Page 1

e

is G a:

r o t i Ed

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your English

a

g A le

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Contents ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES

5

QUIZ: HOW MUCH DO YOU KNOW ABOUT ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES?

6

ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES AND THEIR CULTURES

8

BRAZIL: OUR COUNTRY

9

UNIT 1: Teen Matters

10

UNIT 2: The Earth – We Still Care!

20

FURTHER PRACTICE 1: UNITS 1 & 2

30

UNIT 3: Technology – Progress and Achievements

34

UNIT 4: Different Eras, Different Idols

44

FURTHER PRACTICE 2: UNITS 3 & 4

54

UNIT 5: Urban Tribes

58

UNIT 6: The Future of Stem Cells

68

FURTHER PRACTICE 3: UNITS 5 & 6

78

UNIT 7: A Melting Pot

82

UNIT 8: Globalization: Good or Bad?

92

FURTHER PRACTICE 4: UNITS 7 & 8

102

UNIT 9: We Are What We Eat

106

UNIT 10: Protecting the Amazon

116

FURTHER PRACTICE 5: UNITS 9 & 10

126

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UNIT 11: Being a Volunteer

130

UNIT 12: People We Admire and Respect

140

FURTHER PRACTICE 6: UNITS 11 & 12

150

UNIT 13: Voices of Africa

154

UNIT 14: It’s Time to Laugh

164

FURTHER PRACTICE 7: UNITS 13 & 14

174

UNIT 15: Water and Sanitation for All!

178

UNIT 16: Our Land Is Our Heritage

188

FURTHER PRACTICE 8: UNITS 15 & 16

198

UNIT 17: Ethical Decision-Making

202

UNIT 18: Coping with Stress

212

FURTHER PRACTICE 9: UNITS 17 & 18

222

UNIT 19: The Battle for Equality

226

UNIT 20: The Way to Success

236

FURTHER PRACTICE 10: UNITS 19 & 20

246

UNIT 21: The Pleasure of Reading

250

UNIT 22: Fighting the Flu

260

FURTHER PRACTICE 11: UNITS 21 & 22

270

UNIT 23: People with Special Needs

274

UNIT 24: Causes and Prevention of Obesity

284

FURTHER PRACTICE 12: UNITS 23 & 24

294

UPGRADE YOUR LISTENING AND SPEAKING SKILLS

308

UPGRADE YOUR WRITING SKILLS

324

EXAM PRACTICE

334

SUPPLEMENTARY ACTIVITIES

402

GLOSSARY

418

IRREGULAR VERBS LIST

430

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English-Speaking Countries

5

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Quiz HOW MUCH DO YOU KNOW ABOUT ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES?

2

1 Dentre os países abaixo, qual não tem o inglês como língua oficial?

Quais são as línguas oficiais do Canadá?

a

Estados Unidos

a

inglês e francês

b

Guatemala

b

espanhol e francês

c

África do Sul

c

alemão e inglês

3 Qual é o país cuja capital é Camberra?

a

África do Sul

b

Canadá

c

Austrália

4

5 A libra é a moeda de qual país?

6

Quais países da Oceania têm como língua oficial o inglês?

a

Nova Zelândia

a

Canadá e Estados Unidos

b

Reino Unido

b

Reino Unido e África do Sul

c

Estados Unidos

c

Nova Zelândia e Austrália

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3/25/13 9:52 AM


6

7 Qual é o esporte mais popular da Nova Zelândia?

Toronto, Vancouver e Montreal são cidades do(a):

a

Canadá.

a

natação

b

Jamaica.

b

polo aquático

c

Austrália.

c

rugby

8 Qual foi o país sede da Copa do Mundo em 2010?

a

Nova Zelândia

b

África do Sul

c

Índia

9

10 Qual das seguintes cores não está presente na bandeira canadense?

Peixe com batatas fritas e cachorro-quente são pratos típicos de quais países, respectivamente?

a

vermelho

a

Inglaterra e Estados Unidos

b

branco

b

Nova Zelândia e África do Sul

c

azul

c

Canadá e Estados Unidos

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7

6/28/10 9:33:07 AM


2

The Earth – We Still Care! Look at the photo and the headings. What is the text mainly about?

Pre-Reading Up front

How Rise in

Temperature Occurs

Global warming refers to an increase in the planet’s

average surface temperature. Natural and human causes have been suggested to explain this phenomenon. The rise in temperature of the past 50 years is most likely due to an enhanced greenhouse effect, caused by an increase in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.

Extracted from Learn about global warming. São Paulo: Moderna, 2007. p. 2.

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The increase in the emission of greenhouse effect gases forces these gases to get stuck in the atmosphere, forming a layer that gets thicker and thicker. It retains the heat of the sun, causing our planet to get warmer.

vocabulary

20

The Earth's surface absorbs most of the solar radiation, and the Earth warms up.

The other part is reflected back into the atmosphere.

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

The Earth’s atmosphere traps part of the sun’s energy, keeping it at an average temperature of 13 oC (55.4 oF). Meanwhile the Earth’s surface and the clouds reflect the other part of this solar radiation in the form of heat. This natural phenomenon causes what we call the greenhouse effect and without it, there would be no life on Earth and in the oceans, at least not life with the current diversity and degree of complexity.

Solar radiation passes through the atmosphere.

due to: devido a enhanced: aumentado get stuck: prender-se greenhouse effect: efeito estufa layer: camada meanwhile: enquanto isso

most likely: muito provavelmente rise: aumento thicker: mais grossa traps: prende warms up: aquece

3/25/13 10:27 AM


After Reading 1

Read the text on page 20 and write T (true) or F (false). a Global warming refers to an increase in the planet’s surface. (

)

b The most likely explanation for the rise in temperature of the past 50 years is an increase in the greenhouse effect. ( ) c The average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere is less than 60 ºF. (

)

d Without the greenhouse effect, there wouldn’t be life on Earth and in the oceans with the same degree of complexity. ( ) e The greenhouse effect gases form a layer that gets thinner and thinner. (

)

2 Match the columns. a Global warming is… b The Earth’s atmosphere holds… c The Earth’s surface and clouds… d Natural and human causes…

(

)

reflect some of the solar radiation in the form of heat.

(

)

part of the sun’s energy, keeping it at an average temperature of 13 ºC.

(

)

contribute to the rise of global warming.

(

)

an increase in the planet’s average temperature.

3 In which paragraph can you find the following information? a The causes of the rise of temperature b The average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere c The importance of the greenhouse effect d The definition of global warming 4 Complete the statements below with the words in the box. Use the glossary if necessary. average

surface

heat

a The Antarctic Peninsula is warming five times faster than the b In some areas, the combination of floods and mosquito populations. c The Earth’s d The

degree rate of global warming.

waves may cause an increase in

Unit 2

increase

absorbs most of the solar radiation. of pollutants in big cities is also causing temperatures to rise.

e During the past 100 years, the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere has gone up 1 Fahrenheit. 5 According to the text, we can infer that: a (

) Global warming can’t be stopped.

b (

) The consequences of global warming affect all living things on the planet.

c (

) Because of global warming there are more and more warm days.

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TIP

21

Saber fazer inferências, isto é, chegar a uma conclusão através de uma informação fornecida, torna-o um leitor mais competente.

6/26/10 2:23:25 PM


Upgrade Your Vocabulary 1

Read the tip and write new words. Translate the words. Use the glossary if necessary. Verb

Noun

Translation

concentrate

concentration

concentração

TIP O sufixo -ation pode ser acrescentado a verbos para formar um substantivo. Indica processo. Identificar sufixos, seu uso e a classificação das palavras formadas por eles ajuda no reconhecimento e na ampliação do vocabulário.

deforest explore plant radiate refrigerate starve 2 Match the pictures to their definitions.

A

Unit 2

deforestation

22

forest fire

D cattle farm

( ( (

) ) )

( ( (

) ) )

C

B wetland

E landfill

F aerosol spray

An area of land that is used for raising cattle. The process of cutting down or destroying trees. A liquid kept under pressure in a can or other container that you can force out in very small drops. Uncontrolled burning that destroys forests. A method of getting rid of trash by burying it in a large, deep hole. An area of very wet, muddy land with wild plants growing on it.

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Upgrade Your Grammar PRESENT CONTINUOUS FORMAÇÃO: VERBO TO BE NO PRESENTE + VERBO PRINCIPAL + ING The increase in the emission of greenhouse effect gases is forming a thick layer of these gases around the Earth.

Forma afirmativa

Acrescenta-se ing ao final da maioria dos verbos. Forma negativa

She isn’t working today. She’s off.

Forma interrogativa

A: Are you watching the news? B: Yes, I am. / No, I’m not.

FORMAÇÃO DO VERBO PRINCIPAL: CASOS ESPECIAIS Nos verbos que terminam em consoante + e, elimina-se o e e acrescenta-se ing. Nos verbos que terminam em consoante + vogal + consoante e que têm a última sílaba tônica, dobra-se a última consoante e acrescenta-se ing.

live – living write – writing put – putting begin – beginning

USO O Present Continuous é utilizado para:

• Expressar ações que estão ocorrendo por um determinado período ou nos dias atuais.

• Falar sobre ações que foram agendadas, planejadas ou confirmadas anteriormente.

• Alguns verbos em inglês não são utilizados com ing, tais como love, hate, like, prefer, remember, forget, understand, know, need, etc.

020a033_Uni02_merc_UpG-mar2013.indd 23

The teacher is talking about global warming now. Listen! They are playing the guitar.

This semester the students are reading up on the increase in the planet’s temperature. Most people around the world are changing some of their habits to save our planet. My classmates and I are visiting the planetarium on Monday. Mr. Johnson is coming to the office at noon.

Unit 2

• Descrever ações que acontecem no momento da fala. Geralmente acompanham advérbios de tempo como now, at the moment, etc.

23

We know that we can all help reduce the threat of global warming. Do you understand how the rise in temperature occurs?

3/25/13 10:28 AM


1

Look at the following paintings and answer the questions. Write short answers. 1.1

1.2

Raphael Sanzio, detalhe da pintura Sistine Madonna, 1512-1514, 贸leo sobre tela, 265 x 196 cm

Heitor dos Prazeres, Come莽o de Festa, 1964, 贸leo sobre tela, 40 x 60 cm

a Are the angels flying in the painting?

a Is the man dressed in white and wearing a hat playing a musical instrument?

b Are they thinking about something? b Is the woman dressed in yellow dancing? c Are they looking up? c Are the two other women dancing too?

Unit 2

2 Your school is working on a recycling program in your neighborhood. Based on the agenda below, answer the questions a TV reporter is asking you.

24

Feb 2nd

Teens put up flyers about global warming

Feb 3rd to 10th

Volunteers plant trees all over the neighborhood

Feb 11th to 15th

Parents organize recycling centers

Feb 16th

An engineer gives a lecture about pollution to the community

Feb 17th to 27th

The principal prepares a report about the program (the report is going to be sent to City Hall)

a Reporter: How are you teens contributing to the recycling program? You: b Reporter: What are the volunteers doing? You: c Reporter: When are parents organizing recycling centers? You: d Reporter: What is happening after that? You: e Reporter: Is anyone preparing a report about the program? You:

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6/26/10 2:23:30 PM


3 Make sentences by putting the words in order. a studying / a lot / days / friends / are / I / My / these / and b not / children / now / playing / The / are / the / yard / in c the Parkers / leaving / New York / What time / are / ? d warmer / Our / effect / because / planet / is / the / greenhouse / of / getting e radiation / article / about / at the moment / are / The / reading / solar / an / students

4 Shola is a South African teenager. He is on vacation in Venice, Italy. Read and complete the postcard he has written to his parents. Use the Present Continuous.

Dear Mom and Dad,

I hope you are fine. I

(have) a great

time here in Venice. I

(stay) at a

really nice hotel. I

(enjoy) the fact

that Venice is free of cars. Every morning I wake up at 8 o’clock, have a big breakfast and go out to different places. I never go to bed before ten. (try) some Italian home(enjoy)

being alone in our bedroom? she

Half way house 1685 Johannesburg

made ice cream. I’m sure you would love it. What about Gimbya? Is she

Box 7853

(study) for the finals? I hope

South Africa

Unit 2

Right now I

Old Pretoria Road

(use – neg.) my stuff. I miss you all.

25

Shola

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3/25/13 10:29 AM


Reading Read the text extracted from a reader and do the activities on pages 27-28.

We can all help reduce global warming by changing some of our habits.

WE CAN START

Unit 2

AT HOME:

1 Turn off the lights when you’re not in a room. 2 Replace incandescent light bulbs with fluorescent light bulbs. 3 Don’t leave the tap running while brushing your teeth or shaving. 4 Avoid long showers. 5 Buy in-season organic foods. 6 Cover the pan while cooking. You waste less energy and the cooking time is shorter. 7 Substitute your traditional electric oven for a microwave oven. 8 Turn off all electric equipment. Avoid leaving it on standby since

you’re using energy whenever the red or green light is on. 9 Install solar panels to heat water. 10 Don’t press the button of two elevators simultaneously. And if you are going up or down only one or two floors, use the stairway. 11 When buying a car, consider flexfuel models. Do regular check-ups on your car.

Each of us can make a big difference. ts, governmen Industries, to te bu ri nt co s can at and citizen of gases th n tio uc od e pr fect. By ef reducing th se ou nh e gree our increase th rethinking gether and ent rr cu working to e th can change habits, we e threat d reduce th scenario an g. in m ar w of global

12 Check car tires to make sure they are fully inflated. 13 Try carpooling. 14 Plant trees and buy certified wood furniture only. 15 Adopt the 3Rs: Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. 16 Don’t burn trash and RECYCLE all trash that can be recycled.

26

020a033_Uni02_merc_UpG_P3.indd 26

vocabulary

Extracted from Learn about global warming. São Paulo: Moderna, 2007. p. 24-25.

carpooling: transporte solidário changing: mudando in-season: da estação light bulbs: lâmpadas pan: panela replace: substitua

stairway: escada tap: torneira tires: pneus trash: lixo whenever: sempre que wood furniture: móveis de madeira

6/26/10 2:23:36 PM


After Reading 1

Help these people protect the environment. Choose the most appropriate pieces of advice listed on page 26. Write their numbers in parentheses. You can use more than one number for each item. a Jane: I love cooking. I can spend hours preparing tasty dishes. (

)

b Steve: I have a brand-new car now. I want to drive for miles. (

)

c Albert: You can find electric appliances all over my house. (

)

d Tim and Leslie: We take out a lot of garbage every day. (

)

e Rachel: My kids have fun while they are brushing their teeth. It’s just like taking a bath. (

)

f Janice: When I’m at home, I don’t stop a minute. I go to one room after the other and do two or three different things simultaneously. ( ) g Robert and Patricia: We eat a lot of fruit and vegetables every day. (

)

2 Read the following extracts. “Turn off the lights when you’re not in a room.” “Do regular check-ups on your car.” In and on are prepositions. Prepositions are words or phrases that show places, time, directions, etc. Fill in the following sentences with the prepositions in the box. Use the text on page 26 to help you. with for on up

a It’s a good idea to substitute a new sound system

our old one.

b Dr. Ben’s office is on the third floor. Let’s go c Jane never leaves her computer

. standby when she is not using it.

d Mom likes to buy

-season vegetables for the family.

e They are replacing the small windows

big ones.

f Your mom is trying to make things easier

you.

g Did you live

that farm until you came back to the city?

h Serve it hot

French beans.

i They intended to take a holiday

020a033_Uni02_merc_UpG-abr2012.indd 27

Unit 2

in

27

Greece.

4/20/12 9:08 AM


3 Read the following entry from a dictionary and do the activity. blandrem quismod ea faccum delesto odolortie ming exeratem zzrillan euipit nummy nos do ent wisl ullam, sustrud ming eliquat alis nit verate feuguer sed tem veliquisci blan ulput verate moloborerat. 1 vulpute tueroszzrillan euipit nummy nos do ent wisl ullam, sustrud ming eliquat alis nitte feuguer sed tem veliquisci blan ulput verate moloborerat. 2 vulpute tueroszzrillan euipit nummy nos do ent wisl ullam, sustrud ming eliquat alis nit verate feuguer sed tem veliquisci blan ulput

eafaccum delesto odolortie ming exeratem zzrillan elesto odeuipit nummy nos do ent wisl ullam, sustrud ming olortie ming zzrillan e

list a list of things such as names or addresses is a set of them which all belong to a particular category, written down one below the other.

elesto odolortie

elesto eafaccum delesto odolortie ming exeratem zzrillan odolortie ming eliquat alis nit verate feuguer sed tem veliquisci b

Extracted from COBUILD English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. 3rd edition. Glasgow: HarperCollins Publishers, 2001.

Go back to the list on page 26. What can you start doing at home today? Choose five items and list them below. Then add two new items at the end of the list.

Unit 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

28

My Tips

Refletindo sobre sua aprendizagem Ao final desta unidade, você já é capaz de: Realizar leitura de imagens e relacioná-las à parte verbal do texto. Fazer inferências como uma estratégia de leitura. Reconhecer alguns substantivos formados pelo acréscimo do sufixo -ation aos verbos, produzir novos substantivos e relacioná-los aos seus significados. Usar vocabulário referente a problemas e possíveis soluções para algumas causas e consequências do aquecimento global. Reconhecer e produzir frases afirmativas, interrogativas e negativas com o Present Continuous. Identificar e selecionar a preposição adequada às diferentes situações comunicativas. Reconhecer algumas características do gênero lista.

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6/26/10 2:23:41 PM


In the Job Market

Environmental Professions

One of the fastest ways to start a career in the environmental field is to become an environmental education monitor. This professional is in charge of analyzing environmental problems and promoting campaigns to warn communities about conservation and preservation of the planet. Those who want to achieve this vocational certification should take a 240-hour course (4 to 5 months) at a vocational school. Those who want to pursue a higher level can extend their studies to become an environmental technician. Environmental technicians carry out programs for conservation of natural resources and take actions to remedy environmental disruption, among many other duties. The length of the course varies from 800 to 1200 learning hours (18 to 24 months), depending on the school. Environmental technicians and environmental education monitors usually work in public or private institutions, residue treatment plants, and environment conservation agencies. In both cases, you can go to high school and take the vocational course at the same time.

both: ambos carry out: realizam disruption: transtorno, distúrbio is in charge of: é responsável por plants: fábricas, indústrias

to achieve: atingir, conquistar to pursue: dedicar-se a to warn: avisar, prevenir varies: varia

Você gostaria de ser monitor em educação ambiental ou técnico em meio ambiente? Por quê? / Por que não?

Unit 2

vocabulary

Based on <http://catalogonct.mec.gov.br/et_ambiente_saude_seguranca/t_meio_ambiente.php>; <http://www.unitau.br/colegio-unitau/educacao-profissional/tecnico-em-meio-ambiente>; <http://education-portal.com/articles/Environmental_Technicians_Job_Duties_and_ Requirements_for_anEnvironmental_Technician_Career.html>. Accessed on December 16, 2009.

29

Para mais informações, acesse: <http://www.richmond.com.br/area-classroom/> e clique em Ensino Médio/UPGRADE.

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5/13/13 4:28 PM


Further Practice 1 Units 1 & 2 1

Peter and Mark are talking about their summer vacation. Read this website page and complete the conversation on page 31 using the Present Continuous.

File

Address

Edit

View

Favorites

Tools

Help

Go

http://www.discoveradventure.com/challenge.aspx?t=32

DISCOVER ture

Adven

Home

About Us

Our Challenges

Links

E-mail: info@discoveradventure.com Tel: 01722 718444

Join us for the experience of a lifetime and support the charity of your choice! Before You Go

France / UK Activity:

Charities

Schools

Responsible Tourism

News

LONDON-TO-PARIS CYCLE Duration: 5 days

Grade: Moderate

Download itinerary (PDF) / Request more information Cycling from London to Paris is one of the great cycle experiences in Europe. Passing through picturesque Kent countryside, we cross the Channel and continue through the small villages and medieval market towns of Northern France, passing the famous battlefields of the Somme and Agincourt. With long days in the saddle and some strenuous hill-climbs, the sight of the Eiffel Tower, our finishing point, will evoke a real sense of achievement. Our last day in Paris allows us to explore the streets of Paris and soak up the romantic atmosphere of this majestic city!

Guide itinerary: • Day 1: Cycle from London through Kent and North Downs to Dover; ferry to Calais. • Day 2: Quiet winding roads and old market towns to Arras. • Day 3: Follow undulating tree-lined roads to Compiegne, on the banks of the River Oise. • Day 4: Rural countryside and villages to outskirts of Paris; finish under Eiffel Tower. • Day 5: Free in Paris; return by Eurostar to London. This cycle is one of our Family Challenges – more info >> Read one cyclist’s account of her London-to-Paris Cycle, Emily travelled with us in 2008. • An experience to share with family and friends… what team work!

30 Start

Extracted from <http://www.discoveradventure.com/challenge.aspx?t=32>. Accessed on December 10, 2009.

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6/26/10 2:23:51 PM


Peter:

Where are you going on your summer vacation?

Mark:

Well, I

Peter:

That’s very exciting. How long are you going for?

from London to Paris. My wife is coming with me.

Mark: Peter:

Are you crossing the channel by plane?

Mark:

No,

Peter:

Are you passing by the River Oise?

Mark: Peter:

Are you taking the ferry to come back as well?

Mark: Peter:

How nice. Well, this is definitely a different kind of trip, isn’t it?

2 Philip is a high school English teacher. He’s talking to his friend Ann about how he spends his lunchtime at school. Complete what he says using the verbs in the box. If there are words in parentheses, use them. have like eat bring say

Philip:

We

(you / usually) for lunch? (neg.) much time to eat and I

(neg.) to sandwiches from home.

spend much money on lunch, so I usually Ann:

Do you ever eat lunch in the school cafeteria?

Philip:

No, I hardly ever eat there, but my friend Tom always eats his lunch there and he the food is pretty good. all the students

Ann: Philip:

No. A lot of them

020a033_Uni02_merc_UpG-mar2013.indd 31

1

What

Further Practice

Ann:

31

in the cafeteria? lunch outdoors.

3/25/13 10:31 AM


3 Ask questions to the answers below. a A: B: No, they don’t. My parents don’t like coffee. b A: B: No, I don’t. I go to bed early. c A: B: Yes, they do. My friends often go to the movies. d A: B: I do my homework every day. 4 Fill in the blanks with the Simple Present or the Present Continuous of the verbs in parentheses. a Listen! Albert’s cell phone

(ring). Funny, his cell phone rarely (ring).

b Look! The student

(raise) his hand. He

(want) to

say something. c My Geography teacher

(erase) the board again. She always (erase) the board before we

(get) a chance to

take notes. d Oh, no! It

(rain) again, and I

(have – neg.) my

umbrella with me. 5 Find the mistake in each sentence. Write the letter of the mistake and make the necessary correction.

Further Practice

1

a Allison (A) plays the violin in an orchestra and (B) sometimes (C) give private lessons.

32

b She (A) sometimes (B) is working in the morning and she (C) enjoys sleeping late.

c She (A) wears usually a black dress for concerts, but she (B) doesn’t have to wear a uniform.

d She (A) drinks some coffee and she (B) always eats a sandwich before the concert (C) is beginning.

e She (A) likes walking home, so she (B) seldom takes the bus. She never (C) is taking taxis.

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6/26/10 2:23:52 PM


6 Leia o cartum e responda às seguintes perguntas, em português.

a Sobre o que é a conversa entre o pai e o filho?

b A que se refere a palavra that em “[…] we don’t know what that means […]”?

d Como você reagiria se fosse o rapaz do cartum? Justifique sua resposta e depois a compartilhe com

Further Practice

1

c Por que o pai pede ao filho para parar de usar blogs?

seus colegas.

33 e Por qual pronome (I, you, he, she, it, we ou they) podemos substituir a palavra that em “[…] we don’t know what that means […]”?

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6/26/10 2:23:54 PM


Upgrade Your Listening and Speaking Skills Unit 2 1 2

Listen to a teacher reading an extract from a reader about global warming to his students. Fill in the gaps with the words in the box. melting

floods

rise

glaciers

reserves

[…] The rising temperatures are causing valley

to melt. These hold 9 percent

of the planet’s freshwater supply. Besides posing a threat to our water supply, the melting of valley glaciers causes serious problems such as landslides and live in these areas. As a result, sea levels

, threatening the lives of the people who and there is less water for human

consumption and use in agriculture. Continental glaciers in places like Antarctica and Greenland are also These glaciers hold another 70 percent of the planet’s freshwater

. . During

the summer, portions of melting glaciers break off and move slowly to the sea. Extracted from Learn about warming. São Paulo: Moderna, 2007. p. 29.

2 Some people are taking part in an environmental project today. Two neighbors are talking about some of their actions. Read their dialogue. In pairs, make new dialogues. Use the cues given.

a the teens / recycle the garbage

308

b Sarah / plant trees

A: What are the teens doing? B: They are recycling the garbage.

c some families / pick up trash

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6/26/10 3:27:26 PM


Upgrade Your Writing Skills Unit 1 An acrostic is a poem in which certain letters, such as the first one in each line, form a word or message. Read the acrostic below and do the activity. My Internet Friends You’re so dear to my heart. Family I’ve found Real friendship I’ve received I love you all so Every moment shared Never will be forgot Deep within my heart Special friends I cherish. You all are very special to me and I’m proud To be a part of this wonderful group. Love you all… Extracted from <http://www.friendship-poems.com/poems.php?id=505681>. Accessed on October 19, 2009.

• In small groups, write an acrostic with one of the following words: teens

family

emotions

friendship

324 • Organize a special presentation and read the poems to the class.

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6/26/10 3:28:03 PM


Exam Practice

Unit 1 – Teen Matters Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG-GO, 2010)

c explicação para um fenômeno social. d opinião sobre uma prática comum. e resposta a uma mensagem pessoal.

Posted at: 06:42 PM on April 23, 2008

I haven’t been able to come to terms with all of the lying that happens on the internet. I have sons that spend a great deal of time on MySpace and FaceBook. I was looking at one of their profiles and a great deal of the info on there was a lie. I asked him about it and he said that it was OK because everyone lied a little on MySpace. He is a young man of great character, and this does not represent his normal behaviour.

2

a quantidade de informação disponibilizada. b veiculação de conteúdos inadequados na internet. c formação da personalidade dos adolescentes. d linguagem utilizada pelos internautas. e limitada capacidade de expressão dos jovens. 3

I understand that giving out personal information over the internet is not wise. Some lies are told to cover the true identity of the person communicating. But how many? And when is it enough? Which lies are acceptable? Which are not?

I have not been able to get past this and think it will not have a positive effect on the younger generation.

334

Glossary: wise: sensato

1

O texto apresenta uma:

a informação de natureza conceitual. b exposição de um acontecimento singular.

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The position of the author can be summarized in:

a Young people should use the internet with less frequency. b Lies in real life can become more natural as a result of lies on the internet. c Adolescents should not reveal their identity on the internet. d Close relationships can be established if people tell the truth on the internet. e Lying on the internet are not told for malicious reasons.

It seems like this constant acceptance of lying over the internet can desensitize one, to the point that lying in general, is more acceptable in one’s daily life.

Disponível em: <http://bigthink.com/montelinn/why-is-lying-on-theinternet -considered-not-as-offensive-as-lying-in-general>. Acesso em: 30 set. 2009. [Adaptado].

O autor do texto mostra-se preocupado com a:

4

The reader is invited to take position in the discussion when the author:

a b c d e

makes reference to family members. says everyone lies on MySpace and FaceBook. mentions that profiles were checked. asks some questions related to lies. states that teens spend a lot of time online.

6/29/10 5:00:00 PM


+

Supplementary Activities

Articles Em inglês, assim como em português, os artigos são classificados em definidos (definite article) e indefinidos (indefinite article).

6 É obrigatório o uso de the nas expressões com a palavra language. The English language / The Spanish language

Definite Article

7 Não se usa the antes de nomes próprios, com exceção de nomes de família. The Joneses / The Smiths / The Mary

The é o único artigo definido em inglês e significa o, a, os, as. Portanto, ele pode ser utilizado tanto no singular quanto no plural. Atenção para o seu uso:

1 De modo geral, não se usa o artigo antes de nomes de: cidade, estado, país e continente. Exceções: United, Kingdom, State, Union, Federation, Republic, Bahamas, Netherlands. Brazil is a big country. / It’s winter in Europe now. / He lives in the USA/in the United States of America. 2 É usado com nacionalidades para se referir a todas as pessoas de uma determinada nação. The Americans like bowling. / The French eat a lot of bread. 3 Normalmente é usado para especificar algo, alguém ou algum lugar. People (pessoas em geral) go to the beach on Sundays. / The people at the beach (um grupo específico de pessoas) had a good time. The rich (os ricos de forma geral) don’t have any difficulties. / The rich people of Brazil... (um grupo específico de ricos)

Pass me the salt, please. (específico, este saleiro. Mas, atenção: I don’t like salt on my salad.)

4 Usa-se antes de nomes de instrumentos musicais precedidos do verbo play. play the flute / play the drums

402

Mas, atenção: o mesmo não acontece com play seguido de nomes de esportes. play tennis / play basketball

5 É obrigatório o uso de the antes de nomes de rios, montanhas, oceanos, desertos, do Sol, da Lua e da Terra (substantivos únicos da espécie). The Amazon River / The Alps / The Sahara / The Sun / The Moon

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8 Usa-se the com superlativos. Susie is the prettiest girl in my class. 9 Usa-se the para explicar algo mencionado anteriormente. Sarah married Fred Jones, the pastor. Indefinite Article Os artigos indefinidos a e an significam um ou uma. São usados antes de palavras no singular. Para diferenciar o seu uso, verificamos o som do início da palavra seguinte. Se ela começar com som de consoante, usamos a; se iniciar com som de vogal, utilizamos an. a car / an eraser Atenção para o seu uso:

1 Antes de palavras iniciadas com H pronunciado, usa-se a. Se o H não tiver som (mudo), usa-se an. a house, an honor, an hour 2 Antes de palavras iniciadas com U, EU e EW com som de /ju:/, usa-se a. a university, a European, a ewe 3 Antes de palavras iniciadas com one, usa-se a. a one-chapter book, a one-way street, a one-star hotel 4 Antes de palavras abreviadas nas quais a primeira consoante é vocalizada, usa-se an. an FM radio station, an MTV program, an X-ray 5 Antes de palavras iniciadas com Y (apesar de o som ser de vogal), usa-se a. a year 6 Em sentenças com What (que) antes de substantivos contáveis no singular. What a funny guy! 7 Em sentenças com such a (tal, tais) para enfatizar algo. Mary has been such a good friend.

5/24/12 1:46 PM


Barbara is fifteen years old. O verbo to be é usado em vários tempos verbais, como o Present Continuous e o Past Continuous. Everybody, everyone, somebody, someone, anybody, anyone, nobody e no one são usados com o verbo to be na 3.ª pessoa do singular. Everybody is hungry! Nobody was late at the meeting.

EXERCISES

2

mad at John.

a Was – wasn’t – were b Were – wasn’t – were c Was – was – was 3 (FCC) You a ‘s b ’d c ’re

,

d Were – was – were e Was – was – were

never alone with schizophrenia.

d ’ve e ’ll

4 (PUCCAMP) I hope to finish university before I twenty-one. a have been d am b am being e will have c be 5 (ITA) As soon as you a will be b was c shall be 6 A: My children B: Well, the girl . a is – is – aren’t b was – is – aren’t c are – is – aren’t

ready, we will go downtown.

d are e be

naughty. What about yours? pretty naughty, but the boys

d were – is – were e were – was – were

7 (FMU) Everybody waiting, because the American working on the project. people a is; are d are; is b is; is e was; is c are; are

414

8 (FCC) The great threat to our people cancer, but the foreign policies of governments. a is d is there not b there is not e there is c is not 9 My manager company

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happy with the news! 10 I – Peterson and I II – Did you buy that T-shirt? It such a good offer! III – Susie’s friends very impatient with her when she a child. a am – was – were – were b are – is – was – was c are – was – were – was d were – is – were – was e was – is – were – was

11 Com base na imagem a seguir, pode-se inferir que:

d were e are

Kate nervous this morning? Well, she . but the boys

d are – is e was – was

BALDWIN, MIKE/CARTOONSTOCK

1 We believe Fred a am b will c is

a is – were b was – were c is – was

upset and said everyone from the unreliable.

<www.cartoonstock.com/cartoonview.asp?catref=mban2070>. Accessed on January 11, 2012.

a O homem sempre toma insulina porque ele tem diabetes. b O médico é sempre muito gentil aplicando insulina todas as vezes que o paciente precisa. c O médico estava preocupado com o paciente, pois sua glicose estava muito elevada. d O médico não olhou o problema do paciente e foi logo aplicando uma injeção de insulina. e A injeção que o paciente tomou foi só um alerta, pois ele ainda não tem diabetes. (SSA – UPE 2012) Read the following text and answer question 12. People started looking at stars a very long time ago. Modern science expanded our understanding too, and we know the Earth is a small planet that goes around an ordinary star in the Milky Way Galaxy. We also know that there are more than 100 billion galaxies in the universe. We live on a small planet in a very large universe. But there are many questions we haven’t answered yet. For example, Last century scientists discovered that there are other planets in the universe. However, all the planets that they found are much bigger than the Earth, and they probably don’t have life on them. But who knows? (Texto adaptado de MILNER, Martin. World English 1. Boston: HEINLE Cengage Learning, 2010.)

5/24/12 1:47 PM

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