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By Richard Laycock Masters of Architecture Year 2 - Semester 1

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Contents INTRODUCTION

LANDFILLS

WASTE MANAGEMENT

LOCATION

FRESH KILLS

NYC MAJOR PROBLEMS

HISTORY

TYPES OF LANDFILLS

SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEMS

FLATTEN

TRANSFORMATION

DESIGN BRIEF PHASE 1

THE GRID

0 – 30 YEAR PLAN

WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

POPULATION

HOW THEY WORK

DENSITY

LOCATION REQUIREMENTS

AREA VS SCALE

DESIGN PARAMETERS

PRECEEDENTS

DAILY OPERATIONS

RECYCLING PLASTIC – MIKE BIDDLE

GROUNDWATER MONITORING

AUTOMATED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

CLOSURE & POST CLOSURE

DIRK VAN DER KOOIJ

BIOLOGICAL VS MAN MADE

LEACHATES

D-SHAPE

NYC WASTE 2013

LEACHATE TREATMENTS

GRP

MT FACILITIES

LANDFILL ISSUES

PROBLEMS WITH PLASTIC OIL & PLASTIC

WASTE SYSTEMS

LANDFILL AIRPORT

OUT OF STATE LANDFILLS INFRASTRUCTURE

MATERIALS PHASE 1 – MACHINE

DOS EXPENDITURE WASTE STREAMS

FUN MATERIAL FACTS

LANDFILLED VOLUMES

NONE DECOMPOSABLE

VERTICAL SCALE

COMPOSITE MATERIALS

HORIZONTAL SCALE NEW YORK’S SOLUTIONS THE BLOOMBERG PLAN MARINE TRANSFER STATIONS THE PLANNED MTS LOCATION

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Introduction Manhattan is currently on the verge of massive change. The driver for this change has manifested itself in the form of landfills reaching capacity coupled with rising costs of both transporting and disposing of waste out of State. Equally distressing yet disconnected to this problem is widespread flooding with the future not looking so bright. The eminent threat of rising sea levels is just another blow to the major city. This investigation analyses the current systems of waste disposal seeking precedents showing future technologies capable of dealing with waste differently. Following on from the research, the design will connect the issues above.....

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New York a city that never sleeps

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Geographical location New York City is located on one of the worlds largest natural harbours, coordinates 40.6700째 N, 73.9400째 W

New York City

North

Europe

America Tropic of

North

North

Atlantic

Pacific

Cancer

Asia Africa

Equator Indian

South Tropic of

Ocean

America

Australia

Capricorn

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South

South

Pacific

Atlantic


New York State

New York City

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Climate An ever changing influence

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CLlMATE - MACRO Hurricane risk

Earthquake risk

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Lower

Lower

Higher

Higher

Tornado risk

Lower

Higher

Flood risk Lower

Higher


Temperature Minimum & maximum average temperature throughout the last 10 years

30’ C

20’ C

10’ C

0’ C

-10’ C

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

Precipitation Minimum & maximum average precipitation throughout the last 10 years

100 mm

75 mm

50 mm

25 mm

0 mm

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

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History Manhattans boundarys have expanded over the last 250 years Manhattan was once a thin, marshy outcropping that protected the mainland from the ocean.

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Castello map - 1660 The Castello map has been overlaid on the current map on Manhattan which is the earliest known map of the city, dating back to 1660. Wall Street was the single fortified road, while everything north of Canal was either wild or farmland.

Only thirty years later, the city began its first artificial infill project: the construction of

new piers along its banks.

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Ratzer map - 1770 The restoried Ratzer Map, from 1770 shows how Manhattan looked just before urbanization took hold.

The Dutch grid of 1623 in the south -- a ‘neat symmetrical pattern, and its growth by the addition of other partial grids

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17th century The great Grid of the 1811 Commissioners’ Plan, ‘the model that will regulate the “final and conclusive” occupancy of Manhattan, … a matrix that captures, at the same time, all remaining territory and all future activity on the island’. - Rem Koolhaas, The plan was designed to resolve the problems of congestion produced by a patchwork of partial grid systems connected by narrow and winding streets, and by the irregular and non-coordinated property boundaries. The rectangular blocks, long and narrow, are defined by 155 east-west cross streets, 61m apart and 18m wide, with the exception of 15 wider streets within this matrix, 20 streets and the blocks in between cover the length of 1.6 km.

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1904 map By 1900, the original footprint of the city had expanded outwards by almost 1,000 feet on each side. This 1904 map shows us dozens of streetcar routes around the city—a vestige of public transportation long forgotten.

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Manhattan in 1946 bustling with the post-War economic boom. required thousands of tons of landfill.

East River Drive (later, FDR Drive)

was built along its eastern edge, which

Most of the city’s public housing plots—the ones that flooded during Hurricane

Sandy—were built on land created during this era.

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Manhattan 1650 - 1980 Manhattan is built as an artifi cial space, on a Grid that is imprinted on the ground and ignores the nature of the island. Yet, the Grid itself remains open and expandable, while its boundaries are determined by the edges of the island, the

Grid expands as the coastline moves outward

with artificial extensions. The gridded island can thus be read as a sampling of a virtually unlimited grid.

1980 1965 1800 1650

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History of NYC Landfill A reconnaissance study was performed to map the distribution of historic landfills within the five boroughs of New York. To prepare an evaluation of the progression of land-filling activity throughout time, and provide a historic framework of landfill disposals of one type fill material.

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1891 - 1900 During the last three centuries, land-filling has been practiced extensively within New York City. Excavation materials, construction and demolition debris, dredge spoil and solid waste have typically been applied to low-lying tidal wetlands, shoals and open water areas that were abundant along the periphery of the city s five borough. Map showing location of barge-fed land filled prior to 1891 - 1900

1. Newtown Creek 2. Dutch Kills

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3. Ravenswood 4. 135th and Harlem River 5. Gowanus

3 2 1

5

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1891 - 1900


1900 - 1924 In 1895 a waste management plan was instituted in New York City that curtailed ocean dumping and shifted the waste stream to land disposal. The progressive landfill activity during this time is an estimated 7,240 acres. Map showing location of barge-fed land filled prior to 1891 - 1900 and 1924 number

1-4 are barge-fed and 5 in a railway-fed landfill

1900 - 1924

1. Harts Island 2. Cromwell Creek 3. Stapleton 4. Coneys Island

2 4

5. Jamaica Bay

3

5

6

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1924 - 1957

Landfill activity from 1924 to 1954 -1957 increased enormously as show by figure 4. This was down to an increase in population and improved means of overland transportation.

During the 1930’s the citys waste

disposal focus was clearly on wetland reclamation by filling with solid waste which led to highways, parks and airports such as JFK

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1. Rikers Island 2. Corona 1 4

3. Orchard Beach 4. LaGuardia Airport 5. JFK Airport

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6. Eastchester Bay 7. Jamaica Bay 8. Great Kills 9. Fresh Kills

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9

8 7

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1954 - Present

The location of new landfills operated between 1954 - 1957 - present is approximately 8,270 acers of land filled during this time interval.

1 1. Fresh Kills Landfill 2. Pelam Bay Landfill

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Collectively The

methodology used in this study was useful in identifying over

45,500 acres of landfilled area within the limits of New York City

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Conclusion

Determination of the nature of fill material at landfill sites is beyond the scope of this study

Prior to 1900, landfill activity was concentrated along the shorelines surrounding heavily populated areas of Manhattan and north-western Brooklyn. Approximately 6,740 acres of land filled prior to 1891-1900 were identified

Between 1891-1900 and 1924, improved waste transport methods enabled fill activity to spread outward to the south-western Bronx and southern Brooklyn. Approximately 7,240 acres of land filled prior to were identified

Between 1924 and 1954-1957, solid waste landfilling of tidal wetlands was integrated with a policy of infrastructure development. This highly focused initiative led to a period of land reclamation that is unparalleled in the city’s history. Approximately 23,400 acres of land filled during this time period were identified.

Recent trends include the progressive closure and consolidation of city landfills and vertical expansion of the remaining sites. In 1991, only one landfill operated between the boarders of New York City. Between 1954-1957 and present approximately 8,270 acres of land filled were identified.

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Present 250 years later the Population has boomed and a city existed was almost unrecognisable.

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Density of NYC Boroughs The population of New York City as of 2012 was 8.7 million people with an average density of 20,000 people per square mile with Manhattan and the Bronx and parts of Queens and Brooklyn some census tracts is higher then 100,000 per sq kilometre

Bronx

Manhattan Queens

Brooklyn

Staten Island

New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a county of New York State. The five boroughs were consolidated into a single city in 1898

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Population

Brooklyn population 2,566,824 Queens population 2,273,151

The population of New York City by boroughs 2012

30.1%

2.50 Million

27.3%

2.25 Million

2.00 Million

Manhattan population 1,619,263 Bronx population 1,408,239

1.75 Million

1.5 Million

19.4%

16.8% 1.25 Million

1 Million

State Island population 470,728

0.75 Million

5.6%

0.5 Million

Million people 0 %

5.6%

16.8%

19.4%

27.3%

30.1%

Percentage of NYC

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Area km2 NYCs five boroughs have a total land area of 667 square kilometres with a further

Queens 282 sq kilometres

117.3 square kilometres of wetland and shores with low levels of water.

36.1%

300 275

Brooklyn

250

181 sq kilometres

225

State Island 153 sq kilometres

200 175

Bronx 109 sq kilometres

150

23.2%

19.6%

125 100

Manhattan

75

57 sq kilometres

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7.3%

13.9%

Square Kilometres 0 %

7.3%

13.9%

19.6%

Percentage of NYC

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23.2%

36.1%


Density of boroughs When the population figures are overlain it shows startling results that 28,408 people live in 7.3% NYC land area.

Queens 8,060 people sq kilometre

Brooklyn

14,181 people sq kilometre

State Island 3, 076 people sq kilometre

Bronx

12,191 people sq kilometre Manhattan 28,408 people sq kilometre

0k

5k

10k

15k

20k

25k

30k

Density of Boroughs

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Why statistics are important People

waste

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Waste systems

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Biological closed loop system Biological systems are as a cog in a machine, each system feeds another, waste is not waste, its simply fuel for another system. These symbiotic relationships are the key to dealing with waste.

Co2

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Man-made linear system In a linear system waste is seen as a product with no value, a resource we want rig off. Value becomesw the currency by which we determine waste

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NYC - Waste - 2013 New York City is looking for an economically viable solutions to a huge problem

8 million people

NYC’s

has over

8

million residents who migrate

to the city daily

Visitors

Construction projects

1000’s of businesses generate a massive amount of

NYC’s

waste which is not see as a problem

the form of rubble

36,200 Tons

construction industry produces waste in

DOS - 13,000 Tons

NYC’s has over 130,000 tourists every day visit-

Producing over 36,200 tons of waste daily is an

The

ing the city this figure does not include residents

alarming issue

13,000 tons of waste every day

who migrate to the city daily

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1000’s Businesses

city’s department of sanitation deals with


Private companies

Landfill dependency

Freshkills closes

The remainder is dealt with by private carting

During the twentieth century the city relied on a

In December 2001

company’s

number of landfills for garbage disposal

Freshkills landfill on Staten Island closed

Disposal costs

Transport costs

Collection costs 2012

$400m

2013

$658m 2000

$300m

2005

$1.25b

The

city’s annual bill for collecting residential

trash jumped from

658

billion dollars in 2008,

million in

2000

to

1.25

The city’s annual bill for disposing of the waste has jumped from today.

300

million in

2005

to

400

million

Most

the city’s last garbage dump,

of the higher costs are due to transpor-

tation costs and paying other states to landfill

NYC waste.

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NYC mt stations 01. MN - West 135th street 02. MN - East 91st street 03. MN - West 59th street 04. MN - Gansevoort 05. BX - South bronx 06. QN - North shore 07. BK - Greenpoint 08. BK - Hamilton avenue 09. BK - Southwest brookyln 10. SI - Fresh Kills

The city has been gathering its rubbish at theses specific locations and simply trucking its waste to landfills in neighbouring states, Many of which are also nearing capacity.

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Out of state waste management

This results in land-filling rubbish out of state. But doing so is prohibitively expensive and environmentally unsound, so in 2006 the city devised a 20-year solid waste management plan.

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Infrastructure required The Department serves the City out of 59 Districts, using approximately 5,700 vehicles that include and over 9245 workers

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7,197

2,048

Uniformed Sanitation Workers and Supervisors

Civilian Workers

2,230

450

Collection trucks

Mechanical street sweepers


275

365

Specialized collection trucks

Salt/sand spreaders

298

2,360

Front end loaders

Various other support vehicles

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The department of sanitation annual bill for collecting and disposing residential trash jumped from about $658 million in 2000 and to about one and a quarter billion dollars in today. The cost of disposal has grown from $300 million in 2005 to about $400 million today.

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Dep of Sanitation expenditure The resulting issues, land-filling garbage out of state. But doing so is prohibitively expensive and environmentally unsound, so in 2006 the city devised a 20-year solid waste management plan.

1.75 Billion

1.27 Billion

1.5 Billion

1.25 Billion

1 Billion

711 Million

750 Million

500 Million 1998

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

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Waste streams This generic waste types mentioned are not specific to New York, however they are present throughout out planet

Agricultural

This

Animal by-products (ABP’s)

Bio

is generally waste that can be composted but

Animal bodies, parts of animals, products obtained

Biological waste includes, but is not limited to; Petri

LAWS depict what can and can NOT be composted

from animals that are not fit or intended for hu-

dishes, surgical wraps, culture tubes, syringes, nee-

man consumption.

dles, blood vials, absorbent material, personal protective equipment and pipette tips.

Catering

All waste food including used cooking oil orig-

Refuse-derived

inating in restaurants, catering facilities and

shredding and dehydrating solid waste.

kitchens, including central kitchens and household kitchens

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Refuse derived fuel (RDF’s)

fuel

(RDF)

is a fuel produced by

Packaging

Packaging is the technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Laminated card, plastics, wood, metals


Wood

Building

Hazardous

Wood waste comes from various business sectors

Construction waste consists of unwanted mate-

Hazardous

and includes local authority waste. It can be made

rial produced directly or incidentally by the con-

or more of the traits, ignitable, reactive, corrosive,

up of treated and untreated wood.

struction or industries.

toxic.

Electrical (WEEE)

End of lift vehicles (ELV’s)

wastes are materials that exhibit one

Total 3,261,750 tons

per year is exported from the city Electronic

waste, e-waste, e-scrap, or

Electron-

ic-disposal, waste electrical and electronic equipment

(WEEE)

European

legislation is pushing for

85%

of the

content of end-of-life vehicles to be recycled.

describes discarded electrical or

electronic devices

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LANDFILLED VOLUMES

The graphs represents a volumetric display in TONS of waste typologies currently being sent to landfill EVERY DAY

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land-filling this volume of waste shows a major lack of concern regarding not only the future of resources, it represents a disconnected society incapable of simple problem solving

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VERTICAL SCALE If the waste was stacked in a tower which was 30 x 30 squared placed in one ton boxes each one meter x 1 meter the tower would reach 1km within 111 day, over 3km a year.

111 DAYS

300M

33 DAYS

200M

22 DAYS

100M

11 DAYS

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CHANGSHA J220

45 DAYS

400M

BURJ KHALIFA

56 DAYS

KVLY TV MAST WARSAW RADIO MAST

500M

CN TOWER

67 DAYS

WILLIS TOWER

600M

WORLD TRADE CENTER

78 DAYS

TAIPEI 101

700M

PETRONAS TOWERS

89 DAYS

EMPIRE STATES BUILDING

800M

EIFFEL TOWER

100 DAYS

GREAT PYRAMID

900M


Horizontal scale If the waste was placed in one ton boxes each 1 x 1 meter the total area covered reach 6km2 within 2 months which happens to with the width of Manhattan.

6 Months

Total area of 14 km2 equivalent to 1.2 million tons.

24 Months

Total area of 60 km2 equivalent to 7.4 million tons.

would

12 Months

Total area of 30 km2 equivalent to 2.5 million tons.

48 Months

Total area of 120 km2 equivalent to 14.8 million tons.

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New York’s Solution Mayor Bloombewrg devised a 20 year waste management plan which created economically viable ways of dealing with the volume of waste being produced.

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The Bloomberg plan In his first term, Mayor Michael Bloomberg mapped out an equitable plan

Districts of NYC

4 1

5 3

2

The complex proposal was designed to make each borough take care of its own trash.

Essentially throwing micro garbage transfer stations in to the mix

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It was also supposed to help limit noisy garbage trucks and limit the distances to reach marine barges, railways or out-of-state trash facilities.


Marine transfer stations 01. 02. 03.

MN - West 135th street MN - East 91st street MN - West 59th street

Planning MT Station

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The planned MTS location Each district needs to deal with their own rubbish. This means reopening and dramatically expanding an MTS in the Upper East Side of Manhattan that fell into disuse in 1999.

The ramp that leads to the MTS cuts the a sport and fitness centre grounds in two. So in addition to the noise and pollution the estimated 200 trucks that will deliver garbage to the MTS every day, locals also fear for the children’s safety.

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Residents

for

20,000-member

Sane Trash Solutions,

Stanley M. Isaacc Neighbourhood Centre

Marine Transfer Station

Asphate Green

a

The

industrial plant when the old

MTS

was

There

are also fears for the health of the elderly

Stanley M. Isaacs

strong community group that

first in use, this site is no longer in use and

community who congregate at the

was formed to stop the dump from happening.

thus has attracted a vast children as a safe

Neighbourhood Centre and the thousands of low in-

One of their main objections is that the proposed

place to be.

come minorities who live in a public housing project,

site is directly opposite Asphalt Green,

both of which are minutes away from the MTS site.

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The government proposal

The Michael Bloomberg Promise NEW High-Tech

LOW Smell Facilities

MTS are positioned in Lower-income Communities Brooklyn

Queens

The Bronx

Staten Island 67


The Argument

‘It is time for residents in that neighbourhood to accept a share of the city’s garbage problem. ‘ The city should build a modern, environmentally sound facility at 91st Street to transfer trash from Manhattan to barges on the East River. That trash, estimated at up to 1,800 tons a day, would then go by barge to other states.

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Deputy Mayor Cas Holloway states that the city has had to fight off “lawsuit after lawsuit” with “every frivolous argument under the sun” from those opposing the 91st Street facility. Those delays have helped push the cost for building the station from $125 million in 2006 to about $226 million now.

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An earlier trash station at that site, which was closed in 1999, was badly designed so that trucks idled along York Avenue. The new facility, Mr. Holloway said, has been designed to reduce the congestion problem with longer ramps leading to the facility, which sits on the eastern side of Franklin D. Roosevelt Drive. The plans also call for higher noise-blocking walls along the ramps.

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This terminal is an integral part of the city’s 20-year waste management plan. John Doherty, the sanitation commissioner, told critics at a hearing, “We will not entertain any changes to what is a fair and thoughtful, borough-based approach that was founded on the principles of environmental equity for all New Yorkers.” Environmental equity, in this case, means that the Upper East Side of Manhattan has to do its part.

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Fundamental problems Other major cities have dramatically reduced their waste by increasing their recycling and composting efforts and encouraging mindfulness when it comes to throwing things away. In New York, however, the culture is such that many people think nothing of eating out twice a day and ordering in a third meal at home, despite the mountains of refuse generated from such a lifestyle.

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While the city is not responsible for the wasteful ways of its citizens, advocates insist that unless it leads the way, it will be impossible to change New Yorkers’ disposable mentality.

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To be fair to the city, its 20 year plan does involve waste reduction efforts and goals to significantly increase recycling diversion rates. Currently only 15% of New York’s residential waste is recycled down from a peak of 23% in 2001 and recycling is still optional for commercial entities which generate nearly 75% of the city’s trash total.

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Advocates also bemoan the lack of public recycling facilities, which they say sends a confusing message to people about the necessity of recycling. There are currently less than 1,000 recycling bins in public places compared to around 25,000 waste baskets. So while in their homes, New Yorkers must recycle plastic bottles or face a fine, out on the street it’s okay to throw the same bottle in the trash. There is also virtually no curbside or domestic composting opportunities so most food and organic waste stills ends up in landfills.

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The City’s long-term plan is to reduce costs by recycling more, reducing waste and building a waterfront waste transfer system less dependent on trucks and able to use containers to ship garbage by barge and train further away to cheaper dump-sites.

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It is hard to imagine a more environmentally damaging waste-management system than the one situated in New York.

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Unfortunately the 20 year plan neither targeted the source of the waste nor did it fix the issue of what to do with it once its being collected.

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Landfills A government funded worldwide accepted design solution to our waste problems

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Fresh kills landfill Until little over a decade ago, nearly all of New York’s waste ended up in the Fresh Kill’s Landfill in the borough of Staten Island. When it reached capacity in 2001 it was closed and sealed.

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Type of landfill Modern

landfills are highly engineered facilities that are located, designed,

operated, and monitored to ensure compliance with federal regulations.

Ash Monofill

Construction & Demolition (C&D)

Industrial/commercial

Bottom Ash means the ash residue remaining

Construction and demolition debris is uncon-

The forms of such wastes are exemplified by but

after combustion of solid waste or solid waste

taminated solid waste resulting from the con-

not limited to: liquids such as acids, alkalis,

in combination with fossil fuel in a solid waste

struction, remodeling, repair and demolition of

caustics, leachate, petroleum (and its derivatives),

incinerator that is discharged through and from

utilities, structures and roads; and uncontami-

and processes or treatment wastewaters; sludges

the grates, combustor or stoker.

nated solid waste resulting from land clearing.

which are semi-solid substances resulting from

Such waste includes, but is not limited to:

process or treatment operations or residues from storage or use of liquids; solidified chemicals, paints or pigments; and dredge spoil generated by manufacturing or industrial processes, foundry sand, and the end or by-products of incineration or other forms of combustion.

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Gas recovery

Municipal

solid waste

Landfill Gas Recovery Facility means a facility

Municipal Solid Waste means combined

in which gases produced from the decompo-

household, commercial and institutional waste

sition of solid wastes are collected for the

materials generated in a given area.

purpose of energy recovery.

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Transformation At 2,200 acres, Freshkills Park will be almost three times the size of Central Park and the largest park developed in New York City in over 100 years.

The transformation of what was formerly the world’s largest landfill into a productive and beautiful cultural destination will make the park a symbol of renewal and an expression of how our society can restore balance to its landscape.

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0-30 year plan With

the help of advanced landfill gas collection infrastructure throughout the

landfill, there are actively harvesting methane from the decomposing waste.

Existing Habitats

Phase One

Phase Two

Phase Three

Phase Four

Mature Biomatrix

This methane, enough to heat approximately 22,000 homes, is sold to National Grid and the city generates approximately $12 million in annual revenue from the sale of that gas. Gas recovery and sale will continue until the amount of gas produced by the landfill is small enough as to no longer be economically viable, at which point it will be burned off at flare stations onsite.

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How they work

onsite biological leachate plant

When landfill is full layers of soil and clay seal in trash

Pipes collect explosive methane gas,which is used as fuel to generate

Wells and probes to detect Leachate

electricity

or methane leaks outside landfill

Lechate pumped up to storage tank for safe disposal

Clay and plastic lining to prevent leaks Garbage Sand Sythetic liner sand clay subsoil

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Pipes collect leachates from bottom of landfill


Location requirements

Regulations regarding landfill design, sites and operation have become much more strict as failure to control or manage the landfill correctly could lead to an environmental disaster.

Airports

Floodplains

Wetlands

feet of a run way

If landfills are located within a 100 year flood-

Landfills

must demonstrate the landfill does not pose a bird

plain it must not restrict the flow of the 100 year

in to wetlands.

hazard,

flood or allow wash out of solid waste

available.

Any

landfill within

10,000

Airports must be made aware of landfills

are

NOT

permitted to build or expand

Unless

no sitting alternative is

within a 5 mile radius

Fault areas

Seismic impact zones

Unstable area

New landfills are generally prohibited within 200

If a landfill it to be built within a seismic impact

Landfills

feet of fault areas that have shifted since the last

zone its containment structure, liners, lea-

promised by the destabilising events, heavy rain-

Ice Age.

chate collection systems must be design to resist

fall, fast forming sink holes, rockfalls, liquefac-

ground motion

tion of the soil

structural integrity must not be com-

89


Landfill design parameters Since groundwater and surface water systems supply 60 percent of the drinking water its critical this is not contaminated

EPA performance

Hydrological

standards

EPA

performance standards i.e, maximum

Surrounding land

characteristics

Con-

tainment levels (MCL’s) will not be exceeded

The

hydrological conditions of the facility can

The hydrological conditions of the surrounding

allow excess or stop water penetrating the land-

land can have huge effect on the way water move

fill.

around the site and as such any site chosen must

This needs to be designed to allow full

con-

trol

Local climate

The

local climate, temperature

&

humidy

which take this in to consideration

Type of Leachate

Volume of Leachate

have

The

volume of leachate produced by any land-

The

type of leachate produced by any landfill

huge effects on the landfills ability to produce vi-

fill is directly related amount of water moving

is directly related to the quantity and quality

able energy in the form of gas.

through the landfill

of the material and amount of water moving through the landfill

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Lining systems

Maximum Contaminant Levels

The composer liner system combines an upper liner of a synthetic flexible membrane and a lower layer of soil at least

2 feet thick with a hydraulic

conductivity of no greater than 1 x 10-7 cm/sec.

Leachate collection

The leachate collection system must be designed to keep the depth of the leachate over the liner to less than 30 centimetres.

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Landfill daily operations The operation of landfills cover a range of procedures

Regulating hazard waste

Cover material

Landfills

Vectors

6

inches

Vectors are rodents, insects, birds or any animal

disposal of hazardous wastes and polychlorinat-

of earthen material at the end of each operating

that is capable of transmitting disease to humans,

ed biphenyl (PCB) wastes

day to control vector, fires, odours, little and

application of cover material stops vectors

A program must be set up to detect

and prevent

must be covered with a least

scavenging, other covers may be used if design

Explosive gases

A program

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correctly

Access

Air quality

to check methane gas emissions at least

Open burning of waste is not permitted, however,

Landfills must be contained from illegal dumping

every three months, if levels are high a re-media-

diseased trees, emergency clean ups must comply

and unauthorised vehicular access to prevent

tion plan must be made within 60 days

with state laws

public exposure


Storm water run-on/run-off

Surface water

Liquids

protection

The landfill must have a maintain control system

Landfills must not release pollutants in to water

Landfills

design to prevent storm waters from running on

body’s and wetlands which would violate the

tainerized liquids. Unless they are similar in size to

to the active part of the landfill. the system must

clean water act.

those found in household waste such as cleaning automotive use etc..

be able to cope with the worst case scenarios

Record keeping

will not accept large bulk none con-

Specific records • • • • •

Location restriction, Demonstrations. Procedures for excluding, Hazardous waste. Gas monitoring results. Leachate or gas condensate system design documentation Ground

water monitorin and corrective data and demonstra-

tions

Landfills typology records must be keep and acces-

• •

Closure and post closure plans Cost estimates and financial assurance documentation

sible at all time for the safety of those working and living near the sites.

93


Groundwater monitoring Ground monitoring

Sampling program

Zero tolerance

Ground water monitoring is carried out using a

Samples are taking at least twice a year

to access

The samples must demonstrate that no migration

series of wells positioned throughout the landfill

the quality of the up-most aquifer beneath the

of constituents from the unit will occur during

landfill boundary

the units life including the closure and post-closure care period.

Detection

Ground water must be sampled and analysed for

The

specific constituents. If significant groundwater

termined the nature and extent of the contam-

contamination is detected then states must be no-

ination

tified and begin assessment monitoring

94

Assessment monitoring

purpose of assessment monitoring is to de-

Source of

contamination

Determining the source of the contamination is key as the landfill might not be the source.


Corrective action

Monitoring program

Timescale

action involves evaluating potential

During this period the a ground water monitor-

The landfill owner must continue the corrective

remedies, holding public meetings to discuss the

ing program must be established to measure the

action until compliance with the clean-up stand-

potential.

effectiveness of the remidy.

ard has been meet for three consecutive years

Corrective

Once

the remedy has been selected the

owner of the landfill is responsible for carrying

95


Closure & post-closure care Specific standards

Owners/operators

must follow certain proce-

dures when closing a municipal landfill.

Final covers

96

State notified

Closure plan

The state where the landfill resides must be noti-

A

fied PRIOR to the closure

with state law.

closure plan must be prepared in accordance

The deeds

Independent engineer

The final cover must consist of at least 18 inchs of

An

independent engineer must certify that the

The deed to the property must note that the prop-

earthen material of a specified permeability, with an

closure was conducted in accordance with the

erty was used as a landfill and that future use is

erosion layer at least 6 inches thick

plan.

restricted


30 year......

Maintenance

Integrity of cover

owner of the landfill is responsible for the

All maintenance will be paid for by the owner of

The final cover must be designed and construct-

integrity of the landfill for 30 years after the clo-

the landfill. For this reason owners must demon-

ed to have a permeability less than or equal to the

sure of the landfill.

strate financial responsibility for the landfill.

bottom liner system

The

Monitoring ground

Monitoring methane

Leachate management

Ground water must be monitored over a 30 year

Methane levels must be monitored over a 30 year

Leachate

period after the closure of the landfill

period after the closure of the landfill

over a

management system must be monitored

30

year period after the closure of the

landfill

97


Treatments - osmosis Osmosis is the movement of water from an area of low solute concentration to an are of high solute concentration

Semi - Permeable membrane

More water is drawn in to the Concentrated sugar

Dilute sugar

solution

solution

concentrated solution

Osmosis Water molecules

98

Sugar molecules

Water is directly involved in many key biochemical reactions, These

Otherwise known as osmosis. Preventing the loss or gain of

properties mean that water molecules can pass through cellular

too much water through osmosis is often an important chal-

membranes but also form solutions with ions and polar molecules.

lenge.


Osmosis

Equilibrium

Reverse osmosis

Water molecules flows from areas of high con-

Osmotic pressure is the pressure required to stop

By applying pressure greater that the osmotic pres-

centration to areas of low concentration

water flow and reach equilibrium

sure, flow of the water is reversed.

Water begins

to flow from higher concentration to lower.

99


Landfill issues Lack of irrigation

Lack of oxygen

Lack of microbes

is the primary cleansing purifying and

Oxygen is the primary life source used by the mi-

As

landfill rotation method, however many older

croorganisms as they feed off out waste recycle

oxygen there is a reduced volume of microbes and

landfills, fail at providing water when its needed

waste in to gass.

thus materials are not breaking down.

Water

a direct result of lack of water and lack of

most.

Ineffective degeneration Materials not sorted

The lack of design within these key system is cre-

As

ating a fundamental flaw with the whole concept

filled up to

of land-filling.

plastic.

materials are not sorted before being land-

65% is biomass and a further 25% is

Recycle incentives need to be inplamented

earlier in the system

100

65% is biomass

Biomass

can be used to generate new income

streams in the form of solid fuel.


Cost to design

Maintenance cost

Environment cost

Retrofitting and re-mediating poorly implemented

Since

older system and many newer system still

The environmental cost only becomes clear when

systems create does more harm then good.

have fundamentally poor planning they always

its too late and thus we need to act now and de-

result in high prolonged maintenance costs

sign new systems away from resources

Reduce

All

Recycle

Reuse

though the current trend is to reduce, this

Reusing needs to become profitable with incentive

Recycling

needs to happen at a micro scale with individuals

schemes design to collect products before they

at micro scale all things are made from elements

dealing with their waste pragmatically

are landfilled.

and right now through advances in technology

needs to become more they a gimic.

A

we can recycle all manor of things, however it currently someone else’s problem

101


102


Materals All materials have their own individual properties

this section looks at the decomposition of materials through micro-organisms

103


Fun material facts If you put these item in a landfill now, they would decompose by:

Next month

Paper

bags degrade very quickly due to the

Wool socks degrade at a reasonable rates and

nature of the product its easily broken down

under natural conditions will be completely

by natural conditions. 1 month

broken down by the micro organisms. 1 year

2060 ad

Aluminium

cans degrade due to the condi-

tions within a landfill and a high build up of toxins and acids. 50 years

104

Next year

2560 ad

Nappy’s by there very nature are designed for a single use however the full degradation is a different storey taking up to 500 years


1,002,010 ad

3010 ad

Plastic bags by there very nature are poorly de-

Plastic

sign are flimsy and brake normally after a single

types of plastic with complex chemical struc-

use however the full degradation is a different

tures and as such are very hard for microbes to

storey. 1000 years

break down. 1 million years

beakers are normally made for durable

1,500,000 ad

7,500,000,000 ad

Glass bottles are made using simple materials but

Polystyrene is a complex mix of chemical struc-

because the bonds are produced under extreme

tures and as such are impossible for microbes to

heat it’s near impossible to for organisms to

break down. 7.5 billions years

break the bonds down. 1.5 millions year

105


None decomposable

106


The figures show the reasoning why landfills reach capacity since almost half the items placed in a landfill do not degrade in a time-scale we can conceive.

107


108


Waste Management Key features have been extracted from how we deal with waste and the design complexities of landfills

109


NYC’s major problems The scale of the situation seems incomprehensible The solution requires the designer to have a vast overview of all systems Unfortunately all systems in place are equally out of date Poorly designed systems have been build upon and as such replacing them would be costly Technological advances that can deal with the waste types, loads are not in place Open source up-cycling methodologies are just not in place.

110


Solution to the problem NYC needs a System reboot They need to address the way they deal with waste Innovative ideas need to be gathered and tested for eligibility Materials need to be sorted, resources should not be buried due to poor management Attitudes much change for all parties involved. Waste prevention is difficult because it requires control of all the systems The solution lies with control & waste management is key

111


Design brief Whats needed

Improved systems

Bringing in to play new high tech systems which

Using what we know about many systems and uti-

Finding new ideas is easy when surfing the inter-

feed the microbes like a colony of nano machines

lizing this to create improved systems

net but bridging multiple disciplines is complex to

digesting the waste and producing methanogentic

say the least.

gasses in the process.

this problem

Processing materials

Creating links

Materials need to be assessed before they end up in

As

a landfill as space is a limiting factor with a grow-

filled up to

ing population

plastic.

materials are not sorted before being land-

Open-source R&D holds to key to

Products from waste Biomass

can be used to generate new income

65% is biomass and a further 25% is

streams in the form of solid fuel. gasses are re-

Recycle incentives need to be implemented

leased from the microbes that feed off the waste,

earlier in the system, open-source provides a way of finding out what is in the system.

112

Open-source data

what else can we use


Positioning

Integration

Form

Landfills of the future will no long be regarded as

How it connects to the city is crucial for servic-

The for will take advantage of the environmental

a cheap alternative to dealing with out waste they

ing and safety for the city should come first.

conditions, heating and cooling where its needed via passive systems.

could become landmarks themselves

Materials

Reusable energy

Adaptation

Materials are the key to a sustainable future, the

How it changes to deal with new waste typolo-

The

materials used for cladding should be recyclable

gies and new technologies/

every move is littered with examples of symbiotic

in city.

Could this be a plug

biological world which encompasses our

relationships with complex frameworks that reuse each other waste and energy.

113


114


If we can give waste a value then attitudes would not be so quick to discard of the resource.

115


Waste management systems There were 26 active municipal solid waste landfills, 16 active industrial/commercial waste landfills, 12 construction and demolition (C&D) landfills, and 5 active Long Island landfills.

Prevent

Reuse/salvage

waste

Recycle

materials

Current

In 2012, 10.7

focus

The current focus is towards recycling waste products however this is not fully resolved and as such the are still many

million tons of solid

waste were disposed of in

State landfills,

New

products

forms of waste ending up in landfills

116

Landfill

Prevention of production seems the

The concept of up-cycling uses the idea of

obvious choice, however this would

recycling but without the industrial pro-

required a huge push from governments

cess of reforming, recycling can be turning

to enforce a ban on none recyclables

a used water bottle in to a table.

New York


Option 1

Incentive scheme People, Individuals, company’s will receive a price per KG for materials recycled

Issues - System need complex rules, utilizing several bin typologies - It needs to be monitored closely - How do you control what enters the system - Where would the waste go - How would it be processed Requiring:- Storage for individual waste on street corners with several bin types - Site required for storage and processing of waste - The system would require manual intervention at multiple stages - Controlling human interaction with harmful toxins - Further refinement systems to create/purify resources

117


Option 2

Current system Government pressure to ban the use of none recyclables, Issues with this being is (None recyclables) actually means too expensive to currently recycle (ie its cheaper to use virgin material) Issues - We continue to mine virgin resources and bury them after a single use - Loss of habitation for animals and ourselves - Poor air quality - Major food concerns - Depleted food stocks and contaminated oceans due to leachates Requiring - Bioremediation - Mining our landfills for resources - Create complex systems of siving through our purified waste - All of this, In search of resources we managed poorly - Further refinement systems to create/purify resources

118


Option 3

Automated resource mining Automated sorting is already being utilised on a number of processes which until very recently were highly intensive labourers procedures. Issues - Need to identify 2.4 million tons of waste every year - Machine need a power source - Machine needs a way of distributing materials - How big is this machine? - Where should it be positioned Requiring - Network of smaller machines serving the master machine - Automated sorting - separating technologies - Series of automated conveyor belts to move materials - Storage units capable of dealing with volumes being produced - Further refinement systems to create/purify resources

119


120


Precedents

121


Recycling plastic 90 % of metals are recovered Less than 5 % of plastic is actually recycled if it makes it to a recycling centre, Most plastic is incinerated or landfilled Most people think plastic is a throw away material with very little value, but actually plastics are several times more valuable than steel and there is more plastic produced and consumed around the world on a volume basis every year then steel

So why is it not recycled? well because metals are predominantly easy to recycle from one another and other material, plasics are much more difficult to sort. Metals have different density’s,

Different electrical and magnetic properties,

and different colours making them very easy for machines to separate.

Plastics have overlapping density’s over a very narrow range Identical or very similar electrical or magnetic properties Any plastic can be any colour 122


Traditional way of making plastic

The traditional way to make plastic is with oil

You break down the molecules and recombined

Pelets are produced and sold for the remolding

or petrochemicals

them in very specific ways to make all the won-

of products.

derful types of plastic that we each enjoy

Future of making plastic

Waste is plentiful and growing in supply

Lower capital costs

Saves 1-3 tons of CO2 ton plastic

Lower cost and not tied to oil

80 - 90 percent lower energy

Closes the loop on recycled plastics

More flexible plant

Sustainable product

123


Automated separation

technologies

Waste disposal companies dealing with the sorting of materials will commonly use one or more of these five methods:

Trommel separators

These

separate materials according to their

particle size.

Waste is fed into a large rotating drum which is perforated with holes of a certain size. Materials smaller than the diameter of the holes will be able to drop through, but larger particles will remain in the drum.

124

Eddy current separator

This method is specifically for the separation of metals. An ‘eddy current’ occurs when a conductor is exposed to a changing magnetic field. Put simply, it is an electromagnetic way of dividing ferrous and non-ferrous metals.

Induction sorting

Material

is sent along a conveyor belt with

a series of sensors underneath.

These

sensors

locate different types of metal which are then separated by a system of fast air jets which are linked to the sensors.


Near infrared sensors

(NIR) When

materials are illuminated they

mostly reflect light in the near infrared wavelength spectrum.

The NIR

X-ray technology

X-rays can be used to distinguish between different types of waste based on their density.

sensor can distin-

guish between different materials based on the way they reflect light.

125


Dirk van der kooij Designer Dirk Van Der Kooij

used his famous

3D

printing robot named

Fanuc

to create

sustainable design Innovation, The robot makes furniture from recycled fridges and e-waste

E-waste is used as a source of material income

The plastic is shredded, cleaned and separated using a number of automated systems and stored ready for use

The stored plastic is the bagged and taken to the robot

The robot uses a series of cad software packages to translate a given design in to slices known as G-CODE which is the sent as commands to the robot

126


The G-CODE slices are a path which the robotic arm follows whilst

The slices produce a 3 dimensional object which is built up over a number

extruding the melted plastic

of layers

When the object has been printed the final point can be pushed down

The

to create a smooth finish.

waste materials.

final object, chair is a fully functunal chair which is printing using

127


D- shape The new 3D CAD software allows architects to conceive and design constructions easily, but existing building methods do not allow the full potential of the new design software to be achieved. D-Shape is a new robotic building system using new materials to create superior stone-like structures. This is similar to what an ink-jet printer does on a sheet of paper.

Computer model - meshed

Large scale 3d printer

128


The system

Current systems

This new machinery enables full-size sandstone buildings to be made without human intervention, using a stereo-lithography 3-D printing process that requires only sand and an inorganic binder to operate. Allow-

Existing materials such as reinforced concrete and masonry is expensive and inflexible. To build a complex concave-convex surfaces would require the pre-fabrication of expensive form-works and cages, the mount-

ing a level of precision and freedom of design unheard

ing of complicate scaffolding and then the manual

of in the past.

casting. This is very expensive.

The process

New materials

The process begins with a 3D Computer model in a STL file format. This is imported into the Computer program that controls D-Shape’s printer head. During the printing of each section a ‘structural ink’ is deposited by the printer’s nozzles on the sand. The solidification process takes 24 hours

The binder transforms any kind of sand into a marble-like material and with a resistance and traction much superior to Portland Cement, so much so that there is no need to use iron to reinforce the structure.

This artificial marble is indistinguishable from real marble and chemically it is one hundred percent environmentally friendly.

Advantages Allows more advanced design and construction. Four times faster than traditional building methods. 30%-50% lower than manual methods. no human intervention means substantially reduced risk of accidents.

129


POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES Composite are materials composed of two or more distinct phases. (matrix phase and dispersed phase) and having bulk properties significantly different from those of any of the constituents. Matrix phase is the primary phase having a continuous character. Matrix is usually more ductile and less hard phase. It holds the dispersed phase and shares a load with it which may be chemically different from each other.

. They generally consist of two or more physically distinct and mechanically separable materials. . They are made by mixing the separate materials in such a way as to achieve controlled and uniform dispersion of the constituents.

The different systems are combined to achieve a system with greater structural or functional properties of the constituent alone. Essentially the

. They have superior mechanical properties and in some cases uniquely

sum whole is greater then the sum of the parts

different from the properties of their constituents

Types.

130

Composites in structural applications have the following characteristics:

Laminar reinforcement

Particle reinforcement

Continuous woven fibre

Discontinuous fibre reinforcement

Flake reinforcement

Skeletal reinforcement


GRP’s Glass-fibre Reinforced Polymers (GRP’s) are found throughout these industries. In commercial airlines, Space shuttle and satellite systems, Marine: Boat bodies, canoes, kayaks, and so on as well as automotive: Body panels, leaf springs, drive shaft, bumpers, doors and racing car bodies.

GRP Application in the energy industry With its corrosion-resistant, slip-resistant, flame redundancy, impact absorbency, non-conductivity, high strength-to-weight properties which had made them unique in the renewable energy generation for use as turbine blades

Sports goods: Golf clubs, skis, fishing rods, tennis rackets Bulletproof vests and other armour parts. Chemical storage tanks, pressure vessels, piping, pump body, valves, Biomedical applications: Medical implants, orthopaedic devices, X-ray tables. Bridges made of polymer composite materials are gaining wide acceptance due to their lower weight, corrosion resistance, longer life cycle, and limited earthquake damage. Electrical: Panels, housing, switchgear, insulators, and connectors. And many more. Natural Fiber Composites Glass, carbon, Kevlar, and boron fibres are being used as reinforcing materials in fibre reinforced plastics, which have been widely accepted as materials for structural and non-structural applications

Designing with GRP Like all traditional materials of construction, GRP also has an inherent limitation – it has a low modulus of elasticity (stiffness). However, this drawback has been successfully overcome by structural design engineers over the years through effective use of the principles of geometry.

If GRP is to be successfully used in load bearing components in construction, its structural form must be chosen as to overcome the apparent lack of stiffness in the overall structure. The required rigidity of the structure is then derived from its shape rather than from the material – the strength of the structure is, of course, only a function of the structure of the material.

131


132


Gomi - landfills Just to build the 4 kilometres long island called for 21 million cubic metres of landfill plus the assistance of 80 ships, then there was the small matter of connecting the airport to the mainland by way of a 3 kilometres bridge. In total the project has so far cost around

$20 billion, but has already saved some expense by surviving both an earthquake and a typhoon in the last 15 years, in addition being open 24 hours a day due to its location.

133


Kansai - landfill airports Where do you land a plane when you’ve run out of space - japans answer, a floating airport

Began 1987

The Proposal

Issues

1987 - construction of the worlds biggest man

5km from shore and contains 530 hectors of

The bottom of Osaka Bay is made of soft clay

made island of its time broke ground on water 18

landfill 4 km long and 1200 meters wide big

that is likely to sink under the weight of the

meter deep in the middle of Osaka Bay

enough to swallow up the entire down town

proposed airport

area of Osaka

Technology

Retaining wall

Landfill

To solve the problem Kansai engineers turned to

First an eleven km seawall of concrete blocks

Then 80 barges ploughed in dumping 180

a new sand draining technique to speed up the

outlined the shape of things to come, this mas-

million cubic meters of landfill inside the sea

sinking by sucking the water out of the sand.

sive enclosure keeps the water on the outside

wall, enough to build the great pyramid of Gaza

70 times.

134


Computer models

Structure

The Building

Using the tech of the time engineers monitored

Just as the face of the island started to pop out

The terminal had to be light enough to keep

and measure the layering of the land making sure

from the water construction began simultane-

settling to a minimum, renzo pianos proposal, a

the fill was compacting equally rate to prevent

ously on two major airport landmarks

wing shaped terminal made from steel and glass, nearly 1 mile long,

unequal sinking

Access

Bridge

Completion

The next crucial challenge in completing this

Today its the worlds longest double decker

finally after 7 long years of draining, dumping

airport was the ultimate question of access - the

truss bridge, at 3750m long it carries 6 lanes of

and designing on what - open for business on

answer was the skygate bridge this was done by

traffic on top and two trains below, just heigh

september 4th 1994. in the first month alone

the use of floating cranes.

enough for boats to pass under yet low enough

10,000 people per day came to the airport.

135


7 years later the world had its first international airport floating out in the middle of the sea, all by itself. the airport handles more than 300 passengers a week & is open 24 hours a day

Today

Soil types

1 million workers,

The island is sinking in to the water, and sinking

Unfortunately it was the deeper stuff, the soil

200 million metric tones of material

a little faster then anticipated, during construc-

they could not drain that would become a prob-

10 millions hours of hard labour

tion the sand draining appeared to take care of

lem (deluvium soil)

reclaimed the sea and opened up the skys

strengthening the bays first level of soft soil,

Guestimating

8 meters

Engineer had to estimate the degree of settling

The entire island had already sunk over 8 meters

that would occur, by 1999, on the airports 5th

- aging the airport 40 years ahead of scheduel,

birth day it became apparent that the guestimating was way off

136

Problems

Concern 1

Will the island sink be reclaimed by the sea


Concern 2

Sensors

Manned response

What does all the sinking down below mean for

Engineer gave a little lift to the 900 support

When the island shifts, the system shifts where

the structures up above

columns that hold the terminal up, each column

the power lifting must take place and technicians

is equipped with a sensor that’s connected to a

rush in.

computerised system.

Hydraulic jacks

Void

Sinking slowing

Hydraulic jacks each capable of lifting 300 tones

When this jacking up procedure is done the

Sinking has slowed the 5cm a year compared to

are inserted between the floor and the column in

basement floor remains at the same level whilst

the 5cm a month during construction

question, then the huge support is lifted and metal

the other levels are raised up. Wall were hung

plates are added one at a time to raise the upper

from the ceiling and AC ducting are bolted to

floors back to level once again,

the ceiling, staircases get an extra step or two

137


Earthquakes

A city at sea

Own power plant

In 1995 a 7.2 earth quake hit Japan just 12 km

As the airport stands alone in the middle of

It has its own power plant which uses

from Kansai airport. The airport was left intact

the ocean it needs to be self sufficient, the

incineration of waste streams provided by Kansai

showing the advances structural design which

infrastructure is more like a city than a airport.

clean centre, whilst recycling as much as possible

stood strong.

Circulation

138

Travel methods

Traffic centres

Thousands of passangerscome through this

Japans railway commuter trains make several

State of the art traffic centre with over 40

floating metropolis and planners designed a

stops for people who work at the airport,

remote control cameras which enable officers to

myriad of mass transportation to bring people to

High speed ferry’s bring in air travellers from

keep an eye on a manage everything from traffic

and from the airport from all over western Japan

Kobe across the bay.

jams to emergence situations


Services

Baggage

Conveyor belts

Fuel delivery pipes with flexible joints allow safety

The most advanced baggage control systems in

High tech spiral delivery system conveyor belts

from sinking land and extreme weather

the world, 10,000 piece pass through each day

sort cases according to destination baggage with

with the multi-floor design it means getting

care.

creative when it comes to handling excess

Organised

Glass

Typhoons

The building is very well organised and as such

Typhoons which generates winds up to 190mph

Windows are all held in place with flexible

circulation through and around the airport is

bringing along damaging high tides, sensative

joints

well considered

monitoring systems which update every 30 minutes, provide varying winds information at multiple heights for jets to fly over.

139


140


OIL RIG TECHNOLOGY Oil rigs operate in a harsh environment and its their ability to do so which makes them an ideal candidate to investigate

141


Drilling barge

Drilling barges are mostly used for shallow drilling in non-ocean waters

Drill - ship

An ocean-going vessel with a drilling platform in the middle.

such as lakes.

The drill string extends down to the ocean floor through a moon hole. Consisting of a floating barge with drilling equipment. They use dynamic positioning equipment to keep aligned with the drill site. Tugboats tow the platform out to the site, This equipment uses satellite information and sensors on the sub-sea drillAnchors hold it in place.

ing template to keep track of the drilling location.

Only suitable for calm waters.

Electric motors on the underside of the hull constantly move the ship to keep it lined up with the well.

This approach allows oil companies to reach depths of up to 6,000 feet (1,829 meters).

142


Jack - up

Jack-ups resembles a drilling barge but combines structurally supporting legs

Semi - submerged

Semi submersible rig facilities are elevated on stilts hundreds of feet above pontoon like barges.

Once this platform reaches the drilling site, it can lower three or four massive legs into the water until they touch the bottom.

After reaching the drill site, the crew floods the barges with water. The barges sink while the platform remains elevated above the water on stilts

They lift the platform out of the water which provides a much more stable

essentially sinking the rig into order to anchor it.

environment from which to drill.

To relocate the rig the crew pumps the water out causing it to float back The legs stabilize the platform against winds and lift it above pitching waves but

up to the surface

the design has its limits as deeper waters require impractically large legs.

It experiences more horizontal motion and a certain degree of vertical motion, but it allows oil companies to drill at depths of up to 7,000 feet

(2,134 meters), well over a mile (1.6 kilometers) beneath the waves.

143


144


Phase 1 - The machines

145


Building program The buildings is a response to the critical issues generated by the way waste is currently being dealt with and seeks to revolutionize the way we process waste.

Section _1.0 shows a flow chart mapping the procedures involved in processing waste.

WASTE

AUTOMATED SEPARATING MACHINE

METALS

BIOMASS

PLASTICS

SOLD

SEPARATED

SEPARATED

INSTANT PR0FIT

146

SOLID

LIQUID

METHANE

EXTRACTED

BUILDING MATERIALS

ADDITIVE


System flow chart Section _2.0 shows a flow chart mapping the connections different systems need

Methane Monitored

Waste IN

Leachates Compost

Factory Sort

Biological waste

Bio-digestion

Process Sorted waste OUT

147


Spacial requirements Delivery space

The gates need to be able to handle 312,000 tons per hour. These are the loads delivered by barge daily. The system needs to be quick to prevent heavy traffic.

Storage space

13,000 m2 per day 91,000 m2 per week

Sorting facility The system needs to be able to handle the loads being delivered daily. Scale of automated sorting machine is critical. Each waste stream is a different quantity. The graph represents a survey study which detailed the waste typology,

The total remains the same 91,000 m2 per week

Movement facilities This specific project is focused towards bio-digestion. For this reason a large storage tower will be constructed to process the biomass.

Spacial requirements

148

Manned Special suits to be worn Oxygen/air Energy Heat Generate heat Cooling Ventilation Lighting Uninterrupted views Insulation Waterproofing

Bio-digestor

Monitoring / plant room

The bio-digestor requires highly

In order for the system to work it

complicated systems to monitor the

will need to be monitored by service

conditions inside and promote high

engineer and this requires habitable

levels of microbial life which in turn

spaces which are sheltered from the

break down the biomass and produce

conditions on the factory floor.

Factory

Monitoring

Bio-digestion


Spacial planning section Methane is collected from the top of the tower as rising gas. This is then pumped back to the factory floor for sorted waste out

Methane

The unmanned access shaft acts as a deliver path for biological waste when enters the tower at the top

The control centre is positioned between the two systems to accurately monitor the exchange of materials between the two and have equal viewing of both entering and exiting ferry’s loaded with unmanned access

cargo.

The processing centre deals with the materials required to grow the tower. its been positioned give it direct access to material through the factory floor and has a direct route through the service

Bio-digestion

shaft passing through the control centre allowing accurate monitoring of all materials exchange

Control

The factory is located on the ground

Process

Monitoring

floor which allows easy access for all barges and reduces the energy by processing it at one level

Waste IN

Factory

Compost Leachates

Sorted waste OUT

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Proposition

ARC ( AUTOMATED RECYCLING CENTRE)

_01 - Transporting waste

_0.2 - Linear system Drop off point Collection point

barges to drop off loads without the need to dock.

The linear drop of and collection strip acts as a runway which specific districts would be scheduled to drop off waste to a ridged timetable.

_03 - Collect methane

_04 - Collect com-

The structure allows easy collect of methane gas

Compost accumulates at the base of the structure and continues its journey as a recycled product.

Waste is transported by barge in containers to the site and is lifted by a hydraulic arm which allows

through a series of cylinders positioned on the roof of the tower.

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_05 - Vertical movement

_06 - Separate solid/

The separated waste is moved vertically using a spi-

The structure of the tower becomes the mechanism

ral conveyor which would on the same principles

which both supports the loads equally and filters

as Archimedes screw.

liquid toxins which build up in the composer. The system is self cleaning and self revitalising.

_07 - Aerate compost

_08 - Hydrate composted material

The compost is aerated as turning the materials

Rain water acts as a medium to both mix the organ-

is the best way to supply the nutrients to micro organisms throughout the composer

ic material and filters toxins from the composted material. the system allows for rainwater to penetrate if moisture levels fall or toxin level rise.

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BOOKLET - Waste or Opportunity