Inglês para o Ensino Médio
Eduardo Amos • Elisabeth Prescher • Ernesto Pasqualin
SUN_INICIAIS VOL 3_mar2013.indd 1
3 26/3/13 5:07 PM
Moda verbs – should, ought to, need; Modal Used to, 14
Sunrise — Diagnostic test 4
The future perfect tense, 22
What would you do?
Conditional (I), 30
Exercise and teens
Conditional (II), 40
The passive voice (I), 48
Avalanche part 1
The passive voice (II), 56
SUN_INICIAIS VOL 3.indd 2
Avalanche part 2
It tak takes, 66 Tag questions, q 67
Reported speech (I), 74 Repo
Reported speech (II), 82 Repo
Of human bondage
To the nations
The g gerund, 100 Gender of nouns, 102 Gend
Adve Adverbs (II), 108 Definite article, 109 Defin
Self-study 4 Exam practice Answer keys
SUN_INICIAIS VOL 3.indd 3
The in infinitive, 92 Adverbs (I), 93 Adve
Self-study 3 IT
111 113 126
Irregular verbs Maxi glossary
Here are some basic grammar points that you have to know before starting the book. Follow these steps to take advantage of this section: 1. Do the test. 2. Check your answers on page 126. 3. Look at the charts on pages 6, 7 and 8 to clarify your doubts.
Choose the adequate alternatives.
1. Condors, (the largest/the larger) ﬂying birds in North America, are monogamous and pair for life. 2. The Indian elephant is (smaller/the smallest) than the African elephant. It lives in Asia. 3. The Pantanal, home to the world’s (richest/most rich) collection of aquatic plants, may disappear.
4. Tourism is turning the Everest, the world’s (more high/highest) peak, into its (biggest/bigger) rubbish dump, claim conservationists.
1. In Tanana Valley residents use the observation of clouds to deduce the probability of snowfall. If there is a bright band between the clouds and the Alaska Range, it (will not snow/is not snowing). If you can only see the base of the mountains, it (is snowing/will snow). 2. As human populations continue to expand, it (will become/will becoming) more and more difﬁcult to maintain prosperity and quality of life. 3. You (will to improve/will improve) your physical performance if you sleep well.
4. I don’t know what I (will be doing/will being doing) in January 2020. My sister says she (will be living/will lives) abroad. My brother says he (will be sleep/will be sleeping).
1. One of (Leonardos/Leonardo’s) greatest pieces of art is the Mona Lisa. 2. Scientists predict that natural changes in the (Earth’s/Earths’) planetary status will mean the end of life here in another 500 million years. 3. (Mary Shelley’s husband/Husband’s Mary Shelley) drowned in a boating accident off the coast of Italy.
4. National surveys show cheating is growing in (Americas’s/America’s) high schools.
1. I threw (myself/meself) in the river. The water was moving so fast it brought me to the other side. 2. Over the past months John hasn’t felt like (herself/himself). 3. In 1896, a Greek woman presented (herself/sheself) as an entrant in the Olympic Marathon. 4. We asked (ourselves/weselves) what she intended to do.
SUN_INICIAIS VOL 3.indd 4
WARMďšşUP You are going to read a text about the galaxies in the universe. Discuss the following questions with your classmates. 1. What is a galaxy? 2. What is the name of the galaxy where we live? 3. Are galaxies static or do they move?
UNIT 02.indd 17
Unit 2 Un
One of the biggest galaxy collisions ever observed is taking place at the center of this image.
Monster galaxy pileup Four galaxies are slamming into each other in one of the largest cosmic smash-ups ever observed. Collisions, or mergers, between galaxies are common in the universe. Gravity causes some galaxies to tangle and ultimately unite over a period of millions of years. “Most of the galaxy mergers are like compact cars crashing together,” said Kenneth Rines of the Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass. “What we have here is like four sand trucks smashing together, flinging sand everywhere.” Mergers between one big galaxy and several small ones are well documented. One example is the Spiderweb galaxy – a massive galaxy that is catching dozens of small ones in its “web” of gravity. The new merger was discovered by chance during a survey of a distant cluster of galaxies located nearly five billion light-years away.
UNIT 02.indd 18
The telescope first spotted a large plume of light coming out of a grouping of four galaxies. Three of the galaxies are about the size of the Milky Way, while the fourth is three times as big. â€œWhen this merger is complete, it will have formed one of the biggest galaxies in the universe,â€? said Rines. In five billion years our Milky Way galaxy will have teamed up with the Andromeda galaxy. For more information, please visit: www.nasa.gov Source: www.nasa.gov
READING Before you read, take a look at the text page and guess. The text is about: 1. new galaxies 2. galaxy collisions 3. a space monster Scan the text to find the names of three galaxies.
Scan the text to find three words related to astronomy.
Read the text again.
Keywords cluster fling pileup plume sand spiderweb
agrupamento arremessar engavetamento pluma areia teia de aranha
UNIT 02.indd 19
Unit 2 Un
AFTER READING A
Check the correct meaning of the expressions in bold letters.
1. [...] galaxies are slamming into each other [...] a) dentro de cada uma
b) umas contra as outras
c) nem uma nem outra
2. What we have here is like four sand trucks [...] a) criada
3. This was discovered by chance during a survey. a) por acaso
Answer the questions.
1. How many years does it take for galaxies to collide? 2. What galaxy is catching dozens of small galaxies? 3. According to the text, how many galaxies are going to collide? 4. How many years will it take for the Milky Way to merge with Andromeda?
True or False?
) Mergers between galaxies are rare occurrences.
) Gravity is the force that attracts galaxies to each other.
) A galaxy merger is similar to a car crash.
) There is no documentation about galaxy mergers.
) Monster, in the title, means enormous.
) The new merger was discovered because of exact calculations.
) The telescope ﬁrst spotted a plume of light.
) Andromeda will merge with the Milky Way.
Releia o texto e, juntamente com um ou dois colegas, responda às seguintes questões.
1. Por que os astros exercem tanto fascínio sobre o ser humano? 2. O estudo dos astros contribui para melhorar a vida na Terra? 3. Em sua opinião, os recursos gastos em explorações espaciais deveriam ser utilizados na eliminação da fome e da pobreza?
UNIT 02.indd 20
Reading strategies checklist work on this text.
Check the strategies you used to
h/text). Make predictions (about paragrap . Ask (mentally) your own questions ext. cont the Find the meaning of words in
Scan the text page. Scan for immediate information. Scan for vocabulary.
Find the meaning of words in the
h/text). Skim for the general idea (paragrap
WORD POWER A
Complete the sentences with the words in the boxes. Milky Way
1. Ancient navigators used the
2. There are many artiďŹ cial 3.
in orbit around the Earth. is the name of the galaxy where we live.
4. Mars and Venus are
of the Solar System.
is our source of light and heat.
Match the columns with synonyms.
) ďŹ nally
4. team up
Fill in the blanks with the words in the boxes. between
1. Three of the galaxies are
about the size of the Milky Way.
2. The new merger was discovered 3. Collisions 4. Gravity causes galaxies to unite 5. Four galaxies are smashing
a survey of clusters. galaxies are common. a period of millions of years. each other.
UNIT 02.indd 21
Unit 2 Un
STRUCTURE The future perfect tense WILL HAVE + verbo no PARTICÍPIO PASSADO I will have walked You will have walked He will have walked She will have walked It will have walked We will have walked You will have walked They will have walked
Afirmativa: Interrogativa: Negativa:
He will have studied. Will he have studied? He will not have studied.
Uso Indica que uma ação (ou um acontecimento) terá ocorrido em determinado momento no futuro. By tomorrow I will have finished my examination. By January he will have bought his house. VERB TENSE REVIEW Imperative: Present continuous: Past continuous: Future – going to: Future continuous:
Study! She is studying now. She was studying 5 minutes ago. She is going to study next week. She’ll be studying at 5 o’clock.
Simple present: Simple past: Simple future:
She studies every morning. She studied yesterday. She will study tomorrow.
Present perfect: Past perfect: Future perfect:
She has studied for 2 hours. She had studied when I arrived. She will have studied when I get there.
SUN FACTFILE South America The largest astrobleme in
mes) are discovered on impact craters (astroble Each year about 3 to 5 new act craters: eight in there are eleven known imp Earth. In South America, impact craters in the all and one in Chile. Of Brazil, two in Argentina the oldest and the t, ges lar the is ás Goi a Dome in South America, Araguainh best known. 00 km2, with a diameter area of approximately 1,3 Araguainha Dome covers an of 40 km. tures in Brazil. In: J. Pohl (ed.) Sources: Crósta, A. P. Impact struc ct structures. Wiesbaden, impa strial terre in arch Rese . p. 30-38. www.unb.br 1987 , Sohn & eg View
UNIT 02.indd 22
Read the text and ﬁll in the blanks with the future perfect or the future continuous tense of the verbs to land and to ﬁnish.
Captain’s announcement Good afternoon, passengers. This is your captain speaking. Welcome to Goodwings Flight 77A. We are currently cruising at an altitude of 33,000 feet and at an air speed of 400 miles per hour. The time is 1:25 pm. in Paris approximately fifteen minutes ahead of schedule. The weather looks good and we The weather in Paris is clear and sunny, with a high of 25 degrees for this afternoon. If the weather cooperates we will get a great view of the city as we descend. The cabin crew will be coming around in about twenty minutes’ time, and they the snack and beverage service before we start the in-flight movie. I’ll talk to you again before we reach our destination. Until then, sit back, relax and enjoy your flight.
Read the text again and:
1. underline the verbs in the simple present tense, and 2. circle the verbs in the simple future tense.
Supply the future perfect of the verbs in parentheses. Follow the model.
will have bought
(buy) that book by the time you come back. (meet) the new teacher by the end of the week.
3. By 2 o’clock tomorrow she
(read) my letter.
4. By the time he comes back, I 5.
(ﬁnish) my homework.
(have) a shower by the time I arrive? (meet) Paul tomorrow at this time.
7. When you meet him tomorrow, I 8. How many people
(tell) him the good news. you
(interview) by 11:00 a.m.?
Combine the sentences. Follow the example. I will tell your mother the truth at 5:00 p.m. You will arrive at 6 o’clock.
I will have told your mother the truth by the time you arrive. 1. Bob will replace the money in the morning. His father will ﬁnd out about it in the afternoon. 2. Nancy will make a cake at 2:00 p.m. You will arrive at 2:30. 3. The movie will start at 9:00 p.m. We will get there by 9:15.
UNIT 02.indd 23
Unit 2 Un
Supply the simple present, present perfect or simple past tense of the verbs in parentheses.
(put) all his toys in the garage every evening.
2. What time
(live) in London since last summer.
(teach) English since she graduated from college.
5. Don and Jill 6.
(get) married three months ago. you
(hurt) your head in the accident last week?
7. Sometimes people
(migrate) to other places because of economic opportunities.
8. She always 9. “
(complain) about the city sanitation services. you
(see) Jane recently?” (see) her yesterday at the supermarket.”
all the kids
“Don’t worry! Dad
(begin) last night?
(go)? I can’t ﬁnd them anywhere.”
(take) them to the park.”
Supply the simple past or past perfect tense of the verbs in parentheses.
1. We 2. I
(give) the information to him when she called.
(drive) a vehicle yesterday that I
3. Their economy
(drive – negative) before.
(grow) 3% a year last decade.
4. That wasn’t the ﬁrst time I
(wear) my mother’s dress. I
(wear) it for my graduation party.
you and Mike
(have) a good time at the concert
Supply the present continuous, past continuous or future continuous tense of the verbs in parentheses.
1. Mr. Collins
(bring) the table to this room when I met him.
(show) her new paintings at the art gallery a week from today.
(sell) at the street market this morning?
(plan) a trip to Canada with my parents.
(bake) a cake, Mom?”
“Yes, I am. Why?” “Can I have a slice when it’s ready?” “Sure. Where will you be?” “I
(study) in my room.”
6. “Did you hear about the accident at school yesterday?” “Yes. It was awful! Some kids
(talk) under a tree when it fell down on them.”
UNIT 02.indd 24
Units 1 to 3
Choose the correct alternative.
1. Come on! You’re an adult. You a) should
behave like a child.
2. I’ve just got an emergency call. I a) used to
go right now.
b) need to
3. Alice doesn’t visit us anymore. But she a) mustn’t
c) needn’t visit us almost every week.
c) used to
4. When our car broke in the middle of the road, Jack said, ‘Don’t worry. I’ll walk to the nearest gas station. I
a) am used to
b) used to
her some ﬂowers if I
a) would buy – had
6. If you
c) am not used to
money. b) would buy – have
here that night, you
c) bought – have
a) were – would have seen b) had been – would have seen c) had been – would see
7. If I
you were coming, I
Jerry and we
a) knew – would call – would have had b) knew – would call – would have c) would know – would call – had
their homework by the time we get there.
a) will ﬁnish
to stay in bed if she wanted to recover from her cold.
a) will have
b) had had
10. If I had had time I a) would go
c) will have ﬁnished
c) would have
to the dentist. b) would have gone
c) will go
Complete the sentences with the appropriate two-word verb. take back
1. What do you
? Do you really think I’m some kind of idiot?
2. You’ve borrowed this book so long ago! It is time for you to
3. Our old dollhouse in the backyard is about to fall over, so mom and dad are going to it
4. I miss you already, honey… I won’t leave the airport untill I see your plane 5. I’m not very good at Geography, so I usually
whatever the teacher says during
6. If he doesn’t
what he said about my girlfriend, I swear I’ll hit him!
UNIT 03.indd 33
Check the correct alternatives.
1. She is used to
to school by bus.
2. I’II go crazy if the kids don’t stop a) to cry
b) to crying
3. They need not
permission to go to the party.
a) to ask
4. I wanted to go with you,
I won’t have time.
5. They used to
basketball when they were children.
6. Man places artiﬁcial
around the Earth.
7. We learned basic mathematics a) into
a period of 5 years.
8. The word massive is synonym with the word a) grouping
9. The Sun is a
10. That car crashed
the wall of my house in the accident.
11. The girls wanted to put a) down
new clothes to go to the party. b) on
12. The verb run away is a synonym for the verb a) escape
c) go out
13. Trousers is the same as a) dress
14. I won’t talk to him if he a) hadn’t come
to my party. b) doesn’t come
c) didn’t come
15. The word last is the opposite of the word a) after
16. We can’t leave without a) to ask
b) ﬁrst for permission. b) asking
17. We met at the cafeteria and stopped to a) talking
c) answering . c) talk
Respostas na página 126.
UNIT 03.indd 34
Exam practice (PE–Unicap) The tree is a beautiful machine that works for the benefit of humanity, animals, and plants. Most forms of life on Earth need oxygen. We do not get oxygen from industrial machines. We get it from the tree machine. Trees make the oxygen that we need to take from the air. Industrial machines pollute the air. Trees do not pollute it. On the contrary, they clean it. The industrial machine makes a lot of noise. The tree machine does not make any noise. On the contrary, it filters noise. The tree machine does not need coal, oil, gas or electricity to work. Its fuel comes from water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide. When a tree dies, it helps new plants. The combination of water, insects, and microorganisms in the soil causes the decomposition of the tree. When a tree dies, it gives nutrients to the soil for other trees to use as fuel. So, the tree does not die, really. It recycles its substances for the benefit of all animal and plant life. Please remember: the tree is your friend. Do not destroy it. (Adapted from Science and Children, Washington, D.C., National Science Teachers Association)
1. De acordo com o texto (
( ( ( (
) ) ) )
) ) ) )
V V V V
( ( ( (
F F F F
The combination of water, insects, and microorganisms in the soil compounds the tree machine. Industrial machines never give us the oxygen we need to breathe. When a tree dies, it recycles its substances for our beneﬁt. Industrial machines use water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide as fuel. The tree machine ﬁlters noise. In fact, it makes no noise.
2. Complete as frases com a(s) alternativa(s) corretas: If I and I ( )V ( )V ( )V ( )V ( )V
( ( ( ( (
a rich man I
to work as hard. ) F was / will be able / more / would have ) F wasn’t / would be able / more / would have ) F were / would be able / more / wouldn’t have ) F were / will be able / less / will have ) F were / would be able / less / would have
(DF–UnB) Plato: ideas and contributions 1
Plato was born into a wealthy Athenian family and planned to become a politician. As he grew older, he became repulsed by the brutal and unethical practices of Athenian dictators. In 399 B.C. he left Athens when his friend Socrates was sentenced to death. Twelve years later, he founded a school of philosophy and science called the Academy, the first university. Plato is famous for his written dialogues, conversations between two or more characters debating philosophical issues. His earliest dialogues utilize Socrates as the main character who questions others on their beliefs and ideas. Plato’s philosophy was based on his theory of a
SUN_EXAM VOL3.indd 113
Irregular verbs INFINITIVO
vencer, derrotar; bater (coração)
soprar, apagar (velas)
lutar, brigar, resistir
arremessar, lançar, empurrar
SUN_VERBOS VOL3.indd 129
Maxi glossary Os verbos assinalados com asterisco são irregulares. admire: admirar
among: entre (vários) amount: quantidade, quantia
a bit: um pouquinho
advertise: anunciar, fazer anúncio ou propaganda
a bunch: um monte, um grupo
amputee: pessoa que teve algum membro amputado
a few: alguns, algumas
advertising: propaganda, publicidade
an: um, uma
a little: um pouco
advice: conselho, orientação (subst)
a little while: um pouco (de tempo)
advise: orientar, informar; aconselhar
a long way to go: muito o que fazer
adviser, advisor: orientador, conselheiro
a lot: muito
affair: assunto, questão
a quarter: um quarto
a while: um pouquinho (de tempo)
afford: permitir-se, poder, ter o bastante para
afraid: com medo
anger: zanga, raiva, ira
abnormal: anormal, anômalo
angry: bravo, irado
aboard: a bordo de
afternoon: tarde (parte do dia)
about: aproximadamente, quase; sobre, a respeito de
again: mais uma vez, de novo
ankle-sock: meia soquete
again and again: muitas vezes
anniversary: aniversário (de casamento, de fundação, etc.)
abroad: no exterior
age: idade, era, época, século (subst); envelhecer (verbo)
ageless: que não envelhece
annoyed: aborrecido, irritado
abuse: abuso, uso excessivo (subst); abusar, tratar mal (verbo)
agency: agência; departamento
another: outro, outra
answer: resposta (subst); responder (verbo)
ago: atrás (no tempo)
access: acesso (subst); ter acesso (verbo)
ahead: à frente, para diante, em frente
ailing: doente (pessoa); em diﬁculdade ﬁnanceira (empresa)
anymore: não mais, nenhum mais
aim: intenção (subst); pretender, ter como objetivo (verbo)
apart: separado; distante
air: ar (subst); ir ao ar, ser veiculado (verbo)
airline: linha aérea
alive: vivo all: todos, tudo
apple of somebody’s eye: menina dos olhos, xodó
A a: um, uma
according to: de acordo com account for: ser responsável por, representar ache: dor (subst); doer (verbo) achieve: conseguir, alcançar achievement: conquista acquire: adquirir across: através, de um lado ao outro, do outro lado (da rua)
anything: qualquer coisa appear: aparecer, parecer
application: aplicação, pedido
act: ato (subst); agir, comportar-se, atuar (verbo)
all over: todo; inteiro
apply for: candidatar-se a
all the way: até o ﬁnal
appointment: hora marcada
action: medida, ação
allowance: mesada; permissão
apprehension: apreensão, medo
actually: na verdade
alone: só, sozinho
approach: método, abordagem (subst); aproximar-se (verbo)
add: somar, acrescentar
aloft: no ar, fora do chão
along: ao longo de, junto
along the side: ao lado
addictive: que vicia
address: endereço (subst); dirigir a palavra, fazer discurso (verbo)
argue: argumentar, brigar
although: embora, apesar de
argument: discussão, briga
adjusted: ajustado, adaptado
around: em volta; aproximadamente
Amazon: Amazonas, amazônico
around the world: no mundo inteiro
SUN_GLOSSARIO VOL3.indd 132