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PEOPLE CHANGE PLACES.


Institute without boundaries

PEOPLE CHANGE PLACES. a revitalization plan for lota

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

6 BUILDING RESILIENCE AN IWB APPROACH

21 RESILIENT CITIES City Systems 2.0 Working Methods

Project Timeline Case Studies

RESEARCH SUMMARY

35 UNDERSTANDING LOTA Lota: Life and Times Field Research Key Findings

Lota: Today Municipality’s Strategic Plan for Lota’s Future Resilient Lota

65 design strategy yo soy lota

67 people Municipality of Lota Community Groups Community Leaders

the resilient master plan

71 change Response to Key Findings

BUILDING RESILIENCE

75 PLACES

Community Empowerment Public Space Enhancement Increased Mobility Housing Innovation

lota

process

133 next steps Implementation Summary 2011-2012 Workplan 142

references

Institutional Restoration Economic Prosperity Future Economic Growth Job Summary


The 2010–2011 academic year is the second year of the City Systems project at the Institute without Boundaries (IwB). This year’s project attempted to understand how to build more resilient cities. The team’s focus was on resolving the challenges facing Lota, a municipality in Chile. Lota was brought to the IwB’s attention by Latin American Canadian Art Projects (LACAP), a Toronto arts organization, who partnered with the city after the February 2010 earthquake. The complex and difficult problems facing this municipality were an ideal case study for the IwB’s interdisciplinary approach to whole systems design and social innovation.

A view of north Lota Alto. As a result of topographic conditions, urban development within the city boundaries is restricted. 6

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Lota is mysterious and friendly, timeless and vibrant, tragic and hopeful. There is enormous potential in Lota to both enhance existing assets and build on opportunities to create a resilient city. The team has prepared this revitalization plan to help catalyze this potential. Over the course of these eight months, the team has come to love Lota and its people and is humbled to have had the opportunity to help shape its future.

Lota Harbour as seen from the steps adjacent to one of the city’s piers. Lota’s proximity to the sea is a source of opportunity, but increases the risk of natural disasters. 8

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The team spent eight months eating, sleeping and breathing Lota to understand and resolve the challenges the community is facing. They used architectural, urban planning, economic and community-building skills to dream up ways to transform the city’s future. They studied its history and problems for eight weeks and spent 12 days walking its streets, talking to Lotinos and another eight months designing and imagining Lota’s possible future.

1. Jamie Black Bachelor of Arts (Hons.), geography

2. Robert Giusti Ontario College Advanced Diploma, architectural technology, Bachelor of Applied Technology, environmental compliance and regulations

5. Miki Seltzer Bachelor of Science, architecture and graphic design

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6. Payam Shalchian Bachelor of Industrial Design

7. Richelle Sibolboro Bachelor of Interior Design

3. Graeme Kondruss Ontario College Advanced Diploma, architectural technology

8. Sebastian Whyte

4. Lauren Miles

9. Apostolo Zeno

Bachelor of Arts (Hons.), art history and political studies 10

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Bachelor of Urban and Regional Planning

Bachelor of Arts (Hons.), sociology and urban studies PEOPLE CHANGE PLACES

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This revitalization plan for the community of Lota, Chile titled “People Change Places”, responds to planning and design challenges provided by the elected municipal government of Lota. Lota’s most important asset, its human capital, has been identified as the catalyst for this plan and for the future of the city. The recommendations herein are based on the citizens’ vision as understood through field research conducted by the IwB and its affiliates in Lota. The six strategic objectives and 16 projects feature implementation plans, designs and financial projections that reflect achievable goals that will maximize Lota’s human resources and capacity towards revitalizing its city. It all begins with people and the idea that Lotinos are Lota.

Community members participate in the Yo Soy Lota community communication campaign at the end of a week-long research and design workshop in Lota. 12

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The IwB has developed a City Systems matrix that explores the values and characteristics of a resilient city. This matrix was developed using Lota as a case study. As a city recovering from natural and economic disaster, Lota offers many lessons for other cities around the world. The matrix is a tool for understanding how global trends affect local contexts.

Young men cleaning up after a day at sea. A major economic driver for Lota, the fisheries can help encourage young adults to stay in Lota. 14

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People Change Places is a design strategy rooted in immediate collective action to catalyze the implementation of six strategic objectives that will foster resilience in Lota. Community Empowerment

institutional restoration

Community empowerment launches the revitalization plan through community programming; creating 100 leadership volunteer positions and a further 1,700 volunteer positions annually. Community empowerment is the foundation of all other strategies.

Institutional restorations support existing infrastructure and develop new institutions like recreational spaces designed to host Lota’s soccer team, the Schwager.

housing innovation Increased Mobility

Increased mobility and new transportation services integrate Lota regionally while providing new local transportation capacities for Lotinos and visitors. Six trains per day connect Lota to Concepción, while a ferry route with six docks and a bicycle-sharing network complete the integrated transportation network.

Public space enhancement

Public space enhancement restores a continuous path system along Lota’s natural and urban rings while protecting natural sites like the coast and providing a new identity and wayfinding system.

Five new housing typologies meet post-disaster and social housing needs. The Ministry of Housing and Planning (MINVU) subsidies and a live-work funding model finance a total of 1,600 new family and visitor dwellings.

economic prosperity

To create economic prosperity, the construction and redevelopment projects coupled with new industries and tourism development generate 1,800 immediate short-term jobs and another 1,000 long-term service, operation and manufacturing positions.

Lota’s Seventh-day Adventist elementary school (left) is located across from Hotel Ángel de Peredo, which hosted the IwB during its visit to Lota. While the hotel met basic needs, amenities and infrastructure for tourists need significant repairs and upgrades throughout the city. 16

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The projects and strategies laid out in this document represent a holistic approach to urban revitalization and represent eight months of thoughtful study and experimentation. With this plan and Lota’s potential, the IwB team proposes that Lota can become the most resilient city in Biobío.

This photograph, taken from a pathway connecting Lota Alto to Lota Bajo, shows the contrast between the valley that contains Lota Bajo and the hills and dense forests—which support Lota’s logging industry—surrounding the city. 18

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an iwb approach

an IwB Approach

Resilient Cities In order to thrive, cities and their populations must be flexible, adaptable and ultimately resilient to social, economic and environmental shifts. As a postindustrial, post-disaster city, Lota provides a rich opportunity to learn how city systems interact and how they can help create a resilient framework. A working definition as provided by ResilientCity (a non-profit network dedicated to developing creative capacities for resilience) defines a resilient city as one “that has developed the systems and capacities to be able to absorb shocks and stresses so as to still maintain essentially the same function, structure, systems and identity, while at the same time implementing strategies to mitigate future shocks and stresses.”1 Over the course of the year, the IwB team’s designs informed their understanding of resilient City Systems both in their current and potential future manifestations. The revitalization plan is the result of extensive field, primary, scenario and systems research methods combined with a user-centred design process. A number of case studies were undertaken to inspire and inform the research process. The IwB’s working methods and the most significant and relevant case studies are described in this section.

Women on a break at Lota’s fish processing plant. Lotinos’ hard work through the city’s tough times is a testament to their resilience. 20

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AN IWB APPROACH

City Systems 2.0 The IwB’s World House project (2006-2009) produced the World House matrix, a holistic approach to understanding the complex systems that influence housing. The matrix is a tool that provides a framework for thinking about how people interact with their homes and, in doing so, helps the user employ systems thinking to design better houses and communities. When the City Systems project began in 2009, the IwB began work on a new matrix to explore the systems at work in a city. The second year of the City Systems project (2010-2011) used this new evolving matrix to identify and understand what makes a city resilient. The IwB worked with Lota to understand the effects of economic collapse and natural disaster. This provided an opportunity to test and advance the City Systems year one matrix. The matrix is a framework tool to propose immediate solutions and to forecast the future needs of citizens, industry and the environment. The team focused on the systems and characteristics that make up a resilient city and the relationship between residents and their natural environment. This resulted in a Resilient City framework that helps to identify the importance of collaboration, knowledge transfer and revitalization catalysts and, in particular, the need for community actors.

THE FIVE SYSTEMS

Resilience is a process that is dictated by a hierarchy of needs. Once a level is attained in the hierarchy of needs, actions must be taken in order to reach the next level of resiliency. Environment: The goal is to reach a state that goes beyond the basic needs of survival to one that is of a high quality of life that meets the physical, social and emotional needs of a person and city. Culture: This is the quest of reaching a community’s full potential. This is the process that continues to grow with new opportunities to create a resilient city. Connectivity: Once a person’s physiological and safety needs are met, social needs and the need to belong are important motivators. Interacting with others will create a community that changes to reflect the future needs of the city. Governance: Once individuals feel they belong to a community, the need to attain a level of importance emerges. A city’s success lies in its reputation and recognition to foster multiple levels of development; creating a prosperous community. Economy: Once physiological needs are met, a citizen’s safety and security must be addressed. A city must rise to a state of wealth and abundance so that citizens’ physical and emotional well-being are assured.

Maslow’s Hierarchical Values: Physiological Security Belonging Achievement Morality

city systems evolution WORLD HOUSE MATRIX (2007)

CITY SYSTEMS 1.0

CITY SYSTEMS 1.5

CITY SYSTEMS 1.8

how to use this diagram

Inspired by Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the matrix is incorporated in the evolution of the city. It is read from the centre out, starting with people and their connections to each system. The systems begin with individuals’ basic needs. As the needs of the community grow, so do the intricacies of the city system as it transitions to more complex, intangible components into the future.

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In applying the matrix, understanding and respecting the role of people in the function, structure and identity of a place is paramount. No city function should be analyzed in isolation. Using this matrix as part of a systems thinking process allows a team or individual to identify gaps to design or check designs against the framework and evaluate whether their integration with the other systems is accurate, and most importantly the potential effect on people.

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AN IWB APPROACH

Working Methods Through collaboration with multidisciplinary groups of students, citizens and working professionals from architecture, planning, disaster relief, political science, geography and from various design disciplines such as interior, graphic and industrial design, students from multidisciplinary backgrounds, worked together to generate innovative proposals. Working methods have included the following: Creative Scenario Research

Creative scenario research is design conducted in order to gain insight into a community’s needs, and in this case, the context of the temporary housing condition experienced in Lota following the earthquake of 2010. Industrial design research focused on public access to drinking water in a postdisaster setting. In order to create designs that were appropriate to the context, the team researched water filtration and distribution techniques while undertaking a user-centered design approach to foster understanding of a day in the life of a Lotino living in temporary housing. Products were designed to collect, filter and distribute water to residents in both disaster and post-disaster scenarios. The design process also considered manufacturing, material usage and feasibility of utilizing local resources and labour where possible. Charrettes

The IwB hosts charrettes: intense design workshops with many collaborators that focus on a specific design deliverable in a contained time frame. The IwB’s first charrette involved design solutions for communities in post-disaster situations. 40 students from graphic design, architectural technology and industrial design programs worked in teams to design a “Community in a Container” project. Each container provided basic amenities during adverse conditions, short and longterm strategies for communities to thrive, including materials and plans for places to gather, work, be educated, play and exchange information. The second charrette gathered 120 students from around the world to propose sustainable tourism projects in Lota. Each IwB student selected a site in Lota and led a multidisciplinary team including students from architecture, industrial, interior and graphic design, engineering, geography, political science and journalism. Together, each team proposed building designs, programming, branding and funding for their projects.

Housing and Personas Research

The IwB used personas to understand how people would use affordable housing. Major issues associated with the current housing stock were identified through this research, including earthquake and tsunami resilience, cost effectiveness, local building codes and zoning requirements as well as lifestyle and cultural norms. These considerations helped guide the design process of the final proposed housing interventions so they were appropriate within the context of the existing city. Systems Design

The Community in a Container systems design module built on the first charrette and involved designing a sipping container that would be sent to a city such as Lota immediately following an earthquake. The container would contain all the requirements to sustain 250 to 300 people during the relief to recovery phase—literally being a “community in a container.” For this research phase the team uncovered and explored a systems design considering structure, water, waste, energy, food, health, economy, security, identity and governance. Research Synthesis and Communication

Part of the IwB’s mandate is to share its research and projects with the public. The team was invited to demonstrate their work at the 2011 Toronto Interior Design Show and chose to design an interactive booth that visualized their primary research. This booth provided an opportunity to engage the public with a participatory research process. The People Change Places design strategy was tested and adopted for the project. The IwB also held a fundraising event and designed two visual infographics that created awareness andpublicity for project partners.

Participants in the IwB’s Sustainable Tourism charrette, which brought together 140 students from all over the world to design sustainable tourism initiatives for Lota. 24

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AN IWB APPROACH

Project timeline The strategies and designs proposed in this book are the result of nine months of experimentation, collaboration and reflection. In addition to travelling to Lota, IwB students studied different design discipline, researched case studies, worked with students and professionals from a range of fields and synthesized their findings. The year’s milestones are summarized in the timeline below.

collaborators

Carleton university municipality of lota

kea (Copenhagen School of Design and Technology)

municipality of lota Duoc university

Politecnico di Milano

george brown college

george brown college

cft (Centro de Formación Tecnica Lota-Arauco)

sept 2010

Oct

nov

OCADU (Ontario college of arts and design university) duoc university

dec

jan 2011

feb

mar

april

may

june 2011

projects

website

process

field research

Product design module explored access to safe drinking water in a post-disaster context.

A site visit to Lota to conduct research and charrette with community members and local students.

el divisor

flexible housing 1

House design explored residential concepts in transition from temporary to permanent settlements.

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PRocess Exhibit

cascada

ids 2011

systems exploration

Communication design synthesized research findings to date for the Interior Design Show, Toronto, Canada.

community in a container

research report

A year long systems thinking approach produced the Resilient City Systems matrix.

stadium

A sustainable tourism charrette with over 140 participants proposed tourism concepts for Lota.

internal charrette

Master Plan synthesis

people change places

A three-month design synthesis produced 6 strategic objectives and multiple interventions to foster resiliency in Lota. PEOPLE CHANGE PLACES

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AN IWB APPROACH

Case Studies The IwB searched for solutions to inspire the People Change Places design strategy. The projects on the following pages informed the team’s proposals and underscored their viability. Residential: MINVU Subsidies

In order to replace temporary housing, there are a number of opportunities within the current housing policy framework in Chile. The Ministry of Housing and Planning (MINVU) has been a leader in social housing worldwide and offers subsidy programs for both new development and the enhancement of existing housing. For the poorest residents, MINVU created a subsidy program called Fondo Solidario de Vivienda (Funding for Co-operative Housing). With an up-front subsidy of CAD $8,400 per household, applicants need CAD $300 of savings and have to present a specific housing proposal. The subsidy covers the cost of land, infrastructure and a 350-square-foot unit. This is considered to be the first stage of a house to be built progressively over time. Families must apply in organized groups of at least 10 households and with the support of a managing organization, which can be a municipality, a non-governmental organization or a consulting firm registered with MINVU. The selection mechanism benefits people who buy used houses over those who build new houses. This policy is also viewed as a solution to the traditional problems associated with moving families to new housing projects on the periphery of cities, far from social and employment networks. The IwB’s housing proposals for Lota have been designed to be eligible for MINVU funding. Taking advantage of these subsidies will contribute to the financial feasibility of solving Lota’s housing crisis. It will also strengthen community bonds by encouraging families to work together.

Residential: Elemental S.A.

Elemental is a Chile-based architecture firm that develops social and co-operative housing solutions to lower and middle-class communities across Chile and Latin America. Elemental’s first project, Quinta Monroy, was built in 2001 in Iquique and presented a new development model to social and co-operative housing. The two major factors that made this project innovative were that only half of each house was built and that each unit was constructed in the neighbourhood in which the occupants already lived. Elemental’s social housing designs are innovative and effective. Their projects inspired the IwB’s approach to addressing Lota’s housing needs by enlisting the help of community members. Context: Informal housing settlement where residents lacked access to amenities and security Population/Size: 100 families on 5,000 sq. m. site Vision: To design and construct affordable housing units that mitigate the community fractures of relocation and generate economic value Key Components: Partially-built houses, use of existing site, workshops and public participation Investment/Cost: CAD $7,500/unit Partners: Elemental, COPEC (Chilean oil company), Universidad Católica, Government of Chile, Ministry of Housing and Urbanism. www.elemental.cl

Context: A government program that provides funding for housing to lowincome Chileans Population/Size: 10+ families; each unit is at least 350 sq. ft. Vision: To help low-income people build or purchase houses Key Components: Organized groups of applicants, managing organizations Investment/Cost: CAD $8,400/unit Partners: Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo (MINVU), Fondo Solidario de Vivienda

Elemental designs housing solutions in response to the increased rates of urbanization and housing inequality across South America. 28

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Community Development: Fogo Islands

Fogo Islands, Newfoundland and Labrador, was once a healthy community with a thriving fishing industry. When stocks began to deplete and the population began to leave, the community’s health was put at risk. In response, The Shorefast Foundation designed a revitalization plan for the community through collaboration with a number of partners. The Shorefast Foundation designed a revitalization plan for the community that used microfinancing for small tourist operations and created residency programs that leverage the area’s natural beauty and rich cultural artistic history to visitors, while transferring existing skills to new economies. The project is currently in the later phases of its development. Microfinancing programs and structures are in place; the artist residency program will begin in 2011 and the resort is slated for completion for 2012.

Fogo Islands is a useful case study because the town has successfully leveraged its landscape, culture and history to reinvent its economy. The area is also an example of the effective use of microfinancing to support tourism. Population/Size: 2,500 people Vision: Economic diversification and community revitalization through the arts and geotourism in a post-fisheries scenario Key Components: Microfinance program, artist residency, 30-room resort Investment/Cost: CAD $15 million Partners: Shorefast Foundation, Fogo Islands Arts Corporation, Film Board of Canada, Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Government of Canada artscorpfogoisland.ca

Long Studio positioned on a rocky outcrop facing the sea. Architect Todd Saunders designed artist residences in collaboration with Zita Cobb of Shorefast.

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Post-Industrial: Evergreen Brickworks

The Evergreen Brickworks is a former brick factory consisting of 16 heritage buildings on a 16-hectare park on the edge of downtown Toronto, vacant since the mid-1980s. This project is a large-scale intervention and uses a social enterprise funding model. The Brickworks leveraged municipal and corporate resources to create multi-use spaces that target education, the environment and the economy. The site itself has been converted into facilities catering to environmental education and awareness. The former industrial site opened in 2010 with a conservation area and parklands, exhibition space, a children’s greenhouse, multi-purpose event spaces and community gardens. While the charity seeks continued growth for the space to foster its goals, the Brickworks has already been identified as a top tourist destination within the city. Evergreen combined municipal, corporate and social enterprise funding to successfully convert an abandoned industrial site into a popular, sustainable tourist attraction and protected area. The IwB believes Lota can similarly transform its industrial heritage into a thriving tourism industry.

Do It Yourself (DIY) Urbanism: Candy Chang Context: Abandoned industrial site on the edge of downtown Toronto Population/Size: 16 heritage buildings on 16-hectare park Vision: To convert a former industrial site to a leading environmental education and community centre Key Components: remediation of polluted land and water bodies, nature conservation, adaptive reuse of factory into public space, gallery and exhibition space, educational space and greenhouses Investment/Cost: CAD $40 million Partners: Government of Canada, Ontario Heritage Trust, Province of Ontario, Evergreen Foundation, The Home Depot and other corporate sponsors ebw.evergreen.ca

Candy Chang is an urban designer and TED (Technology, Entertainment and Design) Senior Fellow from New York City who creates visions with marginalized communities across the world through public art installations. Through creative communication strategies, she creates awareness to allow for community members to envision a future for their neighbourhoods or abandoned buildings. Chang creates social services and builds win-win situations for community stakeholders with political and corporate partners. Chang’s work has been celebrated for its community empowerment qualities. Her recent work in post-disaster communities such as New Orleans has given individuals new ways to approach the challenges they face in a positive way. Chang prioritizes community needs and input to revitalize deteriorating neighbourhoods. Her straightforward, playful, people-centred approach was an important inspiration for People Change Places.

Context: Community-based urban revitalization initiatives in New Orleans, Helsinki, New York City, Nairobi and other places Population/Size: Various Vision: To enlist the community to reclaimed abandoned spaces Key Components: Community empowerment, public art, chalkboards, stencils Investment/Cost: Various Partners: Various candychang.com

Vendor Power, which provides success tips to small business owners, was informed by Chang’s personal interactions with street vendors.

The Brickworks hosts farmers’ markets, workshops, educational programs and community garden initiatives year-round in former industrial buildings.

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research summary

One of the many vendors at Lota’s market (Feria Libre) selling fish products. The market is arguably the cultural and commercial heart of the city.

understanding lota Lota’s built environment has been shaped by its relationship with its natural environment: by its coast, forests and hills, all within an earthquake zone. People are Lota’s most valuable asset because of their capacity for organization and community building and their commitment to their history and future. Furthermore, Lotinos have consistently been hard-working, skilled labourers engaged with their abundant natural resources—fish, lumber and the coal deposits. This ‘people’ advantage will help Lota address its challenges going forward. Lota is dealing with environmental degradation caused by unmonitored mining practices and the neglect of infrastructure and public spaces due to economic collapse. It is struggling to adapt to the loss of its mining industry and the related loss of the economic opportunities and social and institutional services that came with it. Limited connectivity and insufficient housing are also problematic challenges for the municipality. Lota can overcome these challenges. It has a history of resilience that stems from overcoming natural disasters, political upheaval and chronic unemployment. The damage from the February 2010 earthquake and the momentum behind the current efforts to rebuild provide an opportunity to re-envision Lota’s future for its citizens, creating a new economy, a healthier environment and preserving its heritage. The municipal government is coordinating efforts to rebuild and it must be prepared to invest further in economic capacity-building, environmental reclamation, waste management and social services.

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RESEARCH SUMMARY

LOTA: Life and Times Lota began as an aboriginal settlement and later became a small fishing village. Its extensive coal deposits powered Chile’s entrance into the global industrial age and assisted Chile in becoming one of Latin America’s strongest economies. Lota is located in the province of Concepción and bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean, to the east by the city of Santa Juana, to the north, Coronel and to the south, Arauco. Lota became a thriving and rapidly growing industrial town and regional hub by the 1940s. Lota’s newfound prosperity brought schools and a hospital, the unions built a theatre and the mine’s owners, the Cousiño family, built a private park and lavish residence. Lota’s identity as a successful coal-mining town was secure until 1997, when cheaper coal mined from Colombia put pressure on Lota’s mining industry. The pressure resulted in the closing of all mines in Lota in 1997. Unemployment reached 18.1 percent by 2010.2 Since then, Lota’s identity and economic future have been severely challenged resulting in confusion around what Lota is or could become. On February 27, 2010, at 3:34 a.m. local time, Chile was struck by an earthquake measuring 8.8 on the Richter scale. The earthquake also triggered a tsunami, which caused severe damage along the Chilean coast. Lota was spared the destruction of the tsunami because Santa Maria Island shelters the city’s coast. As of May 2010, the number of confirmed deaths in Chile stood at 521, with 56 people still missing.3 In the Biobío region, where Lota is located, more than 90 people were killed. The earthquake and tsunami destroyed over 1,000 dwelling units and caused major damage to another 109,000.4 The earthquake was followed by a blackout, with outages affecting some regions for days. Economic damage throughout Chile is estimated at CAD $30 billion.5 Despite Chile’s organization and good construction standards, there was great chaos immediately following the earthquake. Neighbours helped one another, which has resulted in strong community relationships. Furthermore, Lota is both emotionally and physically more ready to face another earthquake. Lotinos interviewed by the IwB said they felt stronger and better prepared to face emergencies and many have begun storing emergency materials and developing family disaster plans.

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The mine sits derelict and empty as toxic runoff pollutes sea and land. Lota’s shores and beaches, so striking from a distance, are littered with dead fish and garbage. Lota’s public spaces have fallen into disrepair. The market, the most economically significant player in Lota’s current economy, consisting of about 400 stalls, is crowded, disorganized and dirty. Derelict buildings blight the downtown and streets, sidewalks, public stairways and green spaces are so deteriorated they are dangerous to navigate. Lota looks abandoned, downtrodden and defeated and it is no surprise that businesses have stagnated and the city’s reputation has deteriorated.

chile

santiago

Lota

concepcion

BIOBíO

This undated photograph of mining infrastructure was published in a pamphlet issued in 1952 to commemorate 100 years of coal mining in Lota.

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The Fuerte de Lota was established during the 17th century to recover the boundary lines of BiobĂ­o during a conflict with the indigenous Mapuche people. Today, the site affords a spectacular view of Lota, highlighting the relationship between the urban and natural environment.

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RESEARCH SUMMARY

Field Research In order to understand Lota, the IwB and its affiliates conducted field research there for 10 days in October 2010. A week-long community charrette was undertaken that saw four research teams canvas the city, meeting with community members, municipal officials, local business people, youth and various other stakeholders to foster understanding of context and the opportunities and challenges facing the city. Institutional Participation included a series of online consultation and face-to-face meetings. Municipal officials, councillors and the mayor participated in interviews about municipal capacities and represented community stakeholders. Community Participation included a number of events, meetings and an open house designed to collect information from a wide range of the population. Activities with youth at St. Maria D’Apostolo (a local school) and consultations with representatives of Casa de la Mujer and a former union head helped communicate the visions and goals of youth and community leaders. Business Participation included canvassing market vendors and consulting with a number of local business leaders. Interviews and conversation fostered understanding of business growth challenges and the influence of external factors on local business development. The community opened their doors to team members soliciting information. The project was also featured on call-in shows on two local radio stations during the team’s visit.

“I went to Chile with a mindset of being a part of an organized, calculated reconnaissance team. I quickly realized that the most valuable lesson was the broadening of my awareness through the simple act of experiencing Lota.” —Graeme Kondruss, IwB student 40

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RESEARCH SUMMARY

Key Findings Yo Soy Lota has been prepared to respond to Lota’s unique social, environmental and economic conditions. To fully understand Lota, the IwB and its affiliates spoke to local leaders, members of the public, tourists and students. The team also considered their own experiences of the city and conducted research online. Their research is summarized below: Natural Environment

Lota’s environment shapes its unique identity. Coastline and forests surround the city, forming a natural ring, while human settlement responds to topography and creates a complementary urban ring. The general beauty of the place should also be noted. The built environment dominates much of the landscape, although variations in elevation create stunning views of the ocean and city. Lota’s topography is variable, ranging from 1 to 150 metres above sea level. The western part of the city is elevated and referred to as Lota Alto (upper Lota) while the lower part of the city, which includes the downtown area, is called Lota Bajo (lower Lota). The natural environment has dictated the city’s settlement pattern and infrastructure resulting in the need for local and regional connections. It has created natural safe zones from tsunami and earthquake through its location of settlement on the topography which frames views from important landmarks.

Connectivity

Connectivity is naturally restricted by the topographic and geographic conditions of the community. An extensive network of road infrastructure connects communities within Lota and allows residents to navigate the varied landscape. The nature ring infrastructure currently does not connect either tourist sites or green ring landmarks for visitors and residents. The railway serving Lota supports commerce and industry, primarily logging. During the IwB’s visit to Lota, very few trains were observed passing through the city. The rail station in Lota Bajo was destroyed by fire a month after the earthquake. Public Spaces

Access to healthy public spaces (both urban and natural) is important to Lotinos of all ages. At present, public spaces in Lota are poorly maintained and underused. Their abandonment can be attributed to both Lota’s industrial collapse and the earthquake. Plaza de Armas, Lota’s most significant urban public space, is popular as both a destination and a thoroughfare. However, it is limited by a lack of green space and inconsistent building use around its edges. Waste management, accessibility, lighting and pedestrian safety are priorities for all public spaces, from the coast to downtown.

tumbes talcahuano

Coastline and forests surround the city, forming a natural ring, while human settlement responds to topography and creates a complementary urban ring.

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concepcion coronel

Lota

Running through the centre of the city, the rail corridor separates Lota Alto from Lota Bajo. Currently, a service supporting commercial logging is the railway’s only user. PEOPLE CHANGE PLACES

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The European-style Plaza de Armas is centred around a fountain. The inconsistency of land use surrounding the plaza’s edges can be seen in the background of the photograph. 44

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Economic History

Identity

Lota’s first economic driver was artisanal fishing. During the nineteenth century, coal mining began under the direction of the wealthy Cousiño family. Rapid economic growth, both in mining and related industries such as ceramics, brick-making and power generation, followed. Many of Lota’s cultural and educational institutions, such as the Teatro Lota and the Parque de Lota, also owed their existence to the local coal industry. Signs of trouble began in 1975, when Chile’s oldest hydroelectric power station, the Chivilingo Hydroelectric Plant, closed. In 1997, Lota’s last coal mine, ENACAR (Empresa Nacional del Carbón SA), caved to competitive pressure and ceased operations. The Teatro followed the same year. Since 1997, most of Lota’s employment has been in small-to-medium-sized businesses, the market, fishing and forestry. It is important to note that many Lotinos commute to other cities for work.

City-wide, Lota’s community is very cohesive and residents are strongly connected to their fellow Lotinos. Lota has undergone fierce labour disputes, the closure of the mine and many earthquakes. These traumatic events have eroded the community’s pride, although a strong communal bond has been retained. There are multiple neighbourhoods in Lota and each has their own community organization. There are unions, seniors’ groups, youth groups and women’s groups. They are organized in neighbourhood groups called Juntas de Vecinos, which exist all over Chile. There are also many community centres and organizations in Lota, including Casa de la Mujer and Pabellon 83. Casa de la Mujer is a community group that helps Lota face challenges and overcome poverty by promoting leadership and citizenship in women. Rooted in social justice, Casa de Mujer is a multidisciplinary team that builds relationships between people, organizations and networks in economical, political and cultural arenas. Lota’s cultural community centre, Pabellon 83, was established in 2005. Pabellon 83’s main objectives are to maintain and preserve Lota’s identity and local culture and increase awareness of Lota’s history. There are many services and resources offered at the Pabellon. These include a full archive of Lota’s literature and history and a photo archive, both of which are being recorded and converted to a digital format. With regards to sport, the presence of Lota Schwager is of utmost importance to the community. The team, part of Chile’s División B, is a source of community pride and currently plays north of Lota in a stadium in the city of Coronel. It is sponsored by ESSBIO, the local water service provider. People in Lota are well-connected and communicate with one another through radio stations Radio el Carbón and Radio Mundo, TV Lota and through the municipality’s web presence and communication efforts.

Fishing

Artisanal fishing is currently one of Lota’s most important industries. The fishermen’s union owns the main pier in the bay and the surrounding buildings southwest of its entrance gate. Overfishing stemming from international treaties that allowed commercial trawlers access to resources poses problems for Lota, dating back to the late 1980s. Today the culmination of commercial access, pollution and environmental conditions have reduced Lota’s fishing season to just three months from a formerly year-round industry.6 Today, processing for export produces largely fish flour due to the limited availability of diversity in stock. The most popular target species in Biobío are Chilean abalone, blue mussels and Chilean wedge clams.7 Sanitation

Garbage in Lota is collected and disposed of by HIMCE, a private company located on the outskirts of Coronel. There is no public construction waste collection, leaving individuals to pay for it themselves. Consequently, those with homes in need of repair leave the houses in their damaged or demolished state, preventing new buildings from being erected in their place. Currently, there is no recycling collection in Lota. Collection of PET plastic recyclables would be very useful, as plastic bottles and containers litter the city and beach. Sanitary issues exist in the market, where fruit, vegetables and fish are sold, but there is no refrigeration. Furthermore, discarded waste can contaminate fresh products. Sewage and access to clean water are also ongoing issues in the temporary housing neighbourhoods.

Aurelia Ormeño, a member of Lota’s municipal council, leads a chant at a public meeting, demonstrating the passion and energy that will ensure the success of the project. 46

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Feria

Lota’s market (La Feria Libre) is the centre of commercial exchange for Lota and surrounding regions. The feria measures 17 blocks, is open 24 hours a day and features items like typical food, shoes and clothes. Vendors need municipal permits to open stalls, but lots can also be inherited. The fee to obtain a permit is approximately 30,000 pesos or CAD $62.8 The IwB estimates there are around 400 separate stalls in the market. Although it offers a varied and lively shopping experience, the market is a confusing maze. Vendors sell their wares along narrow laneways cluttered with refuse and sleeping dogs while patrons keep their eyes to the ground to avoid tripping over gaping cracks in their paths. Market vendors said they were unhappy with the infrastructure and hygiene. They also said tourists are hesitant to explore most of the market because they find it frightening. Susana Paves, head of tourism development for the municipality of Lota, stated the city is trying to develop areas where they have strengths. This includes reinforcing and beautifying the market and adding value to its products and services. The municipality wants the market to be more attractive, have better-quality goods, better service and improved infrastructure in order to attract more tourists.

The feria measures 17 blocks, is open 24 hours a day and features typical items like food, shoes, clothes and ceramics.

The market is still the primary source of fresh produce for many families in Lota. The introduction of supermarket chains threatens market vendors’ livelihoods. 48

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Tourism

The city is currently working on an economic recovery strategy that includes heritage-based tourism, the development of a technological centre and attracting small and medium-sized enterprises to the region. The city plans to support owners of small businesses like restaurants to prepare Lota for tourism on a larger scale. Lota’s current tourism strategy is a circuit tour of historic sites called Lota Sorprendente (Surprising Lota). It includes the Chiflón del Diablo (Breath of the Devil), one of the deepest coal mines in the world, the Parque de Lota and Chivilingo, Chile’s first hydroelectric power plant.

The IwB visited the circuit sites in October 2010 (with the exception of the museum, which was closed due to earthquake damage). At the Chiflón, visitors are equipped with miners’ helmets and lights and taken on a tour of the underground tunnels. The Parque de Lota, which suffered severe earthquake damage and reopened six months after the earthquake, is a refined, sprawling botanical garden that offers lovely views of the coastline. Chivilingo, which has not been a working dam since 1975, is now a camping and conservation area with an on-site restaurant. All three sites are in need of maintenance, although the Parque, which was in the worst condition, has been restored since the IwB’s visit.

Students begin a guided tour at the Chiflón del Diablo coal mine. Former miners now work as tour guides at the mine, which is Lota’s most well-known tourist site. 50

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Industrial

An extensive network of mining infrastructure within Lota is scattered along the coastline from central to northern Lota. Much of this infrastructure has been abandoned since formal coal mining in Lota ended in 1997 and has degraded over time. Many of the buildings associated with the mining industry are now unsafe for occupation. Industrial infrastructure pertaining to the fishing industry is still in use.

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Seen along the coast to the north and south, the iconic mining shaft provides a unique reference point for both locals and visitors.

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Education

Students posing for the camera during an IwB visit at Lota’s Seventh-day Adventist elementary school. These grade four students provided insight into what Lota’s youth envision for their future.

Lota’s technical college, El Centro de Formación Técnica (CFT) Lota-Arauco, currently has 1,600 students and is funded by the state. It is the only institution of higher education in Chile that is entirely government-funded. CFT’s mission is to train higher-level technicians as well as to contribute to the revitalization of the broader region. Forty percent of CFT’s students come from Lota; 40 percent are from Coronel and the remaining 20 percent commute from Arauco. CFT is housed in a former ENACAR administration building. CFT’s curriculum offers insight into the local economy, both what exists and also what the town aspires to. CFT produces graduates that can contribute to public and port administration, industrial drawing, tourism development, web design and programming, forestry, industrial mechanics and carpentry, risk prevention, industrial refrigeration and carpentry. The IwB visited Lota’s Seventh-day Adventist elementary school to talk to grade four students about their priorities and ideas for Lota’s future. The students said their families and friends were very important to them. They were concerned by the lack of public places to spend time together and suggested that a mall would be a good addition to the community. Many of the students said they were active Facebook users and were very familiar with Lota’s television and radio stations. Although they enjoyed living in Lota, the students said most of their older siblings moved away from Lota when they reached adulthood and that they planned to do the same.

“In the short time that I lived in this community, I learned that Lota doesn’t need more words or promises; they need real solutions and they need the interests of the community to be put first.” —Paula Riffo, DuocUC student 54

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Existing Housing

Lota is home to 49,089 citizens10 who reside in distinct neighbourhoods throughout the city. Detached, row, apartment and temporary housing typologies are common. Housing settlements range from grid-patterned subdivisions to disorganized, temporary and illegal settlements. Typical detached homes in Lota are modest one to two-storey dwellings. Row houses are very common in Lota and are mainly two storeys in height. A common row housing typology seen in Lota is the pabellon style. This style of housing was first developed in the early 1900s to house coal miners and their families and is seen throughout Lota. The first floor consists of a shared kitchen and living space, while the second floor is divided into sleeping quarters for individual families. Lota’s visual identity is also notable for the brightly painted exteriors and lively murals typical of the city’s shops, houses and walls.

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Temporary Housing

“[We need] faster reconstruction; it’s been six months and I’m still living in temporary housing.” —Benicia del Carmen, Lota resident

It is estimated that 10,000 Lota residents, 20 percent of the total population, currently live in temporary housing units. When the earthquake hit in 2010, Lota was still struggling with the effects of a severe earthquake in 1986, particularly with respect to housing. The replacement of temporary housing requires immediate action by the municipality, but more support is needed from other levels of government to transform the temporary housing stock to permanent housing. Temporary housing provides shelter for residents who were displaced from their homes due to the earthquake. These houses are scattered throughout the city; some within areas designated for temporary homes, although many are simply erected on any available flat plot of land. Chile’s Ministry of Housing (MINVU) offers 10,000,000 pesos towards the purchase of a new house. In addition, the municipality is currently negotiating with the forestry company to purchase private lands around Lota to build new housing. The municipality expects to build 70 percent of the housing on new property and 30 percent within Lota’s existing city limits where houses were demolished after the earthquake. 11

20% of Lotinos live in temporary housing units.

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1 Sports Facilities

RESEARCH SUMMARY

Lota has numerous outdoor athletic facilities, mostly geared towards soccer, although some are retrofitted with basketball hoops and tennis nets. Some are in fairly bad shape, while others are well-maintained. In addition, Lota has a publicly-accessible gym and swimming pool as well as numerous soccer leagues and teams and a soccer centre. Few bicycles are used in the city.

Lota: Today 3

2

4

12 5

11 6

7 10

8 9 13 7

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Playa Blanca

1

Entrance to Lota

2

Chiflon del Diablo

3

Casa de la Mujer

4

San Matias Apostol Church

5

Teatro Lota

6

CFT

7

Pabellon 83

8

Parque de Lota

9

Brick Factory

10

ENACAR

11

Lota Stadium

12

Feria

13

Beach

14

Fuerte

15

14

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understanding lota

Municipality’s Plan for Lota’s future The municipal government of Lota has drafted a plan that seeks new ways to create economic activity while enhancing the sociocultural life of its residents. Councillors want to build on existing assets, culture and history while simultaneously encouraging tourism. Development initiatives identified by the municipality include: housing, heritage and culture, public space, brand and communication, youth and the environment. Housing

Since the earthquake in February 2010, improving the housing conditions in Lota has been a major priority. Approximately 20 percent (10,000) of people live in temporary housing settlements, which lack essential services. The municipality recognizes that in order to improve housing conditions, existing temporary settlements must be enhanced, new affordable housing solutions be created and all residents have access to essential services including water, power and sewage. Heritage and Culture

The city’s plan recognizes that its history and culture can become tools to enhance the social and cultural fabric of the city and have the potential to attract tourism. An analysis of heritage and culture undertaken by the municipality has identified that the request to the National Monuments Council to designate historic buildings be made alongside the reclamation of the miners’ union building, Teatro Lota and Pabellon 83 to strengthening institutional culture in Lota. Public Space

The city’s plan realizes that enhancement and creation of public spaces is required to increase community cohesion and create meeting places for Lotinos. Public spaces identified by the municipality as those of specific importance include: community horn (bread oven), community sinks (community laundry area) and bodegas (cellars, places to eat and drink). Recreational areas such as soccer fields, tennis courts, hopscotch and basketball courts as well as pedestrian trails and corridors have been identified as well.

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Brand and Communication

In October 2010, the municipality presented their vision for Lota to the IwB and community.

The municipality’s plan emphasizes developing Lota’s brand and increasing communication through a number of means. Rebranding of the city including a new logo and slogan and outreach through various media, including, web, radio, networking and print are of utmost importance. Economy

Lota’s economy is currently struggling, with the unemployment rate in the city at approximately 20 percent and the percentage of residents living below the poverty line at nearly 30 percent. The municipality recognizes the need to diversify the economy and has recently placed an emphasis on tourism, estimating that nearly 200,000 tourists visit Lota each year. In order to make an economy based on tourism more successful, a tourism strategy considering connectivity to sites and enhancements to Playa Blanca, Parque de Lota, the pier, Plaza de Armas and the market is in development. Youth

Lota’s plan recognizes that education and recreational spaces are essential to enhance the lives of Lota’s youth. Municipal investment into sports and recreation centres and encouraging youth to stay in Lota through education and job creation is high priority. Environment

The municipality’s plan recognizes that it is essential that both the built and natural environment be respected in order for Lota to become a desirable place to live and visit. On Lota’s website, the mayor states that in order to create a more beautiful Lota, the people must protect and care for the environment and every sector of the city should be free of trash.

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research summary

resilient lota Analyzing Lota through the Resilient City matrix reveals the effects of stress and crisis on the city, such as economic depression and the disorder that followed the recent earthquake. Lota’s economic and environmental systems have been weakened and have not been able to function properly. However, Lota’s cultural and governance systems have been

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preserved. Building a resilient Lota must start with an assessment of the levels at which each system are functioning across the city. A revitalization plan should be centred on people and ensure Lota’s environment, economy and connectivity systems are as healthy as its culture and governance.

Resilient beginning

thriving mine

systems collapse

future resilience

During Lota’s early years as an aboriginal settlement, a subsistence way of life provided a form of resiliency.

While at its peak productivity, the mine created economic prosperity at the expense of the natural environment.

The stress of the mining collapse and shock of the most recent earthquake have redistributed Lota’s systems.

Resilience can be fostered through understanding of and investment into all systems.

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people change places.

The vision for People Change Places is that by coming together, Lotinos can create momentum that will allow them to build a city that is truly resilient. Throughout Lota’s tumultuous history, Lotinos have absorbed shocks and stresses; fostering collaboration that strengthens their community, systems, city and identity. Although Lota’s economy, environment and reputation are fragile, its community is strong. Capitalizing on people and the bonds between them is Lota’s best hope for achieving resilience. Implemented through a People Change Places design strategy, a master plan with six strategic objectives is proposed for the municipality of Lota. The success of all six strategies hinges on community empowerment and participation.

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poeple change places.

design strategy Lota’s community pride is very strong and residents have a great ability to organize themselves to achieve common goals. People Change Places thrives on this community spirit and the notion that people can direct their own future. The IwB believes that when community members undertake immediate small actions, they are laying the foundations to solve greater and more complex issues in their city. Step One

Clearly identify opportunities and establish an overall vision that can be realized through collective action. Step Two

Successfully communicate the master plan to encourage community buy-in and establish initial projects to act as seeds for growth. This growth enhances public spaces, enriches institutions, innovates housing opportunities and nurtures economic prosperity.

Step Three

As momentum continues to build, these initiatives will spark further growth, which moves the projects forward and generates new opportunities. To build on these opportunities and celebrate community achievements, public awareness and education are required. Step Four

As the community continues to cultivate opportunities, they grow and evolve, enticing further development from public and private organizations and new local, regional and international partnerships. Step Five

Eventually, greater common goals will be reached by the community and complex problems will be resolved. By working together, people can create a resilient city that is diverse, robust and full of opportunities. People are the keystone to People Change Places and to this revitalization plan.

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yo soy lota

people Yo Soy Lota—I am Lota is a slogan and graphic identity that emerged from the community charrette in Lota. In the context of the revitalization plan, Yo Soy Lota communicates the participation and ownership that is required of all citizens of Lota for any plan of action to be realized. It also reflects the community’s pride and the citizens’ commitment to their city. The success of the charrette and subsequent adoption of the phrase by Lotinos conveys their ownership of the community’s revitalization. In other words, Yo Soy Lota is about the citizens, not outsiders or corporations, and their dream to make Lota resilient.

Mining culture is still prevalent in Lota almost 15 years after the mine’s closure, as demonstrated here in the dress of these men performing Chile’s traditional dance, the cueca. 66

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yo soy lota

yo soy lota

Municipality of lota

Community Groups

Lota’s municipal officials represent different political parties and ideologies, but they are all overwhelmingly positive about their future as a community. The city’s mayor, Jorge Venegas, sees Lota as a special place that deserves recognition for its rich mining heritage and resilience.

Councillors

City council has attempted to garner support for Lota to be nominated as a World Heritage Site. Lota receives directions set by the government of Chile and the regional government of Biobío. The municipality receives earthquake relief funding from the national government for the construction of homes and institutions as well as money to support a temporary work plan to repair the city. Lota must enact financial and policy directions set by the regional and national governments.

Anselmo Peña Rodriguez, National Renewal Party

Mayor Jorge Venegas Troncoso, Communist Party Aurelia Ormeño Carvallo, Radical Party Carme Gloria Cisternas Altamirano, Socialist Party Maria Angélica Huerta Pino, Director of Casa de la Mujer, Socialist Party

Victor Hugo Tiznado Cesped, Former leader of the miners’ union, Communist Party

Councillors facilitated a march to Concepción in order to put pressure on the national government to sustain funding for the post-earthquake reconstruction initiative.

Nov. 2010 Venegas supported the women who barricaded themselves inside the Chiflón del Diablo, saying “The government’s solution to strike is not a final solution.” 13

Jan. 2011 Lota hosts the inaugural Seminar on Citizen Participation, Municipal and State Constitution.14

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Fishermen’s Union The fishermen of Lota organized in 1991 so they could lobby as a unit. Today, the union numbers 900 members, owns the pier and is responsible for testing and training apprentice fishermen.

Local Sports Organizations (Consejo Local de Deportes y Recreación) It is evident that sport plays an important role in Lota. A number of existing sports organizations can aid in establishing sports leadership programs.

Community leaders Mar. 2011 The former hospital is reopened as the new home for some municipal offices. 15

Mar. 2011 Beginning of the Lotino Youth motivational speaker series, a proposal initiated by Venegas.16

May 2011 Venegas announces plans to build 1,000 new homes in Lota over the next two years. 17

Mayor Jorge Venegas leads a meeting in a city hall board room. The current municipal government has worked tirelessly to improve conditions for Lota’s residents.

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Pabellon 83 Lota’s cultural community centre, Pabellon 83, preserves and shares Lota’s identity, culture and history. Pabellon 83 staff archive Lota’s literature and history and are currently converting documents and photographs to a digital format.

Casa de la Mujer Casa de la Mujer is a community centre run by and for women. Since the closure of the mine, women have taken a more active role in Lota and their strength and passion will continue to drive Lota forward.

Juan Antonio Villa Solar, Christian Democratic Party

recent events Sept. 2010

Miners’ Union As the city moves forward, it must also preserve its heritage. Just as the miners’ union has played a crucial role in Lota’s growth in the past, this organization must utilize its strength and power to assist Lota in its future.

Fresia Mellado

Rosa Pacheco Gallardo

The first female mine worker and a union leader, Mellado suffered during Pinochet’s regime because she protested against the government: her family was assassinated and she was jailed. Today, she says the people of Lota should work together because unity can bring about positive change.

Pacheco believes the disaster united the community and this unity enabled people to move on and get over the disaster. She wants Lota to be more prepared in the event of a future earthquake. Pacheco says she hopes Lota does not become a bedroom community and would like to see local businesses thrive.

Maria Elena Espinoza

Susan Meneses

Espinoza says more business opportunities will be the solution to Lota’s employment problems. “Lota exports wealth but harvests poverty. Chile owes everything to Lota.”12

Meneses says Lota’s culture and artists have a lot to offer but that they are unappreciated. She is working to reopen the Teatro.

Emanuel Salinas

Maria Alehue

A lifelong Lota resident, Salinas became a neighbourhood representative after the earthquake. Salinas wants to see more collaboration between neighbourhoods, more neighbourhood development and better public spaces.

Another neighbourhood leader, Alehue is working to improve infrastructure in the temporary housing neighbourhoods. She says Lota’s sense of community is disappearing due to lack of faith in the municipality.

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One of the many families still living in temporary settlements in Lota. Managing the dynamics of raising a family is extremely challenging in a post-disaster setting and residents’ patience and courage are commendable.

The Resilient Master Plan

change Lotinos agree that their city must change. Whether or not the proposals within this master plan are implemented, the people of Lota must agree on the nature and direction of change and work together to effect it. The strategies presented on the following pages are recommendations that the community must take ownership of if change is to occur. Ultimately, the strategies and their objectives are flexible and must be shaped by Lotinos themselves. They have been designed to respond to stress and to manifest in multiple ways—a characteristic of the resilient city.

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the resilient master plan

Response to Key Findings To address the challenges facing the city as voiced by community representatives and the municipality and through the IwB’s understanding of resilient city systems, six strategies have been developed to support People Change Places: a Revitalization Plan for Lota. As outlined in the chart on the opposite page, objectives corresponding to these strategies are supported by an extensive but feasible list of interventions that can revitalize the city through organization, education and partnership. The six strategies are informed by the team’s understanding of resilience and involve designs that can withstand shifts in economic, social and environmental conditions over time. The impact and effectiveness of interventions are measured by examining social acceptance, affordability, economic opportunity, environmental impact, disaster preparedness and corporate and municipal fit. Criteria for the success of this plan and its interventions are outlined below. Together, these factors contribute to the overall impact of each intervention on creating the resilience for which Lota is striving. All interventions have been developed to meet residents’ needs and fit the context of Lota. Design proposals have addressed specific municipal priorities including tourism, economic diversity, community cohesion and housing. Financial feasibility and job creation were top priorities. The ability to obtain funds and subsidies, reduce overall construction costs and entice private investment have all been assessed in

strategy

order to ensure proposals can be implemented within Lota’s current economic capabilities. Housing proposals consider alternative funding methods through public funding and subsidies as well as voluntourism. Underemployment and economic instability are the basis of many of Lota’s problems; therefore, creating economic opportunity is at the root of each intervention. Interventions are intended to utilize the existing workforce, diversify the current economic structure and increase the average income of workers. The area’s susceptibility to natural disaster and existing environmental damage was also important. Design proposals all aim to meet or exceed current environmental standards, remediate past environmental damage and utilize existing resources. In order to minimize the potential impact of future disaster, proposals consider emergency evacuation routes and areas of refuge and meet design principles for earthquake, tsunami and mudslide resilience.

COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT

INCREASED MOBILITY

PUBLIC SPACE ENHANCEMENT

HOUSING INNOVATION

interventions

objective

BIA Lota Verde Sports Leadership Housing Program

The people of Lota are resilient and united. The Revitalization Plan celebrates Lota’s assets, most notably its people, and uses a People Change Places strategy to support all interventions. Programming and education will create community engagement and ensure the success of interventions on the life of the city.

BarcaLota LotaTren BicicLota

Transportation is addressed through the introduction of commuter rail service, a bicycle-sharing program, re-routed roads, new pedestrian streets and better signs. Proposals create an integrated transit system that promotes resiliency and lends itself to livability and economic development.

Natural Ring Urban Ring Linear Park Fuerte Entrada

Yo Soy Lota proposes an extensive system of public spaces within the natural and urban rings. The rings incorporate reclaimed polluted and abandoned sites, helping to transform them into new, positive and memorable places. Urban and natural spaces are integrated and beautified to support social and emotional well-being and encourage collective action and ownership.

Cascada Valle Casa Costa Villa Casa Flexible Casa Feria

Yo Soy Lota’s residential strategies address temporary housing, work-live opportunities and densification of existing neighbourhoods to limit sprawl. Innovative housing schemes not only provide housing solutions to those in need, but also economic opportunities and hospitable environments for visitors.Housing interventions have been designed to promote resilience, create live-work possibilities, densify existing neighbourhoods and mitigate urban sprawl.

Stadium Theatre Church

Yo Soy Lota is rooted strongly in institutional and educational development. Programs and interventions that promote skills development and knowledge transfer are key to success and community acceptance. Institutional restoration/renewal will develop cultural infrastructure, provide opportunities to engage in the arts, sports and civic activities, seek and sustain partnerships and raise Lota’s profile.

Prosperity Agenda Feria Hotel Restaurant Smartphone App

Yo Soy Lota provides an economic opportunity overview based on competencies, natural resources and specific assets to address new industries that Lota could incorporate in its economic strategy. New economic capacities can be realized with the introduction of new industries such as green energy and commercial waste, tourism development, commercialization and a feria-based economic revitalization.

INSTITUTIONAL RESTORATION

ECONOMIC PROSPERITY

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building resilience

places Lotinos can become agents of change and Lota is the place where these changes will take root and grow. Lota’s topography, natural resources and natural and urban rings have profoundly affected its growth. The following projects were designed to integrate smoothly into Lota’s natural and urban fabric; to fit into the spirit of the place while simultaneously creating positive change. Many of them are new; many more, however, revitalize existing buildings and businesses. Their success will depend on these groups’ ability to collaborate. Taken together, they represent a comprehensive revitalization plan that will transform every aspect of Lota.

A market vendor showing the diversity of products she offers—clothing, housewares and dry goods. Many vendors expressed their desire to increase their range of merchandise. 74

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3 yo soy lota: master plan Casa de la Mujer

A

CFT

B

Pabellon 83

C

Entrance to Lota

1

Fuerte

2

Playa Blanca

3

Parque de Lota

4

Plaza de Armas

5

Camino Verde

6

Train Station

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Cascada

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Valle Verde

9

Costa Villa

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Casa Flexible

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Casa Feria

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Stadium

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Teatro Lota

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Church

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Hotel Soneto

16

Los Ladrillos

17

Union Building

18

1 A 4 b 6 c 5 7

2

public spacEs

community assets

transportation

BicicLota BarcaLota

10

Nature Ring

8

Urban Ring

9 14 11

13 15

12

housing solutions

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17

institutions

18 16

businesses

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Community Empowerment Community empowerment is the key to the People Change Places strategy. It underpins all six strategies and will be supported through programming and education to ensure participation and maximum impact. Four critical programming initiatives build citizenship and community leadership to enable the remaining strategic objectives to take root. These initiatives are a business improvement area, a sports leadership program, an urban beautification program and a social housing proposal that makes use of government subsidies. Empowering individuals with an understanding and ownership of their communities will help them to contribute to building a resilient city in a variety of ways. Programs have been designed to serve as catalysts for the strategic objectives and to strengthen and complement both existing infrastructures and proposed interventions of People Change Places.

community empowerment

community empowerment

housing program

Business Improvement Area

Chile’s Ministry of Housing and Planning (MINVU) has been a leader in social housing worldwide and offers subsidy programs for both new development and the enhancement of existing housing. Fondo Solidario de Vivienda (Funding for Co-operative Housing) is a MINVU subsidy program for Chileans living below the poverty line. Applicants need CAD $300 of savings and have to present a specific housing proposal to access the government subsidy of CAD $8,400 per household. The subsidy covers the cost of land, infrastructure and a 350-square-foot unit containing a bathroom, kitchen, multipurpose space and bedroom. This is considered to be the first stage of a house to be expanded over time. The municipal building permit is pre-approved assuming the unit’s expansion to a minimum of 550 square feet. Under the existing government program, families must apply in organized groups of at least 10 households and with the support of a managing organization, which can be a municipality, a nongovernmental organization or a consulting firm registered with MINVU. The managing organization receives the funds to develop the project, implement a social action plan and assist the families with technical support to expand their units. The new program is flexible and also accepts projects that involve the purchase of existing houses or construction on existing open space to increase housing density. Subsidies are also available to low-income families living above the poverty line. These subsidies can be used to buy new or existing housing or to construct a house on one’s own land. The subsidy is CAD $4,500 for houses that cost CAD $9,000 or less and it decreases linearly to CAD $2,700 for houses up to CAD $18,000. Housing proposals outlined in this document have been designed to take advantage of available subsidies.

The cultural and economic hub of the city, the Feria Libre, provides locals with fresh produce and fish. Vendors pay a one-time start-up fee of 30,000 pesos; other vendors inherit market space. Restructuring the market by introducing a BIA will make vendors accountable for their market stalls, create new marketing and programming opportunities and ultimately expand the market by introducing new services and diverse economies. Business Improvement Areas (BIAs) are formed through the cooperation of private enterprises within a street or neighbourhood. They work to provide improvements to the public space to increase their desirability and subsequent profitability through attracting new traffic and commercial activity. BIAs are run by and for small business owners. Not only do they foster diverse and accountable areas, they can c ultivate new programming opportunities such as events, fairs, workshops and arts programs geared at beautifying the market streets. It is proposed that a BIA be housed in the new Centre for Social Innovation (the former miners’ union building) to support entrepreneurial development in future growth sectors as outlined in the Economic Prosperity strategy. Moving forward, business owners and municipal officials can start by forming a steering committee and hold a public meeting to determine community members’ and business owners’ vested interests. Developing partnerships to enhance the existing market space and vendor capacity should be a priority while developing product diversification within the market.

this strategy provides:

100

community volunteer leadership positions

1,700 4 volunteer opportunities annually

seasonal community clean-up days

700

voluntourists per year

Reduce number of abandoned spaces

Community art projects foster citizenship and civic pride. 78

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community empowerment

community empowerment

Lota Verde

Sports Leadership Program

To support the proposed nature ring, community members can participate in urban beautification initiatives under the program Lota Verde. Lota Verde creates immediate action in the public spaces along the nature ring. Interventions can be carried out by enlisting neighbourhood associations to form cleaning and gardening committees. These volunteers can both initiate and continue projects as the city evolves. One component of Lota Verde is a community cleanup festival to remove refuse from public spaces. Community cleaning builds on the pride of each neighbourhood and can grow into a seasonal festival that reclaims the beauty of Lota. Through this celebration, the natural and urban environments come together. This festival can transform from one officially focused on waste collection toward an onoing environmental education program and act as an economic driver to spur future growth.

Community gardening initiatives can help restore natural spaces to a more desirable condition.

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Another component of Lota Verde is a community gardening festival. By reclaiming abandoned land from natural and urban decay, the gardens create beautiful public spaces that can be shared by all members of the community. Through education and training, these parklands will be improved and conserved for future generations. Community gardening can also grow into a seasonal festival that will attract visitors to Lota and create opportunities for tourism. Implementation starts with the organization of neighbourhood associations to form cleaning and gardening committees. In turn, an inaugural community-wide cleaning festival can be launched and most importantly, neighbourhoods can celebrate their role in community-building. The Lota Verde program is seen as a foundation initiative for public space enhancement. By fostering citizenship and community ownership, it can leverage participation and investment into the development of larger community spaces in Lota.

Sports are an integral aspect of Chilean culture. The sports leadership program creates opportunities for Lotinos to work with the municipality to create long-term growth and diversity in sports and associated economies. The sports leadership program offers learning opportunities such as physical training, first aid and nutrition. As the youth become educated and certified, they can eventually pass on these skills to those younger than them. As the program grows and evolves, there is potential for new economies within Lota that cater to the health and nutrition sector. By engaging the youth and community leaders, the sports leadership program can create places for youth to meet and interact and increase awareness and confidence. Collaboration and partnerships with the municipality, the education and health sectors can create a diverse range of programming opportunities that not only focus on sports, but also

the training and education required in similar fields. The youth leadership program trains and certifies its members, who become ready to join the growing workforce supported by new institutions and economies. The sports leadership program is critical to the restoration of community institutions, particularly the Lota Schwager and stadium.

The sports leadership program is an investment in the future of Lota.

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public space enhancement

the rings Public Space Enhancement A beautiful, healthy city greatly contributes to the social and emotional well being of a community. The interventions proposed in this plan support green spaces and urban contexts to benefit locals, visitors, pedestrians, cyclists and motorists, creating social opportunities across the city. Along the identified natural and urban rings, unique spaces foster diversity and engender civic health. The integration between urban and natural spaces through the rings creates synergy that allows collective citizen action to take root. Public Space standards have been developed along both rings to promote identity, encourage pedestrian and bicycle use, overcome physical boundaries, offer refuge in the event of tsunamis or earthquakes and provide civic waste management infrastructure. A unique street, pathway and urban furnishing language provide moments for recreation, commerce and reflection. To utilize Lota’s existing green space along the rail corridor, a linear park has been proposed to connect the stadium and surrounding neighbourhoods to downtown and the harbour and to facilitate the movement of people between Lota Alto and Lota Bajo. Public Space interventions at both Lota’s entrance and the Fuerte have been created to identify Lota’s entrances and to highlight Lota’s history and identity. These interventions welcome visitors and Lotinos alike and take advantage of vistas that showcase Lota’s unique environment, particularly at the Fuerte. The role of public space in cultivating a resilient city is about more than creating attractive green spaces. The public space enhancement strategy aims to restore continuous paths along both natural and urban rings, create a new identity for the city, propose wayfinding systems, clean and protect Lota’s coastline and promote community stewardship of public spaces.

this strategy provides:

10km

of walking trails along a natural ring park system

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A new park system with nature and urban elements built on existing natural features of Lota

15

parks and gathering spaces within the natural ring

1.5ha 1,000 of public space per 1,000 residents

trees planted across Lota

THE Natural Ring

Lota is nestled in a valley. Natural borders formed by the coast to the west and forested hills to the east extend through the city in the form of a ring of parks and open spaces. These natural resources have provided Lota with employment through logging and fishing, but they are also important for Lotinos’ health and quality of life. Expanding on Lota’s natural ring by cleaning up existing public spaces, remediating polluted lands and building parks will integrate nature into the life of the city. New green paths will increase connectivity between neighbourhoods and improve the city’s aesthetics. THE Urban Ring

Lota’s urban infrastructure—downtown, the market, Cousiño Drive and residential neighbourhoods—also forms a ring through the city. Like the green ring, the urban ring would benefit from improved connectivity. This can be accomplished via pedestrian streets, a bicycle network and rerouting selected roads. The urban ring would also be enhanced by infrastructure upgrades, new design for public spaces and land use densification. The urban ring forms part of the residential and economic core of the city, and access to its amenities, as well as those offered by the natural ring, will provide Lotinos and visitors with a higher quality of life. PEOPLE CHANGE PLACES

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public space enhancement

BIKE PATH

Path Typologies

CONTEXT: Nature Ring & Urban Ring INTENSITY OF USE: Seasonal TYPE OF USE: Cycling LOCATION: Biciclota Network PATH MATERIALS: Concrete KIT COMPONENTS: N/A ACCESSIBLIITY: Only to Bicycles

Various path typologies have been developed as part of the design of public space in Lota. Their execution is conveyed through a set of standards with a systemized language for the public space in both the urban and nature rings. The standards illustrate in which ring a design feature is found, what components from the kit of parts compose it, the level and intensity of usage of the feature, its surface material and the accessibility of the feature to community members.

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NATURE RING ACCESS POINT CONTEXT: Nature Ring INTENSITY OF USE: N/A TYPE OF USE: Meeting Point LOCATION: Major Access Points PATH MATERIALS: N/A KIT COMPONENTS: Site Signage, Covered seating, Lighting, Banners, Waste Bins ACCESSIBLIITY: Full

ROADSIDE TRAIL

URBAN RING ACCESS POINT

CONTEXT: Nature Ring INTENSITY OF USE: High TYPE OF USE: Walking, Jogging, Cycling, Wheelchairs LOCATION: Residential Neighbourhoods PATH MATERIALS: Concrete KIT COMPONENTS: Lights, Banners, Seating, Waste Bins, Trees, Wayfinding & Evacuation Signage ACCESSIBLIITY: Full

CONTEXT: Urban Ring INTENSITY OF USE: N/A TYPE OF USE: Meeting Point LOCATION: Major Access Points PATH MATERIALS: N/A KIT COMPONENTS: Painted Intersection,Intersection Lighting, Lighting, Banners, Waste Bins, Wayfinding Signage ACCESSIBLIITY: Full

NATURE TRAIL

INTERSECTION OF THE RINGS

CONTEXT: Nature Ring INTENSITY OF USE: Moderate TYPE OF USE: Walking, Hiking, Jogging, Cycling, Wheelchairs LOCATION: Parks, Natural Environment PATH MATERIALS: Reclaimed from Demolished Construction KIT COMPONENTS: Lights, Banners, Seating, Waste Bins, Trees, Wayfinding & Evacuation Signage ACCESSIBLIITY: Where Applicable

CONTEXT: Urban/Nature Ring INTENSITY OF USE: N/A TYPE OF USE: Meeting Point LOCATION: Rings Intersection PATH MATERIALS: N/A KIT COMPONENTS: Lights, Banners, Seating, Waste Bins, Trees, Wayfinding & Evacuation Signage, Covered Seating ACCESSIBLIITY: Full

RESIDENTIAL STREET

PLAZA

CONTEXT: Urban Ring INTENSITY OF USE: High TYPE OF USE: Walking, Jogging, Cycling, Wheelchairs, Vehicular Traffic LOCATION: Residential Neighbourhoods PATH MATERIALS: Concrete KIT COMPONENTS: Lights, Banners, Seating, Waste Bins, Trees, Wayfinding & Signage ACCESSIBLIITY: Full

CONTEXT: Urban/Nature Ring INTENSITY OF USE: High TYPE OF USE: Walking, Gathering, Events, Wheelchairs LOCATION: Urban Environment Public Spaces PATH MATERIALS: Concrete, Grass, Gravel, Woodchips KIT COMPONENTS: Lights, Banners, Seating, Waste Bins, Wayfinding Signage, Site Signage ACCESSIBLIITY: Full

MIXED-USE STREET

PARK

CONTEXT: Urban Ring INTENSITY OF USE: High TYPE OF USE: Walking, Jogging, Cycling, Wheelchairs,Vehicular Traffic LOCATION: Lota Bajo, Cousi単o Drive PATH MATERIALS: Concrete KIT COMPONENTS: Lights, Banners, Seating, Waste Bins, Trees, Wayfinding & Evacuation Signage ACCESSIBLIITY: Full

CONTEXT: Nature Ring INTENSITY OF USE: Moderate TYPE OF USE: Walking, Playing, Hiking, Jogging, Cycling, Wheelchairs LOCATION: Public Spaces in the Urban & Natural Environment PATH MATERIALS: Reclaimed From Earthquake, Grass, Gravel, Woodchips KIT COMPONENTS: Lights, Banners, Seating, Waste Bins, Trees, Wayfinding Signage, Evacuation Signage, Site Signage, Picnic Tables, Canopy, Playground ACCESSIBLIITY: Where applicable based on topography

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public space enhancement

WOOD SEATING

INTERSECTION LIGHTING POLE

WAYFINDING SIGNAGE ONE

WAYFINDING SIGNAGE TWO

NATURE/URBAN SOCIAL 1/50M, WOOD LOCAL LUMBER COST/UNIT: $300

URBAN SAFETY AT INTERSECTIONS, ALUMINUM SOLAR, ENERGY SOURCE COST/UNIT: $3,000

URBAN COMMUNICATIONS AT PATH DIVISIONS, STEEL 2 LANGUAGES COST/UNIT: $900

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS AT PATH DIVISIONS, WOOD & STEEL COST/UNIT: $900

BANNER TWO

WASTE BIN

EVACUATION SIGNAGE

PLAYGROUND

URBAN IDENTITY/COMMUNICATION ON LIGHT POLES, RIGID FABRIC DURABLE

NATURE IDENTITY/COMMUNICATION ON LIGHT POLES, RIGID FABRIC DURABLE

URBAN/NATURE WASTE/IDENTITY 1/30M, STEEL HEIGHT TO ACCOMODATE RANGE OF USERS COST/UNIT: $200

URBAN/NATURE COMMUNICATIONS/SAFETY AT RISK ZONES, 1/50M, STEEL DURABLE, PROMOTES SAFETY COST/UNIT: $600

NATURE EDUCATION 1-3 AT PARKS, WOOD & PLASTIC DURABLE COST/UNIT: $4,000

ROUND CANOPY

VEHICULAR SIGNAGE

PICNIC TABLE

SITE SIGNAGE

SITE SIGNAGE

URBAN/NATURE SHELTER 1/100M, WOOD LOCAL LUMBER COST/UNIT: $2,200

URBAN COMMUNICATION VEHICULAR INTERSECTIONS STEEL 2 LANGUAGES

NATURE SOCIAL 3-5/100M, CONCRETE & WOOD SLAG DUST AS CEMENT SUB, LOCAL LUMBER COST/UNIT: $1,000

URBAN COMMUNICATIONS 1/SITE, STEEL 2 LANGUAGES COST/UNIT: $1,200

URBAN NATURE 1/SITE, STEEL 2 LANGUAGES COST/UNIT: $1,200

Kit of Parts The kit of parts is a collection of components, including benches, lighting and garbage receptacles. Each component in the kits of parts has specified frequency, material, location and sustainability factors. Together, these components make up the language of the furnishing for the urban and nature rings. Each ring is signified by a specific colour and set of materials. A number of components were custom designed to reflect Lota’s unique identity, while others are suggestions for standard furnishings that could be purchased commercially and easily adapted.

CONCRETE SEATING

URBAN SOCIAL 1/50M, CONCRETE LOCAL, SLAG DUST AS CEMENT SUBSTITUTE COST/UNIT: $400

KIOSK

URBAN FINANCE WOOD LOCAL LUMBER

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BANNER ONE

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public space enhancement

public space enhancement

Entrance: NORTH GATEWAY

Fuerte: South gateway entrance to lota

The IwB proposes that the crest at Lota’s north gateway be restored as a symbol of the city’s past challenges and newfound direction. The site is located within a roundabout along the main road into Lota from the north. It will include improved walking routes, lighting and signage to improve connectivity. Restoring the crest will bring awareness of Lota to visitors and residents, drivers and pedestrians. Restoring the site will improve transportation and aesthetic appeal. This is a simple and inexpensive way for Lota to market itself. To implement this project, the most important steps are to build pedestrian paths, install new signs, restore the crest, install lighting and landscape the site.

The Fuerte is the city’s most important vantage point and provides stunning views of the city, demonstrating the contrast between the urban and natural environment. Enhancing the space will make it a pillar on the tourism circuit and also give residents a place to reflect on Lota’s history and geography. Despite its small scale, the site has tremendous potential to make a large impact on the local population and future visitors. The improved Fuerte will be a destination for tourists and allow for the development of microbusinesses on site. The project can use social capital to develop the site and keep labour costs down, encouraging ownership and pride through community involvement. Development at the Fuerte will also encourage connections to the coast, Camino Verde and Colcura beach. This project can be funded through private donations, fundraising and government subsidies and grants.

fuerte de lota

Designed to increase accessibility to the site and improve user experience, the Fuerte has the potential to capture the imagination of Lotinos and visitors alike.

As approached from Concepción to the north, the enhanced entrance promotes identity and pedestrian safety.

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public space enhancement

public space enhancement

Playa Blanca

Alto Parque

As one enters the city from the north, the first major attraction is Playa Blanca. The site is already a popular destination for locals and tourists; however, its user experience can be improved via the construction of a boardwalk. The proposed boardwalk uses organic shapes reminiscent of the waves and plays on Lota’s association with colour and the sea. The improved Playa Blanca will also have a formal lifeguarding program to create employment and ensure safety. Playa Blanca will be an enhanced public space that is ideal for relaxing and socializing. An important part of Lota’s brand and regional profile, it will create a destination for tourists and allow for the development of microbusinesses on site.

playa blanca

Lotinos would benefit from a diverse set of parkettes located in neighbourhoods throughout the city that create attractive green spaces for people to meet, socialize and enjoy their city. These provide spaces for children to play, for exercise and for learning about the environment. The open space located at the entrance of the stadium can be used as both an educational piece and as an interactive form of recreation. The water playground can create spaces not only geared toward sport and fitness, but also learning and sharing. Alto Parque will be a clean and safe space for the people of Lota to meet and socialize. It will also contribute to the greening of Lota’s abandoned spaces. Construction can make use of the proposed kit of parts and provide employment opportunities to the local community in construction and maintenance.

alto parque

The natural ring provides moments of reflection and recreation. Alto Parque is a public space that connects the Cascada housing development to ENACAR.

A new boardwalk and a small mixed-used development seek to provide visitors—including the thousands who attend the Sun at the Beach music festival—an enhanced experience.

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public space enhancement

Plaza de Armas Surrounded by a number of important institutional buildings and located in the heart of Lota Bajo, the Plaza de Armas is one of the most important public spaces in Lota. It provides contrast between the soft landscape and oasis that it offers and the highly urbanized built form that surrounds it. Respecting the original design of the plaza, this proposal aspires to utilize much of the existing infrastructure while enhancing the overall connectivity, flexibility and use of the space. Providing more open space enables residents and visitors to move more freely through the plaza. New urban furniture and improved lighting encourages community interaction and public safety. Revitalizing the Plaza de Armas will use a natural language consistent with nature ring interventions and enhance the overall image of the downtown core, increasing community

pride. It will also increase foot traffic to the pedestrian mall and train station. It will provide a space that is functional and supports both existing festivals and future events, initiating new development in the vicinity. Finance

The revitalized Plaza de Armas plan is projected to cost CAD $3.645 million. It will incorporate new businesses within the plaza that become an extension of the market and stimulate the local economy by attracting more visitors and strengthening the overall vibrancy of Lota’s downtown core.

Implementation Begin community consultation process. Create a detailed pro forma to identify the potential costs. Obtain funding by seeking private donations, holding events to fundraise, or seeking applicable subsidies and grants available through government organizations. Create detailed architectural and landscape drawings. Submit drawings proposal and obtain the necessary approvals. Begin construction. Finalize the landscape and construction of the plaza. Organize an event to celebrate the successful implementation of the new plaza. Ensure the space is properly maintained with citizenship and community ownership programs.

New lighting, shelter, street furniture and landscaping create a healthy and safe public space.

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plaza de armas

capital cost

3,645,000 8% Furnishings 11% Contingency 12% Site Preparation

69% Construction

Colour reflects Lota’s identity and is used in Plaza de Armas and public spaces throughout the city.

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public space enhancement

Camino Verde The Linear Park (Camino Verde) is a new parkway running north along the rail line from the market area. It is designed to accommodate pedestrians and cyclists along an attractive, landscaped corridor. It includes commercial amenities and provides a link between the downtown, market area, train station and the entrance to Lota. It creates a connection between the city’s industrial legacy and the natural environment. Most importantly, the linear park creates linkages between the urban and natural rings. This project will increase Lota’s connectivity and aesthetic appeal, thus encouraging both tourists and Lotinos to spend more time in Lota. By connecting areas that are currently separated by geography, it will develop relationships between the community and nature. The new spaces created by the Linear Park will also create opportunities for microbusinesses.

Implementation Create detailed drawings.

A unique path typology, creates identity and rhythm throughout the natural ring.

camino verde

Identify potential project partners. Prepare the site and construct the park. Maintain and expand as needed.

Connecting north to south and Lota Alto to Lota Bajo, Camino Verde provides recreational paths, overcomes physical boundaries and creates evacuation routes in the event of disaster.

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increased mobility

Train Station Increased Mobility Pedestrians, bicycles, vehicles, trains and boats make up a proposed integrated transit system that promotes resiliency, livability and economic development. Proposed interventions are built on existing assets in Lota, from the rail line to the underutilized coast. Increasing transportation options and usability will improve Lotinos’ quality of life. Just as importantly, making Lota easier to reach and navigate will encourage tourism and economic growth. Extending Biobío’s commuter rail service to downtown Lota will encourage an exchange of people between Lota and its northern neighbours, particularly Concepción. Many Lotinos already work in Concepción, and this will facilitate their commute and provide access to jobs. Furthermore, many tourists that visit Lota live in or near Concepción. These links will be strengthened by the introduction of the train service. The train station will also be a gateway to Lota Bajo, providing a needed transit connection to Plaza de Armas. BicicLota is a bicycle-sharing program with bicycles available for use at depots located at hubs throughout Lota. The program will provide a simple, affordable, environmentally friendly way for Lotinos and tourists to get around. It will also provide employment through maintenance, marketing and administration. BarcaLota is a proposed ferry circuit that will transport passengers to important sites along Lota’s waterfront. The coast is one of Lota’s most appealing features and it is currently underdeveloped. In addition to being part of Lota’s tourism strategy, BarcaLota will also provide employment for fishermen, who will use their boats as the service’s vehicles. Public space strategies that call for improved green spaces and paths are also important to connectivity, as are plans to reroute roads and create more pedestrian streets. The connectivity strategy will add to Lota’s resilience by reducing reliance on cars, creating new business opportunities, improving quality of life and making it easier and more appealing for people to see and enjoy the city.

The reopened downtown train station and revitalized passenger rail service provide an integral component of local and regional development by connecting Lota to the rest of the Biobío region. This project will foster regional connectivity and support tourism by overcoming Lota’s geographic isolation from the rest of the region. This will provide Lotinos easier access to jobs within Biobío and serve both local and regional economic development goals. Furthermore, it will enhance the overall image and reputation of the city by making it a more central point within Biobío. It will also decrease the use of carbon-burning modes of transport such as buses, taxis and personal vehicles. The regional and federal governments can fund the train station as part of the regional transportation plan. From its current terminal in Lomas Colouradas, the BioTren will extend approximately 25 km further south along an existing railway line into Lota, with the option to extend further if ever needed. The station is strategically positioned

in an area that bridges the gap between the downtown core, the linear park and underutilized harbourfront. It is designed to reflect the construction techniques used in the coalmines, representative of the wooden beams that structurally reinforce the mining tunnels. Finance

The extension of the BioTren service into Lota will cost CAD $66.5 million. An added contingency of 13 percent brings the grand total to CAD $76.5 million. The BioTren system is operated and financed by the Ferrocarriles Suburbanos de Concepción (FESUB SA), which is a subsidiary of the state railway company Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado (EFE). As with most public transit services, the BioTren operates at a deficit. The operating cost of the service depends heavily on usage. The greater the usage of the BioTren, the lower the operating cost, as the cost is offset by income from ticket sales. In turn, the service requires a minimum ridership in order to be financially feasible.

this strategy provides:

6

trains per day

12

new ferry boats

500

shared bicycles

The new train station located two blocks west of Plaza de Armas and hotel integrates Lota’s transit systems— bus, bicycle and taxi. 96

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Implementation

annual revenue

Continue to lobby at local, regional and national levels in support of an investment to catalyze economic development.

Operating Revenues

Price

Tickets @ 200/day @$1

1,344,000

Concession @ 20%

400,000

Ensure that the condition of the railway is suitable to support a new transit system and that the extension of the BioTren is viable.

Total 1,744,000 Total Jobs Created

200

train station

Submit feasibility study to entice BioTren to extend the service to Lota. Obtain approval from BioTren. Allow the region to revitalize the rail line as necessary and extend the BioTren to Lota. Create detailed architectural plans of the new station and submit for permit. Obtain the building permit. Construct the new platform in stages to ensure that potential riders are able to access the rail line during the construction process. Finalize landscaping and construction. Advertise to encourage new ridership and entice new development within the downtown core.

capital cost

76,475,000 15% Contingency

85% Construction

Working in combination with the other downtown interventions, the train station and rail service are critical to revitalization.

Looking out from one of the platforms, locals and visitors are welcomed with wayfinding, information and a public waiting space.

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increased mobility

increased mobility

Finance

annual revenue

BarcaLota

BicicLota

Operating Revenues

Price

One Time Use (200,000 @1)

200,000

Utilizing Lota’s most natural asset, its coastline, the ferry service strives to connect both residents and visitors to a number of destinations and vantage points along the coast, utilizing the existing labour force. Once implemented, this service can connect residents and visitors to both the natural and urban areas that define the edges of the city where land meets ocean. BarcaLota promotes access to various destinations along the coast and enhances local culture and Lota’s identity as a coastal town. It creates jobs for local residents and supports tourism by increasing the connectivity of tourists to existing and proposed destinations along the coast. Because BarcaLota uses existing fishing infrastructure, it will require minimal funding to implement. For this proposal to be successful, a group of residents who own boats and are willing to provide the service must be found. Boat owner-operators may be fishermen during the off-season. Once this has been organized, access points, docks and launches can be constructed.

BicicLota is a bike-sharing public transportation system that promotes public health and an integrated transit system. A network of bicycle routes will be strategically planned to connect key areas of the city. Rental stations will be located around different neighbourhoods and attractions in order to ensure access and availability. Existing infrastructure will be altered to incorporate new bicycle lanes, signage and rental kiosks. Furthermore, a support system including marketing, finance, maintenance and response teams will be implemented. BicicLota promotes a healthy lifestyle and reduces reliance on petroleum and automobiles, reducing downtown congestion. It will also empower the community via designated bike and pedestrian-only days. Tourism will be encouraged through bike path routes, while micro-economic hubs can be created around sharing stations.

The implementation of the BicicLota service is estimated to have a capital cost of CAD $880,000, with an annual operating cost of over CAD $535,000. Conversely, it would attain annual revenue of CAD $925,000. Existing bike-share programs, like those in Paris and Montreal, are owned by municipal governments, private companies or public-private partnerships. In this case, the municipality would provide the service with possible funding from other levels of government, as bike sharing is new to Chile and requires government support.

Membership (5,000 @ 50/yr)

250,000

Total

450,000

operational costs Description Cost Maintenance 200,000 Marketing 5,000 Equipment 10,000

Implementation Marketing: as cycling is not common in Lota, encouraging people to use the system will be necessary.

Management and Staff

180,000

Communication

5,000

Total 400,000

Alter existing infrastructure to incorporate new bicycle lanes, signage and rental kiosks.

Total Jobs Created

Implement finance and maintenance teams.

capital cost

Implement free trials for Lotinos to try the service at no risk. Ensure bicycles and supporting infrastructure are maintained and replaced as necessary.

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470,000 11% Consultancy

15% Contingency

32% Bicycles 42% Construction

One of the six new ferry docks located at the coastal restaurant. BarcaLota connects Lota’s waterfront with the urban fabric of the city.

Bike-sharing stations throughout the city provide both an opportunity for recreation and a way to get around the city. Providing decongestion and an active way to experience the city increases the quality of urban life.

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housing SUMMARY Housing Innovation Approximately 10,000 residents currently live in temporary housing settlements. As Biobío continues to grow, Lota will also grow, attracting new economic development and industry. Housing must respond to this growth, which will also generate new economic opportunity. All new housing must respond to Lota’s unique setting and natural environment. To meet the needs of the citizens, the master plan includes five resilient housing solutions that adapt to Lota’s varied terrain and unique urban setting. Developments provide lasting settlements that can foster economic development opportunities. Housing typologies encourage external funding and government subsidies where applicable and lastly, achieve resilience, diversification and densification. Housing is one of Lota’s most pressing needs, and tackling this challenge requires a nuanced approach. Valle Verde: an expandable social housing solution that responds to the flat terrain and provides permanent solutions for those currently living in temporary housing settlements. Cascada: Innovative, affordable housing that provides opportunities for tourism. Casa Feria: A multi-storey live-work unit that promotes new residential development within the downtown core while providing new space for market stalls. Costa Villa: Responding to the natural beauty of Lota, this housing design has the potential to increase tourism and provide unique homes for a niche market. Casa Flexible: A single family dwelling for families who have been displaced by the earthquake. This housing design responds to the local context and provides an affordable, expandable solution.

These five housing developments are summarized to highlight the scale of development, prices per unit, the housing typology they support and the size of the units themselves. Proposed interventions have considered existing and temporary housing conditions in their design.

housing units

1,600 3% Work/Live

10% Tourist Work/Live 25% Social Housing 62% Family

CASCADA

154 units $19,952 CAD/unit Live-Work & Tourist 244m2

CASA FLEXIBLE

1,000 units $28,000 CAD/unit Family/Working Couple 75m2

COSTA VILLA

15 units $60,996 CAD/unit Tourist 275m2

CASA FERIA

44 units $92,480 CAD/unit Student & Live-Work 125m2

VALLE VERDE

415 units $32,844 CAD unit Social Housing 130m2

this strategy provides:

5

housing typologies meeting postdisaster and social housing needs.

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44

multi-family live-work units in the market

415

social housing units applying MINVU financing

$

Units costs ranging from CAD $19,000 to $92,000.

Reduced damage to housing stock caused by future disasters.

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housing innovation

Cascada Cascada is a unique neighbourhood development that provides an innovative solution to the lack of adequate housing while encouraging tourism. This development takes advantage of a number of existing assets within Lota, including the natural beauty of the coast, El Chiflón del Diablo and the culture and hospitality of Lotinos. The design utilizes and respects the natural environment to create a built form that is embedded in the hillside along Lota’s coast. Similar to the social housing project, this housing development will target available government subsidies and funding. However, this proposal looks to tap into the voluntourism market (a type of tourism in which a tourist volunteers to help a community while being exposed to the culture in order to learn about the people and place on a deeper level). This can provide a source of labour to aid in the construction of this housing development and provide a source of funding. The project may also be eligible for MINVU funding. Cascada increases quality of life by providing residents with increased access to utilities and new, more permanent

The Cascada neighbourhood development provides residents the opportunity to host volountourists to help construct the residential units.

and resilient housing solutions that meet or exceed the current codes and standards. It will also support and promote local skill and craft, develop amenities and enhance existing public spaces. In addition to creating new employment opportunities for local residents, Cascada will support and enhance tourism within Lota for regional and national tourists. Finance

For this development, there are a number of potential sources of funding. Chile’s Ministry of Housing and Planning (Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo, MINVU) has been a leader in social housing worldwide and offers numerous subsidy programs for both new development and enhancement of existing housing. As this project is mainly residential, subsidies and grants available through MINVU may be obtained. A subsidy entitled Fondo Solidario de Vivienda provides CAD $8,400 per household. If enough residents are eligible for this subsidy, it may provide a major source of funding. Voluntourism provides an excellent opportunity to fund housing, provide a source of income for local residents and

provide labour to build homes. Establishing a voluntourism organization enables visitors to experience Lota’s beautiful sites and people and allows them to contribute to the construction of tourism infrastructure and to the economic development and greening of the town. Existing voluntourism retreats in Chile charge from CAD $1,500 to $3,000 for seven to 10 days. the project can seek donations and partnerships in order to gain funding, materials and support. Seeking partnerships with existing voluntourism organizations will help the project gain recognition and tap into an existing market. Each house is projected to cost CAD $21,369 and is expected to earn about CAD $2,000 from each participating voluntourist. The municipality is expected to contribute about CAD $3,000 for each unit. Implementation

roof

Ensure that the existing residents are willing to be host a voluntourism model.

rainwater

Identify existing homes within the proposed site plan and ensure residents are willing to take part in the new proposal.

collection

Set up or identify an existing organization that is willing to oversee the voluntourism program and construction. Identify a group of residents living at or below the poverty line (preferably who have unique skills— craft, culinary, dance etc.).

second floor live-work unit

Submit preliminary application to MINVU to ensure eligibility of application. Create site-specific drawings and submit the proposal to MINVU. Receive the funding and permit. Begin to advertise to voluntourists and gain additional funding to support the new development and voluntourism program. Prepare site and install infrastructure accordingly. Utilize local professionals to install the structural components of the housing.

first floor residential unit

Utilize both local volunteers and voluntourists to complete the construction of the homes and finalize the landscaping. Allow residents to move into the new housing units as they are completed. Educate residents how to best utilize the new units to attract voluntourists and subsidize the overall cost of living.

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pre-built concrete foundation

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housing innovation

Valle verde Available subsidies and funding as well as Lotinos’ community can be put to use to build new housing solutions for those living in temporary housing settlements. In particular, the Ministry of Housing and Planning (Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo, MINVU) has been a leader in social housing worldwide and offers several subsidy programs for both new development and the enhancement of existing housing. Lota should pursue the subsidies available to build social housing within municipal boundaries. The IwB has identified a site currently occupied by temporary housing that is ideal for development. This type of subsidy is particularly relevant for Lotinos given their strong community cohesion and ability to organize themselves. The project can also involve existing organizations (the municipality, Pabellon 83, Casa de la Mujer etc.) that may be suitable to oversee the application process and development.

By compelling applicants to apply in minimum groups of 10 families, Valle Verde encourages neighbourhood development and community cohesion. It will also increase quality of life by providing residents with new and more permanent housing solutions. Subsidies available through MINVU can be combined to cover a large portion of the associated costs of development and the project will increase the property value of the land that is developed. Utilizing land within the city will eliminate the need to develop outside of the urban boundary. Lastly, providing new homes that meet or exceed current codes and standards will increase the resilience of the housing stock.

Implementation Identify potential applicants for the loan. Identify an organization that is (or can be) registered with MINVU that will oversee the support and management of the funds and assist families with construction.

corrugated metal roof

Submit preliminary application to MINVU to ensure eligibility of application. Create site-specific drawings and submit the proposal to MINVU. Receive the funding and permit.

infill bedrooms

Prepare site and install infrastructure accordingly. Construct the new residential units accordingly. Use landscaping to connect to the existing urban fabric. Hand over the units to the residents. Revitalize the site that the residents occupied prior to the new development.

2-storey structure for 2 families

Ensure units are maintained and expanded.

300sqft original structure

high windows on the North wall for natural lighting

existing wood panel walls

metal studs to provide structural stability

foundation

Valle Verde is designed to response to the temporary housing neighbourhoods. Converting temporary sites to permanent ones does not further displace community members.

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housing innovation

Costa Villa Costa Villa is a unique, resilient housing design that is intended to honour the artisanal fishing industry and the contrast between land and sea. The design was inspired by the distinctive character of Lota’s coastline and evokes the appearance of a traditional wooden fishing boat. It points toward the ocean, providing stunning views for potential homeowners and visitors. This project will create a unique visual identity for Lota and has the potential to significantly enhance tourism by creating a unique attraction along the coastline. Building Costa Villas will provide construction jobs and training for local residents and provide residents with access to utilities. It has the potential to attract foreign investment in Lota and will also increase the resilience of the housing stock by providing new homes that meet or exceed current codes and standards.

Implementation

sloped roof

Identify a potential site along the coast of Lota. Ensure the site is suitable for housing development. Create site-specific plans and submit for permit. Receive permit and move forward with construction. Prepare site and install infrastructure accordingly.

loft space

Utilize local expertise and labour to construct the homes, in addition to providing education and training.

bedroom

Use landscaping to connect to the existing urban fabric. Hand over the units to the residents and/or set up program to rent units to potential visitors.

bathroom

fishing boat-inspired design

kitchen/living space

glass wall providing ocean view

shape of the re-enforced walls divert ocean surge away from structure to minimize damage

Costa Villa is a small development inspired by the artisanal fishing history of Lota. Aimed at the tourism market, this development can aid the city’s economy and identity.

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built on the existing foundations

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housing innovation

Casa Flexible Casa Flexible was designed to fit the existing context and meet the needs of a typical Lotino family. This house is affordable, durable and offers a flexible floorplan that can be tailored to homeowners’ individual needs. Development of these homes is intended to infill damaged or derelict homes and accommodate future growth. The project is designed to blend with the local context and use existing construction materials and techniques. It supports new economic development, industry and growth within Lota. Furthermore, the central hallway and elevated ridge roof allow for natural ventilation and lighting. Providing new homes that meet or exceed current codes and standards will increase the resilience of the housing stock.

Implementation

pabellon-style roof

Ensure that growth can support the development of new housing units.

with raised windows

Create site-specific drawings and submit them to the municipality.

for passive air ventilation

Receive the funding and permit. Prep site and install infrastructure accordingly. Construct the new residential units accordingly. Use landscaping to connect to the existing urban fabric. Hand over the units to the residents.

bedroom 1

bedroom 2

bedroom 3

entrance hallway

bathroom

storage

Kitchen and living space

separation of Designed to alleviate the temporary housing neighbourhoods and accommodate for future growth, Casa Flexible targets young families from both Lota and BiobĂ­o.

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public and private spaces

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housing innovation

Casa Feria In order to create a more vibrant downtown core, the IwB proposes that mixed-use residential-commercial units be introduced into the market. The market is the jewel of the urban ring and the heart of the city. The struggle between the environment and urban form is evident even in the downtown core, the most urbanized portion of Lota. This was taken into consideration in the design of the market units, which provide residential units that are elevated so that they are less susceptible to tsunami damage. In doing so, the built form creates void space at grade, providing space for commercial use. The proposed housing can also be used along the linear park, connecting the proposed natural path to the market and downtown core. Currently, there are a number of derelict buildings that can be replaced with new development, which may be achieved by utilizing funding available through MINVU. Successful implementation of this project can also act as a catalyst to begin revitalizing the market and downtown core.

Casa Feria will improve the downtown core by reducing the number of unsafe buildings, as well as increasing quality of life by providing residents with permanent housing and increased access to utilities. Subsidies available through MINVU may be obtained through the unique design of the units that utilize the built form of residential units to provide additional space for market stalls. The project also has the potential to increase property value and attract new development within the downtown core, creating a more attractive city for tourists and visitors.

Implementation

ventilation for

Identify buildings and sites within the downtown core that are abandoned and cannot be renovated due to significant structural damage.

stack effect

Utilize local labour force to demolish and grade these sites, removing all construction debris (some of which can be used in Camino Verde). Identify potential applicants for available subsidies. Identify an organization that is (or can be) registered with MINVU that will oversee the support and management of the funds and assist families with the support to construct and expand the potential residential development.

vaulted roof living space

bedrooms

Submit preliminary application to MINVU to ensure eligibility of application. Create site-specific drawings and submit the proposal to MINVU. Receive the funding and permit.

wasHroom storage

Prep site and install infrastructure accordingly. Construct the new residential-commercial units accordingly. Hand over the units to the residents.

balcony and rain

Encourage and educate residents how to best utilize the ground floor space, which is to provide additional sheltered space for market stalls.

shelter for the market

mechanical room public washroom

market stalls

modular wall panels

wet wall supporting water and hydro to stalls Casa Feria is an infill development that provides commercial and residential opportunities. Located in the market, it encourages densification of the downtown.

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Institutional restoration

Soccer Stadium Institutional Restoration Institutional interventions promote community pride and citizenship by providing opportunities to engage in the arts, sports and civic activities. The institutional enrichment focus is on developing infrastructure for cultural and recreational sectors that have been abandoned or previously unsustainable. A new combined stadium and recreation centre will be a new landmark and symbol for Lota. As a new home for Lota’s soccer team, the Schwager, it will bring money and restore pride to the city. It can also be a venue for other sporting events, concerts and community festivals. It will encourage Lotinos to participate in sports, learn about health and be an important source of revenue and employment. Lota’s restored historic theatre can once again host plays, concerts and performances. Down the road, the church will be expanded to include a hostel retreat, community spaces, a plaza and steps connecting to Lota Bajo. Other institutions like Casa de la Mujer, Pabellon 83 and CFT are important to the fabric of the community. They must be supported and encouraged to grow. Increasing accessibility to activities, cultivating partnerships and encouraging youth leadership within the institutions will support creativity and innovation, adding to resiliency and raising Lota’s profile.

Sport is an inherent part of Chilean culture and can effect change, build communities and transcend socioeconomic boundaries. The goal of the Lota Stadium and Recreation Centre is to provide the community of Lota a space that fosters the identity and culture of soccer. At the moment, there are insufficient spaces to host soccer games, concerts and festivals. Furthermore, the Lota Schwager, a Series B soccer team, hosts its games in Coronel, fifteen minutes away from Lota. One of the objectives is to bring the Schwager back to Lota. The proposed stadium will be unique, with accessible spaces for both locals and visitors. The stadium and recreation centre will increase morale, provide economic opportunities and ultimately increase community cohesion through sport. The stadium is centrally located in Lota Bajo and maximizes its connection to Lota Alto through a path connection that leads to the theatre and church. Fitness facilities include a running track, a multi-purpose gym, rooms that can be used for fitness or group classes and a multi-use field that can be used for different types of

sporting events and functions. The stadium and recreation centre is a space that can work in tandem with the sports leadership program as well as the education sector. Training programs such as CPR Certification can be taught on site. The soccer stadium and recreation centre can host regional, national and even international events. For example, the stadium has the potential to host rugby tournaments and become a training space for regional and national sports teams. It is also worth noting that the stadium can act as a meeting space in the event of an earthquake and ensuing tsunami. As people convene, they can move to higher ground through a connective path system that leads up to Lota Alto.

this strategy provides:

Provide a venue for the Lota Schwager to return to Lota.

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Expand the San Matías Apostol church.

Reopen the Teatro Lota and provide public spaces.

Built on the site of the former stadium in Lota, the new stadium will provide a venue for the Lota Schwager in addition to being a community recreation centre.

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Finance

annual revenue

operational costs

The stadium has a projected capital cost of CAD $5.43 million with an annual operating cost of CAD $655,000. The operating revenue, combining earnings from a variety of activities and programs, comes to a grand total of CAD $1.47 million per year. The stadium has an estimated return on investment of 15 percent and an estimated return on equity of 43 percent. The stadium can be funded through different models and investors, including the municipal government or potential corporate sponsorship. Sources of revenue for the completed Lota Grande stadium and its programs include concession sales, advertising and sponsorship, broadcasting and membership fees. The stadium is a part of Lota’s tourism strategy, contributing to tourism revenue in addition to stadium rental to sports teams, national and international sporting events and annual festivals. This project has the potential to make a large impact on the residents and culture of Lota. Beginning with small changes, such as a community clean-up initiative, the field can become a welcoming space and can spark interest by a variety of investors. The stadium creates immediate employment opportunities in construction and consulting and long-term employment opportunities in management, health and education, broadcasting and advertising.

Operating Revenues Price

Description

Drop-in Use

200,000

Management & Staff 400,000

Indoor Programs

250,000

Office Expenses

3,000

Class Space Rental

450,000

Insurance

10,000

Gym Space Rental

25,000

Marketing

2,000

Cost

Membership 30,000

Maintenace 20,000

Festivals

50,000

Utilities

Programs

40,000

Communication 10,000

Apparel

20,000

Equipment

30,000

Ticket Sales

420,000

Food and Beverage

20,000

Food and Beverage

144,000

30,000

Security

80,000

Advertising Revenue 300,000

Audio and Visual

20,000

Sponsorship 200,000

Payroll

30,000

Broadcast Revenue

200,000

Total

655,000

Total

1,471,000

ROI

15%

ROE

43%

capital cost

stadium

5,425,000 13% Main Level 14% Field 14% Contingency

22% Second Floor

37% Seating

The stadium was also designed to function as a relief centre in an emergency situation.

Caption Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet

Located beside the Camino Verde, the stadium is a connection point for residents and visitors to the cultural assets of Lota Alto and the commercial activity of Lota Bajo.

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Institutional restoration

institutional restoration

Theatre

Church

Teatro Lota can be revitalized in order to provide the community with a platform for artists to live and to showcase their work. It can be a place for cultural activities and events for the city of Lota in order to bring people together and spark inspiration and a space to foster the art, culture and heritage of Lota. The theatre is located in Lota Alto but has a connectivity point with the stadium in Lota Bajo. Restoring the theatre will give Lotinos a creative outlet, create opportunities for arts education and aid the growth of mental and social well-being. It will also create infrastructure for future tourism by introducing a venue for cultural events and performances and a platform for developing cultural industries. Restoring the theatre can begin with a community arts initiative, possibly supported by Pabellon 83, as a project kick-off. Once Teatro Lota is reopened to the public, new programs can be proposed and developed according to community demand.

A church is a centre of worship and provides comfort and a spiritual outlet to people from all walks of life. However, this design intervention is not just about religion—it will create a sanctuary of calm and reflection while restoring a historic and important building. In addition to conserving the existing sanctuary and spire, a cloister and plaza will be built, creating a hostel retreat, new community rooms and a new public space. San Matías Apostol will be a main feature of Cousiño Drive. The church is located on the urban ring but connects to the nature ring through a link to the stadium. By offering locals and visitors a place of spirituality, the church becomes not only a place of worship, but also a place to interact. Furthermore, the opportunity for nature retreats allows for a reconnection between the urban lifestyle and nature.

Teatro Lota’s welcoming public space reflects the theatre’s potential to act as a regional hub for culture and the arts.

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The Church teatro lota

capital cost

60,000 10% Contingency 10% Consultancy

80% Landscaping

The church is intended to serve as Lota Alto’s primary community gathering space, with programming guided by community members. It can host event rentals, spiritual and community retreats. It will also accommodate overnight visitors. The retreat experience will create experiential learning and help stimulate reflection, including a nature walk with meditation points within and around the church. Before construction begins, fundraising can occur in the local parish and broader religious community. Once funding is in place, the cloister and plaza can be constructed and community and tourist programming can begin. capital cost

151,000

25% Church Renovation 28% Cloister

47% Plaza

The restoration of the church provides a spiritual retreat as well a new public space connecting the church to Camino Verde and the stadium.

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economic prosperity

Market Economic Prosperity Developing prosperous economies in multiple sectors will play a critical role in making Lota a robust and resilient city. New economic capacities can be developed with the introduction of new industries such as green energy and commercial waste, tourism development, commercialization and a feria-based economic revitalization. Economic prosperity is also supported through increased connectivity and public space enhancement. Diversifying Lota’s economy begins with strengthening its current economic engine, the Feria Libre. With the implementation of a business improvement area (BIA), the market and downtown core receive the support and revitalization they need to increase business capacity and customer traffic. The prosperity agenda explores new growth areas in commercialization and green manufacturing to replace the mine’s former dominance. In support of the municipality’s growth strategy in tourism, People Change Places includes interventions for accommodation and other tourist amenities such as a restaurant, Los Ladrillos. A diverse and robust economy not only creates new economic capacity, but also provides a sense of empowerment and community pride.

The market’s is Lota’s economic hub and is connected via pedestrian paths to the downtown, train station and Plaza de Armas. The proposition aims to improve the aesthetic of the market through programs that foster ownership and pride among the vendors. The new market design will improve user experience by incorporating a number of improvements including a new market stall design, enhanced streetscapes and new pedestrian routes. This will integrate the market with the rest of Lota Bajo, helping to create a vibrant and rich downtown core. The market is also the site of proposed infill housing, which is discussed in detail in the residential projects section. Revitalizing the market will improve cohesion among the market vendors in addition to fostering community pride and a more comfortable experience for patrons. It will create new employment opportunities for local residents, attract more local consumers and become a destination for tourists. The project will also improve waste management, hygiene and food safety and restore deteriorating infrastructure.

Market

Implementation Establish steering committee to begin the process of creating a business improvement area. Formally establish BIA. Determine levy amount. Begin collecting levies from vendors. Plan market reorganization. Begin infrastructure upgrades and reorganization. Maintain market using BIA funds.

this strategy provides:

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1,290 reconstruction and development jobs.

New supply chains for construction materials using local resources.

New wayfinding, waste management, arts programs, vendor support and infill developments are some of the proposed improvements to the market. The market redevelopment is a catalyst for Lota’s revitalization. PEOPLE CHANGE PLACES

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economic prosperity

Downtown Revitalization A scaled plan view of the proposed revitalization of Lota Bajo highlights the role of a new market master plan and the creation of Camino Verde. A market-based revitalization can spur economic growth and increase the value of real estate in the downtown core. Connecting Lota Alto to Lota Bajo through linkages and Camino Verde creates accessibility and desirability; making the downtown a thriving and resilient place.

yo soy lota: master plan Plaza de Armas

1

Camino Verde

2

Train Station

3

Casa Feria

4

Stadium

5

Teatro Lota

6

Church

7

Hotel Soneto

8

Union Building

9

Pedestrian Road

10

BIA Initiative

11

1

8

10 9

5

11

4

3 2

7

The Camino Verde runs the length of the downtown and connects the Fuerte to the stadium with pedestrian and bicycle paths. Infrastructure upgrades to downtown Lota are essential.

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Economic prosperity

Economic prosperity

Centre for Social Innovation

Smartphone App

Located opposite the Plaza de Armas, the never-completed miners’ union building will be restored and revitalized to become Lota’s Centre for Social Innovation. The Centre for Social Innovation will serve as an incubation hub for community organizations, business partners and educational institutions to come together to develop, innovate and implement products, services and programs to serve the interests of the community. It will house the offices of the market business improvement area and provide flexible space for entrepreneurial development, skill building and commercialization workshops. Having such space supports the Economic Prosperity strategy as it positions Lota to bring together collaborators from diverse backgrounds to establish new economies and create a resilient economic sector.

Retaining the existing façade to pay tribute to the role of the miners’ union and preserve the existing murals, the Centre for Social Innovation will be an infill development that provides structural support to the existing building. Leveraging non-governmental, institutional, corporate and community partners to fund construction and programs, the cost of the project is estimated at CAD $1.6 million.

union building

Lota’s natural beauty and unique built form provide a glimpse into its rich history. This proposal seeks to connect residents and visitors to distinctive sites throughout the city and provide them with a greater understanding of the history of these sites. Using technology, the residents of Lota will be able to upload stories and facts regarding sites around the city, enabling visitors to guide themselves around the city and connect to places of interest. Tourist will be able to find significant sites within the city such as the Chiflón del Diablo, Pabellon 83 and Chivilingo; however, it will also allow them to find hotels and restaurants. From residents’ perspective, it will provide them with a platform to preserve share their stories. An app can be created quickly and will function as a tourism marketing strategy in addition to being a useful tool for visitors. The app will collect information about attractions, accommodations and transportation in one place and make it easier for people to discover Lota.

The app will be a platform for Lotinos to share their stories and culture with visitors and each other. It will also connect Lota to current trends in social media, connect tourists with local businesses and require minimal funding to implement. By utilizing the expertise offered by CFT and encouraging the participation of local residents, this proposal can be easily implemented. CFT can dedicate a class or group of students that have the competency to create a mobile app and provide a platform for residents to upload stories and add significant sites. The app should also be monitored to ensure that content is relevant and valid. capital cost

28,750 15% Contingency

85% Programing

The centre converts the unfinished miners’ union building into a multi-use space that supports the revitalization plan’s programming initiatives. Maintaining the murals is essential to the identity of the city and downtown core.

A project that can be undertaken by CFT, the smartphone app will be an interactive tool for visitors to the city.

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Economic prosperity

Hotel Overlooking the Plaza de Armas in the heart of Lota Bajo, the proposed hotel provides a unique urban setting and essential amenities to visitors in support of the city’s tourist strategy. Furthermore, the hotel enables visitors to experience Lota’s culture through the promotion of local arts and crafts. The hotel will be a platform for local artists to sell artwork and local crafts and enhance the image of downtown Lota as a destination by creating a new, vibrant, colourful building within the downtown core. The economic benefits of opening the hotel include more hotel beds in Lota and space for events and conferences. In addition to revenue from events, there will be revenue from the gift shop and revenue from the hotel restaurant. Building a hotel would create immediate jobs in the design process and construction. Furthermore, the hotel would create long-term jobs in the hospitality and tourism, management, culinary, accounting and entrepreneurship sectors. It will also add to the broader revitalization of the downtown core, increasing property values and increasing economic activity.

Finance

annual revenue

The new hotel to be built in Lota Bajo has an estimated capital cost of CAD $7 million, with an annual operating cost of CAD $700,000. With an average annual occupancy rate of 60 percent, the hotel’s annual revenue would be CAD $1.4 million, representing a 10 percent Return on Investment. The hotel would be privately owned; however, government incentives would be very helpful in the development of the project. Before the hotel can be constructed, smaller-scale projects that enhance the downtown core must be in place, thus creating incentives for private investment within the downtown core. Once a private investor that is willing to invest in the proposal has been found, the site must be cleared of existing derelict buildings and construction can begin. Local businesses can occupy ground floor space once the hotel is open and local artists and craftsmen can contribute to the interior design of the hotel and provide artwork for display. The interior design and artwork can be continually updated to provide the visitor with a unique experience.

Operating Revenues

Price

Description Cost

Room Revenue @60%

450,000

Management and Staff

400,000

Food and Beverage

600,000

Utilities and Insurance

50,000

Facility Rental

operational costs

200,000

Maintenace and Repair

20,000

Gift Store 150,000

Food and Beverage

100,000

Total 1,400,000

Office Expenses

10,000

ROI 10%

Management Fees

120,000

Hotel

Total 700,000 Total Jobs Created

230

capital cost

7,000,000 11% Contingency 13% Main Level 14% Site 22% Second Floor

71% Construction

Located adjacent the Plaza de Armas, the hotel will repurpose an abandoned site to provide amenities and services to visitors.

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Economic prosperity

Restaurant Los Ladrillos, a seafood restaurant and bistro positioned on a waterfront site between the feria and Parque de Lota, will utilize the ruins of the brick manufacturing facility. It will be a destination on the coast that complements the natural and urban rings and be a connection between the Parque de Lota and the market. It will reflect Chile’s culinary cuisine while promoting arts and heritage. Los Ladrillos represents the struggle between nature and urban decay and respects the history of the industrial ruins while merging them with a new environmentally-concious image. The restaurant can host public gatherings and private events such as banquets and weddings. It will create new supply chains, enhance existing supply chains and offer employment opportunities to the local community. Developing the abandoned brick factory will remediate contaminated land and revitalize the coast and waterfront. The project will also promote sustainable fishing practices and sourcing.

Finance

annual revenue

Building a restaurant in Lota is projected to cost CAD $3.2 million with an annual operating cost of CAD $480,000. Once in operation, the restaurant has the potential to earn CAD $952,000 in revenue annually. Los Ladrillos would be a private business and contribute to Lota’s tourism and hospitality industries, creating immediate jobs in the construction and consulting sector and long-term employment opportunities in the management, culinary and entrepreneurship sectors. The local community can create momentum for this project by initiating a community clean up and gardening initiative, which will begin the process of remediating the toxic and derelict land. Marketing will be necessary to ensure the success of the restaurant and a marketing campaign should begin before construction is completed.

Operating Revenues

Inspired by the site’s history as a brick manufacturing facility, Los Ladrillos offers a beautiful waterfront setting and a connection to the new ferry service.

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operational costs Price

Description Cost

Bistro 264,000

Management and Staff

200,000

Fine Dining 588,000

Utilities and Insurance

25,000

Venue Rental

100,000

Maintenace and Repair

50,000

Total 952,600

Food and Beverage

200,000

Other Expenses

5,000

restaurant

Total 480,000 Total Jobs Created

100

capital cost

3,550,000 1% Land Remediation 14% Contingency

85% Construction

The restaurant has flexible event space for weddings and conferences.

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JOB SUMMARY

economic prosperity

Future Economic Growth

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Tourism

Commercialization

The municipality must be prepared to invest before the tourism sector sees significant growth. Although the existing tourism circuit—the Chiflón del Diablo, Chivilingo, Parque de Lota and the museum—is a good start, it is in need of restoration and expansion. Significant investment is required before larger-scale tourism will be possible. Furthermore, the tourism sector cannot be relied on as the community’s main economic driver due to external factors such as regional and global economic downturns. Community investment in urban beautification is also needed. Municipal infrastructure upgrades like new hotels will make partnerships with private investors and developers necessary. For day visitors, the most important investments are in the sectors of connectivity (transportation links to other cities and signs) and in Lota’s most important attractions, the above-mentioned circuit sites. Improvements and better connections to Playa Blanca would also attract day visitors. The market and fishing both have the potential to interest visitors; however, the market is badly in need of renovations and fishing requires upgrades to attract tourists. In order to entice visitors to stay for more than one day, the city’s secondary tourist attractions—which include the Fuerte, the fishing port and San Matías Apostol—must be upgraded. Lota also requires more and better-quality hotels and restaurants to encourage tourists to stay longer and spend more.

A commercialization economy centred on Lota’s disaster experience can grow from its residents’ competencies in the physical and emotional experiences of surviving disaster. A disaster experience economy will explore and propose the development of institutional research facilities to test the latest housing and infrastructure techniques to avoid disaster while using Lota’s protected bay as a testing ground for tsunami-monitoring technologies. Working with Lota’s housing strategy, this commercialization economy will involve developing commercial pre-fabricated disaster resilient housing units for Lota and for export as well as other products associated with this potential industry. Concurrently, Lota’s commercialization prospect can be enhanced through the establishment of an incubation centre, proposed for the former miners’ union building, to package resources for commercialization—education, lecture series and management methods—as well as developing media as a complementary sector. Investment from the private sector and from municipal, regional and national governments in new commercial and industrial spaces for potential partners to collaborate with small and medium businesses, CFT and other regional educational institutions is required. This strategy is a response to Lota’s existing competencies and can meet the demands for disaster management within Latin America and internationally.

Green Economy

Market & Downtown

Capitalizing on the Chilean government’s mandate for renewable energy sources, Lota can create new industries in wind power that can generate income for the city and country. The recommendation to manufacture a piece of the supply chain for wind turbines allows Lota to be part of a larger network and leverages the city’s manufacturing history. Connections to rail lines create efficient transportation of materials in and out of Lota. To address challenges in solid waste management, the Chilean government is implementing a sustainable Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management system. There is an opportunity to create a regional collection and processing chain located on the Biobío coast—Lota can be responsible for organic composting within this larger recycling chain. The fishing industry in Chile has had difficulty meeting international demand. Because overfishing has depleted wild stocks and fish farms tend to breed disease, Lota’s fishing industry must reinvent itself. Through aquaponics, Lota can create a local market for sustainable fishing and vegetables to be sold in the market that can be grown into a national and international industry. By encouraging its economy to grow in many directions, Lota will ensure that it can easily adapt and grow as Chile completes its transition to the list of developed nations.

Restructuring the market by introducing a business improvement area will make vendors accountable for their market, create new marketing and programming opportunities, provide room for expansion and growth and ultimately expand the market by introducing new services and diverse economies. Offering tax breaks can entice new investment within the market and providing mixed-use accommodations can create space for residential or administrative use above the market stalls. The proposed soccer stadium cannot rely only on the reintroduction of the Lota Schwager to the city. To be a robust proposal, the stadium must look to other potential investors. By applying for regional or national status, the proposed stadium can take advantage of other niche opportunities such as bidding to host the Pan American games or to be a training facility for the women’s national soccer team. There is also interest in rugby in Chile: Lota can be a host for a training facility as well as potential world events.

PEOPLE CHANGE PLACES

These six projects are summarized to highlight potential costs and job creation. Proposed interventions have considered local resources and labour where applicable to support the city’s goals of reducting unemployment. More detailed implementation steps accompany each project.

Job Creation

TRAIN STATION

Sectors: 150 Construction 50 Operation Cost: $76,475,000 CAD est.

CENTRE FOR SOCIAL INNOVATION

Sectors: 100 Construction 190 Operation Cost: 1,600,000 CAD est.

BICICLOTA

Sectors: 50 Construction 40 Operation Cost: $470,000 CAD est.

HOTEL

Sectors: 100 Construction 190 Operation Costs: $1,600,000 CAD est.

stadium

Sectors: 250 Construction 250 Operation Cost: $5,425,000 CAD est.

RESTAURANT

Sectors: 50 Construction 50 Operation Cost: $3,550,000 CAD est.

1,290

590 Operational

700 Construction

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process

next steps The Yo Soy Lota Revitalization Plan is rooted in community empowerment and residents’ ability to organize and execute the interventions communicated in this book. Diverse and flexible funding strategies have been employed to ensure feasibility given the large range of projects included, both in terms of size, scale and actors required for their successful implementation.

These students represent the future of Lota. While some students attend CFT after high school, many leave Lota to seek educational and employment opportunities elsewhere. 132

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next steps

Implementation Summary A timeline illustrates the implementation of the interventions. Actors have been identified alongside interventions categorized by colour and their corresponding strategic objectives. The timeline serves as a recommendation to existing community institutions and municipal departments. It also provides a vision for what can be realized through tangible, immediate collective actions. Yo Soy Lota proposes four distinct community empowerment programs to work with existing community assets. The business improvement area can be supported by a

steering committee of representatives of existing small and medium-sized enterprises. The sports leadership program can be supported by Consejo Local de Deportes y Recreación, Lota Verde can be supported by Pabellon 83 and MINVU can be supported by neighbourhood leaders and groups like Casa de la Mujer. Community-wide initiatives build volunteerism and civic pride and demonstrate the value of Lota’s most valuable asset—its people—to potential investors.

The municipal government and the local business community should undertake large-scale infrastructure projects such as the train station to better integrate Lota into the regional economy and international supply chains. Detailed financial and implementation information, embedded throughout the book, is summarized on page 131. This infographic includes estimates on project costs, job creation and future returns on investment in addition to social and environmental benefits.

Funding strategies incorporate people power and sustainable financial models. Demonstrating community resilience can entice investors to enter into public-private partnerships for large-scale projects like the stadium. Yo Soy Lota’s design interventions consider local materials, supply chains, job creation, sustainability and cultural context. Interventions are proposed in support of a revitalization plan for the community of Lota to address community wants and needs. Designs are neither static nor rigid; instead, they are flexible and dynamic and thus ultimately resilient.

See page 136-137

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next steps

next steps

2011-2012 workplan

proposed projects for follow-up visit

BIA

lota verde

sports leadership

housing program

Establish steering committee with Pabellon 83.

Establish steering committee with Concejo Local de Deportes y Recreación.

Establish steering committee with neighbourhood leaders and Casa de la Mujer.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Business owners and vendors form steering committee.

Conduct community consultation to identify wants and needs.

Create youth recycling awareness program.

Begin weekend community soccer field clean-up.

Conduct community consultation.

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Create new identity package for Feria Libre.

Hold small business development workshops.

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Establish seasonal neighbourhood clean-ups.

Establish leadership program curriculum with CFT.

Begin neighbourhood parkette weekend workshop.

Create community gardening initiative with partners.

Summer sports camp for underprivileged youth.

Develop partnerships with housing innovators (Elemental and Arch. for Humanity).

Implement community mural program with partners.

Host artistic exchange.

Implement leadership program.

Submit MINVU applications.

Establish regional farmer’s market.

Establish coastal conservation areas.

Establish annual Biobío youth soccer tournament.

Host community open house to celebrate housing accomplishments.

PEOPLE CHANGE PLACES

The IwB team plans to return to Lota in the fall of 2011 to work with community members to implement some of the proposed projects. 12 Neighbourhood Parkette Workshop

Developing and implementing a weekend workshop to create parkettes in various neighbourhoods will strengthen bonds and build community empowerment in temporary housing settlements. 15 After-School Youth Sports Program

Through reaching out to local corporate sponsors such as ESSBIO, local football club Lota Schwager and working with the IwB, an after-school demonstration sports program for underprivileged youth will provide opportunities for local youth while fostering collaboration and partnerships both at home and abroad, enhancing corporate social responsibility and volunteer opportunities in the community. 17 Community Mural Event

A community mural program in the market and sponsored by the BIA has the ability to enhance identity but also build citizenship and civic pride by engaging and empowering community members to take ownership of downtown space. Working in collaboration with IwB students, local artists and schools, urban beautification can manifest itself affordably and with many positive impacts. 18 Lota Arts Exchange

Building on Pintando Lota, which brought artists to Lota, the IwB proposes an artist exchange with LACAP and Pabellon 83 that can be launched during a return visit.

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By capitalizing on Lota’s assets and bringing new life to neglected sites, proposed interventions will integrate into the city and preserve its unique character.

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Lota was this project’s muse. The buildings, programs and strategies presented in this book are intended to fit with Lota’s unique environment and culture. While the strategies employed are universal, the interventions are unique to Lota. They occupy existing buildings and neighbourhoods, fitting seamlessly into the fabric of the city.

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This document is both a revitalization proposal for the municipal officials of Lota and a textbook for a much broader audience. People Change Places can be a widely applicable case study. The City Systems matrix was developed by the IwB to facilitate understanding of how cities develop over time, the role people play in this development and how it is affected by external stresses. The individual projects, too, can inspire designers, developers and planners that seek to create resilience in their own cities.

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references

Bibliography

1 ResilientCity, “Resilience,”

CFT representative, interview by the IwB, October 25, 2010.

http://www.resilientcity.org/index.cfm?id=11449

2

“Situación Laboral Pre-Terremoto,” VIII Región del Bío Bío Comuna Lota, 2010, 2.

3

Ministry of Interior, 2010.

4

MINVU, 2010.

5

EERI, “The Mw 8.8 Chile Earthquake of February 27, 2010.” (June 2010). http://www.eeri.org/site/ imag- es/eeri_newsletter/2010_pdf/Chile10_insert.pdf.

6

Franklin Salvador Mendoza, IwB interview, October 27, 2010.

7

Sobenes, Catterina and Carlos Chávez. “Determinants of economic performance for coastal managed areas in central-southern Chile,” Environment and Development Economics 14 (2009): 721

“Comienzan talleres motivacionales para jóvenes de enseñanza media.” lota. cl. March 25, 2011. EERI. The Mw 8.8 Chile Earthquake of February 27, 2010. Earthquake Engineering Research Institutute. http://www.eeri.org/site/images/eeri_newsletter/2010_pdf/ Chile10_insert.pdf. Espinoza, Maria Elena, interview by the IwB, October 2010. “Ex hospital de ENACAR se transformará en Centro Cívico de Lota.” lota.cl. March 15, 2011. Farrell, Dominique. “Hunger strike at Chile’s Chiflón del Diablo mine ends.” Santiago Times, November 24, 2010. “Lota avanza en la reconstrucción.” lota.cl. May 6, 2011.

8

Susana Paves, IwB interview, October 27, 2010.

Municipality of Lota. “Situación Laboral Pre-Terremoto,” VIII Región del Bío Bío Comuna Lota. Lota, 2010.

9

CFT representative, IwB interview, October 25, 2010.

“Participación Ciudana.” lota.cl. January 31, 2011.

10

2002 census.

11 Jorge Venegas, IwB interview, October 2010. 12 Maria Elena Espinoza, IwB Interview, October 2010. 13 Dominique Farrell, “Hunger strike at Chile’s Chiflón del Diablo mine ends,” Santiago Times, November 24, 2010.

14 “Participación Ciudana,” lota.cl, January 31, 2011. 15 “Ex hospital de ENACAR se transformará en Centro Cívico de Lota,” lota.cl, March 15, 2011.

16 “Comienzan talleres motivacionales para jóvenes de enseñanza media,” lota.cl, March 25, 2011.

17 “Lota avanza en la reconstrucción,” lota.cl, May 6, 2011.

photo credits Page 29 http://www.elementalchile.cl/viviendas/quinta-monroy/quinta-monroy/# Page 30-31 http://www.notbent.com/ Page 32 http://wx.toronto.ca/festevents.nsf/RSSAllCurrent/3A5CB193332CBA 1E852577070072D0BC Page 33 http://www.good.is/post/why-i-write-about-design-now/ Page 37 Cia. Carbonífera e Industrial de Lota, Cien Años del Carbon de Lota (Santiago: Empresa Editora de Zig-Zag, 1952), 180. All other images by the Institute without Boundaries.

Paves, Susana, interview by the IwB, October 27, 2010. ResilientCity. “Resilience.” http://www.resilientcity.org/index.cfm?id=11449 Salvador Mendoza, Franklin, interview by the IwB, October 27, 2010. Sobenes, Catterina and Carlos Chávez. “Determinants of economic performance for coastal managed areas in central-southern Chile.” Environment and Development Economics 14 (2009): 717-738. Venegas, Jorge, interview by the IwB, October 2010.

The Institute without Boundaries (IwB) is a post-graduate program in interdisciplinary design strategy at George Brown College in Toronto, Canada that brings together design thinkers from diverse backgrounds to work collaboratively to create economic, environmental and social innovation. All text and images in this document were produced by the nine members of the IwB’s class of 2011, in addition to the following people, to whom the authors owe an enormous debt of gratitude: The Municipality of Lota

Jorge Venegas, Mayor of Lota Maria Angélica Huerta, City Council Aurelia Ormeño, City Council Juan Villa, City Council Erwin Wende Julio Gaete The staff of the Municipality of Lota, Casa de la Mujer and Hotel Don Ángel del Peredo. IwB Staff, Faculty and Advisors

Luigi Ferrara, Director Michelle Hotchin, Program Coordinator Monica Contreras, Major Project Faculty Evelyne Au-Navioz Rodrigo Barreda Kelsey Blackwell Richard Brault Stephen Chait Roberto Chiotti Andrew Chiu Brendan Cormier Michele Gucciardi Mark Guslits Matt Hexemer Elise Hodson Sisley Leung Susan Lewin Mokena Makeka Chris Pandolfi Dimitri Papatheodorou Angélica Ramos

Susan Speigel Tamara Toledo Jane Weber Lauren Wickware Richard Witt Numerous other guest faculty, charrette advisors and critics who shared their knowledge and insight. PROJECT PARTNERS

Carleton University Industrial Design Lois Frankel, Program Coordinator Students: Rahim Bhimani Rachel Bussin Alëna Iouguina Jane Marusaik Samantha Serrer Yasaman Sheri

Students from George Brown College’s architectural technology, StudioLab (graphic design) and SIFE programs. Students from OCADU, the Politecnico di Milano, Centro de Formacion Tecnica (CFT) and Copenhagen School of Design and Technology (KEA). IwB alumni, whose research and ideas provided the foundation for this project. The authors would also like to acknowledge the people of Lota, Chile, whose spirit and perseverance were a constant source of inspiration.

DuocUC, Concepción, Chile Angelo Garay, Program Coordinator, Industrial Design Francisca Peña, Program Coordinator, Interior Design Students: Luis Alfredo Acuña Michael Beltrán Romina Bustos Maria José Casanueva Natalia Céspedes Juan Fuentes Alfredo Moreno Gustavo Munos Miguel Quinchalef Paula Elizabeth Riffo Katherina Salazar Pablo Vargas Special Thanks to Humberto Aldaz Jordan Axani Karen Bronfman Daniel Garnier Veronica Miles Sylvia Richmond Stefan Sarmiento Nikita Savtchenko

ISBN#: 978-0-9866273-2-3 Institute without Boundaries ® 142

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PLACES CHANGE PEOPLE.

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People Change Places