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WORLDWIDE

N. Mitrano-Neto Marise Loureiro M. Alice Antunes

2a edição

INGLÊS PARA O ENSINO MÉDIO

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ENGLISH AROUND THE WORLD

A

0

How important is English in today’s world? Which nations use English as a first language? Why is English important in Brazil?

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into READING

Há duas maneiras de se extrair rapidamente a informação de um texto em inglês: dizemos skim e scan a text. Usamos skim quando desejamos entender o sentido geral de um texto e scan quando queremos extrair alguma informação mais específica contida nele.

Reading

In pairs or groups, discuss these questions: Do you know where the English language came from? Can you guess? Scan the text and underline the parts that provide the answers to the questions that guided your initial discussion.

Fact Sheet: The origins of English The history of the English language started with the invasion of Britain by three Germanic tribes in the 5th century AD: the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes. They came across the North Sea from what is today Denmark and northern Germany. At that time the people of Britain were the Celts who spoke a Celtic language. The invaders pushed them to the north and west of the British Isles. Centuries later, the Vikings, coming from what is today Norway, also invaded the east of Britain. The words England and English come from the Angles: they came from a region called Englaland and they spoke a language called Englisc. If we stop to analyze modern English in depth, we will be able to trace back influences from all these languages in addition to Latin because the Romans occupied Britain from 55 BC to 436 AD. However, we cannot say English is a Romance language because WORD FORCE its structure is Germanic although the Latin push: empurrar (pull = puxar) in depth: em profundidade influence can be felt in some of the vocabulary in addition to: além de we still use nowadays. however: entretanto although: embora BC (before Christ): antes de Cristo (AC) Based on http://www.englishclub.com/english-language-history.html (accessed on January 23, 2009)

6

AD (Anno Domini, em Latim): depois de Cristo (DC)

Unit 0 • A

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Reading Comprehension

1 Are the following statements true (T) or false (F)? a) (

) We can say the emergence of the English language dates back to the Roman invasion.

b) (

) The Celts came to Britain with the Jutes.

c) (

) The Celts also spoke a Germanic language.

d) (

) Modern English exhibits no trace of its Roman linguistic heritage.

e) (

) The Angles, Saxons and Jutes were Germanic peoples who invaded Britain in the 5th century AD.

2 Fill in the blanks according to the passage. a) The word English comes from the

gain

.

b) The Celts were pushed by the invaders into what is today and .

Quando falamos as datas em inglês, usamos os números ordinais tanto para nos referirmos a um determinado dia (7th August 2009), quanto para fazermos referência aos séculos. Então dizemos, por exemplo, que 7th August 2009 está no 21st century e o ano 1880 no 19th century.

c) Most of the Latin influence upon modern English is .

in the area of

into VOCABULARY

3 The title of the text contains the phrase Fact Sheet. This type of text: a) contains all information available about a certain topic. b) only gives basic information about a topic. c) can only be found on the Internet.

NORWAY Vikings Scotland

SWEDEN Ireland

North rrth Sea

Jutes

DENMARK Germanic invasions of the 5th century

BRITAIN Wales

England

Angles

Saxons

N

GERMANY

W

E S

FRANCE

120 km

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PB


Vocabulary Insight 1

Numbers and Nationalities

1 Look at the timeline of the history of English and write (in words) the years and the century in which each event occurred. Remember to use ordinal numbers for the centuries.

Julius Caesar invades Britain 55 BC

1 AD Event a

Romans leave Britain 436 AD Roman occupation begins 43 BC

200 AD Year

400 AD

600 AD

Century

Roman invasion (or Romans invade Britain)

b c d

four hundred forty-nine AD

e f g

gain

14th century (fourteenth)

into VOCABULARY

Quando um evento se prolonga entre duas datas, usamos between. Por exemplo, The occupation occurred between 55 and 43 AD. Lembre-se, ainda, de que no período antes de Cristo, os anos e séculos são contados de trás para frente.

8

Unit 0 • A

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Germanic tribes start invading Britain 449 AD

The first writings in Old English appear 450-480 AD

English is used in Parliament for the first time 1362 AD

English replaces Latin in schools 1348 AD

800 AD

1000 AD

1200 AD

1400 AD

Countries - Nationalities - Languages Country

Nationality

Language

Group A

China

-ese Chinese

-ese Chinese

Group B

England

-ish English

-ish English

Group C

Italy

-an Italian

-an Italian

Group D

Iceland

-ic Icelandic

-ic Icelandic

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PB


2 Decide which group(s), from the box on page 9, the following nations belong to and write the corresponding nationality and language. Note that some will not follow the pattern completely: a few changes will be necessary.

Country

Nationality

Language

Group

Spain Portugal

Portuguese

Germany Japan Russia Canada

English and French

Brazil

C/A

The United States Saudi Arabia Denmark

gain

into VOCABULARY

Lembre-se de que, em inglês, os nomes de países, nacionalidades e línguas são grafados com LETRA INICIAL MAIÚSCULA.

10

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ON-LINE

A

1

How do you imagine people exchanged information before the age of the Internet? What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of the IT era? Which are the good sides and which are the bad sides of the IT era?

Unit 1 • A

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Reading Look at the two cartoons and, in pairs or groups, discuss the following: Can the cartoons answer any of the questions you discussed earlier? Which ones?

B

A

WORD FORCE checking account: conta-corrente distressed: perturbada, ansiosa do a good deed: fazer uma boa ação

Reading Comprehension gain The @ symbol, used in electronic message addresses, means “at” in English. “Used to” means “costumava”; so, when I say “I used to smoke”, I’m saying “I don’t smoke any longer, but I did in the past”.

1 In addition to their obvious layout, what else characterizes the texts above as cartoons?

18

2 Are these statements true (T) or false (F)? a) (

) The boy in A wasn’t sure he had helped the woman.

b) (

) The boy’s mother in A didn’t know he had revealed information about her bank account.

c) (

) The woman in A was trying to pass for a widow.

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Exam Practice

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into VESTIBULAR

Muitas questões de vestibular procuram avaliar se o leitor é capaz de fazer inferências a partir do texto e do contexto. Em outras palavras, temos de saber ler nas entrelinhas.

1 We can infer that the woman in cartoon A: a) is Nigerian.

c) is not lying.

b) is not necessarily Nigerian.

Um outro tipo de questão frequentemente usado está relacionado ao conceito de referência, isto é, a como os pronomes relativos (who, which, that) that são usados para fazer referência a algo dito anteriormente.

2 We can infer that the man in cartoon B: a) reads the whole newspaper every day. b) only reads a specific section of the paper. c) is not interested in reading the paper at all.

3 Which of the following do you think could apply to cartoon B?

Lembre-se, então, de que inferência e referência são elementos muito importantes!

a) The IT era is gradually changing our reading habits. b) No one wants to read any more. c) Dogs are stupid animals.

4 Who in cartoon A is used to refer to: a) the “Nigerian” woman. b) the “Nigerian” woman’s husband. c) the checking account.

for past exams see www.richmond.com.br/vestibulares

d) the boy’s mother.

Vocabulary Insight 1 Attention getters

Notice how the boy in cartoon A refers to his mother. “Hey, Mom, I did a good deed…” “Hey” is an attention-getter. An attention-getter is a word or phrase which is used to call our interlocutor’s attention. Some are informal (such as hey) and some others are used in more formal situations.

1 Complete the sentences with the appropriate attention-getters. Hey

Excuse me

Excuse me, please.

Dad

honey

a) A woman talking to her husband: , what time do you think we should leave tomorrow?”

“Say,

b) Someone talking to a shop worker: “

, can I have two pounds of apples, please?”

c) A boy talking to his father: “

, can I borrow the car tonight, please?”

d) Two strangers in a public place: A: “

B: “Oh, sorry, I didn’t realize I was blocking the way.” A: “That’s all right.” e) A daughter talking to her mother: “

, Mom, do you think I should wear the red dress to the party on Sunday?” Unit 1 • A

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PB


Insight into Prepositions 1 The man is walking to the door.

He’s climbing onto the roof. Door é um ponto; o homem está em movimento, seguindo em direção a esse ponto; em casos assim, usa-se a preposição to.

Roof é uma superfície: o homem está em movimento, subindo nessa superfície; em casos assim, usa-se a preposição onto.

The man is walking into the room.

The lady is waiting at the bus stop. Bus stop é um ponto; a senhora está parada neste ponto, por isso usamos at.

Room é um espaço fechado; o homem está em movimento, entrando nesse espaço; em casos assim, usa-se into.

She is standing on the platform.

She’s in the waiting room.

Platform é uma superfície; ela está parada sobre essa superfície, por isso usamos on.

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Waiting room é um espaço fechado; ela está parada dentro desse espaço fechado, por isso usamos in.

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1 Complete the sentences below with these prepositions: to, at, in,

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into, on and onto. a) Don’t let the cat jump b) Louise is swimming

the lake.

c) John is sending an e-mail

In other English speaking countries, people say “in the street”.

his boss.

d) Why is she standing

the door?

e) You need to move this file

that folder.

f ) Kids! Please don’t play g) Move the books

In the United States, people say “on the street”.

the chair. She’ll ruin it.

the sofa; it’s not a toy! the second shelf.

h) The kids are playing

the street.

i)

I’ll be

the concert tonight.

j)

Walk

the office and meet me

the front door.

2 Make six phrases matching columns A, B and C. Then check

gain

your answers with a classmate. A

B

Verbo to be (am / are / is) + verbo principal seguido de ing descreve uma ação que ocorre no momento da fala:

C

Paul is driving

in

home

He is running

at

the door

Sheila is

on

the garage

The teacher is standing

into

the road

He is walking

onto

the bedroom

The children are playing

to

the park

Insight into Prepositions 2

She is walking to the door. = Ela está caminhando para a porta. They are jumping onto the table. = Eles estão pulando na mesa.

TIP

Look at the following phrase:

“... an Internet connection which allows me to literally fly across the Web.” Across means “de um lado a outro”. Take a look at these examples:

below abaixo de under embaixo de

There’s a

The dog is lying under the table.

computer below that old bookshelf. That could be dangerous!

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beside ao lado de

in front of em frente de, na frente

She is sitting beside the teacher.

A Mercedes is parked in front of our house.

behind atrás de

through através de The Sun disappeared behind the clouds. He drove his car like a maniac through the tunnel.

above acima de opposite do outro lado, no lado oposto, diante de

The painting is above the sofa.

He is sitting opposite John at the table.

1 Complete the gaps with above, below, under, opposite, in front of, beside, through or behind, so that the sentences make sense. a) I think the sofa should be placed

the TV set; it makes more sense.

b) John hid the book

the sofa. I wonder why.

c) Please don’t walk

me; I’ve already stepped on your foot twice!

d) Stand e) You can go

me so they can see us both. there and then to your right; you should be able to find her in there.

f ) He was trying to swim

the river to see what was moving on the other side.

g) Summer is between December and March h) That’s a nice rug

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i)

He’s building a house

j)

The hole in the ozone layer is right

the equator. the coffee table. the beach. Antarctica.

For more practice with prepositions see the Richmond Grammar Practice CD Rom.

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Unit1

BB

Look at this emoticon: Do you know what it means? What do you think the acronym “b4” means? In what kind of texts do we usually find emoticons and acronyms? Why? Do you use them frequently? (Why / why not)?

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PB


Reading

Describe your ideal laptop to your partner. Do you use the same features on a computer? Now quickly read the e-mail below and discuss this question: Would you say José Paulo’s new laptop is what you’d like to have? Why? Why not?

To: CC: Subject:

Hi Pat, Sup? Guess what? I bought a new laptop yesterday. It’s so cool

!

This is the first e-mail message I’ve written on it, so I hope it’ll get to you without any problems. The Internet connection is out of this world. It has a wireless broadband connection which allows me to literally fly across the web. I can also connect my mp3 player to it b/c it has two USB ports. Also, there’s a webcam which works beautifully with AIM

. Now I can see who I’m chatting to. You

must come and see it sometime. BTW do you think you can return that USB cable I lent you asap? I need it for my mp3 player. TY. Cya. José Paulo zezinho@dotnet.com.br

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Reading Comprehension

1 Answer the following questions.

a) Why is José Paulo sending an e-mail to Pat? b) What does the second emoticon mean?

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Unit 1 • B

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2 Are these statements true (T) or false (F)? a) (

) José Paulo’s new laptop is a good one.

c) (

) José Paulo likes chatting with people on the web.

b) (

) José Paulo doesn’t like to use emoticons.

d) (

) José Paulo’s Internet connection is fast.

3 Replace the acronyms in the e-mail message with one of the words or phrases found on the list below. thank you

talk to you later

check your e-mail

by the way

as soon as possible

what’s up? spelling

between see you

because write back

To: CC: Subject:

Hi Pat, ? Guess what? I bought a new laptop yesterday. It´s so cool! This is the first e-mail message I’ve written on it, so I hope it’ll get to you without any problems. The Internet connection is out of this world. It has a wireless broadband connection which allows me to literally fly across the web. I can also connect my mp3 player to it it has two USB ports. Also, there’s a webcam which works beautifully with AIM. Now I can see who I’m chatting to. You must come and see it sometime.

do you think you

can return that USB cable I lent you

? I need it

for my mp3 player. . .

José Paulo zezinho@dotnet.com.br _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

gain TIP

into READING

Para entender os acrônimos, use o contexto e/ou analise a frase em que eles estão inseridos. Isso ajuda bastante.

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Vocabulary Insight 2

Words with more than one meaning

Observe como estas palavras têm sentido específico quando usadas na área de informática: • Web é uma teia, como as de aranha, por exemplo, e por analogia a palavra passou a ser usada para designar a grande rede de computadores da Internet. • Surf significa onda e surfing é o esporte que nos faz deslizar sobre as ondas; daí o termo ser usado para exprimir a ideia de “surfar” (ir) de site em site pela Internet. • Host significa hospedeiro, anfitrião, e no contexto de informática refere-se ao computador que abriga e controla um site na Internet.

TIP

1 Faça uma lista de palavras que tenham sentido específico na área de informática. Depois, compare-a com as dos outros alunos. Há algum termo que vocês desconheciam?

2 Match the words with the pictures.

2

1

(

) mouse

(

) driver

(

) drive

(

) menu

(

) bookmark

3

5 4

3 Use the words above to complete these sentences: a) My printer isn’t working; I need a new

for it.

b) To save a document you must first pull down the file c) These are my favorite sites. They are on my list of d) I definitely need a new CD-ROM

and then click on “save as” with the

.

.

because mine keeps spitting out CDs at its own free will.

WORD FORCE pull down: abrir (o menu)

gain

into

spit out: cuspir

VOCABULARY

Muitos termos em informática são empréstimos do inglês e não foram traduzidos para o português. Por exemplo: drive, driver, mouse, laptop, etc. Em geral, esses termos são utilizados em inglês e pronunciados de maneira distinta da original, pois já foram incorporados ao nosso idioma.

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Grammar Insight

To Be

1 Read the following e-mail message. First try to understand its general meaning. Then fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb to be.

To:

Hi, my name João Alberto. I Brazilian but I living in Buenos Aires at the moment. I live with my parents and twin sisters who two years younger. Before moving to Argentina, I happy living by the sea in the northeast of Brazil. Now I living in a city that interesting but cold most of the year and too far from the ocean. My sisters always sad in Brazil and say they always happy in Argentina. They just love it here. I tall and slim. I have brown hair and brown eyes and, most importantly, I always trying to look on the bright side of things. I like all sorts of sports and hope that one day I one of the Olympic athletes to win a gold medal for Brazil.

2 Make these sentences negative. a) That’s great news. b) Miranda is a programmer. c) My friends were chatting during the lesson. d) We are optimistic. e) Charlotte will be here at 3 o’clock. f ) I find his argument convincing.

3 Make these sentences interrogative. a) His sneakers are very expensive. b) This is the news I read in the paper yesterday. c) Sarah will be in room 3.

gain more

into “TO BE”

Lembre-se de que you é usado tanto para a segunda pessoa do singular quanto para a segunda pessoa do plural. Na prática, quando é plural, há quase sempre alguma indicação adicional, por exemplo: you all, you guys, all of you, you people, you folks, etc.

d) Paulo and Pedro were good at English. e) It isn’t his birthday today.

If you have any doubts about verb forms, find further information in the Grammar Reference section on page 323.

Unit 1 • B

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PB


Writing e-mails

Why do you think cellphones (especially Smart Phones) and laptops are so popular nowadays? What do you think a Smart Phone should be able to do in order to be considered “cool”?

In your notebook, write an e-mail to someone you know. You want to impress them with your new Smart Phone. Make sure you mention everything you can do with it. Here’s a list of words and phrases that you can use: GPS

maps application

wifi (wireless)

3G network broadband

push e-mail

to surf the net

The e-mail in Part B is a good model for your text.

gain • Emoticons can be replaced with graphic combinations, such as: :) = I’m happy.

:o = I’m shocked.

:( = I’m sad.

Look for more on the Internet. • Americans tend to say “cellphone” whereas the British generally prefer the term “mobile phone.”

for the listening activity linked to this unit, turn to page 362.

In this unit you have... gained insight into computing and information technology, especially emoticons and acronyms in e-mails. read two types of text reflecting two widely used discourse genres: cartoons and e-mail messages. found out that questions involving inference as well as reference are frequently used in the vestibular. You should watch out for them!

28

learned that attention-getters are important words or phrases to catch someone’s attention and that a number of words used in computing have two meanings.

revised and practiced the verb to be − present, past and future.

practice using prepositions that establish relationships in space.

written an e-mail to tell a friend about that “cool” Smart Phone of yours.

listened to a tutorial on how to use the mouse and learned about “clicking,” “double clicking” and “dragging.”

Unit 1 • B

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b) 1,592

a) He (be) the 1990’s.

c) 12th d) 1st

b) Paul (go) wife last night.

e) 82

2 Complete the sentences with an appropriate nationality adjective. (Remember that ALL nationality adjectives in English start with a capital letter). a) The football team is very well respected in the world. is spoken throughout the world because of it’s economic importance.

c) There are many families of extraction living in the South of Brazil. d) I have an appointment at the consulate later today. e)

football is very different to soccer.

f ) My favorite lesson at school is my lesson.

3 Rewrite these sentences using contracted forms

c) We (decide) night because of the rain.

0-4

in brackets (simple present or simple past – affirmative or negative).

a) 33rd

b)

4 Choose the appropriate form of the verbs

UNITS

1 Write the following numbers in words.

SELF STUDY born in New York in shopping with his to stay home last

d) They (not play) at the concert last week because two of the players (be) ill. e) They (not like) they (find) f ) Nobody (know) is life on other planets. g) He (drink) night that he (not go) this morning.

English food; it bland. whether there so much beer last work

5 Fill in the blanks with an appropriate preposition. a) I hate driving it’s scary!

long tunnels;

b) I thought I had lost my earphones, but Mark found them his bed.

wherever possible.

c) All this furniture must be moved the bedroom.

a) November is not the last month of the year. November

d) David had to climb roof to rescue his cat.

b) They are not cousins.

e) She lives

the her uncle’s farm.

c) They said she was not their niece. d) We are sure this is correct. e) They do not know what to do. f ) She does not always agree with him. g) I was not happy with his decision. h) You are expected to call them back. i)

Our names were not on the list.

“He was a superstar in the 1970’s.” Self Study • 0-4

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0-4

SELF STUDY

UNITS

6 Make these sentences interrogative.

10 One of these sentences is correct. Which one? Correct the wrong sentences.

a) They’ll be back soon.

a) She work in a government ministry. b) Mary’s Paul’s niece. b) I sometimes goes to school by car. c) They’re both English. c) How many brothers and sisters have you? d) They were ready before 6 o'clock. d) I usually read before I go to sleep. e) Samantha was a great dancer in the past. e) My father don’t speak English very well.

7 Check the correct sentences then correct the

f ) Find you math difficult?

wrong ones. a) I’m do my homework now.

g) Does John knows how to play the guitar?

b) Why you are using my computer?

11 Translate into English. c) It’s raining again.

a) Eu gosto de animais, mas não gosto de cuidar deles.

d) Is she talking to her mom on the phone? b) Ela canta como um anjo. e) Your talking very quietly. I can’t hear you. c) Ele fala ou francês ou espanhol, não me lembro.

8 Complete the sentences so that they are true for

d) Como não estudei muito, não passei na prova.

you. a) I

football.

b) I

English.

12 Decide if these sentences refer to ability (A),

c) I really enjoy

.

request (R), permission (P) or possibility (Po).

d) I’m fond of my

.

a) Can you turn the TV on for me, please? ( b) My mom can play the piano very well. (

e) I’m absolutely fascinated by .

9 Add prefixes and suffixes to these words and then use the new words to complete the sentences. a) attract – My grandfather was a very man when he was young. b) understand – Please don’t I’m saying, but you acted badly. c) care – Be line.

c) It can get very cold in winter. ( d) He can’t sleep in his new bed. (

) )

) )

e) Don’t worry you can give me the money next week. ( ) f ) I can’t come out tonight. I have to visit my uncle. (

)

what

when buying things on

d) polite – Some people can be very e) connect – I don’t have broadband so I have to from the Internet to use the phone. f ) possible – My sister is intelligent girl in the school. 66

the most

“I usually read before I go to sleep.”

Self Study • 0-4

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Grammar Reference

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Irregular Verbs List Infinitive arise awake beat become begin bend bet bite bleed blow break bring build burn buy catch choose come cut deal dig draw drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find fly forbid forget forgive freeze get give go grow hang hear hide hit hold hurt keep know lay lead

360

Past tense arose awoke beat became began bent bet bit bled blew broke brought built burnt bought caught chose came cut dealt dug drew drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbade forgot forgave froze got gave went grew hung heard hid hit held hurt kept knew laid led

Past participle arisen awoken beaten become begun bent bet bitten bled blown broken brought built burnt bought caught chosen come cut dealt dug drawn drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen got given gone grown hung heard hidden hit held hurt kept known laid led

Infinitive leave lend let lie light lose make mean meet pay put quit read rid ride ring rise run say see sell send set shake shine shoot shut sing sink sit sleep slide speak spend spread stand steal swear sweep swim take teach tell think throw understand wake wear write

Past tense left lent let lay lit lost made meant met paid put quit read rid rode rang rose ran said saw sold sent set shook shone shot shut sang sank sat slept slid spoke spent spread stood stole swore swept swam took taught told thought threw understood woke wore wrote

Past participle left lent let lain lit lost made meant met paid put quit read rid ridden rung risen run said seen sold sent set shaken shone shot shut sung sunk sat slept slid spoken spent spread stood stolen sworn swept swum taken taught told thought thrown understood woken worn written

Irregular Verbs List

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Insight flipbook la