By Richard Laycock Masters of Architecture Year 2 - Semester 1
NYC MAJOR PROBLEMS
TYPES OF LANDFILLS
SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEMS
DESIGN BRIEF PHASE 1
0 – 30 YEAR PLAN
WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
HOW THEY WORK
AREA VS SCALE
RECYCLING PLASTIC – MIKE BIDDLE
AUTOMATED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES
CLOSURE & POST CLOSURE
DIRK VAN DER KOOIJ
BIOLOGICAL VS MAN MADE
NYC WASTE 2013
PROBLEMS WITH PLASTIC OIL & PLASTIC
OUT OF STATE LANDFILLS INFRASTRUCTURE
MATERIALS PHASE 1 – MACHINE
DOS EXPENDITURE WASTE STREAMS
FUN MATERIAL FACTS
HORIZONTAL SCALE NEW YORK’S SOLUTIONS THE BLOOMBERG PLAN MARINE TRANSFER STATIONS THE PLANNED MTS LOCATION
Introduction Manhattan is currently on the verge of massive change. The driver for this change has manifested itself in the form of landfills reaching capacity coupled with rising costs of both transporting and disposing of waste out of State. Equally distressing yet disconnected to this problem is widespread flooding with the future not looking so bright. The eminent threat of rising sea levels is just another blow to the major city. This investigation analyses the current systems of waste disposal seeking precedents showing future technologies capable of dealing with waste differently. Following on from the research, the design will connect the issues above.....
New York a city that never sleeps
Geographical location New York City is located on one of the worlds largest natural harbours, coordinates 40.6700째 N, 73.9400째 W
New York City
America Tropic of
South Tropic of
New York State
New York City
Climate An ever changing influence
CLlMATE - MACRO Hurricane risk
Flood risk Lower
Temperature Minimum & maximum average temperature throughout the last 10 years
Precipitation Minimum & maximum average precipitation throughout the last 10 years
History Manhattans boundarys have expanded over the last 250 years Manhattan was once a thin, marshy outcropping that protected the mainland from the ocean.
Castello map - 1660 The Castello map has been overlaid on the current map on Manhattan which is the earliest known map of the city, dating back to 1660. Wall Street was the single fortified road, while everything north of Canal was either wild or farmland.
Only thirty years later, the city began its first artificial infill project: the construction of
new piers along its banks.
Ratzer map - 1770 The restoried Ratzer Map, from 1770 shows how Manhattan looked just before urbanization took hold.
The Dutch grid of 1623 in the south -- a â€˜neat symmetrical pattern, and its growth by the addition of other partial grids
17th century The great Grid of the 1811 Commissioners’ Plan, ‘the model that will regulate the “final and conclusive” occupancy of Manhattan, … a matrix that captures, at the same time, all remaining territory and all future activity on the island’. - Rem Koolhaas, The plan was designed to resolve the problems of congestion produced by a patchwork of partial grid systems connected by narrow and winding streets, and by the irregular and non-coordinated property boundaries. The rectangular blocks, long and narrow, are defined by 155 east-west cross streets, 61m apart and 18m wide, with the exception of 15 wider streets within this matrix, 20 streets and the blocks in between cover the length of 1.6 km.
1904 map By 1900, the original footprint of the city had expanded outwards by almost 1,000 feet on each side. This 1904 map shows us dozens of streetcar routes around the cityâ€”a vestige of public transportation long forgotten.
Manhattan in 1946 bustling with the post-War economic boom. required thousands of tons of landfill.
East River Drive (later, FDR Drive)
was built along its eastern edge, which
Most of the city’s public housing plots—the ones that flooded during Hurricane
Sandy—were built on land created during this era.
Manhattan 1650 - 1980 Manhattan is built as an artifi cial space, on a Grid that is imprinted on the ground and ignores the nature of the island. Yet, the Grid itself remains open and expandable, while its boundaries are determined by the edges of the island, the
Grid expands as the coastline moves outward
with artificial extensions. The gridded island can thus be read as a sampling of a virtually unlimited grid.
1980 1965 1800 1650
History of NYC Landfill A reconnaissance study was performed to map the distribution of historic landfills within the five boroughs of New York. To prepare an evaluation of the progression of land-filling activity throughout time, and provide a historic framework of landfill disposals of one type fill material.
1891 - 1900 During the last three centuries, land-filling has been practiced extensively within New York City. Excavation materials, construction and demolition debris, dredge spoil and solid waste have typically been applied to low-lying tidal wetlands, shoals and open water areas that were abundant along the periphery of the city s five borough. Map showing location of barge-fed land filled prior to 1891 - 1900
1. Newtown Creek 2. Dutch Kills
3. Ravenswood 4. 135th and Harlem River 5. Gowanus
3 2 1
1891 - 1900
1900 - 1924 In 1895 a waste management plan was instituted in New York City that curtailed ocean dumping and shifted the waste stream to land disposal. The progressive landfill activity during this time is an estimated 7,240 acres. Map showing location of barge-fed land filled prior to 1891 - 1900 and 1924 number
1-4 are barge-fed and 5 in a railway-fed landfill
1900 - 1924
1. Harts Island 2. Cromwell Creek 3. Stapleton 4. Coneys Island
5. Jamaica Bay
1924 - 1957
Landfill activity from 1924 to 1954 -1957 increased enormously as show by figure 4. This was down to an increase in population and improved means of overland transportation.
During the 1930â€™s the citys waste
disposal focus was clearly on wetland reclamation by filling with solid waste which led to highways, parks and airports such as JFK
1. Rikers Island 2. Corona 1 4
3. Orchard Beach 4. LaGuardia Airport 5. JFK Airport
6. Eastchester Bay 7. Jamaica Bay 8. Great Kills 9. Fresh Kills
1954 - Present
The location of new landfills operated between 1954 - 1957 - present is approximately 8,270 acers of land filled during this time interval.
1 1. Fresh Kills Landfill 2. Pelam Bay Landfill
methodology used in this study was useful in identifying over
45,500 acres of landfilled area within the limits of New York City
Determination of the nature of fill material at landfill sites is beyond the scope of this study
Prior to 1900, landfill activity was concentrated along the shorelines surrounding heavily populated areas of Manhattan and north-western Brooklyn. Approximately 6,740 acres of land filled prior to 1891-1900 were identified
Between 1891-1900 and 1924, improved waste transport methods enabled fill activity to spread outward to the south-western Bronx and southern Brooklyn. Approximately 7,240 acres of land filled prior to were identified
Between 1924 and 1954-1957, solid waste landfilling of tidal wetlands was integrated with a policy of infrastructure development. This highly focused initiative led to a period of land reclamation that is unparalleled in the cityâ€™s history. Approximately 23,400 acres of land filled during this time period were identified.
Recent trends include the progressive closure and consolidation of city landfills and vertical expansion of the remaining sites. In 1991, only one landfill operated between the boarders of New York City. Between 1954-1957 and present approximately 8,270 acres of land filled were identified.
Present 250 years later the Population has boomed and a city existed was almost unrecognisable.
Density of NYC Boroughs The population of New York City as of 2012 was 8.7 million people with an average density of 20,000 people per square mile with Manhattan and the Bronx and parts of Queens and Brooklyn some census tracts is higher then 100,000 per sq kilometre
New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a county of New York State. The five boroughs were consolidated into a single city in 1898
Brooklyn population 2,566,824 Queens population 2,273,151
The population of New York City by boroughs 2012
Manhattan population 1,619,263 Bronx population 1,408,239
16.8% 1.25 Million
State Island population 470,728
Million people 0 %
Percentage of NYC
Area km2 NYCs five boroughs have a total land area of 667 square kilometres with a further
Queens 282 sq kilometres
117.3 square kilometres of wetland and shores with low levels of water.
181 sq kilometres
State Island 153 sq kilometres
Bronx 109 sq kilometres
57 sq kilometres
Square Kilometres 0 %
Percentage of NYC
Density of boroughs When the population figures are overlain it shows startling results that 28,408 people live in 7.3% NYC land area.
Queens 8,060 people sq kilometre
14,181 people sq kilometre
State Island 3, 076 people sq kilometre
12,191 people sq kilometre Manhattan 28,408 people sq kilometre
Density of Boroughs
Why statistics are important People
Biological closed loop system Biological systems are as a cog in a machine, each system feeds another, waste is not waste, its simply fuel for another system. These symbiotic relationships are the key to dealing with waste.
Man-made linear system In a linear system waste is seen as a product with no value, a resource we want rig off. Value becomesw the currency by which we determine waste
NYC - Waste - 2013 New York City is looking for an economically viable solutions to a huge problem
8 million people
million residents who migrate
to the city daily
1000’s of businesses generate a massive amount of
waste which is not see as a problem
the form of rubble
construction industry produces waste in
DOS - 13,000 Tons
NYC’s has over 130,000 tourists every day visit-
Producing over 36,200 tons of waste daily is an
ing the city this figure does not include residents
13,000 tons of waste every day
who migrate to the city daily
city’s department of sanitation deals with
The remainder is dealt with by private carting
During the twentieth century the city relied on a
In December 2001
number of landfills for garbage disposal
Freshkills landfill on Staten Island closed
Collection costs 2012
city’s annual bill for collecting residential
trash jumped from
billion dollars in 2008,
The city’s annual bill for disposing of the waste has jumped from today.
the city’s last garbage dump,
of the higher costs are due to transpor-
tation costs and paying other states to landfill
NYC mt stations 01. MN - West 135th street 02. MN - East 91st street 03. MN - West 59th street 04. MN - Gansevoort 05. BX - South bronx 06. QN - North shore 07. BK - Greenpoint 08. BK - Hamilton avenue 09. BK - Southwest brookyln 10. SI - Fresh Kills
The city has been gathering its rubbish at theses specific locations and simply trucking its waste to landfills in neighbouring states, Many of which are also nearing capacity.
Out of state waste management
This results in land-filling rubbish out of state. But doing so is prohibitively expensive and environmentally unsound, so in 2006 the city devised a 20-year solid waste management plan.
Infrastructure required The Department serves the City out of 59 Districts, using approximately 5,700 vehicles that include and over 9245 workers
Uniformed Sanitation Workers and Supervisors
Mechanical street sweepers
Specialized collection trucks
Front end loaders
Various other support vehicles
The department of sanitation annual bill for collecting and disposing residential trash jumped from about $658 million in 2000 and to about one and a quarter billion dollars in today. The cost of disposal has grown from $300 million in 2005 to about $400 million today.
Dep of Sanitation expenditure The resulting issues, land-filling garbage out of state. But doing so is prohibitively expensive and environmentally unsound, so in 2006 the city devised a 20-year solid waste management plan.
500 Million 1998
Waste streams This generic waste types mentioned are not specific to New York, however they are present throughout out planet
Animal by-products (ABPâ€™s)
is generally waste that can be composted but
Animal bodies, parts of animals, products obtained
Biological waste includes, but is not limited to; Petri
LAWS depict what can and can NOT be composted
from animals that are not fit or intended for hu-
dishes, surgical wraps, culture tubes, syringes, nee-
dles, blood vials, absorbent material, personal protective equipment and pipette tips.
All waste food including used cooking oil orig-
inating in restaurants, catering facilities and
shredding and dehydrating solid waste.
kitchens, including central kitchens and household kitchens
Refuse derived fuel (RDFâ€™s)
is a fuel produced by
Packaging is the technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Laminated card, plastics, wood, metals
Wood waste comes from various business sectors
Construction waste consists of unwanted mate-
and includes local authority waste. It can be made
rial produced directly or incidentally by the con-
or more of the traits, ignitable, reactive, corrosive,
up of treated and untreated wood.
struction or industries.
End of lift vehicles (ELVâ€™s)
wastes are materials that exhibit one
Total 3,261,750 tons
per year is exported from the city Electronic
waste, e-waste, e-scrap, or
ic-disposal, waste electrical and electronic equipment
legislation is pushing for
content of end-of-life vehicles to be recycled.
describes discarded electrical or
The graphs represents a volumetric display in TONS of waste typologies currently being sent to landfill EVERY DAY
land-filling this volume of waste shows a major lack of concern regarding not only the future of resources, it represents a disconnected society incapable of simple problem solving
VERTICAL SCALE If the waste was stacked in a tower which was 30 x 30 squared placed in one ton boxes each one meter x 1 meter the tower would reach 1km within 111 day, over 3km a year.
KVLY TV MAST WARSAW RADIO MAST
WORLD TRADE CENTER
EMPIRE STATES BUILDING
Horizontal scale If the waste was placed in one ton boxes each 1 x 1 meter the total area covered reach 6km2 within 2 months which happens to with the width of Manhattan.
Total area of 14 km2 equivalent to 1.2 million tons.
Total area of 60 km2 equivalent to 7.4 million tons.
Total area of 30 km2 equivalent to 2.5 million tons.
Total area of 120 km2 equivalent to 14.8 million tons.
New Yorkâ€™s Solution Mayor Bloombewrg devised a 20 year waste management plan which created economically viable ways of dealing with the volume of waste being produced.
The Bloomberg plan In his first term, Mayor Michael Bloomberg mapped out an equitable plan
Districts of NYC
The complex proposal was designed to make each borough take care of its own trash.
Essentially throwing micro garbage transfer stations in to the mix
It was also supposed to help limit noisy garbage trucks and limit the distances to reach marine barges, railways or out-of-state trash facilities.
Marine transfer stations 01. 02. 03.
MN - West 135th street MN - East 91st street MN - West 59th street
Planning MT Station
The planned MTS location Each district needs to deal with their own rubbish. This means reopening and dramatically expanding an MTS in the Upper East Side of Manhattan that fell into disuse in 1999.
The ramp that leads to the MTS cuts the a sport and fitness centre grounds in two. So in addition to the noise and pollution the estimated 200 trucks that will deliver garbage to the MTS every day, locals also fear for the childrenâ€™s safety.
Sane Trash Solutions,
Stanley M. Isaacc Neighbourhood Centre
Marine Transfer Station
industrial plant when the old
are also fears for the health of the elderly
Stanley M. Isaacs
strong community group that
first in use, this site is no longer in use and
community who congregate at the
was formed to stop the dump from happening.
thus has attracted a vast children as a safe
Neighbourhood Centre and the thousands of low in-
One of their main objections is that the proposed
place to be.
come minorities who live in a public housing project,
site is directly opposite Asphalt Green,
both of which are minutes away from the MTS site.
The government proposal
The Michael Bloomberg Promise NEW High-Tech
LOW Smell Facilities
MTS are positioned in Lower-income Communities Brooklyn
Staten Island 67
‘It is time for residents in that neighbourhood to accept a share of the city’s garbage problem. ‘ The city should build a modern, environmentally sound facility at 91st Street to transfer trash from Manhattan to barges on the East River. That trash, estimated at up to 1,800 tons a day, would then go by barge to other states.
Deputy Mayor Cas Holloway states that the city has had to fight off “lawsuit after lawsuit” with “every frivolous argument under the sun” from those opposing the 91st Street facility. Those delays have helped push the cost for building the station from $125 million in 2006 to about $226 million now.
An earlier trash station at that site, which was closed in 1999, was badly designed so that trucks idled along York Avenue. The new facility, Mr. Holloway said, has been designed to reduce the congestion problem with longer ramps leading to the facility, which sits on the eastern side of Franklin D. Roosevelt Drive. The plans also call for higher noise-blocking walls along the ramps.
This terminal is an integral part of the city’s 20-year waste management plan. John Doherty, the sanitation commissioner, told critics at a hearing, “We will not entertain any changes to what is a fair and thoughtful, borough-based approach that was founded on the principles of environmental equity for all New Yorkers.” Environmental equity, in this case, means that the Upper East Side of Manhattan has to do its part.
Fundamental problems Other major cities have dramatically reduced their waste by increasing their recycling and composting efforts and encouraging mindfulness when it comes to throwing things away. In New York, however, the culture is such that many people think nothing of eating out twice a day and ordering in a third meal at home, despite the mountains of refuse generated from such a lifestyle.
While the city is not responsible for the wasteful ways of its citizens, advocates insist that unless it leads the way, it will be impossible to change New Yorkersâ€™ disposable mentality.
To be fair to the city, its 20 year plan does involve waste reduction efforts and goals to significantly increase recycling diversion rates. Currently only 15% of New Yorkâ€™s residential waste is recycled down from a peak of 23% in 2001 and recycling is still optional for commercial entities which generate nearly 75% of the cityâ€™s trash total.
Advocates also bemoan the lack of public recycling facilities, which they say sends a confusing message to people about the necessity of recycling. There are currently less than 1,000 recycling bins in public places compared to around 25,000 waste baskets. So while in their homes, New Yorkers must recycle plastic bottles or face a fine, out on the street itâ€™s okay to throw the same bottle in the trash. There is also virtually no curbside or domestic composting opportunities so most food and organic waste stills ends up in landfills.
The Cityâ€™s long-term plan is to reduce costs by recycling more, reducing waste and building a waterfront waste transfer system less dependent on trucks and able to use containers to ship garbage by barge and train further away to cheaper dump-sites.
It is hard to imagine a more environmentally damaging waste-management system than the one situated in New York.
Unfortunately the 20 year plan neither targeted the source of the waste nor did it fix the issue of what to do with it once its being collected.
Landfills A government funded worldwide accepted design solution to our waste problems
Fresh kills landfill Until little over a decade ago, nearly all of New Yorkâ€™s waste ended up in the Fresh Killâ€™s Landfill in the borough of Staten Island. When it reached capacity in 2001 it was closed and sealed.
Type of landfill Modern
landfills are highly engineered facilities that are located, designed,
operated, and monitored to ensure compliance with federal regulations.
Construction & Demolition (C&D)
Bottom Ash means the ash residue remaining
Construction and demolition debris is uncon-
The forms of such wastes are exemplified by but
after combustion of solid waste or solid waste
taminated solid waste resulting from the con-
not limited to: liquids such as acids, alkalis,
in combination with fossil fuel in a solid waste
struction, remodeling, repair and demolition of
caustics, leachate, petroleum (and its derivatives),
incinerator that is discharged through and from
utilities, structures and roads; and uncontami-
and processes or treatment wastewaters; sludges
the grates, combustor or stoker.
nated solid waste resulting from land clearing.
which are semi-solid substances resulting from
Such waste includes, but is not limited to:
process or treatment operations or residues from storage or use of liquids; solidified chemicals, paints or pigments; and dredge spoil generated by manufacturing or industrial processes, foundry sand, and the end or by-products of incineration or other forms of combustion.
Landfill Gas Recovery Facility means a facility
Municipal Solid Waste means combined
in which gases produced from the decompo-
household, commercial and institutional waste
sition of solid wastes are collected for the
materials generated in a given area.
purpose of energy recovery.
Transformation At 2,200 acres, Freshkills Park will be almost three times the size of Central Park and the largest park developed in New York City in over 100 years.
The transformation of what was formerly the worldâ€™s largest landfill into a productive and beautiful cultural destination will make the park a symbol of renewal and an expression of how our society can restore balance to its landscape.
0-30 year plan With
the help of advanced landfill gas collection infrastructure throughout the
landfill, there are actively harvesting methane from the decomposing waste.
This methane, enough to heat approximately 22,000 homes, is sold to National Grid and the city generates approximately $12 million in annual revenue from the sale of that gas. Gas recovery and sale will continue until the amount of gas produced by the landfill is small enough as to no longer be economically viable, at which point it will be burned off at flare stations onsite.
How they work
onsite biological leachate plant
When landfill is full layers of soil and clay seal in trash
Pipes collect explosive methane gas,which is used as fuel to generate
Wells and probes to detect Leachate
or methane leaks outside landfill
Lechate pumped up to storage tank for safe disposal
Clay and plastic lining to prevent leaks Garbage Sand Sythetic liner sand clay subsoil
Pipes collect leachates from bottom of landfill
Regulations regarding landfill design, sites and operation have become much more strict as failure to control or manage the landfill correctly could lead to an environmental disaster.
feet of a run way
If landfills are located within a 100 year flood-
must demonstrate the landfill does not pose a bird
plain it must not restrict the flow of the 100 year
in to wetlands.
flood or allow wash out of solid waste
Airports must be made aware of landfills
permitted to build or expand
no sitting alternative is
within a 5 mile radius
Seismic impact zones
New landfills are generally prohibited within 200
If a landfill it to be built within a seismic impact
feet of fault areas that have shifted since the last
zone its containment structure, liners, lea-
promised by the destabilising events, heavy rain-
chate collection systems must be design to resist
fall, fast forming sink holes, rockfalls, liquefac-
tion of the soil
structural integrity must not be com-
Landfill design parameters Since groundwater and surface water systems supply 60 percent of the drinking water its critical this is not contaminated
performance standards i.e, maximum
tainment levels (MCLâ€™s) will not be exceeded
hydrological conditions of the facility can
The hydrological conditions of the surrounding
allow excess or stop water penetrating the land-
land can have huge effect on the way water move
around the site and as such any site chosen must
This needs to be designed to allow full
local climate, temperature
which take this in to consideration
Type of Leachate
Volume of Leachate
volume of leachate produced by any land-
type of leachate produced by any landfill
huge effects on the landfills ability to produce vi-
fill is directly related amount of water moving
is directly related to the quantity and quality
able energy in the form of gas.
through the landfill
of the material and amount of water moving through the landfill
Maximum Contaminant Levels
The composer liner system combines an upper liner of a synthetic flexible membrane and a lower layer of soil at least
2 feet thick with a hydraulic
conductivity of no greater than 1 x 10-7 cm/sec.
The leachate collection system must be designed to keep the depth of the leachate over the liner to less than 30 centimetres.
Landfill daily operations The operation of landfills cover a range of procedures
Regulating hazard waste
Vectors are rodents, insects, birds or any animal
disposal of hazardous wastes and polychlorinat-
of earthen material at the end of each operating
that is capable of transmitting disease to humans,
ed biphenyl (PCB) wastes
day to control vector, fires, odours, little and
application of cover material stops vectors
A program must be set up to detect
must be covered with a least
scavenging, other covers may be used if design
to check methane gas emissions at least
Open burning of waste is not permitted, however,
Landfills must be contained from illegal dumping
every three months, if levels are high a re-media-
diseased trees, emergency clean ups must comply
and unauthorised vehicular access to prevent
tion plan must be made within 60 days
with state laws
Storm water run-on/run-off
The landfill must have a maintain control system
Landfills must not release pollutants in to water
design to prevent storm waters from running on
body’s and wetlands which would violate the
tainerized liquids. Unless they are similar in size to
to the active part of the landfill. the system must
clean water act.
those found in household waste such as cleaning automotive use etc..
be able to cope with the worst case scenarios
will not accept large bulk none con-
Specific records • • • • •
Location restriction, Demonstrations. Procedures for excluding, Hazardous waste. Gas monitoring results. Leachate or gas condensate system design documentation Ground
water monitorin and corrective data and demonstra-
Landfills typology records must be keep and acces-
Closure and post closure plans Cost estimates and financial assurance documentation
sible at all time for the safety of those working and living near the sites.
Groundwater monitoring Ground monitoring
Ground water monitoring is carried out using a
Samples are taking at least twice a year
The samples must demonstrate that no migration
series of wells positioned throughout the landfill
the quality of the up-most aquifer beneath the
of constituents from the unit will occur during
the units life including the closure and post-closure care period.
Ground water must be sampled and analysed for
specific constituents. If significant groundwater
termined the nature and extent of the contam-
contamination is detected then states must be no-
tified and begin assessment monitoring
purpose of assessment monitoring is to de-
Determining the source of the contamination is key as the landfill might not be the source.
action involves evaluating potential
During this period the a ground water monitor-
The landfill owner must continue the corrective
remedies, holding public meetings to discuss the
ing program must be established to measure the
action until compliance with the clean-up stand-
effectiveness of the remidy.
ard has been meet for three consecutive years
the remedy has been selected the
owner of the landfill is responsible for carrying
Closure & post-closure care Specific standards
must follow certain proce-
dures when closing a municipal landfill.
The state where the landfill resides must be noti-
fied PRIOR to the closure
with state law.
closure plan must be prepared in accordance
The final cover must consist of at least 18 inchs of
independent engineer must certify that the
The deed to the property must note that the prop-
earthen material of a specified permeability, with an
closure was conducted in accordance with the
erty was used as a landfill and that future use is
erosion layer at least 6 inches thick
Integrity of cover
owner of the landfill is responsible for the
All maintenance will be paid for by the owner of
The final cover must be designed and construct-
integrity of the landfill for 30 years after the clo-
the landfill. For this reason owners must demon-
ed to have a permeability less than or equal to the
sure of the landfill.
strate financial responsibility for the landfill.
bottom liner system
Ground water must be monitored over a 30 year
Methane levels must be monitored over a 30 year
period after the closure of the landfill
period after the closure of the landfill
management system must be monitored
year period after the closure of the
Treatments - osmosis Osmosis is the movement of water from an area of low solute concentration to an are of high solute concentration
Semi - Permeable membrane
More water is drawn in to the Concentrated sugar
Osmosis Water molecules
Water is directly involved in many key biochemical reactions, These
Otherwise known as osmosis. Preventing the loss or gain of
properties mean that water molecules can pass through cellular
too much water through osmosis is often an important chal-
membranes but also form solutions with ions and polar molecules.
Water molecules flows from areas of high con-
Osmotic pressure is the pressure required to stop
By applying pressure greater that the osmotic pres-
centration to areas of low concentration
water flow and reach equilibrium
sure, flow of the water is reversed.
to flow from higher concentration to lower.
Landfill issues Lack of irrigation
Lack of oxygen
Lack of microbes
is the primary cleansing purifying and
Oxygen is the primary life source used by the mi-
landfill rotation method, however many older
croorganisms as they feed off out waste recycle
oxygen there is a reduced volume of microbes and
landfills, fail at providing water when its needed
waste in to gass.
thus materials are not breaking down.
a direct result of lack of water and lack of
Ineffective degeneration Materials not sorted
The lack of design within these key system is cre-
ating a fundamental flaw with the whole concept
filled up to
materials are not sorted before being land-
65% is biomass and a further 25% is
Recycle incentives need to be inplamented
earlier in the system
65% is biomass
can be used to generate new income
streams in the form of solid fuel.
Cost to design
Retrofitting and re-mediating poorly implemented
older system and many newer system still
The environmental cost only becomes clear when
systems create does more harm then good.
have fundamentally poor planning they always
its too late and thus we need to act now and de-
result in high prolonged maintenance costs
sign new systems away from resources
though the current trend is to reduce, this
Reusing needs to become profitable with incentive
needs to happen at a micro scale with individuals
schemes design to collect products before they
at micro scale all things are made from elements
dealing with their waste pragmatically
and right now through advances in technology
needs to become more they a gimic.
we can recycle all manor of things, however it currently someone elseâ€™s problem
Materals All materials have their own individual properties
this section looks at the decomposition of materials through micro-organisms
Fun material facts If you put these item in a landfill now, they would decompose by:
bags degrade very quickly due to the
Wool socks degrade at a reasonable rates and
nature of the product its easily broken down
under natural conditions will be completely
by natural conditions. 1 month
broken down by the micro organisms. 1 year
cans degrade due to the condi-
tions within a landfill and a high build up of toxins and acids. 50 years
Nappyâ€™s by there very nature are designed for a single use however the full degradation is a different storey taking up to 500 years
Plastic bags by there very nature are poorly de-
sign are flimsy and brake normally after a single
types of plastic with complex chemical struc-
use however the full degradation is a different
tures and as such are very hard for microbes to
storey. 1000 years
break down. 1 million years
beakers are normally made for durable
Glass bottles are made using simple materials but
Polystyrene is a complex mix of chemical struc-
because the bonds are produced under extreme
tures and as such are impossible for microbes to
heat itâ€™s near impossible to for organisms to
break down. 7.5 billions years
break the bonds down. 1.5 millions year
The figures show the reasoning why landfills reach capacity since almost half the items placed in a landfill do not degrade in a time-scale we can conceive.
Waste Management Key features have been extracted from how we deal with waste and the design complexities of landfills
NYCâ€™s major problems The scale of the situation seems incomprehensible The solution requires the designer to have a vast overview of all systems Unfortunately all systems in place are equally out of date Poorly designed systems have been build upon and as such replacing them would be costly Technological advances that can deal with the waste types, loads are not in place Open source up-cycling methodologies are just not in place.
Solution to the problem NYC needs a System reboot They need to address the way they deal with waste Innovative ideas need to be gathered and tested for eligibility Materials need to be sorted, resources should not be buried due to poor management Attitudes much change for all parties involved. Waste prevention is difficult because it requires control of all the systems The solution lies with control & waste management is key
Design brief Whats needed
Bringing in to play new high tech systems which
Using what we know about many systems and uti-
Finding new ideas is easy when surfing the inter-
feed the microbes like a colony of nano machines
lizing this to create improved systems
net but bridging multiple disciplines is complex to
digesting the waste and producing methanogentic
say the least.
gasses in the process.
Materials need to be assessed before they end up in
a landfill as space is a limiting factor with a grow-
filled up to
materials are not sorted before being land-
Open-source R&D holds to key to
Products from waste Biomass
can be used to generate new income
65% is biomass and a further 25% is
streams in the form of solid fuel. gasses are re-
Recycle incentives need to be implemented
leased from the microbes that feed off the waste,
earlier in the system, open-source provides a way of finding out what is in the system.
what else can we use
Landfills of the future will no long be regarded as
How it connects to the city is crucial for servic-
The for will take advantage of the environmental
a cheap alternative to dealing with out waste they
ing and safety for the city should come first.
conditions, heating and cooling where its needed via passive systems.
could become landmarks themselves
Materials are the key to a sustainable future, the
How it changes to deal with new waste typolo-
materials used for cladding should be recyclable
gies and new technologies/
every move is littered with examples of symbiotic
Could this be a plug
biological world which encompasses our
relationships with complex frameworks that reuse each other waste and energy.
If we can give waste a value then attitudes would not be so quick to discard of the resource.
Waste management systems There were 26 active municipal solid waste landfills, 16 active industrial/commercial waste landfills, 12 construction and demolition (C&D) landfills, and 5 active Long Island landfills.
In 2012, 10.7
The current focus is towards recycling waste products however this is not fully resolved and as such the are still many
million tons of solid
waste were disposed of in
forms of waste ending up in landfills
Prevention of production seems the
The concept of up-cycling uses the idea of
obvious choice, however this would
recycling but without the industrial pro-
required a huge push from governments
cess of reforming, recycling can be turning
to enforce a ban on none recyclables
a used water bottle in to a table.
Incentive scheme People, Individuals, companyâ€™s will receive a price per KG for materials recycled
Issues - System need complex rules, utilizing several bin typologies - It needs to be monitored closely - How do you control what enters the system - Where would the waste go - How would it be processed Requiring:- Storage for individual waste on street corners with several bin types - Site required for storage and processing of waste - The system would require manual intervention at multiple stages - Controlling human interaction with harmful toxins - Further refinement systems to create/purify resources
Current system Government pressure to ban the use of none recyclables, Issues with this being is (None recyclables) actually means too expensive to currently recycle (ie its cheaper to use virgin material) Issues - We continue to mine virgin resources and bury them after a single use - Loss of habitation for animals and ourselves - Poor air quality - Major food concerns - Depleted food stocks and contaminated oceans due to leachates Requiring - Bioremediation - Mining our landfills for resources - Create complex systems of siving through our purified waste - All of this, In search of resources we managed poorly - Further refinement systems to create/purify resources
Automated resource mining Automated sorting is already being utilised on a number of processes which until very recently were highly intensive labourers procedures. Issues - Need to identify 2.4 million tons of waste every year - Machine need a power source - Machine needs a way of distributing materials - How big is this machine? - Where should it be positioned Requiring - Network of smaller machines serving the master machine - Automated sorting - separating technologies - Series of automated conveyor belts to move materials - Storage units capable of dealing with volumes being produced - Further refinement systems to create/purify resources
Recycling plastic 90 % of metals are recovered Less than 5 % of plastic is actually recycled if it makes it to a recycling centre, Most plastic is incinerated or landfilled Most people think plastic is a throw away material with very little value, but actually plastics are several times more valuable than steel and there is more plastic produced and consumed around the world on a volume basis every year then steel
So why is it not recycled? well because metals are predominantly easy to recycle from one another and other material, plasics are much more difficult to sort. Metals have different densityâ€™s,
Different electrical and magnetic properties,
and different colours making them very easy for machines to separate.
Plastics have overlapping densityâ€™s over a very narrow range Identical or very similar electrical or magnetic properties Any plastic can be any colour 122
Traditional way of making plastic
The traditional way to make plastic is with oil
You break down the molecules and recombined
Pelets are produced and sold for the remolding
them in very specific ways to make all the won-
derful types of plastic that we each enjoy
Future of making plastic
Waste is plentiful and growing in supply
Lower capital costs
Saves 1-3 tons of CO2 ton plastic
Lower cost and not tied to oil
80 - 90 percent lower energy
Closes the loop on recycled plastics
More flexible plant
Waste disposal companies dealing with the sorting of materials will commonly use one or more of these five methods:
separate materials according to their
Waste is fed into a large rotating drum which is perforated with holes of a certain size. Materials smaller than the diameter of the holes will be able to drop through, but larger particles will remain in the drum.
Eddy current separator
This method is specifically for the separation of metals. An â€˜eddy currentâ€™ occurs when a conductor is exposed to a changing magnetic field. Put simply, it is an electromagnetic way of dividing ferrous and non-ferrous metals.
is sent along a conveyor belt with
a series of sensors underneath.
locate different types of metal which are then separated by a system of fast air jets which are linked to the sensors.
Near infrared sensors
materials are illuminated they
mostly reflect light in the near infrared wavelength spectrum.
X-rays can be used to distinguish between different types of waste based on their density.
sensor can distin-
guish between different materials based on the way they reflect light.
Dirk van der kooij Designer Dirk Van Der Kooij
used his famous
printing robot named
sustainable design Innovation, The robot makes furniture from recycled fridges and e-waste
E-waste is used as a source of material income
The plastic is shredded, cleaned and separated using a number of automated systems and stored ready for use
The stored plastic is the bagged and taken to the robot
The robot uses a series of cad software packages to translate a given design in to slices known as G-CODE which is the sent as commands to the robot
The G-CODE slices are a path which the robotic arm follows whilst
The slices produce a 3 dimensional object which is built up over a number
extruding the melted plastic
When the object has been printed the final point can be pushed down
to create a smooth finish.
final object, chair is a fully functunal chair which is printing using
D- shape The new 3D CAD software allows architects to conceive and design constructions easily, but existing building methods do not allow the full potential of the new design software to be achieved. D-Shape is a new robotic building system using new materials to create superior stone-like structures. This is similar to what an ink-jet printer does on a sheet of paper.
Computer model - meshed
Large scale 3d printer
This new machinery enables full-size sandstone buildings to be made without human intervention, using a stereo-lithography 3-D printing process that requires only sand and an inorganic binder to operate. Allow-
Existing materials such as reinforced concrete and masonry is expensive and inflexible. To build a complex concave-convex surfaces would require the pre-fabrication of expensive form-works and cages, the mount-
ing a level of precision and freedom of design unheard
ing of complicate scaffolding and then the manual
of in the past.
casting. This is very expensive.
The process begins with a 3D Computer model in a STL file format. This is imported into the Computer program that controls D-Shape’s printer head. During the printing of each section a ‘structural ink’ is deposited by the printer’s nozzles on the sand. The solidification process takes 24 hours
The binder transforms any kind of sand into a marble-like material and with a resistance and traction much superior to Portland Cement, so much so that there is no need to use iron to reinforce the structure.
This artificial marble is indistinguishable from real marble and chemically it is one hundred percent environmentally friendly.
Advantages Allows more advanced design and construction. Four times faster than traditional building methods. 30%-50% lower than manual methods. no human intervention means substantially reduced risk of accidents.
POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES Composite are materials composed of two or more distinct phases. (matrix phase and dispersed phase) and having bulk properties significantly different from those of any of the constituents. Matrix phase is the primary phase having a continuous character. Matrix is usually more ductile and less hard phase. It holds the dispersed phase and shares a load with it which may be chemically different from each other.
. They generally consist of two or more physically distinct and mechanically separable materials. . They are made by mixing the separate materials in such a way as to achieve controlled and uniform dispersion of the constituents.
The different systems are combined to achieve a system with greater structural or functional properties of the constituent alone. Essentially the
. They have superior mechanical properties and in some cases uniquely
sum whole is greater then the sum of the parts
different from the properties of their constituents
Composites in structural applications have the following characteristics:
Continuous woven fibre
Discontinuous fibre reinforcement
GRP’s Glass-fibre Reinforced Polymers (GRP’s) are found throughout these industries. In commercial airlines, Space shuttle and satellite systems, Marine: Boat bodies, canoes, kayaks, and so on as well as automotive: Body panels, leaf springs, drive shaft, bumpers, doors and racing car bodies.
GRP Application in the energy industry With its corrosion-resistant, slip-resistant, flame redundancy, impact absorbency, non-conductivity, high strength-to-weight properties which had made them unique in the renewable energy generation for use as turbine blades
Sports goods: Golf clubs, skis, fishing rods, tennis rackets Bulletproof vests and other armour parts. Chemical storage tanks, pressure vessels, piping, pump body, valves, Biomedical applications: Medical implants, orthopaedic devices, X-ray tables. Bridges made of polymer composite materials are gaining wide acceptance due to their lower weight, corrosion resistance, longer life cycle, and limited earthquake damage. Electrical: Panels, housing, switchgear, insulators, and connectors. And many more. Natural Fiber Composites Glass, carbon, Kevlar, and boron fibres are being used as reinforcing materials in fibre reinforced plastics, which have been widely accepted as materials for structural and non-structural applications
Designing with GRP Like all traditional materials of construction, GRP also has an inherent limitation – it has a low modulus of elasticity (stiffness). However, this drawback has been successfully overcome by structural design engineers over the years through effective use of the principles of geometry.
If GRP is to be successfully used in load bearing components in construction, its structural form must be chosen as to overcome the apparent lack of stiffness in the overall structure. The required rigidity of the structure is then derived from its shape rather than from the material – the strength of the structure is, of course, only a function of the structure of the material.
Gomi - landfills Just to build the 4 kilometres long island called for 21 million cubic metres of landfill plus the assistance of 80 ships, then there was the small matter of connecting the airport to the mainland by way of a 3 kilometres bridge. In total the project has so far cost around
$20 billion, but has already saved some expense by surviving both an earthquake and a typhoon in the last 15 years, in addition being open 24 hours a day due to its location.
Kansai - landfill airports Where do you land a plane when youâ€™ve run out of space - japans answer, a floating airport
1987 - construction of the worlds biggest man
5km from shore and contains 530 hectors of
The bottom of Osaka Bay is made of soft clay
made island of its time broke ground on water 18
landfill 4 km long and 1200 meters wide big
that is likely to sink under the weight of the
meter deep in the middle of Osaka Bay
enough to swallow up the entire down town
area of Osaka
To solve the problem Kansai engineers turned to
First an eleven km seawall of concrete blocks
Then 80 barges ploughed in dumping 180
a new sand draining technique to speed up the
outlined the shape of things to come, this mas-
million cubic meters of landfill inside the sea
sinking by sucking the water out of the sand.
sive enclosure keeps the water on the outside
wall, enough to build the great pyramid of Gaza
Using the tech of the time engineers monitored
Just as the face of the island started to pop out
The terminal had to be light enough to keep
and measure the layering of the land making sure
from the water construction began simultane-
settling to a minimum, renzo pianos proposal, a
the fill was compacting equally rate to prevent
ously on two major airport landmarks
wing shaped terminal made from steel and glass, nearly 1 mile long,
The next crucial challenge in completing this
Today its the worlds longest double decker
finally after 7 long years of draining, dumping
airport was the ultimate question of access - the
truss bridge, at 3750m long it carries 6 lanes of
and designing on what - open for business on
answer was the skygate bridge this was done by
traffic on top and two trains below, just heigh
september 4th 1994. in the first month alone
the use of floating cranes.
enough for boats to pass under yet low enough
10,000 people per day came to the airport.
7 years later the world had its first international airport floating out in the middle of the sea, all by itself. the airport handles more than 300 passengers a week & is open 24 hours a day
1 million workers,
The island is sinking in to the water, and sinking
Unfortunately it was the deeper stuff, the soil
200 million metric tones of material
a little faster then anticipated, during construc-
they could not drain that would become a prob-
10 millions hours of hard labour
tion the sand draining appeared to take care of
lem (deluvium soil)
reclaimed the sea and opened up the skys
strengthening the bays first level of soft soil,
Engineer had to estimate the degree of settling
The entire island had already sunk over 8 meters
that would occur, by 1999, on the airports 5th
- aging the airport 40 years ahead of scheduel,
birth day it became apparent that the guestimating was way off
Will the island sink be reclaimed by the sea
What does all the sinking down below mean for
Engineer gave a little lift to the 900 support
When the island shifts, the system shifts where
the structures up above
columns that hold the terminal up, each column
the power lifting must take place and technicians
is equipped with a sensor thatâ€™s connected to a
Hydraulic jacks each capable of lifting 300 tones
When this jacking up procedure is done the
Sinking has slowed the 5cm a year compared to
are inserted between the floor and the column in
basement floor remains at the same level whilst
the 5cm a month during construction
question, then the huge support is lifted and metal
the other levels are raised up. Wall were hung
plates are added one at a time to raise the upper
from the ceiling and AC ducting are bolted to
floors back to level once again,
the ceiling, staircases get an extra step or two
A city at sea
Own power plant
In 1995 a 7.2 earth quake hit Japan just 12 km
As the airport stands alone in the middle of
It has its own power plant which uses
from Kansai airport. The airport was left intact
the ocean it needs to be self sufficient, the
incineration of waste streams provided by Kansai
showing the advances structural design which
infrastructure is more like a city than a airport.
clean centre, whilst recycling as much as possible
Thousands of passangerscome through this
Japans railway commuter trains make several
State of the art traffic centre with over 40
floating metropolis and planners designed a
stops for people who work at the airport,
remote control cameras which enable officers to
myriad of mass transportation to bring people to
High speed ferryâ€™s bring in air travellers from
keep an eye on a manage everything from traffic
and from the airport from all over western Japan
Kobe across the bay.
jams to emergence situations
Fuel delivery pipes with flexible joints allow safety
The most advanced baggage control systems in
High tech spiral delivery system conveyor belts
from sinking land and extreme weather
the world, 10,000 piece pass through each day
sort cases according to destination baggage with
with the multi-floor design it means getting
creative when it comes to handling excess
The building is very well organised and as such
Typhoons which generates winds up to 190mph
Windows are all held in place with flexible
circulation through and around the airport is
bringing along damaging high tides, sensative
monitoring systems which update every 30 minutes, provide varying winds information at multiple heights for jets to fly over.
OIL RIG TECHNOLOGY Oil rigs operate in a harsh environment and its their ability to do so which makes them an ideal candidate to investigate
Drilling barges are mostly used for shallow drilling in non-ocean waters
Drill - ship
An ocean-going vessel with a drilling platform in the middle.
such as lakes.
The drill string extends down to the ocean floor through a moon hole. Consisting of a floating barge with drilling equipment. They use dynamic positioning equipment to keep aligned with the drill site. Tugboats tow the platform out to the site, This equipment uses satellite information and sensors on the sub-sea drillAnchors hold it in place.
ing template to keep track of the drilling location.
Only suitable for calm waters.
Electric motors on the underside of the hull constantly move the ship to keep it lined up with the well.
This approach allows oil companies to reach depths of up to 6,000 feet (1,829 meters).
Jack - up
Jack-ups resembles a drilling barge but combines structurally supporting legs
Semi - submerged
Semi submersible rig facilities are elevated on stilts hundreds of feet above pontoon like barges.
Once this platform reaches the drilling site, it can lower three or four massive legs into the water until they touch the bottom.
After reaching the drill site, the crew floods the barges with water. The barges sink while the platform remains elevated above the water on stilts
They lift the platform out of the water which provides a much more stable
essentially sinking the rig into order to anchor it.
environment from which to drill.
To relocate the rig the crew pumps the water out causing it to float back The legs stabilize the platform against winds and lift it above pitching waves but
up to the surface
the design has its limits as deeper waters require impractically large legs.
It experiences more horizontal motion and a certain degree of vertical motion, but it allows oil companies to drill at depths of up to 7,000 feet
(2,134 meters), well over a mile (1.6 kilometers) beneath the waves.
Phase 1 - The machines
Building program The buildings is a response to the critical issues generated by the way waste is currently being dealt with and seeks to revolutionize the way we process waste.
Section _1.0 shows a flow chart mapping the procedures involved in processing waste.
AUTOMATED SEPARATING MACHINE
System flow chart Section _2.0 shows a flow chart mapping the connections different systems need
Process Sorted waste OUT
Spacial requirements Delivery space
The gates need to be able to handle 312,000 tons per hour. These are the loads delivered by barge daily. The system needs to be quick to prevent heavy traffic.
13,000 m2 per day 91,000 m2 per week
Sorting facility The system needs to be able to handle the loads being delivered daily. Scale of automated sorting machine is critical. Each waste stream is a different quantity. The graph represents a survey study which detailed the waste typology,
The total remains the same 91,000 m2 per week
Movement facilities This specific project is focused towards bio-digestion. For this reason a large storage tower will be constructed to process the biomass.
Manned Special suits to be worn Oxygen/air Energy Heat Generate heat Cooling Ventilation Lighting Uninterrupted views Insulation Waterproofing
Monitoring / plant room
The bio-digestor requires highly
In order for the system to work it
complicated systems to monitor the
will need to be monitored by service
conditions inside and promote high
engineer and this requires habitable
levels of microbial life which in turn
spaces which are sheltered from the
break down the biomass and produce
conditions on the factory floor.
Spacial planning section Methane is collected from the top of the tower as rising gas. This is then pumped back to the factory floor for sorted waste out
The unmanned access shaft acts as a deliver path for biological waste when enters the tower at the top
The control centre is positioned between the two systems to accurately monitor the exchange of materials between the two and have equal viewing of both entering and exiting ferryâ€™s loaded with unmanned access
The processing centre deals with the materials required to grow the tower. its been positioned give it direct access to material through the factory floor and has a direct route through the service
shaft passing through the control centre allowing accurate monitoring of all materials exchange
The factory is located on the ground
floor which allows easy access for all barges and reduces the energy by processing it at one level
Sorted waste OUT
ARC ( AUTOMATED RECYCLING CENTRE)
_01 - Transporting waste
_0.2 - Linear system Drop off point Collection point
barges to drop off loads without the need to dock.
The linear drop of and collection strip acts as a runway which specific districts would be scheduled to drop off waste to a ridged timetable.
_03 - Collect methane
_04 - Collect com-
The structure allows easy collect of methane gas
Compost accumulates at the base of the structure and continues its journey as a recycled product.
Waste is transported by barge in containers to the site and is lifted by a hydraulic arm which allows
through a series of cylinders positioned on the roof of the tower.
_05 - Vertical movement
_06 - Separate solid/
The separated waste is moved vertically using a spi-
The structure of the tower becomes the mechanism
ral conveyor which would on the same principles
which both supports the loads equally and filters
as Archimedes screw.
liquid toxins which build up in the composer. The system is self cleaning and self revitalising.
_07 - Aerate compost
_08 - Hydrate composted material
The compost is aerated as turning the materials
Rain water acts as a medium to both mix the organ-
is the best way to supply the nutrients to micro organisms throughout the composer
ic material and filters toxins from the composted material. the system allows for rainwater to penetrate if moisture levels fall or toxin level rise.