housing rules for the Golden Horseshoe region in April last year.“The July home sales data reveal in stark detail how many regions of Ontario have swung into reverse in very short order,” he wrote. “And, yes, almost to the day that the Fair Housing Plan kicked into gear in April.” The Fair Housing Plan includes a package of measures designed to cool the housing market, among them a 15% tax on overseas investors and additional rent controls. What it did not include, though, was any reduction in green belt allocation – indeed, last December the government of Ontario reconfirmed its intention to expand the green belt. “Some would argue that nonresident investors were not a big deal in the market,” wrote Porter in his August note. “Some would also argue that the earth is flat.” RICS President John Hughes FRICS, co-founder of Toronto-based consultant Hemson, concurs that the green belt is not responsible for his city’s housing situation. “I absolutely don’t think it’s contributed to a housing crisis,” he says. “Logic would say it’s had some impact, but it’s not the only factor. Undoubtedly it has led to less singlefamily, lower-density housing being built. It’s constraining the amount of greenfield land available, which is a deliberate policy.” That policy, says Hughes, is not just aimed at preventing sprawl, but also at promoting a more sustainable form of urban growth. “It’s driven by the principle of sustainability, bringing with it the need for more public »
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transit which, to be more viable, requires relatively dense development. It’s also about a desire to intensify development in developed areas and reduce the amount of new greenfield development.” Furthermore, because the green belt in the Golden Horseshoe is so young, it has been designed in such a way as to accommodate growth. “Future growth has been accounted for – it’s not as if we’ve just said the existing urban envelope is it,”Hughes adds.“In theory at least, there is an adequate supply of land to accommodate growth for a long time.”
o the Canadian experience seems to suggest that green belt policies can be used to good effect, provided they take account of the need to accommodate growth. Unfortunately, that cannot always be guaranteed, and the reason for this can be traced – as so often seems to be the case – to the legacy of empire.“British colonialism tended to export the idea of the green belt as part of the planning package that was often the basis of planning policy in a number of colonies,” says Cliff Hague, professor emeritus of planning and spatial development at Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh. However, Hague adds that green belt policies have come under severe pressure in recent years as a result of rapid urbanisation
in developing economies. Quite simply, cities have had to choose between economic development and sacrificing the green belt. In poorer countries, it is not a difficult decision: “In rapidly urbanising countries, the planning systems were overwhelmed, so whatever plans existed haven’t really been effective,” says Hague.“It wasn’t so much an ideological critique as a practical response. People have just built and negated the intentions of urban containment policies.” In such circumstances, that may well be the most rational decision, says Hague, citing a report from the World Bank that made the case for not trying to cap the size of cities. “The orthodoxy in development studies is very much to see the benefits of city growth as a means of creating prosperity and lifting people out of poverty,” he says. In China, a green belt is in place around Beijing, but in addition to providing access to green space, the state effectively uses it as a reservoir of land that can be drawn down as required. “It’s doing a very different job for the Chinese state,”says Alan Mace, assistant professor in urban planning studies at the London School of Economics. “There are various existing villages within the green belt that it then largely demolishes and rebuilds for new housing projects. It’s almost like an investment portfolio.”
A LOT OF THE GREEN BELT HAS BEEN NIBBLED AWAY AT AND IT’S THE WRONG APPROACH … [YOU NEED] A HOLISTIC SOLUTION
JOHN LOCKHART FRICS Lockhart Garratt
Similarly, Singapore’s green belt is used almost exclusively to retain access to green space – something that is considered a top priority in such a geographically constrained environment. “In some ways, it acts a bit more like a British country park model or the original idea of green belt,” says Mace. “The green belt is a restriction on building to maintain access to open space, rather than trying to limit Singapore itself.” In Australia, meanwhile, there are policies to restrict urban sprawl, although they are not recognisable as green belts in the traditional sense. “Both local and state government provide policies [aimed at] increasing the use of current transport-oriented developments and infill development,” says Mitchell Bray, national business leader for urban development and regeneration at Arcadis in Brisbane. “More consideration could be given to adopting practices that Melbourne and Sydney have adopted, such as the ‘polycentric hub’ approach. This model looks to create alternative city centres outside of the central business district to provide housing, sources of employment, retail, recreation and education.” Another model is to be found in Denmark where, in 1947, the Fingerplanen (Finger Plan) was drawn up to provide a strategy for the development of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Under the initiative, the Danish capital developed along five “fingers” centred on commuter rail lines, which extend from the “palm”: the dense urban core of central Copenhagen. In between the fingers, green “wedges” provide land for agriculture and recreation, which has allowed the city to expand while retaining access to green space. The Finger Plan has proved successful, but critically it has adapted over time in response to changing development needs. That is something that has not happened in the UK in any coordinated way, but should, suggests John Lockhart FRICS, chairman and project coordinator at Lockhart Garratt.“A lot of the green belt has been nibbled away at and it’s the wrong approach. The right way would be to have a strategic plan to maximise its value and that’s got to be done with a range of professions: planners, surveyors, architects and environmentalists, so that you end up with an integrated and holistic solution.” The issue is not the green belt itself, rather how policy is established and adapted to circumstance and the changing needs and priorities of residents. Clearly, it is a lesson that some parts of the world have learned better than others.
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IN A FIELD
Urbanisation and shifting demographics are transforming the economic landscape of the countryside. How do we ensure our rural communities can still thrive even as their populations decline? 30
WORDS GEORGE BULL ILLUSTRATION JUSTIN METZ
apan, so often our default reference for the world’s urban future, could now point to the fate of our rural areas, too. A combination of decades-long rural flight and an ageing population is hollowing out the Japanese countryside, and government policy seems powerless to stop it. The seeming inevitability of rural decline poses a conundrum that developed economies across the world will soon have to get to grips with: is this a fight we can win? Between 1950 and 2015, the proportion of Japan’s population living in urban regions shifted from 53.4% to 93.5%. On top of this, Japan’s overall population is declining – it fell by 403,000 in 2017 – and is declining fastest in the largely rural north of the country, where prefectures such as Aomori, Akita and Iwate are losing about 1% of their local populations every year. With so many young people flocking to the cities, it is largely the older generation who are left behind. In a report published in February 2017, the country’s Ministry of Internal Affairs estimated that in 15,000 of Japan’s 65,000 settlements, more than half the local population was over 65 years old. The Japanese call these places genkai shu ¯raku –“communities on the edge”. Rural decline as a consequence of depopulation was officially recognised in the 1960s and 1970s, but despite Japan’s local authorities pouring money into regeneration efforts, these regions have continued to shrink. In fact, depopulation has deepened and broadened to affect even regional towns and cities with populations of up to a million people. This is in no small part due to the destabilising effect of Tokyo. In a 2010 paper called Coming soon to a city near you!, senior lecturer in Japanese studies at the University of Sheffield, Peter Matanle, described the shrinkage as “inevitable” and that some rural communities presently on
the verge of collapse “will in the near future disappear altogether”. Matanle explains that there are short- and long-term forces at work: on the one hand, these communities are suffering a net loss due to net outward migration; on the other, there are too few babies being born and too low a level of immigration to replace those that leave. “Rural Japan has lived with both of these for decades. Communities stop seeing a future for themselves,” he says. Local authorities have tried consolidating services to draw populations into tighter communities, and some have incentivised older people to move through rehousing schemes. “But,” says Matanle, “one of the issues with consolidation into geographically larger units is that the outlying peripheral communities become even more dislocated.” It is a vicious circle: as services retreat and institutions such as schools merge or close, with them go the traditional routes into employment. Overcapacity is a huge problem. Excess housing stock, underused infrastructure and unmanaged farmland dot the townscape; once valuable land has become worthless and potentially hazardous for those still living there. “Empty structures are a big problem,” says Matanle,“but they’re only partly a result of depopulation. Land that doesn’t have a structure on it has a higher rate of taxation than land that does. That worked when Japan wanted to develop rapidly, but it doesn’t work now. These abandoned structures are very expensive to take down. People forget about them – often land is nominally owned and the owners live miles away in Tokyo.” In January, the Financial Times reported that 20% of Japan – an area the size of Denmark – has no contactable owner. “This is land that could be consolidated to make farming more efficient or to reforest,” says Matanle, “but the problem is that the legal structures and fiscal incentives are unsuitable for the situation Japan finds itself in.” When it comes to business, the Japanese government has tended to use fiscal grants to shore up employment in rural areas. Though well intended, the effect has often been to encourage businesses to locate to areas that make no real commercial sense and effectively drain taxation and resources into a company that probably has a head office in Tokyo. The types of jobs it has subsidised have focused on low-skilled » A PRIL 2018_MODUS
Blockchain Rural depopulation
Bringing it all back home How are different rural communities responding to the challenge of injecting new life into their declining populations? Albinen, Switzerland Residents of this 240-person Alpine village voted in 2017 to fight depopulation by offering newcomers CHF25,000 (£19,000) to buy, refurbish or build a home there. Much of the property in Albinen is holiday homes and there are too few full-time residents to keep the local school open. The incentive comes with a few rules: applicants must be below the age of 45, commit themselves to living in the village for at least 10 years and be prepared to invest at least CHF200,000 (£154,000) in the property. Sado Island, Japan An initiative between Japanese photovoltaic company Solar Frontier and the University of Tokyo is investigating the potential economic impact of “solar sharing” on Sado Island in Niigata Prefecture. Solar panels are installed high above arable land and spaced further apart than usual, allowing sunlight to pass through and people to work below. Farmers earn additional income by selling electricity back to the grid. It is part of a broader project on Sado Island, which is looking at using renewable energy and maximising natural resources to help revitalise communities. Holy Island of Lindisfarne, UK Set up 14 years ago to build affordable housing for priced-out residents, the Holy Island of Lindisfarne Community Development Trust has now provided homes for 20% of the permanent islanders and 50% of schoolchildren. Ownership remains with the trust and rents are not linked to land values, nor can the homes be sold under right-to-acquire rules. David Birkbeck, CEO of Design for Homes, says that if the UK is looking for a model of a functioning rural housing market, “then this is the way to do it”. In 2010 there were 36 community land trusts in England and Wales; now there are 225.
Albinen in Switzerland is tackling depopulation by paying young families £19,000 to move there. Currently the Alpine village is home to only 240 full-time residents
construction and manufacturing work, which has done little to build up diversity or creative capacity in the community, or create the kinds of jobs for which young people will stick around, says Matanle. There are echoes of this everywhere in the developed world. In the UK rural economies are reliant on goods exporters, with almost one in four private sector businesses in agriculture, mining or manufacturing – compared with 4% in city centres. Trading Places, a report published by thinktank Centre for Cities in 2016, found that the number of goods-exporting businesses is declining in all regions. Rural areas are especially vulnerable: those that have responded well have been able to offset this decline by growing their share of services exporters – and service exporters, especially high-skilled ones, “show a very clear preference for an urban location”, finds the report. Paul Swinney, Centre for Cities’ head of policy and research, says:“Cities in the 1960s and 1970s weren’t that attractive to business, but as we’ve moved to the knowledge economy, companies are looking for citycentre locations. They want access to workers and networks of other highly skilled businesses. Rural areas don’t offer that.”
ccording to Nick Gallent FRICS, head of the Bartlett School of Planning at University College London, UK rural communities face a double bind: remain isolated or attract counter-urbanisers. Your typical counter-urbaniser is a city dweller looking to retire to the country, buy a second home or to get more space for their money. “They exploit the rent gap and in doing so help raise local property values, which get calibrated against the wealth that’s coming rather than local earnings,” says Gallent. For the 11 million people who live in rural Britain, house prices are now, on average, 20% higher than in urban areas. These are typically places where the landbased economy has declined but which have been successful in attracting tourists based on their local heritage and landscape.“But to survive, a rural community needs a balanced population,” says Gallent,“and that requires a well-stratified housing market.” In St Ives, Cornwall, where around 25% of housing is second homes, locals feel locked out of the market. The town council has responded to this challenge by drawing up a Neighbourhood Development Plan that requires all new-build housing to be occupied by full-time residents, 270 days a year.
THERE ARE VERY FEW POLICY TOOLS POLITICIANS CAN USE TO BRING ABOUT A REVIVAL OF THE RURAL ECONOMY
PAUL SWINNEY Centre for Cities
Gallent says the move is to be applauded but explains that there may be unintended consequences: local housebuilders may simply decide to move outside the restricted area, where they can make more profit; the reduced supply of new-build overall drives up secondhand prices, benefiting existing owners, but doing little for those seeking to buy for the first time who now have less chance of accessing the secondhand market. Rural housing markets are a burgeoning problem. Right to Home?, published in July 2017 by the Institute for Public Policy and Research, reports that from 2010 to 2016, rural local authorities recorded a 32% rise in homelessness. The Rural Coalition – which combines 12 UK bodies, including RICS – has called for 7,500 affordable housing units for young families to be built a year to stop villages becoming“enclaves for the wealthy”. But in reality, “politicians can’t make big claims about the revival of the rural economy because there are very few policy tools they can use to bring this about”, says Swinney. The picture is starker in the US. In late 2017, the Wall Street Journal ran a series of articles on the country’s increasing ruralurban divide.“The fact that the WSJ did that was surprising,” notes Lisa Pruitt, professor of law at the Center for Poverty Research, University of California, Davis. “It was as if people said: ‘Oh my gosh what happened to rural America when we weren’t watching?’”
Roughly one in seven Americans lives in rural communities. Pruitt suggests that, as the US has become an urban-focused nation, the countryside has now replaced the inner city on the frontline of socio-economic deprivation.“We have to have new strategies for overcoming rural poverty,” she says. Early signs that the Trump administration will be any different do not look promising. In January 2018, the White House announced that it will support state efforts to impose work requirements on Medicaid eligibility, which is to say that the poor and disabled Americans who are currently eligible for these health benefits will now have to prove employment in order to access them.
or Pruitt, this is another example of overlooking the realities of rural America: “The job markets in these places tend to be really crummy, so if you’re telling rural people they can only get a benefit if they have a job, you are setting everyone up for failure. If you are proposing a law, you need to look at how it is going to play out in rural places, and we don’t do that in the US.” Faced with these circumstances, rural communities the world over have taken things into their own hands. Karl Kullmann, associate professor at the College of Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley, who has researched the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia, says
that many towns “create or grow an annual event to bring people in and, in extreme cases, towns have resorted to leasing or selling houses at peppercorn rates on the proviso that the recipient live in the town”. Others have literally invested in art to save themselves. The Wheatbelt town of Kellerberrin used artist-in-residence scholarships to generate an international profile. Nearly 1,900 miles (3,000 km) away in western Victoria, Natimuk – population 514 – promoted cheap accommodation and studio space, as well as its proximity to a nearby rock-climbing mecca, to attract a temporary population big enough to provide economic stability. Kullmann himself has advocated a more radical strategy in his work for the Wheatbelt town of Perenjori, by intentionally designing for decline over a 20-year period. The main street would be given a facelift and the town gradually consolidated to bolster community life – sports facilities are moved closer to the centre and reconfigured away from the team sports that the town no longer has the critical mass to support. A timeline plans for a progressive demolition of unused structures and a gradual decommissioning of services that do not destroy the town’s sense of place. It is an approach that would chime with Matanle. He says in Japan good practice also tends to take place at a grassroots level, where people are “managing decline by not trying to grow”. He points to local initiatives such as solar farms (box, opposite), which have the potential to earn the town money through sales of electricity back to the grid, as well as propagate skilled jobs in sectors in which young people might want to work. Matanle accepts that the prevailing bias towards growth makes it hard for local administrations to “talk about shrinkage as a good thing”, but he says the idea that it needs a solution – or that the solution is more people – is problematic. “Since the 1960s [the trend has] been relentlessly downward. Every single government policy that’s been thrown at rural Japan has failed. You can view that as a problem or you can see it as an inevitability that needs a different approach – it’s not a given that depopulation has to produce uncomfortable outcomes.” n
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SHAPE OF THE WATERS
Could a vast dockside regeneration project take Liverpool back into the big league? Brendon Hooper reports
IN THE DOCK Work is under way on Hive City, Plaza 1821 and the Lexington building at Princes Dock (1), but other elements of the plans are now under review following threats to remove World Heritage Status FAB FIVE Plaza 1821 (2) is a 16-storey scheme of 105 apartments built for the private rented sector, and is part of one of five planned neighbourhoods at Liverpool Waters
A decade on from its European Capital of Culture year, the awarding of which helped propel a mass of investment into the city, Liverpool is poised to undergo another development resurgence. “[It] is on the cusp of something big,” notes Andy Delaney MRICS, director at Colliers International in the city. “The multimillion-pound cranes arriving at Peel Ports’ Liverpool 2 deep-water container terminal, and the £100m transformation of Edge Lane Retail Park are both fantastic demonstrations of confidence in the city region and its strengthening economy.” Seen as one of the four main government-termed Northern Powerhouse cities – alongside Manchester, Leeds and Sheffield (see p22) – take-up in Liverpool’s office market has been particularly strong over the past five years. Indeed, Lambert Smith Hampton reports that 2017’s figures surpassed the annual total of every year since 2010. Last year, as part of the wider Government Hubs programme, which is reforming how the government uses property, HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) took 270,000 ft2 (25,100 m2) in the 96-year-old India Buildings in the heart of Liverpool’s commercial district. Following refurbishment works, HMRC will move around 3,500 staff into the building next year. JLL advised the Government Property Unit on the deal, carrying out a measured selection process that took into account wide-ranging factors including cost efficiency. In fact, bolstered by the HMRC prelet, public sector, not-for-profit and charity organisations accounted for almost half of take-up over 2017, notes LSH. Furthermore, this large amount of grade A stock was delivered via extensive refurbishment projects within some of the city’s most iconic buildings. For example, JLL’s capital markets team advised Corestate Capital Holding on the acquisition of the famous waterfront Royal Liver Building, for £48m. The Luxembourg-based investment
SHRINKING POOL Prompted by the sale of the Royal Liver Building (top) and HMRC’s prelet at the India Buildings (middle), the city council has now brought forward plans to redevelop Pall Mall Exchange (bottom) to address the shortage of new offices
BY NUMBERS POSITIONS VACANT Liverpool has had a glut of empty grade B/C space in the last few years, but after take-up and availability of grade A space fell to a record low in 2016, new office construction is on the rise again.
IMAGES VANTAGE POINT PHOTOS; ALLIES AND MORRISON; GETTY; INFOGRAPHIC IAN DUTNALL
Source: Lambert Smith Hampton, 2018
In February, ground-breaking work on the scheme began at Plaza 1821, a £21m, 16-storey residential development of 105 apartments. Built by Peel for housing association the Regenda Group under a private rental sector (PRS) deal, it is expected to complete in around 18 months. Meanwhile, Everton Football Club is in the process of securing planning permission and funding for a new stadium at Bramley Moore Dock, the northernmost part of Liverpool Waters. “One of our biggest challenges has been in overseeing all the new developments while managing the current estate, which covers more than 2,500 workers, 2,000 residents, two hotels and an operational cruise terminal,” says Ian Pollitt MRICS, assistant project director for Liverpool Waters at Peel. In 2016 more than 60 cruise ships arrived in Liverpool, and the city intends to capitalise on the cruise boom by creating a new passenger and baggage facility. Later this year work will begin on a £60m, 194,000 ft2 (18,000 m2) cruise liner terminal at Princes Dock. However, Unesco has expressed“deep concern”about how the 30-year project could affect the character of the area, even suggesting the city could lose its World Heritage status. In late February, the city council responded by commissioning
4,000 (000 ft2)
Grade B/C availability
Grade B/C take-up
Grade A availability
Grade A take-up
3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0
manager bought the grade I-listed office in Liverpool’s Unesco World Heritage Site from Royal London Mutual Insurance Society in February 2017 – after it was put up for sale in October 2016 for the first time in its 100-year history. Matthew Pickersgill MRICS, surveyor at LSH, says 2017 was a record year for Liverpool’s office market.“While we do not anticipate that 2018 will top this, market dynamics bode well for take-up and rental growth in the next 18 months.” However, the market is currently challenged by a lack of available stock, reports CBRE. Office supply fell to 0.8m ft2 (74,320 m2) by the end of the first half of 2017, and no newbuild developments completed last year at all. The loss of poorer-quality office space to other uses such as hotels, residential and student accommodation is also a contributing factor to the sharp decline in availability. “Liverpool has [been relying] on refurbishment projects to satisfy demand for quality office space. So conditions are ripe for speculative development,” adds Pickersgill. Just on the horizon though, is arguably the city’s biggest development since the build-up to the Capital of Culture year in 2008: the massive Liverpool Waters scheme, stretching across nearly 1.5 miles (2.5 km) of former docklands to the north of the city centre. The £5bn, 148 acre (60 ha) development is the flagship project of publicity-shy billionaire John Whittaker’s Peel Holdings. Five new neighbourhoods are planned, mixing leisure, cultural and residential space with around 3.4m ft2 (315,000 m2) of offices.
a report, which discusses protection measures under way, including creating legal guidelines to protect the site, which will be examined by Unesco in July. Peel also intends to make changes to the Central Docks element of its masterplan. While the debate over how the project might affect Liverpool’s World Heritage status continues, Pollitt insists there is a misconception that the docks are full of listed buildings, which opponents of the development claim would be destroyed under the plans.“Actually, we have undertaken no demolition works on site,” he says. “There are only four listed buildings on the docks, which are protected, and we’re also keeping all the original dock walls and quay edges.” These hiccups have done little to dampen the developer’s enthusiasm for the task ahead. “Liverpool has continued to expand and develop since the Capital of Culture year,” says Liza Marco MRICS, asset manager at Peel. “It is constantly transforming and is a very exciting place to be.”
REFERENCE POINT REPORTS AND RESOURCES The Northern Powerhouse cities – reports from Colliers International bit.ly/colliersNP Lambert Smith Hampton’s report on a “record year for Northern Powerhouse office markets” bit.ly/LSHNP Liverpool Waters – the history of the development so far liverpoolwaters.co.uk/ the-project/
Marketview on Liverpool’s office market – H1 2017, by CBRE (subscription required) cbre.co.uk/research-and-reports Regeneration projects and opportunities in Liverpool regeneratingliverpool.com/ Regeneration information portal from Liverpool City Council liverpool.gov.uk/ business/regenerating-liverpool/
A PRIL 2018_MODUS
The quality of its light has long been drawing artists to St Ives, so how did the Tate Gallery make a success of its new, subterranean extension? David Blackman reports
Project manager Currie & Brown Architects Jamie Fobert Architects, Evans & Shalev Principal contractor BAM Construction Structural engineer Price & Myers Mechanical and electrical Max Fordham
FROM THE TOP Six huge skylights flood the subterranean galleries with natural light. Although they are south facing, their depth protects the artworks below from direct sunlight
Few building sites can have been more challenging to work on than the recently completed extension of the Tate St Ives. The Tate, the UK’s national museum of British and modern art, wanted to increase the exhibition space at its Cornish outpost, which first opened in the early 1990s. The building was originally created to provide a home for the museum’s collection of the renowned St Ives school of artists, but the space had become so cramped that just to change over exhibitions, the whole gallery had to close down. The Tate proposed a four-storey extension containing a new gallery, conservation and learning spaces, office accommodation, and a refurbishment of its existing galleries. The catch was that the building is on a sensitive site in the heart of historic St Ives. On every side bar one, it is hemmed in by housing. Currie & Brown was appointed to provide project management, cost advisory, principal designer, clerk of works and party wall surveying services. James Wickett MRICS,
ARTFUL COMPOSITION The extension has doubled gallery space while still blending into its surroundings. One of the only visible elements is a roof garden that has a cliff-top feel
GOING UNDERGROUND Excavating space for the gallery and ancillary areas required the contractor to quarry through enough soil and rock to fill almost 1,000 lorries
IMAGES HUFTON + CROW; DENNIS GILBERT; CURRIE & BROWN
SHOCKWAVE OF THE NEW Many of the artworks in the Tate’s collection would be damaged by structural vibrations, which meant the excavation work had to be done in phases during gallery closures
regional director at Currie & Brown in Truro, and the scheme’s project manager, says that while the “highly prestigious” nature of the project was exciting, the enabling groundworks were the “biggest challenge”. The only way to create the extension was to carve it out of the hillside. But the geology of the site is composed of an igneous rock known locally as blue elvan – one of the hardest materials in the world. To excavate the space required the deployment on site of 35-tonne hydraulic rock breakers “on and off” for eight months, says Wickett. And to ensure the stability of the adjacent buildings, Odex piling and rock anchors had to be put in as retaining structures. The project was further complicated by the Tate’s desire for its Cornish branch to remain open as long as possible to keep up visitor numbers. This meant the enabling works had to be spaced out over two winters, says Wickett: “[There was] a lot of juggling between the phasing of the refurbishment work and keeping the galleries open. We
agreed a shutdown period with Tate so that highly invasive work could be undertaken when there were no artworks in the building.” Getting this enabling package right was essential to the success of the project though, says Wickett: “It effectively took out a lot of early risk, but it took time to get to a point where we were ready to start on the project.” Yet another challenge was getting rid of the nearly 1,000 lorry loads of soil and rock created by the excavations. The only access point for construction work, including carting away materials, was an adjacent car park, which belonged to Cornwall Council. In order to resolve this issue and others – such as hoardings and scaffolding – the project team had to secure no fewer than 22 side agreements. But, says Wickett, “all partners were cooperative because they saw the wider benefits of the project”. While the new galleries were designed by Jamie Fobert Architects, the remodelling of the existing building was carried out by the original practice of Evans & Shalev. The brief
called for a seamless connection between the two, says Wickett:“We had to make sure we had a level platform that aligned with the floor levels of the existing galleries, which would allow them to run into each other. From the point of view of maximising the flow of visitors that was pretty critical.” In addition, as a showpiece arts building, there was little room for compromise on the design, such as Fobert’s specification that the concrete should be as white as possible. Adding titanium to the mix would have produced the desired effect, but this solution was deemed “incredibly expensive”. Instead the project team settled on a compromise: locally sourced St Austell clay aggregate. After a decade of planning, nearly three years of which was spent on enabling and construction works, the extension opened in October 2017. And although the project cost £20m, by allowing the gallery to open all year round, the Tate estimates that the Cornish economy should benefit to the tune of more than £10m a year. n
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Careers / Business / Legal / Training
Foundations CAREERS A social event is always fertile ground for networking opportunities, but only if you leave with your reputation enhanced
Networking is viewed as a vital part of the job for many professionals, and particularly so in an industry as sociable as real estate. But, as the fallout from the Presidents Club illustrates, it is vital people know how to network properly, in a manner that protects their professional integrity. A good place to start is to find out about any event before accepting an invite. Mark Briegal, a senior partner at law firm Aaron & Partners in Chester, says it is important people do not just assume events are ordinary, run-of-the-mill affairs. “I was not aware of the Presidents Club before it hit the media, and if it was billed merely as a black-tie, gala charity event, it may have sounded perfectly reasonable, so some Googling of it might have been wise,” he says. Sylvia Baldock, leadership development expert and regional director at women’s networking group Athena, helps coach members how to network effectively. She believes people should go further, and speak to event organisers to find out more about the nature of the function. “Establish in advance what the format is, the dress code and the attendee lists if possible, and research some of the people you would like to meet.” She adds the reminder that at any event where alcohol is likely to flow freely, there will be people who act inappropriately: “If you are in their company you could be tarred with the same brush, or they will be too embarrassed to acknowledge you after the event.” Leanne Tritton is managing director of ING Media, a PR firm that works on behalf of many property firms, as well as
Find out who’s going ComRes found only 23% of networkers find out who’s coming in advance. Doing your research tells people that you’re a person who comes prepared. It’s not all about you Point new contacts to someone you know, or give them advice they can take advantage of, and they’ll remember you when the time comes to repaying the favour. Hone your elevator pitch Don’t leave first impressions to chance. Practise your pitch of who you are and what you do. After this you can be yourself. Do more of it The more networking you do, the more in tune you’ll feel with what others want from you. 38 RICS.ORG/MODUS
MIPIM, which was held in Cannes last month and is a must-attend event for many in the property sector. She is a firm believer in the benefit of networking, and is keen to point out that “all events I have attended are mixed and pretty well behaved. However, I am grateful for the revelations about the Presidents Club as they have opened up the discussion about appropriate behaviour. “When I have witnessed bad behaviour, the perpetrator has always been ‘protected’ by the unspoken assumption that nothing will be said. However, I think those days are definitely over. People now feel empowered to speak up and are almost duty-bound to do so. Those who sail too close to the wind should be asking themselves if risking their jobs and reputation is worth it.” To network effectively, you should have in mind what you hope to get out of any event, argues Rasheed Ogunlaru, author of The Gift of Inner Success. “To do it well requires a strategy. People should be asking what they want to use their networking opportunity for. Is it for contact building, meeting potential new employers, or getting access to contracts? Then they must stick to that.” He also warns against being overly aggressive: “Networking can also be for acquiring information, sharing best practice, talking about market insights. Don’t let desperation or the desire to come away with something concrete get in the way of this.” If you do find yourself in an uncomfortable situation, you need to be prepared to walk away. “The warning signs are no different to life generally – stay alert and remember you’re there to build relationships with key clients and customers,” says Briegal. “Ending up on the front page of the tabloids is not the idea. Have fun, but remember it’s work.”
ON RICSRECRUIT.COM Networking is just as much a minefield online. Here’s how to avoid some common LinkedIn pitfalls: rics.org/linkedinmistakes
WORDS PETER CRUSH, NICK MARTINDALE ILLUSTRATION ARON VELLEKOOP LEÓN PORTRAIT GRAHAM MACINDOE
1981 Cushman & Wakefield, New York 1991 Lands Marine Midland Bank as a client for Cushman
John Busi FRICS
PRESIDENT, VALUATION & ADVISORY, NEWMARK KNIGHT FRANK, NEW YORK
This article has been amended from the version in print
THE BEGINNING I grew up on Long Island, New York. After leaving college in 1981 as a 22-year-old, like a lot of the population I had no idea what I wanted to do. My first job came via a recruitment firm. Cushman & Wakefield wanted someone to do accounting on part of its property portfolio – I took the job, and I realised it would really help me understand what made real estate tick. Soon after, the valuation division landed a huge contract for the Franchise Finance Corporation of America, and I was approached about a job appraising fast-food restaurants.
2001 Appraisal Institute’s Person of the Year, Metropolitan New York Chapter
THE PRESENT By the mid-2000s, my work was taking me overseas a lot more. After meeting valuers in London, I came to understand the significance of RICS, and how valuable it was to be part of the organisation. I pursued it enthusiastically, and in 2006 I was elected a fellow. As my role at Cushman developed, I was able to integrate RICS into our expansion efforts for training, networking and regulatory guidance. After an incredible 35 years at Cushman, helping to grow the business to more than 600 valuers across 71 offices, in 2016 I took up a fresh challenge at Newmark Knight Frank.
2003 President, Appraisal Institute’s Metro NY Chapter 2006 Elected as FRICS 2013 Promoted to global head of valuation and advisory at Cushman. Joins the firm’s Global Management Committee
THE FUTURE I feel we need to be a much more consultative and advisory industry, instead of being only processors of information. Real estate needs to get a lot more thoughtful about what “big data”means to the challenges we’re trying to solve. My goal is to change our approach to valuation in this highly technological age, so we can better combine real-time analytics with professional advice. Right now, we’re future-proofing the valuation industry. rics.org/johnbusi
2016 President, valuation and advisory, Newmark Knight Frank
THE BREAKTHROUGH I spent two years travelling the country, appraising such American staples as Burger King, Taco Bell and Pizza Hut. I loved it, and it taught me how a business comes into a market, and grows its real estate operation. Around this time, I started training at the Appraisal Institute. On the eve of my final exam I went to see an appraiser in Buffalo to try to secure some sales for my assignment. A week later he became the chief appraiser for Marine Midland Bank, and he called me up and asked for my “We need to be a much more consultative help. It became one of our largest accounts and the guys I was working for thought and advisory industry, instead of being I was a business development rock star. only processors of information”
A PRIL 2018_MODUS 39
Several months on from the collapse of Carillion, the full extent of the damage caused – particularly to its suppliers – is still being unravelled. Could things have been different for smaller firms that contracted with it? RICS called Carillion’s collapse: “A sad indictment for construction and outsourced services [and] indicative of the need to raise professional standards covering financial management, bringing consistency, transparency and increased certainty in decision-making in the industry.” It is estimated that Carillion could owe as much as £2bn to its construction supply chain alone – but since its interests spanned everything from High Speed 2 to school dinners, industry firms have joined a long list of creditors. Consultants and subcontractors are unlikely to see much of what they are owed as they will be treated by Carillion’s liquidator as unsecured creditors, at the back of the payout queue. Some will inevitably go out of business. Carillion’s habit of paying suppliers late – in which it was not alone – is a fundamental problem because the later money comes, the more a subcontractor has tied up with a main contractor – and potentially at risk. Are there steps that consultants or subcontractors can take to protect themselves in any future dealings with large contractors? In theory, yes. There are regulations about
Come to terms 30-day payment schedules are ineffective when a large company can dictate terms. Once bitten Contracts can be taken up by other companies, but make sure the terms are more favourable. Out of the frying pan Do your due diligence – don’t assume other companies are too big to fail. Show me the money Independent project bank accounts that the main contractor pays into could be a solution in the future. State aid Proposals for a statutory deposit scheme for retentions are also going through parliament. 40 RICS.ORG/MODUS
DIRECT LINE Getting paid by a client, thus bypassing the main contractor, is preferable but hard to achieve says Richard Brackenbury, head of construction at Nottingham-based law firm Fraser Brown. “Direct payment from the client is the holy grail, but it is rare and only usually achievable when the subcontractor is in a strong negotiating position.” The issue for small contractors is that a construction market dominated by big, agglomerated firms has bred a “climate of fear” so pervasive that companies like Carillion could simply dictate terms, says Professor Rudi Klein, head of the Specialist Engineering Contractors’ Group.
WORDS MARK SMULIAN
BUSINESS Carillion’s implosion highlights how poor a supplier’s bargaining position is
businesses paying suppliers within 30 days, and contracts could specify any payment period chosen. In practice, the imbalance of negotiating strength between an organisation the size of Carillion and most subcontractors means the former dictates terms. Suppliers can, though, make sure they have done the basics of due diligence, gathering information about a contractor and understanding what a contract really means. For example, Carillion issued three alarming profit warnings in 2017, which might have made suppliers wary. Rob Driscoll, commercial and legal director of the Building Engineering Services Association, and a former RICS adviser on subcontracting, says:“A subcontractor owed money by Carillion is unsecured and at the back of the queue, and while in a normal construction liquidation you might get 6p in the pound, the size of this one means it will be less.” In Carillion’s case, some subcontractors will be transferred to firms that take over its work, but Driscoll advises vigilance over this apparent rescue route: “Watch out for being pinned to old loss-making prices, especially on framework contracts, which tend to be a few years old, and check the terms and conditions as some of them can be onerous for subcontractors. “Carillion paid at 126 days and you could invoice only in the month that work was completed, which means you are running four months behind. Does that continue in [replacement contracts] or is it replaced by new terms, or is that left blank? “Look at the new contract. If it’s a standard form you are probably OK, but if it has been butchered then you need to assess the risks involved,” Driscoll adds. “Look at the contractor’s credit rating, too, as even the biggest firms have been affected by Carillion.”
Klein thinks the solution to late payment ultimately lies in new legislation. “The difficulty is that it’s OK for subcontractors to know what they need when negotiating a contract, but they can’t insist on it because of the imbalance in negotiating strength.” One option could be project bank accounts for any job worth more than £500,000. This mechanism would see all project funds paid into and drawn from an account independent of the main contractor. Klein says these are
“Subcontractors might know what they need when negotiating a contract, but they can’t insist on it because of the imbalance in negotiating strength” RUDI KLEIN Specialist Engineering Contractors’ Group used in Queensland, and in Scotland for government projects worth more than £4m. There should also, he says, be a statutory requirement to have a deposit scheme for retentions, so these too are held in a separate account from the main contractor. A private member’s bill, proposed by Conservative MP Peter Aldous that passed its first reading in parliament in January, would provide for this. Klein’s third remedy is a “yellow and red card” system. Under this, the public sector would issue a yellow warning to companies that failed to pay suppliers within 30 days, and if the problem persisted, a red one, which would deprive the culprit of public contracts. “It comes down to changes in legislation, because ultimately there is very little the supply chain can do,” Klein concludes.
RICS AND INDUSTRY UNITE ON CONFLICT AVOIDANCE On 29 January 2018, the members of the Conflict Avoidance Coalition – which includes RICS, six other professional bodies and major employers Transport for London and Network Rail – launched the Conflict Avoidance Pledge. The aim of the pledge is to put an end to the number of disputes in construction and engineering. It is a voluntary commitment, selfassessment, open to any organisation or firm of any size or location.
The Pledge is the focal point of a wider campaign to drive behaviour change in the way relationships and disputes are managed throughout the construction and engineering sectors. For more information, visit rics.org/capledge.
Data protection: are you covered? JOHN LANNING, director, Robinson Buckley, Guildford The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) becomes law on 25 May 2018. It will apply to any organisation engaged in business with EU citizens and, despite Brexit, the UK looks likely to apply GDPR standards. Data held in surveying practices affected by GDPR might include client data for processing work, marketing data such as contacts and prospective client details, supplier data and staff data. The regulation sets out clear stipulations for anyone processing personal data. Failure to comply and, in particular, data security breaches, can result in fines of up to 4% of global annual revenue or €20m – whichever is greater. Assessing what’s required If they are not doing so already, surveying practices should start assessing their systems to evaluate the type of data held, its origin, any shared information and permissions to hold data – including any “opted-in”. It is also important to ensure that data processing activities and data storage comply with the security requirements of GDPR. This means evaluating the firm’s security measures and establishing procedures to detect, investigate and report data breaches. The Information Commissioner’s Office has produced helpful guidelines – see ico.org.uk. Insurance protection for the GDPR Surveying firms may find cover for legal fees, defence costs and compensation to
individuals for breaches of the Data Protection Act 1998 within their public liability and commercial legal protection insurance. Underwriters, however, have yet to confirm that such clauses will be updated for GDPR breaches. There is also likely to be cover under directors’ and officers’ liability policies, should an executive be investigated or fined for breaches of the legislation. Professional indemnity insurance policies might also contain protection for “misuse of data … subject to statutory restrictions on its use”. Cyber insurance is a relatively recent product and can include costs to defend regulatory action, as a result of an unauthorised system access or attack. Insurers’ offerings vary, and it is sensible to check your policy, but cyber insurance policies can include cover for incident response costs, regulatory costs, privacy breach management costs, crisis communication costs, system damage and rectification costs, cyber business interruption (including reputational harm) and cyber crime – to name but a few. Preparation is key GDPR will require surveying firms to gain greater insight of the way they gather, process and store data. The way a surveying firm takes care of its processes, management and storage of data should prompt a discussion with its insurance provider. Firms should prepare in the weeks ahead in order to be ready. robinsonbuckley.co.uk A PRIL 2018_MODUS
CPD booster Related content from RICS
CONTAMINATED LAND: FUNDAMENTALS Philip Wilbourn FRICS (above) will help you identify the legislation and Red Book requirements covering contaminated land. rics.org/contaminated landfundamentals ››CPD hours: 1.5 £40
CLEAN UP YOUR ACT PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT When assessing contaminated land, how you communicate your findings is as important as knowing what lies beneath Taken as red RICS’ Red Book describes three tenets that heavily influence valuation: natural hazards, such as flood risk; nonnatural hazards, such as contaminated land; and whether a property has a lawful use. The contaminated land web class helps bring surveyors in the UK up to date with how we are dealing with non-natural hazards, how they might cause a drag on asset value, and what is happening in practice. Say what you see The emphasis of the class is on understanding the challenges involved with contaminated land, particularly in relation to the new 2018 RICS guidance note (rics.org/contaminationenvironment), and on what a surveyor interprets after an inspection. As a consequence, it is important for a valuer to try to interpret what they have seen on site so they can realise the limitations of their advice to the client, and be open to seeking further guidance. Issues around contaminated land must be seen in TRAINING: ON DEMAND a wider context. The RICS Online Academy Taking advantage offers members a convenient The contaminated land way to further their training regime is a primary in a range of formats tailored piece of legislation, to suit their needs. Find out part of the 1995 UK more at rics.org/ola 42
Environment Act. Perhaps where the legislation has the biggest impact is during the planning process, when developers can gain fiscal advantages in developing contaminated brownfield sites. However, it is not always obvious if developers are making use of these advantages, so this is a matter on which surveyors can advise. Lactose intolerance Contaminated land is particularly prevalent in the rural economy. And it is not just about toxic substances. For example, the biggest pollution risk to a river is actually milk. If a dairy farm store leaks too much milk through drainage channels into a river, it could have a devastating effect on aquatic life. This is something a client might not realise without expert advice. Covering all ground Contaminated land has an impact on all forms of property transactions. The course is ideal for valuers, those involved in site inspections, building surveyors, agents, and those involved in the due diligence, and planning and development process. PHILIP WILBOURN FRICS is a chartered environmental surveyor and an expert in environmental law environmental-surveyors.com
INTERNATIONAL VALUATION STANDARDS Alexander Aronsohn FRICS (above) on the new mandatory guidelines for harmonising valuation practice across the world. rics.org/international valuationstandards ››CPD hours: 1.5 £40
IPMS: OFFICE Kate Taylor FRICS (above) focuses on the impact of international property measurement standards on the built environment and property professionals. rics.org/ipmsoffice ››CPD hours: 1.5 £40
Is there a book, website or app you couldn’t be without? Email email@example.com
“C-thrue eliminates the need for manual, error-prone paper grids, and further increases data accuracy. As a result, daily surveys become easier and more productive,” says IDS GeoRadar business manager Paolo Papeschi. Furthermore, the system’s augmented reality feature can share visualised data to other operators – in real time or at a later point.
CESMM4 Fourth edition of Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement, designed for those engaged in preparing contracts based on traditional “measure & value” principles. £72
IDS GEORADAR C-THRUE Price: £19,000 bit.ly/c-thrue
ALSO THIS MONTH
Before cutting or drilling into concrete walls or floors, it is always critically important to locate rebars, voids, post-tension cables, cavities, conduits, and any other objects buried in the structure, to avoid costly and potentially dangerous accidents. One of several high-tech, groundpenetrating radars on the market, IDS GeoRadar’s C-thrue system helps construction professionals accurately “see through” concrete structures, prior to building work. It is lightweight and portable, making it suitable for a wide range of applications. While hand-scanning a structure, you can immediately see what lies behind it in a real-time, 3D image display.
››In How to be a Party Wall Surveyor, author Michael White FRICS argues that because The Party Wall Act 1996 does not require minimum levels of competence, it allows the behaviour of some less ethical surveyors to dent the reputation of the profession. ››Fire safety has risen to the forefront of industry discussions following the tragic events at Grenfell Tower. Simon Guild MRICS considers the impact of sprinkler systems in UK schools. bit.ly/schoolsprinklers ››Across Central London alone, flexible workplace providers have taken nearly 20% of office space. Cushman & Wakefield’s Coworking 2018 report looks at how this fast-growing sector is evolving. bit.ly/coworking18
Dilapidations in England and Wales Guidance note on the factors members should take into account when producing Schedules of Dilapidations. £50
JCT Constructing Excellence Contract Pack 2016 (CE Pack) Suite of contracts tailored for use in partnering, and where participants wish to engender collaborative and integrated working practices. £159.07
“I COULDN’T LIVE WITHOUT” TOM NIXON MRICS
IMAGE MAGIC PLAN
Magic Plan It is: A smartphone or tablet-based app for creating augmented reality floor plans.
How it works: We can’t get enough of this app. You can create floor plans in seconds – just point your phone at each corner of a room in turn and it creates a plan of the room. From the plan, the app can calculate the floor and wall areas and this can be converted
into cost estimates. Then you can add objects, furniture and photo annotations. On many of our projects we need a floor plan, and this saves at least an hour on the dreaded “CAD machine”. The app is great for real estate agents too, as you can visualise
new room layouts or swap around different items of furniture, and publish them as interactive floor plans available for clients to view online. magic-plan.com TOM NIXON MRICS is a director at Set Square Surveyors, London A PRIL 2018_MODUS
Benefits Plus is the rewards programme from RICS, with a range of exciting special offers, discounts and other incentives for RICS Members and Fellows. How much could you save? For the full line-up of benefits, visit rics.org/benefitsplus
SAVE 12.5% ON HISCOX HOME INSURANCE
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Not all homes are the same, and neither is all home insurance. With Hiscox Home Insurance you can be confident your home and possessions are properly covered. RICS members save 12.5% with Hiscox.
Take the hassle out of your next purchase, and save even more money with RICS’ Vehicle Partner, Tyson Cooper. In addition to your member discount, we’re giving away £100 in vouchers for every vehicle ordered before 30 April 2018.
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Since 1913, Hawes & Curtis has been known throughout the world for its exquisite shirts thanks to their superb quality, attention to detail and exquisite craftsmanship. Discover our eternally stylish spring collection.
Heading to a forthcoming RICS event or conference? Make the most of your next trip by booking your overnight stay with IHG. RICS members can save up to 30%, and earn IHG Rewards Club points in the process, at IHG brands including Holiday Inn, Hotel Indigo and Crowne Plaza Hotels & Resorts.
MOVING ON UP
This year’s RICS and Macdonald & Co Rewards and Attitudes Survey finds pay levels at their highest in a decade, but the amount of professionals seeking something “more” from their jobs has also increased
2017 2018 18-22
CHANGE IN PAY
£63,320 £52,727 £70,874 £50,851
£59,062 £49,071 £64,884 £53,551
£40,204 £36,751 £42,312 £39,771
£30,248 £29,314 £32,927 £31,799
£22,937 £23,150 £24,344 £22,487
£47,865 £44,364 £51,393 £46,084
After the positive news of last year’s survey, which found a negligible difference in pay between men and women joining the profession, the gap has once again widened, to 7.9%. On average, men now earn 30.6% more than women, compared with 25.4% last year.
of property professionals received a bonus this year, down slightly on last year’s 45%. The average size of bonus jumped by 35.3% to £15,703, the highest in 10 years.
GENDER PAY GAP TAKES BACKWARDS STEP
The average base salary for MRICS qualification is £59,661, versus £48,472 for those who are not members – a premium of £72,923
Average salary of a UK property professional, the highest in 10 years and a 12% rise on last year, due to more responses from people in senior positions, and from those based in Greater London.
of respondents received a base salary increase, down from 67% last year.
was the average increase in salary, down from 7.7% last year.
14.2% 2017 2018 23-26
2017 2018 27-30
2017 2018 31-35
2017 2018 36-45
2017 2018 46-55
payrise reported by those achieving a professional qualification in 2017.
2017 2018 56+
PRIORITIES CHANGE AS LIFESTYLE TAKES PRECEDENCE 16%
Travel opportunities Career progression
Not very Not at all
Range of clients
Range of interesting work
More people are looking to move jobs this year, with 13% saying they are very likely to move – up 3% on last year.
Salary is still the most important job aspect for respondents, but priorities have evolved in the years following the onset of the global financial crisis in 2007. Lifestyle factors such as location and working environment have risen in popularity, while the importance of having a secure job has risen 14%.
And although salary remains the primary motivator for seeking a move, the rise in priority of management style (up 4% on 2017) and working environment (up 3%) shows again how important professionals regard their lifestyle. READ THE FULL SURVEY online at rics.org/salarysurvey
A PRIL 2018_MODUS
Full RICS events listings online at rics.org/events For enquiries, call +44 (0)20 7695 1600. All prices are +VAT
››RICS Landlord and Tenant Essential Update April, various locations An expert panel addresses crucial areas of landlord and tenant law, and provides practical guidance. Followed by a seminar on the RICS Service Charges in Commercial Property Professional Statement. CPD: 5.5 hours £195 rics.org/landlordseminars
››RICS Planning and Development Conference 19 June, London Explore innovative solutions to the biggest challenges facing the planning profession, through local and global case studies, residential, infrastructure and commercial-led developments. CPD: 5.5 hours £210 rics.org/plandev
››RICS World Built Environment Forum Summit 23-24 April, London This flagship event will look at the three driving forces of industrial transformation, urbanisation and digitalisation, and their impacts on the natural and built environment. Headline speakers include JB Straubel, co-founder, Tesla Motors; Ilya de Marotta, executive vice-president, Panama Canal Authority; and Anne Kerr, global head of cities, Mott MacDonald. £850 rics.org/wbef
››RICS Rural Conference 20 June, Cirencester Examining timely topics such as agriculture and Brexit, opportunities in the renewable energy sector, while also looking at the grid and capacity market. CPD: 5.5 hours £140 rics.org/ruralconference
››RICS Introduction to CPO Powers and Process Roadshow May, various locations Guiding you through the different stages of the CPO procedures. New additions this year include essential legal updates and case studies focusing on HS2. CPD: 4 hours £110 rics.org/cporoadshow ››RICS QS & Construction Conference 10 May, London Combining high-level strategic debate with practical sessions that will improve your day-to-day practice, including: whole-life costing, off-site construction, data and a legal roundup. CPD: 6 hours £260 rics.org/qsconference
››RICS Strategic Facilities Management Conference 27 June, London Assessing the role of disruptive technologies in the future built environment, this event will consider how perceptions of FM are changing. CPD: 6 hrs £260 rics.org/strategicfm
››IFMA-RICS World Workplace Europe 16-17 May, Barcelona Returning for a second year with two days of future-facing, fresh and innovative content. A flagship of the collaboration between RICS and IFMA, this year’s event will focus on the importance of people in increasingly digitised workplaces. €895 worldworkplaceeurope.org ››RICS Summit Africa 30-31 May, Johannesburg Designed for presidents, chairmen and CEOs, this event will consider how smarter urbanisation can drive sustainable economic growth across Africa. The event enables property institutions and associations to work together to accelerate the professionalism of the land, construction and property sectors throughout the continent. Dinner and conference, R2,640 (£157); conference only, R1,980 (£118) rics.org/africa2018
RICS BUILDING SURVEYING CONFERENCE
2 May, QEII Centre, London
››RICS Rural Mid-Session Conference 17 May, Perth, Scotland Featuring discussions on the law relating to agricultural holdings, woodland creating in Scotland, EPC regulations and the impact on rural properties, and a taxation update. CPD: 5 hours £85 rics.org/scotlandrural ››RICS CPD Days 21 May, London; 24 May, Birmingham; 31 May, Exeter; 13 June, Cardiff; 14 June, Lincoln Regional conferences full of CPD within land, property and the built environment, with breakout sessions tailored to meet specific learning requirements. CPD: 6 hours £155 full day, £100 half day rics.org/cpddays 46 RICS.ORG/MODUS
Providing you with up-to-date information on the latest developments and their effects on the market and profession. Expert speakers will cover topics such as dilapidations, building defects, reinstatement cost assessments, energy performance certificates and building conservation. CPD: 6 hours £235 rics.org/bsconference
OBITUARIES Please email obituary notifications to firstname.lastname@example.org or call +44 (0)247 686 8555
››John Brian Blaxell FRICS, 1930-2018 Great Yarmouth ››Michael John Falkner MRICS, 1927-2017, Diss ››Godfrey George Pratt FRICS, 1925-2018 Hunstanton ››Charles Edward Vier FRICS, 1924-2018 Borehamwood
››John A Blair MRICS 1929-2017, Derby ››Donald V Hill MRICS, 1922-2017 Loughborough
››James Anthony Wagstaff FRICS 1943-unknown, Sutton
››Peter Norcott Spurrier FRICS, 1926-2017 Hexham
››Ian Percy Cannell FRICS 1934-2017, Isle of Man ››Alan Frank Comish MRICS, 1938-2017 Macclesfield ››David Robert James Guest MRICS 1972-2018, Manchester ››Lt Cdr David J Knight FRICS, 1926-unknown Wirral ››Richard Anthony Morris FRICS 1955-2017, Stockport
››Reginald Charles Adams FRICS 1933-2017, Horley ››Richard Hugh John Berry FRICS 1925-2017, Newbury ››Roger William Boyt MRICS, 1956-2017 Reading ››David Anthony Culmer MRICS, 1923-2017 Camberley
››Leonard George Glover MRICS, 1929-2017 Canterbury ››Keith Leslie Hester MRICS, 1931-2018 Reading ››John Lord Lyon MRICS 1935-2017, St Brelade ››Frank Charles Mattinson FRICS 1925-2017 Milton Keynes ››John Newman FRICS 1934-2017, Croydon ››Rajnikant Chimanlal Shah MRICS, 1937-2018 Oxford
››Frederick Ronal Baker FRICS, 1917-2017 Weston-Super-Mare ››Andrew Beard FRICS 1947-2017, Bristol ››Frank Anthony Bishop FRICS, 1925-2018 Burnham-on-Sea ››John Charles Elliott MRICS, 1926-2017 Falmouth ››Alan Mildon Knapman MRICS, 1925-2017, Yeovil ››Bernard Lunn MRICS 1934-2017, Tetbury ››Rolf Michael Vernon FRICS, 1930-2017 Wimborne
YORKSHIRE & HUMBER
››Robert James Polley FRICS, 1926-2017 Bangor
››Colin EJ Kingsman FRICS, 1943-2018, Ilkley ››Geoffrey Knighton MRICS, 1928-2018 Leeds
REPUBLIC OF IRELAND
››Vincent Hannon MRICS, 1949-2018 Ballisodare
››Hugh Grant Bain MRICS 1939-2017, Galashiels ››Colin AJ Beckett FRICS 1935-2017, Dunbar ››Colin Maclean Campbell FRICS 1933-2017, Edinburgh ››Sir Angus Durie Miller Farquharson FRICS 1935-2018, Banchory ››George AL Kemp MRICS, 1927-2017 Thurso ››Hugh Scott FRICS 1928-2017, Edinburgh
››Didier Rene Andre Detune MRICS unknown-2017 Santa Marta
››Michael ScottHayward 1930-2017 Sassenage
››Brian James Baker FRICS, 1938-2018 Toorak ››Anthony Leonard Boyd FRICS, 1970-2017 Keperra
››Rupert AL Havard FRICS, 1927-2017 Ruthin
››Yashodhan Bhalchandra Joshi MRICS, 1961-2017 Bangalore ››Mirajur Rahman MRICS, unknown-2017 Kolkata
››James AE McKinney FRICS, 1939-2018 Ballymena ››Henry William Perrin FRICS, 1934-2018 Belfast
CONDUCT rics.org/conductcases PWC Building Control Services Kettering, Northants, NN14 Disciplinary Panel – 21-22.11.16 and 15-17 & 19.01.18 The Panel heard a case against PWC Building Control Services for issuing a completion certificate on 14 January 2011, which was found to be contrary to Rules 3 & 4 of the Rules of Conduct for Firms 2007. The Panel imposed a Reprimand and ordered a contribution towards costs. Mr CG Boulton FRICS, Berkshire, RG20 Disciplinary Panel – 09-10.05.17 and 05-08.02.18 The Panel heard a case against Mr C Boulton for failing to conduct himself in a manner befitting membership of RICS and such conduct was liable to bring RICS into disrepute, in that as the chief executive officer of Yoo Limited when Ms H was an employee of the company, he committed acts of unlawful detrimental treatment of Ms H, contrary
to Bye-Law B5.2.2(a). The Panel imposed a Reprimand and ordered him to contribute towards the costs of the hearing. Mr Colin Moors, Poynton, SK12 Disciplinary Panel – 12.02.18 The Panel heard a case against Mr Colin Moors for failing to carry out his professional work with due skill, care and diligence and with proper regard for the technical standards expected of him, in that he prepared and submitted a bat survey report of a property at Pine Ridge, Liphook, GU30 7EH, dated 21 January 2016 in circumstances where he had no prior experience of, or training in the preparation of bat survey reports or specialist ecological surveys, contrary to Rule 4 of the Rules of Conduct for Members 2007. The Panel also heard a charge in relation to Rule 3 of the Rules of Conduct for Members 2007. The Panel imposed a Reprimand, a £600 fine and ordered him to contribute towards the costs of the hearing.
A PRIL 2018_MODUS 47
RICS Recruit Looking for a new challenge? Opportunity awaits across these 10 pages. Can’t see anything you like? We also have a website, ricsrecruit.com, featuring 100s more jobs, including executive-level positions and exciting overseas placements. Whatever the stage of your career, RICS Recruit has just the job. ricsrecruit.com
To advertise, email email@example.com or call +44 (0)20 7101 2772
RESIDENTIAL SURVEYORS (AssocRICS & M/FRICS) Full Time, Part Time & Zero Hours opportunities
London East, S.East and S.West. Plus: Bedford, Birmingham Blackburn, Bolton, Bournemouth, Bradford, Bristol, Burnley, Bury, Bury St Edmunds, Canterbury, Cardiff & Valleys, Carlisle, Cheltenham, Chesterfield, Colwyn Bay, Cornwall, Coventry, Croydon, Crewe, Cumbria Nth & West, Darlington, Derby, Dereham, Dorchester, Dudley, Durham, Edinburgh, Exeter, Glasgow, Gloucester, Gravesend, Grimsby, Halifax, Huddersfield, Hull, Keighley, Kings Lynn, Lake D Central, Lancaster, Leeds, Leicester, Lincoln, Loughborough, Manchester, Medway, Middlesbrough, Mold, Monmouth, Newark, Newcastle, Newport, Northampton, Nottingham, Oxford, Peterborough, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Sheffield, Skipton, Southampton, Stockport, Swansea, Swindon, Tavistock, Torquay, Wales Mid & Nth, Walton on Thames, Walsall, Weybridge, Weymouth, Wisbech, Worcester, Wrexham. Employers include lenders and financial companies, national surveying organisations and smaller local and regional practices. Outstanding salaries, commission and benefits packages available. If you are AssocRICS/MRICS/FRICS and VRS Registered, ideally with residential valuation and survey experience, then contact the valuation industry’s most experienced recruitment expert to discuss your career options. Call Jeff Johnson on 07940 594093, or email your CV in confidence to firstname.lastname@example.org. Or connect via LinkedIn: Search Jeff Johnson MLA.
THE HUNT IS OVER THIS EASTER. Join SDL Surveying today.
www.sdlsurveying.co.uk Whether you’re fresh out of the traps or looking for a new leash of life, we’re recruiting VRS registered, AssocRICS, MRICS, and FRICS surveyors today.
NEW VACANCIES CONSTANTLY – KEEP IN TOUCH 48
SDL Group is an equal opportunities employer and encourages a diverse range of talent to apply.
Get on the dog and bone:
Or, email your CV to:
HIGHER Connells Survey & Valuation are seeking Residential Surveyors. We are an established, respected and successful business offering an excellent remuneration package and work-life balance. We are looking for enthusiastic Residential Surveyors to join our team. Experienced candidates are preferred but we are prepared to provide relevant training for the right applicant.
We are looking to recruit RESIDENTIAL SURVEYORS in the following locations: • • • • • • • • •
Birmingham Bolton Bradford Bristol Cardiff/The Valleys Coventry Croydon Hereford/Monmouth Hull
• • • • • • • •
Leeds Manchester North Norfolk Nottingham Sheffield Swansea Swindon Wrexham/ North Wales
If you are interested in any of these locations, then we would love to hear from you. Please contact:
Ian Jones MRICS on
or send your CV to email@example.com
A PRIL 2018_MODUS
To view more jobs online visit ricsrecruit.com
Take your career to new heights... Valuation Surveyor Development Surveyor Professional Services Surveyor
Guildford - attractive packages
If you are a talented professional with proven experience Bruton Knowles wants to hear from you. Due to sustained growth within the South East region we are seeking qualified surveyors who are full member of RICS to join our team in Guildford. As one of the UK's most successful property consultancies we are very much a people business, striving for excellence in everything we do. And to us, that means empowering our people, giving them the freedom and confidence to develop their talents and achieve their full potential. We are looking for candidates who have 1-5 years' PQE. You should have strong client relationships and the necessary skills and ambition to take our team even further forwards. In return, we will create an attractive package which suits you and rewards success. If you have the ability and personality to deliver, visit us at brutonknowles.co.uk/careers and select the role to apply. For a confidential discussion, please contact Jane Wynne on 01483 238380 or email firstname.lastname@example.org You will be required to complete a DBS check.
Bruton Knowles is a leading and long established independent Property Consultancy, with 13 offices throughout England and Wales. BK is an equal opportunities employer. Strictly no agencies.
A New Career? Tyser Greenwood Surveyors are a long established company looking to increase our footprint and service offering. Could you be part of our forward thinking and expanding team?
We currently have a large network of home based surveyors serving our wide client base, utilising the latest technology. We are looking to expand our team with vacancies in the South East (Essex, Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, Hampshire), as well as across the country; notably: West Yorkshire (Leeds/Bradford), East Yorkshire (Coast), North East (Teeside), Wales, Midlands and the North West. Approaches from sole practitioners are also welcome. There is an above average remuneration package available for experienced mortgage and HBR surveyors who offer a wide range of skills and are willing to develop new business in their areas.
Get in touch to find out more, call 01932 736 501 or email email@example.com
TGS_MAR_Recruitment_Ad_180x116_FA.indd 1 RICS.ORG/MODUS
OPPORTUNITIES FOR FIRST TIME ENTRANTS / TRAINEE / RETURNING RESIDENTIAL SURVEYORS NATIONALLY Do you: • Currently hold VRS. • Have immediate eligibility for VRS (having taken Valuation to level 3). • Need to reinstate your VRS status, having previously held it. • Have 100 days of demonstrable / historic valuation experience. Our client is a national firm of chartered surveyors undertaking the full range of survey and valuation services for lenders across the UK. They are able to train MRICS / AssocRICS surveyors
from most backgrounds so previous direct residential surveying experience is not essential. Immediate opportunities exist in the following locations: Brighton / Portsmouth, Hereford / Worcester, Romford / Ilford / E. London, Liverpool / Preston, Lancashire / Blackburn, S. Manchester / Stockport, Newcastle, N. Manchester & Surrounds, Oxford/ Coventry, Reading / Oxford, Gloucester
Elevate your Career with Quantum As part of our on-going expansion, we have opportunities for Quantity Surveyors to join our North West (Royton, Oldham) and North East (Pontefract, Wakefield) offices. We offer tailored reward packages including benefits that recognise an individual’s level and experience.
Assistant Consultant - Requires essential basic construction knowledge - Ideally already working to become degree qualified in Construction Management or Quantity Surveying
Intermediate Position - Requires established construction knowledge - Previously worked as part of a team and autonomously in Private Practice or Contracting - Ideally BSc, MSc, AssocRICS or MRICS qualified
Director - MRICS or FRICS qualified - Experience in dispute resolution by being a member or higher grade of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators - Management experience
Please send applications in CV format by post to Stephen Pilling at Quantum, Sandmartin House, Pontefract, West Yorkshire, WF8 1ES or by e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org
Basic salary c£50k + Bonuses + Car allowance James Irving Jamesi@BBLproperty.co.uk 0208 514 9120 For our full range of opportunities alongside helpful career & CV advice please visit www.bblproperty.co.uk
PARTNERSHIP OPPORTUNITY Rare opportunity for an experienced Residential Surveyor to join an independent practice with a view to partnership.
of Chartered Surveyors based in North Cambridgeshire undertaking a wide range of valuation and general practice work. Candidates must be Chartered Surveyors experience primarily in residential valuation and homebuyers’ reports/survey work, but broader experience will be an advantage.
Please send CVs to email@example.com
A PRIL 2018_MODUS
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Staff Valuer / Client Side Opportunities UK wide With longstanding and (often) exclusive association with some of the best known and most prestigious high street and specialist lenders throughout the UK we are regularly instructed on client side / Staff Surveyor roles nationally. Surveyors working for a lender can expect a remuneration package comprising:
Opportunities range from standard fee earning (using one reporting format in a tight knit patch) to managerial roles focused on lending strategy, compliance and audit.
• High basic salary • Profit share or bonuses based on multiple (quality) factors (as opposed to volume/fee income alone) • High quality prestige company car or allowance • Up to 6 weeks holiday to start • Market leading Pension • A wide range of health, lifestyle and wellbeing benefits including flexible working.
Audit Surveyor – Midlands An opportunity exists within a specialist lender overseeing (and auditing) technical compliance and adherence to current lending strategy. The role ensures sound lending decisions and works directly alongside the senior management team. The successful Surveyor will work partly from an office base in the Midlands and partly in the field with fee earning surveyors undertaking complex valuations. Remuneration offered includes a high basic, high end company car, profit share (based on stock market performance), pension and private healthcare.
Suitable Surveyors will have a strong service mentality, exceptional attention to detail and MRICS/FRICS qualification with VRS.
Fee-Earning Roles As we tend to fill standard lender roles quickly we advise calling (or emailing) for an up to the minute breakdown of current needs nationally. As a general guide, staff surveyors work with a single reporting format, a workload comprising mostly Mortgage Valuations, a tight-knit patch, logically booked jobs, market leading tablet technology and an outstanding remuneration package that isn’t commission led. Greg Coyle 0208 514 9116 Gregc@BBLproperty.co.uk
Opportunities for Residential Surveyors UK wide 2018 continues to look to be an excellent year for Residential Surveyors across the UK. Why not capitalise on demand and beat the post annual review rush by talking to the industry’s leading recruitment experts whose client base makes up the bigger picture… What have you got to lose? Whether you’re heading towards or have just had your annual review/ payment of withheld bonus you may now start to focus on whether your present position provides what you require professionally, financially and personally. Changing jobs can be daunting, particularly if you’ve been with an employer for a long period of time, but our one stop shop service will ensure the process is as stress free as possible addressing all the issues in confidence on your timescales. Accordingly, through our 20 year (often exclusive) association with some of the top employers in the UK we can help you achieve: • A n improvement in earnings, be that basic salary or a bonus scheme that offers greater incentives • A reduction in hours or a move to part-time or zero hours working • A reduction in the volume of work that you are expected to handle • An improvement in the general quality of your instructions/ a more refined patch. Opportunities for experienced Residential Surveyors within corporate environments: Banbury Birmingham Bolton Bradford Bristol Cardiff / The Valleys Chester / N Wales
Cornwall Coventry Croydon Edinburgh Grimsby Hereford / Monmouth
Hull Leeds Leicester Lincoln Llandrindod Wells Manchester North Norfolk North West London Northampton Norwich
Nottingham Oxford Plymouth Portsmouth Sheffield Swansea West Cumbria West Dorset Wolverhampton Worcester Wrexham / North Wales
Remuneration includes a basic salary of £40-65k (depending on location), bonuses (based on fee income), a car (or allowance), healthcare and pension. Opportunities within panel appointed, non-corporate practice-based environments: Our clients are traditional, independent private practices who service main lender, private client and in-house (agency) instructions undertaking the full range of residential reports for high average fees. Their ethos is quality over quantity (but not at the expense of security) and, as such, surveyors working for them are not put under the same pressures as they might be elsewhere in the sector. Vacancies exist in the following locations immediatelywith additional needs following on a near weekly basis: Bury St. Edmunds / Needham Market Bury / Ramsbottom Canterbury
Dorchester / Bournemouth Edinburgh Glasgow Lancaster Llandudno / Colwyn Bay Loughborough Mold / Buckley
North London North West Kent Plymouth / Tavistock Skipton / Keighley South East London Swansea
Residential Surveyors to undertake high value private banking and panel work in exclusive territories: M4 Corridor (SN/BA/BS/GL) South Coast (SO/PO) Beds / North Herts (LU/AL/SG/CB) East Midlands (MK/NN) West Midlands (B/CV/LE) Essex (CO/CM/SS) Plus additional territories nationally Remuneration includes a basic salary of £50-55k, bonuses (generous zero threshold structure), a car (or allowance), healthcare and pension. Andy Welham 0208 514 9177 Andyw@BBLproperty.co.uk James Irving 0208 514 9120 Jamesi@BBLproperty.co.uk
Crewe / Alsager Croydon Dereham / Norwich
Find out more about current opportunities and the latest sector news at:
www.bblproperty.co.uk A PRIL 2018_MODUS
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SPRING INTO ACTION WITH A N E W & E X C I T I N G O P P O RT U N I T Y ( U K - W I D E P O S I T I O N S AVA I L A B L E – F U L L - T I M E , PA RT- T I M E & C O N S U LTA N C Y )
O T E £ 6 0 K - £ 7 0 K PA P LU S U N C A P P E D B O N U S – PA I D M O N T H LY Miller Metcalfe Surveyors are a leading national supplier of surveys and valuations. We believe in investing in our people and ensuring Miller Metcalfe is a great place to work. With our exciting growth plans you will also have the opportunity for equity participation following the introduction of our Long-Term Incentive Programme. We have nationwide opportunities available for home-based, highly motivated MRICS/FRICS residential chartered surveyors, who meet VRS registration requirements, have experience of producing RICS HomeBuyer Surveys and want to work across a mixture of both private and lender clients. When you join Miller Metcalfe you are guaranteed: a competitive OTE in the region of £60-70k (dependent on experience & location), uncapped bonus scheme – paid monthly, company vehicle or allowance, pension contributions, death in service, full administration/technical support and much, much more. Miller Metcalfe has a very bright future and there has never been a better time to join our team. We are fully committed to developing our people and further enhancing their career.
www.millermetcalfesurveyors.co.uk : Nicki Henderson, HR Director on 01204 525252 option 4 or email your most recent CV details to firstname.lastname@example.org.
THE BOTTOM LINE IS: IT’S NOT FOR EVERYONE. IS IT FOR YOU?
Quantity Surveyors – All levels Competitive Salaries • Nationwide When you’re a Murphy Quantity Surveyor, there’s no hiding. You have to stand up and be counted. We aim to recruit and develop the best talent. So we’re not just looking for skills, we’re looking for the drive and determination to make yourself – and us – better. Under the direction of our Group Commercial Director, Chris Green, we’ve challenged ourselves to be the professional face of the construction industry. Our goal is a world where all our Quantity Surveyors have a degree and are professionally qualified, or working towards it. And for the right people, we’ll make it happen. The right people are those who share our core values: working as one team, always delivering, never harming, striving to innovate and to act with professionalism and integrity at all times. They’re people who can see the bigger commercial picture, throw themselves into fresh challenges and find hidden depths. Because at Murphy, it’s what’s underneath that counts. For more information and to apply please visit www.murphy-isitforyou.co.uk
A PRIL 2018_MODUS
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Specialist recruiters to the Property and Construction Sectors Quantity Surveying - Building Surveying - Project Management - CDM 0203 245 2550 / 01628 367 030 - brandonjames.co.uk
Development Projects Manager An opportunity has arisen for an enthusiastic and motivated individual to join our highly focused Economic Development and Estates team. Reporting to the Economic Development Manager, you will be responsible for overseeing the delivery of mixed-use property development projects from inception to completion. The ideal candidate will be RICS or CIOB qualified, with significant experience in the fields of property development or construction. Job Details: • Location: Bexhill-on-Sea, East Sussex • Service: 37 Hours per week • Permanent contract up to £42,279 per annum • £2,907 Car Allowance • Relocation Package available • Starting salary dependent on qualifications and experience If you would like an informal discussion regarding this vacancy, please contact Graham Burgess, Economic Development Manager – Community and Economy on telephone: (01424) 787831 or email email@example.com
Find your perfect job today Building Surveyors & Quantity Surveyors London and the South East Packages from £30k - £70k + cars Professional and confidential recruitment service
Call Roger Dunning - 07769 551846 / 01243 933263 or email - firstname.lastname@example.org
Forestry Agency Role, Edinburgh • Recently Qualified up to Associate • Salary: Competitive John Clegg & Co, Chartered Surveyors and Forestry Agents, with an outstanding reputation as forestry and woodland specialists throughout the UK, have a new opportunity for a qualified surveyor to join their thriving Forestry Agency team in Edinburgh. This is a rare opportunity for someone with a mixed skill base, who has the confidence and ability to buy and sell, as well as the attention to detail needed for valuations. Forestry experience is not essential; however, we are keen to recruit someone looking for a new challenge and the next step up in their career.
Responsibilities will be wide ranging and involve the sale and acquisition of land, woods and forestry throughout Scotland and north England, as well as assisting with valuations of individual properties and property portfolios. The successful candidate will have the following attributes: • MRICS and/or ICF qualified, recently qualified up to Associate level • Brokerage/sales orientated • Attention to detail to undertake cashflows/valuations • Confident, people person, ambitious • A good working knowledge of Excel and Word
To discuss confidentially please contact Helen Astill on 0116 259 6533 or 07721 437 085 or email@example.com.
A PRIL 2018_MODUS
IS AMAZON GO THE FUTURE OF GROCERY RETAIL? Jonathan Reynolds Academic director, Oxford Institute of Retail Management, Saïd Business School
Amazon Go claims to offer a cashier-free, self-service operation driven by surveillance technology.
At present, the technology is only being used in a convenience store. Although Amazon recently acquired 460 Whole Foods Market stores, it claims it has “no plans” to introduce Go technology to outlets of that scale.
US retailers such as Walmart are now experimenting with cashier-less options and mobile payments. But is this too little, too late? Amazon has form in the way it enters and seeks to dominate new consumer sectors.
The real benefit of Amazon Go to the business is two-fold: greater customer insight from the capture of in-store behavioural data; and a further service to justify Prime membership for its customers.
ILLUSTRATION DANILO AGUTOLI
Amazon is by no means the whole story. There is a longstanding experimentation with checkout-free service in the UK and France, and in China, Bingobox has over 200 unmanned stores.
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CONNECTIONS MADE MORE REWARDING
OUR AWARD-WINNING COMPACT SUV. NOW WITH MEMBER BENEFITS The connections we make have the power to improve our lives. As a member of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, you have unique access to savings on the What Car? Car of the Year 2018 – our new XC40. Enjoy intuitive technologies, immersive sound and smart storage features, all created around your everyday needs – including a wireless, inductive phone charging compartment. And discover a selection of other benefits, each one designed to help you get the most from your Volvo car. CALL T YSON COOPER ON 01473 873 000 OR CONTACT YOUR LOCAL DE ALER
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Official fuel consumption for the new Volvo XC40 range in MPG (l/100km): Urban 31.0 (9.1) – 49.6 (5.7), Extra Urban 47.1 (6.0) – 61.4 (4.6), Combined 39.8 (7.1) – 56.5 (5.0). CO2 emissions 166 – 131g/km. MPG figures are obtained from laboratory testing intended for comparisons between vehicles and may not reflect real driving results. Preliminary data. Please contact us for the latest information.
#RICSModus, April 2018 - the GROWTH issue