Page 1

+

Growing a Bridge

+

A Material Study of Biorock

Mineral Accretion + Topological Material Optimisation and the Panama Canal

MArch Design Portfolio

Richard James Breen 14076771 UNIT 16


P

R

O

J

E

C

T

D E S C R I P T I O N The project proposes an alternative future and use of the historic Panama Canal chambers at Gatun, after its inevitable fall into redundancy as a transit waterway. Faced with environmental pressures, rapid expansion of transit vessels and competition from other emerging trade routes, the project forecasts the ruination of the Canal and mobilises the opportunity to explore a potential reuse of the iconic and monumental infrastructure. Able to hold and control vast amounts of water, the project developed initially with a strong interest in the power and potential of water and electrolysis. This interest developed into an engagement with bio-materials and the notion of growing structures and architectures. The Canal chamber provides a vastly developed and well serviced infrastructure that is deserving of an alternative future beyond the many superficial alternatives that often attract themselves to waterways. The research of Wolf Hilbertz and Thomas Goreau became the focus of the project - exploring briefly their notions of a cybertecture, but then more specifically their ambitions to grow structures using a process they patented as Biorock. Through the electrolysis of seawater, it is possible to build up solid mass/material of calcium and magnesium carbonate around cathodic materials such as metal meshes, rods, frameworks - this is termed mineral accretion. Vast potential therefore emerges for architecture - illuminating the possibility of growing structures underwater that can emerge for use on the land or at sea. I explored my interest in Biorock as a material practice and architectural approach through a series of practical experiments. Documented in the attached Biorock Research Book, I experimented with electrolysis and mineral accretion on a small scale to better my understanding of the growth process and the qualities of the material and in direct support of my design proposal. The notion of growing a bridge emerged as the most pragmatic and appropriate use of this technology, whilst also being poetic and romantic in the desire of reconnecting Panama. In this proposed alternative future the Canal would become a source of connection instead of violent and inconvenient disconnection. Growing a bridge became the focus of the project and was developed using a process of topological material optimisation to create the most efficient structure to span the Canal, using the least amount of material as possible. The desire to reduce material mass of the bridge was driven by the ambition for a light, highly efficient structure, whilst considering that the less mass would mean the bridge could be grown quicker and in a manner highly suitable to the qualities of accretion process. Based on algorithms for bone growth, various iterations were produced as I developed my understanding of the software and its potential to develop Biorock as a realistic and noteworthy bio-material for construction. Through extensive iterative design, a highly optimised bridge form emerged - labelled as model 15a. This iteration was developed and refined further as a structural and sculptural bridging component. The projects ambition can therefore be simplified to the basic want of growing a bridge. Whilst exploring the various massings and optimisations produced of the bridge, I split my focus onto conceptualising how such a structure could be fabricated, developed, observed, tested and grown in the Canal. A Biorock fabrication facility emerged - developed from my small scale experiments and the requirements of the growth process. It is proposed to use tension cables to create a complex growth framework for the material to accrete around, in an attempt to realise the optimised form generated digitally. The framework would be weaved and fixed to the mass of the chamber walls manually with container drops offering suspended platforms for this operation. As the mineral accretion process takes time, the facility is envisaged as an ever evolving platform for research. In conjunction with Biorock material testing, such as hybridisation, the facility also accommodates Panama’s strong marine research presence. The facility is predominantly created from reused infrastructure, principally the Canal chamber itself, and shipping containers and elements of port cranes are cannibalised to reinforce the regenerative and environmentally conscious nature of the project. As Biorock can help regenerate damaged corals and can be grown alongside marine-life, a truly regenerative architectural material begins to emerge - that is able to blur the boundary between nature and artifice. Such potential provokes interesting challenges to architectural practice. My thesis explores the Canal’s reductive past and current expansion schedule to allude to man’s and contemporary architecture’s seeming disregard for nature and the impending complexities of the Anthropocene. “Preliminary investigations indicate that the mineral accretion process produces a very suitable substrate for marine growth and, at the same time, a strong primary building material.” (W. Hillbertz, 1979: p.6)


+

P

O

C

O

R

T

N

F T

O E

L N

I

O

T

S

I n i t i a l _ R e s e a r c h Panama Research Panama Canal Research Containing Water - Model Electrolysis Experiments - Model

+

S p e c i f i c _ R e s e a r c h Marine Laboratory Research Bio-materials Biorock and Hilbertz Research Biorock Potential Material Experimentation - Model Mineral Accretion Experiments Potential Futures of Panama Canal - Thesis

+

B r i d g e _ D e v e l o p m e n t Existing Bridges over Canal Culebra Cut - Proposed Location/Site Bridge and Topological Material Optimisation Research Experimenting with Topological Material Optimisation Developing Double-Span Bridge Form Pure/Natural Bridge Research Outline Bridge Transportation Research/Sequencing Single Span Bridge Development/Iterations Model 15a - Final Iteration Overview of Development - 3D Printed Iteration Model

+

Factory_Development Gatun Locks - Factory Location Initial Factory Development - Small Scale Growth and Labs Growing Large Scale Structures in Canal Chamber Weaving Tension Cables Research Container Drop Zones for Construction and Observation Growing a Biorock Bridge in the Panama Canal

+

F i n a l _ D r a w i n g s Factory Overview and Key - Components and Operations Exploded Components Filtration Curtain Detail Factory Plan and Tension Cable Growth Framework Factory Plan and Grown Biorock Bridge Support Structure Short Sections of Chamber Before Growth Tension Cable Construction Process Tension Cable Framework in Chamber - Long Section Biorock Bridge Growth in Chamber - Long Section Growth Sequence Unveiling Biorock Bridge Proposed Transportation Sequence and Precedents Activating Bridge Bridge Details Bridge Location 3D Printed 1:500 Model


+

I n i t i a l _ R e s e a r c h

+

S p e c i f i c _ R e s e a r c h

+

B r i d g e _ D e v e l o p m e n t

+

Factory_Development

+

F i n a l _ D r a w i n g s


Panama Districts and Capitals


Fish Market and City District

Bio-museum

Miraflores Locks

Military Base Remnants

Balboa Port at Night

Port Cristobal

Ships Queuing in Atlantic Ocena

Miraflores Lock Visitor Centre

Main City Highway

Kuna Yala Island

Casa Viejo - Old Town

Main City Highway

Balboa Port

Kuna Yala People

Rainforest

Gamboa Tourist Excurisions

Gatun Locks

Atlantic Locks Expansion


PACIFIC OCEAN

COLON Free trade zone Port de Cristobal Chagres River

GATUN LOCKS

ATLANTIC LOCKS

Highway Gatun Dam

Lake Alhajuela

Madden Dam

LAKE GATUN Barro del Colorado

Chagres River Culebra Cut Gamboa

PEDRO MIGUEL LOCKS

PANAMA CITY

MIRAFLORES LAKE MIRAFLORES LOCKS

Balboa Port

Vessel Route

Former military zones

Evergreen broadleaf forest

Semi-decidious tropical forest

Canal Zone Bounday

Protected forests zone

Evergreen broadleaf forest little intervention

Semi-decidious tropical forest - little intervention

Canal Watershed Boundary

Urban zones

Former Military Bases

Port/infrastructure zones

Evergreen broadleaf forest more intervention

Semi-decidious tropical forest - more intervention

Rivers Highways

Timber producing zones

ATLANTIC OCEAN


+

Growing Beyond the Panama Canal Capacity The existing lock chambers are limited to Panamax Max ships at a width of 32m, which was suffucient until the late 80's when the demand for Post Panamax ships increased. The existing locks can not support transit for some major shipping company routes. As a result the canal is being expanded into a third set of locks. The existing locks are becoming rapidly inefficient and their relevance will only continue to dwindle as vessles and trade demand continues to increase in scale.


Length - Beam - Draft

Containers

Vessels

Early Containerships (1956-) 500 - 800 TEU 137m x 19m x 9m Fully Cellular (1970-) 1000 - 2500 TEU 200m x 20m x 9m 215m x 20m x 10m

Panamax (1980-) 3000 - 3400 TEU 250m x 32m x 12.5m Panamax Max (1985-) 3400 - 4500 TEU 290m x 32m x 12.5m

Post Panamax (1988-) 4000 - 5000 TEU 285m x 40m x 13m

Post Panamax Plus (2000-) 6000 - 8000 TEU 300m x 43m x 14.5m

New Panamax (2014-) 12500 TEU 366m x 49m x 15.2m

Triple E (2013-) 18000 TEU 400m x 59m x 15.5m

Knock Nevis

MSC Zoe

MS Oasis of the Seas

Type: Crude oil tanker

Type: Triple-E class container ship

Type: Oasis-class cruise ship

Tonnage: 260,941 GT 214,793 NT 564,763 DWT

Tonnage: 197,362 DWT

Tonnage: 225,282 GT 242,999 NT 150,000 DWT

Length: 458.45 m Beam: 68.8 m Draft: 24.611 m Depth: 29.8 m Propulsion: Steam Turbine; 50,000 shp Speed: 16 knots (30 km/h; 18 mph)

Length 395.4 m Beam: 59 m Draft: 16m Propulsion: Single five-blade propeller; blade length: 10.5 m Speed: 22.8 kn (42.2 km/h; 26.2 mph) Capacity: 19,224 TEU

Length: 361.6 m overall Beam: 60.5 m Height: 72 m Draught: 9.3 m Depth: 22.55 m Decks: 16 passenger decks


The Most Direct [and Dangerous] Connection - North-West Passage

“As for the United States, should the Northwest Passage become a major seaway, article 37 of the Law of the Sea, in respect of international straits, would come into play. Possible litigation between the two countries is patently clear, to which may be added a boundary problem between Canada and Greenland, without forgetting recent Russian ambitions regarding the North Pole, seen as a physical extension of the Siberian continental shelf.The enormous economic interests at play, linked to the prospects for energy and mining resources in this region, coupled with the maritime transport interests of a future international waterway, suggests a far from straight forward process in conflict resolution. But when operational, will this new seaway seriously compete with the Panama Canal? Sceptics are still arguing over the pace of global warming, which nobody denies, but which appears more rapid at the poles. Certainly, the Northwest Passage will not be without hazards with floating ice blocks rendering the sea channel perilous for shipping. Such a passage would demand costly and continuous surveillance by icebreakers, as well as vessels designed and adapted to such waters (double-skinned hulls), and where all pollution would prove difficult to control and eliminate. In short, there would be a need to equip this sea passage with a complex and expensive security system for all navigation. Canada would, without doubt, require assistance, with the United States readily on hand, given their legacy of sophisticated listening stations left over from the Cold War in this region. As such, it is still not possible to establish a credible timetable for this new sea passage. Taking account, on the one hand, of the rapid expansion in maritime trade of which the epicentre is China and, on the other, the completion of the projected enlargement and renovation of the Panama Canal, the latter should not experience any competition from the Northwest Passage for several decades. Along this future seaway, the flow of oil tankers, LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) and mineral bulk carriers should grow as the hitherto mentioned wealth of the ocean floor sub-strata is accessed and exploited. Accordingly, the Northwest Passage will first act as a generator of traffic before becoming one of the sea straits vital to global maritime circulation in the second half of this century”. http://atlas-caraibe.certic.unicaen.fr/en/page-67.html

Imminent Threat of Canada’s [and USA] Undeveloped Rail Potential

+

Main Routing Alternatives to Panama between Pacific and Atlantic “The maritime alternatives are those involving a continuous maritime segment. The Magellan Route circumnavigating South America imposes a substantial detour but offers the opportunity to pick up or drop off cargo along the way (e.g. Brazil, Argentina, Chile). The Northwest Passage, along with other Arctic routes, is the shortest route between the North Pacific and the North Atlantic, but remains hazardous to navigation and does not offer any significant opportunity to pick up or drop off cargo along the way. The Suez Canal is also an alternative to Panama, particularly in light of economic growth in South and Southeast Asia. Singapore, the world’s second largest container port, is often considered as the “line of indifference” between the use of the Panama or the Suez routes to reach the U.S. East Coast, so any cargo transiting through Singapore has the Suez option. The Cape Route through South Africa is also offering an alternative to the increasing trade relations between Brazil and Argentina with China.

“It may sound like a contradiction in terms, but Canada needs an Atlantic Gateway strategy to cope with Pacific Rim trade. Two-way trade between North America and Asia, and between Canada and Asia, has increased dramatically. But global trade raises the need for complicated supply chains and logistical problems for Canadian companies. Much of this trade is in complicated shipping modes – commodities like coal, wheat, potash, and lumber, and manufactured products like capital goods, industrial machinery, transportation and aerospace parts, involving trucks, warehousing, trains and specialty ships.4 Canadian firms must re-organize their supply chains from a national to a global plan. Canada is one of the few maritime economies without a national ocean strategy for national gateways and corridors. It is also one of the few industrialized countries without a national highway strategy. As globalization proceeds, not as an offset to US-Canada trade or NAFTA enlargement and integration, but as a close complementary advantage, students of corporate strategy and international business must adjust mental views to global trends and design strategic supply chains accordingly. Time is not on Canada’s side – the changes taking place in Mexico and the US will soon be operational. As such, global gateways and transportation infrastructure should be a national priority and a natural complement to the Pacific Gateway investments. This opportunity to lead is Canada’s to lose”. http://iveybusinessjournal.com/publication/global-logistics-are-canadian-firms-competitive/

Historical Intercontinental Threats and their Potential Resurfacing

The overland alternatives are more numerous. The first and often less obvious alternative is the Panama Canal Railway that has experienced a notable growth, but not necessarily as a competing route. The growing role of Panama as a transshipment hub is supported by the complementarity the railway offers in quickly repositioning containers across the isthmus. The North American landbridges composed of the Canadian, American and Mexican landbriges are operational realities. Still, their role is not necessarily to offer an alternative to the Panama Canal, but options to shippers servicing North American supply chains with a faster alternative. Their diversion effect remains limited, particularly since in recent years the Panama Route was able to gain some market share over the landbridge route. Other landbridges in Central or South America are simply projects of unknown market potential, such as the Central American Landbridge through Nicaragua. Since the 16th century, the Nicaragua route was considered as an alternative with interests coming and ebbing as the idea it represented to see if it can generate commercial interests. In 2013, the government of Nicaragua announced that a 50 years concession has been signed with a Hong Kong firm with the goal to develop a canal able to handle ships in excess of 250,000 tons. Such a project would require massive infrastructure and capital investments with a dubious commercial potential. The last relevant overland alternative is the Colombian land bridge, which should be considered less as an alternative to the Panama Canal than as a Colombian national strategy to improve the accessibility of its hinterland to both the Atlantic and the Pacific”. https://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch1en/appl1en/map_panama_alternatives.html “Thanks to the writings and travel diaries of explorers and savants like Humboldt, Bonpland..., America was becoming better known. In 1811, in his Political Essay on New Spain, Humboldt described the four most likely route in his opinion for the establishment of an inter-ocean canal: 1. The Tehuantepec isthmus in Mexico 2. The Rio San Juan route via Lake Nicaragua 3. The Panama isthmus: Rio-Chagres-Panama 4. The Atrato via the Bay of Cupica” http://atlas-caraibe.certic.unicaen.fr/en/page-67.html


+ + + + + + +

Rail tracks Lock gates Locomotive/mule

Valve machinery chamber Machinery operating tunnel Duct space Drainage Tunnel

+

Infilled void

+

Vertical valve channel

+

Solid central concrete wall

+ + + + +

Main culvert Cylindrical valve

Chamber

Water input openings Lateral culvert


x

5.2

14000

transits annually

cubic kilometres capacity

Gatun Lake has an area of 425 km2 (164 sq mi) at its normal level of 26 m (85 ft) above sea level; it stores 5.2 cubic kilometres (183,000,000,000 ftÂł) of water, which is about as much as the Chagres River brings down in an average year.

101,000 m3

water per chamber

Gatun Locks Miraflores Locks Pedro Miguel Locks

202,000 m3 water used per

lockage

x 80.8

olympic swimming pools

x 163

average annual water footprint per lockage

x 54,594,594

recommended daily volume of drinking water per lockage

per lockage


+

Canal Process Powering Panama A model to represent and illustrate the dependency of Panama on the Canal and its trading ability. The model shows quantities of ships/transits from the top using nations, whilst calculating the annual water requirement for the lockages as well as the amount of 'lost' water. The model proposes that this excess water can be used to power other parts of Panama, if that be for the city or for industrial applications such as mining. The model also proposes collection of the wasted freshwater to be stored and distributed for local community use - for social activities of basic drinking and sanitation. The model is a continuation of the idea that the canal can have dual functionality and profound affect on Panama beyond economic trade. | The weight of the ball-bearings enables the switches to be activates and the quantity of ball=bearings also displaces the water within the containers - forcing it to fall to the collection chamber and be channelled through to the wells at the end of the model.


+

raising Gatun lake 0.4m 200 million cubic meters of water for 1100 additional transits

Canal Expansion - New Lock System Ajacent to the existing ineffecient and undersized lock chambers the canal authority are building a larger third set of locks with larger sliding doors. larger and deeper chambers to accomodate Post Panamax ships. Each chamber has 3 water saving basins to recycle 60& of the freswater per lockage. The number flasks, demonstrate the ability of the lo

A B C

A B C

6.5m

8.3m

Existing Lock System

New Lock System


+

Panama Canal - Prototype Model One An abstraction of the water displacement, control and water saving basins of the new Panama Canal Locks. Through an almost scientific experiment level of accuracy, the amount of water with the central chamber can be controlled and changed. The number flasks, demonstrate the ability of the locks to save far more water than the proposed 60%. The system is then developed into a projected dual use infrastructure -whereby water is no longer used simply for transit and trade, but can be activated. This experiment demonstrates a additional prototype that is able to clean oxidised iron objects through the use of electrolysis. This process's ability to function however is still dependant on the water levels.


+

Building Containment - Experiment One Designing, finding and understanding each component of the model to construct a water-tight container to create a testing chamber for future experiments with holding and manipulating water and submerged objects. The experiment challenged our understanding of the power and weight of water and the difficulties of containing a body of water without loss through leaks. The development required constant testing, assessment and refining to achieve the final model.


+

Achieving Water Containment Successfully transfering water to and from the flasks into out chamber as well as containing water was a really rewarding achievement. The water provided some really interesting displacement qualities.


images of flasks

+

Scientific Precision and Devices We were able to obtain glass flasks and funnels from the UCL chemistry department in order to very accurately calculate how much water we were feeding into our chamber in order to illustrate our desire for a high degree of accuracy and consideration regarding water saving and recycling within our abstracted lock chamber system. The number flasks, demonstrate the ability of the lo


+ + + +

TOTAL CONTAINER

BATTERY PACKS

BRASS HOLDING

OVERHEAD PLATFORM

TRACK SYSTEM

+

TIMBER FRAME

+

ACRYLIC CONTAINER

+

SEPARATING FUNNELS

33.177 LITRES HEIGHT - 480 cm WIDTH - 576 cm DEPTH - 120 cm

UPPER CHAMBER

2.82 LITRES

+

HEIGHT - 240 cm WIDTH - 98 cm DEPTH - 120 cm

CENTRAL CHAMBER

22.752 LITRES

+

HEIGHT - 240 cm WIDTH - 395 cm DEPTH - 120 cm

LOWER CHAMBER

0.823 LITRES

HEIGHT - 70 cm WIDTH - 98 cm DEPTH - 120 cm

+

+

SLIDING CONTAINMENT DOORS

+

WATER INPUT/OUTPUT

+

SUPPORT STRUCTURE

+

WATER TUBES

+

PLATFORM LEVEL 1

+ +

+ +

FILTRATION FUNNELS - GRAVEL - SAND - CHARCOAL - FILTER PAPER

PLATFORM LEVEL 2

PLATFORM LEVEL 3

CLEAN WATER OUTPUT


9

UPPER CHAMBER 400mm

8

356.8mm

7

314mm

6

271.2mm

5

228.4mm

4

185.6mm

3

142.8mm

2

LOWER CHAMBER 100mm

1

0

1

5

8


+

Adding Components/Experiments/Uses After experimenting with moving water through the system, elements were then added to our container to represent a duality of use that could be applied to the canal system and its chambers. Questioning what large bodies of contained water could be used for. A crane was added to hold power packs for an electrolysis experiment. This device could be removed suggesting the chambers could be used for various experiments or applications other than simple water movement and trade transit.


+

Submersed Ethereal Environment The electrolysis experiment and the submerged object revealed an intriguing and ethereal underwater and industrial environment, of exposed materials and changing states. Here a potential architectural language and environment is beginning to emerge. Here the body of water is being used to clean iron oxide from a redundant object through electrolysis - a process that can up-scaled to industrial levels.


+

I n i t i a l _ R e s e a r c h

+

S p e c i f i c _ R e s e a r c h

+

B r i d g e _ D e v e l o p m e n t

+

Factory_Development

+

F i n a l _ D r a w i n g s


2 1

+

3

4

1

Biofilm is created by free-floating bacteria anchoring to a surface within minutes of contact - slimy extracellular polymeric susbtances (EPS) forms which provides the integretity for biofilm to sustain

2

Self-organised, highly structred 3D biofilm community could appear within hours. Dynamic evolution of biofilm community via intercellular interaction and signalling as well as interaction with environmental stimuli. Clumps of cells are released to colonise more surface

3

Protists graze on developing bacteria

4

As biofilm and protists build-up on the surface, large organsisms such as macroscopic invertabrates attach

Biofuling - Cleaning at Balboa Port The build-up of biological material and structures on ship hulls and marine infrastructure - time based growth, also dependant on water movement. 'As humans alter the landscape of the Earth and economic globalization expands, biological invasions increasingly homogenize the world's biota. In temperate marine systems, invasions are occurring at a rapid pace, driven by the transfer of organisms by vessels and live trade (including aquaculture and fisheries activities).


format page


+

Smithsonian Marine Lab Whilst in Panama we were able to gain access to the Marine Labs that are part of the Smithsonian Research Centre. A wonderful array of materials and methods for controlling, filtering, containing and moving water were used to maintain research chambers holding various marine life, microbes and growths. Use of overhead gangways and water feeders supply the chambers in complex and functional arrangements. A potential program for the canal chambers.


+

Other Bio-Materials and Growing Architectures Mycelium Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. Through the mycelium, a fungus absorbs nutrients from its environment. It does this in a twostage process. First, the hyphae secrete enzymes onto or into the food source, which break down biological polymers into smaller units such as monomers. These monomers are then absorbed into the mycelium by facilitated diffusion and active transport. Mycelium is vital in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems for their role in the decomposition of plant material. They contribute to the organic fraction of soil, and their growth releases carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere. One of the primary roles of fungi in an ecosystem is to decompose organic compounds. Petroleum products and some pesticides (typical soil contaminants) are organic molecules (i.e. they are built on a carbon structure), and thereby present a potential carbon source for fungi. Hence, fungi have the potential to eradicate such pollutants from their environment; unless the chemicals prove toxic to the fungus. This biological material is currently being developed by many scientists and designers, including Phil Ross in the USA, into a usable material for construction as; fired bricks and structural columns, or as internal furniture or insulation. Panama has a wealth of such material growing within the hidden strata and materials of the rainforest, which can be cultivated, tested and developed in close proximity to its origin. Bacteria - Xylinum Research is being developed to utilise bacteria as a growing agent by Jannis Hülsen. His project ‘Xylinum Cones’ presents a production line which uses living organisms to grow geometrical objects. The approach is part of a research project which uses bacteria cellulose to explore our perception of new biotechnological materials through research and material development. Within a growth period of three weeks each cellulose cone is ripening in a suspended mould. Hereafter different material properties can be added through simple chemical processes - the result is added to a sculptural assembly. Nature’s Home - Fab Tree House by Mitchell Joachim In congruence with ecology as the guiding principal, this living home is designed to be nearly entirely edible so as to provide food to some organism at each stage of its life cycle. While inhabited, the homes gardens and exterior walls continually produce nutrients for people and animals. As a positive contribution to the ecosystem it supports an economy comprised of truly breathing products not reconstituted or processed materials. Imagine a society based on slow farming trees for housing structure instead of the industrial manufacture of felled timber.

Xylinum sheets

Meat House

Mycelium

Fab-Tree-House

Mycelium arch

Mycelium wall


+

Biorock Research Efficiency and Cost of Mineral Production The fact that limestone minerals, harder than ordinary concrete, can be grown in the sea in any size and shape, naturally raises the question whether doing so is cost-effective. Hilbertz and Goreau did an experiment in the 1980s at the Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory in Jamaica in which a new battery of known voltage and amp hours was completely discharged through electrodes and the amount of minerals grown on the anode was weighed. The yield was 1.07 Kilograms/Kilowatt hour, very close to the theoretically expected value. A field experiment done in the sea at the Marina Hemingway, near Havana, Cuba measured values of around 0.4-0.5 Kg/KWh (Amat et al., 1994). At this site there were many large steel structures in the water nearby, which attracted stray currents and reduced measured efficiency of mineral production on the cathode. When one balances the chemical and charge equations, and assuming that all the hydroxyl ions produced by electrolysis of water are neutralized by limestone deposition, one gets 3.7 grams of calcium carbonate per amp hour of electricity. To calculate the efficiency as yield per watt one must assume a voltage. The Jamaica experiments were done at 1.5 volts, and the Cuban ones at 6 volts. The lower the voltage is (as long as it is above the minimum voltage of 1.23V for electrolysis of water and ignoring junction potentials) the more efficient the process is (Table 1). For standard solar panels at 17 volts, only around 7% of the potential energy is used, and nearly 93% is wasted. VOLTAGE (VOLTS) EFFICIENCY (PERCENT) 1.23 100 1.5 82 3 41 6 20.5 12 10.25 17 7.24 Using 6 volts we get a limestone yield of 0.62 Kilograms of calcium carbonate per Kilowatt-hour, which is close to what the Cuban researchers found in the field despite stray current losses! For high charge rates producing brucite, one produces half as many molecules of brucite for the same charge, because only one hydroxyl ion is needed for each calcium carbonate molecule, but two are needed for each brucite. As brucite molecules weigh 68% as much as limestone, the efficiency in weight produced per kilowatt should be one third that of limestone. In addition for every two molecules of calcium carbonate (or one molecule of brucite) produced one also produces one molecule of hydrogen gas, which can be used as a fuel in fuel cells. And one would also be producing oxygen and chlorine at the other terminal in a ratio that depends on the voltage and can be calculated from the Nernst Equations. The energy efficiency of production is inversely related to the voltage above the minimal value for seawater electrolysis because higher voltages produce electrons with much more energy than is needed to break down water, so the excess is wasted as heat. We have never felt or measured significant increases in temperature, so the effect seems to be very small in practice. This decrease of efficiency at higher voltages is equally true of efficiency of hydrogen production using photovoltaic panels. This fact was completely missed in a major review of the subject (Blankenship et al. 2011), which consequently greatly overestimated efficiency of the photovoltaic hydrogen production process. The previous generation of 17 volt photovoltaic panels cause nearly 93% of the potential energy to be wasted when applied to electrolysis for hydrogen production. Such 17 volt panels are now no longer being manufactured, while the new panels, with 24, 48, 60 volts or higher will be even more inefficient for Biorock materials or hydrogen production end uses, so it is clear that efficient use of power requires voltages matched to the minimum end use requirements. If we assume that the yield is 1 Kg/KWh and that electricity costs from $.03 to $.30 per KWh, the electrical cost of the materials produced ranges from $.03-.30/Kg. This would be highly competitive with cement in many places where transport of cement affects the local cost, especially in small islands surrounded by the sea where cement is expensive because of transport costs. The materials that are produced, if grown slowly, have a load bearing strength of around 80 MegaPascals, about 3 times stronger than concrete from ordinary Portland Cement, and can be grown in any size or shape. Wolf Hilbertz’s original vision was to grow prefabricated construction materials, like roofs, walls, arches, blocks, etc. in the sea and then use them on land for construction. The most effective use would be in what architects call “shells”, structures that are thin with regard to their other dimensions like domes, and whose strength in large part comes from tensile forces. Unfortunately the construction market wants buildings immediately, and is rarely willing to wait years for the material to be grown slowly and hard, when concrete will set in days. In addition, in the late 1980s our Biorock work switched away from building material applications to focus on coral reef restoration, and we never had a chance to get back into the construction aspects that Wolf had intended. However the principle is still valid, and such structures would be cost effective in many places far from cement plants. By applying higher current densities, mineral production can be readily switched from calcium carbonate to magnesium hydroxide. While this material is soft, flaky and not useful for load bearing uses, it has many other applications. This material can be cast in molds to form bricks and blocks or other shapes, and we have done so successfully. Brucite can be readily converted into magnesium carbonate cements by absorbing CO2 and these are even harder than calcium carbonate.

8) Mg(OH)2 + CO2 = MgCO3 + H2O The manufacture of Biorock cements therefore removes CO2 from the atmosphere as they set. In contrast cement manufacture, which combusts limestone to make quicklime, releasing CO2, is a major global source of greenhouse gases, about 5-10% as much as fossil fuel combustion. Therefore Biorock cements can be readily produced on a large scale that are far harder than contemporary cements and help to reduce global warming instead of causing it like conventional cements do. Use of Biorock cements can therefore help undo the global warming that cement manufacture contributes to, and hence are truly “green” cements as long as sustainable energy resources like solar, wind, wave, biomass, or tidal current energy are used to make the electricity for its manufacture. We have used all of these energy sources, and currently work with top pioneering groups in the development of all of these energy technologies for growing Biorock materials. Magnesium carbonate cements are far harder than either calcium carbonate or concrete, and were widely used by the Romans. Roman ruins in Italy built of limestone or marble blocks cemented with magnesium carbonate cements reveal that the limestone is dissolving with acid rain, while the cements are much more resistant. The cements stick out while the building blocks are caved in from dissolution by rain, the opposite effect of bricks whose mortar is crumbling. Using Biorock technology it is now possible to produce such cements in any desired quantity from seawater and hypersaline lakes and lagoons.

Biorock materials grown at Ihuru, North Male Atoll, Maldives, around a 6mm diameter steel bar in approximately one year. Sourced from 'Marine Electrolysis for Building Materials and Environmental Restoration' By Thomas J. Goreau


+

Toward Cybertecture by Professor Wolf Hilbertz 1970 Cybertecture (CYBERnectics and archiTECTURE) abbreviated to CT, is an attempt to formulate a conceptual framework for an evolutionary environmental system,. The space time continuum us organised ecosytematically, i.e. as it relates to a complex of ecological community and environment forming a functioning whole in nature. The effort is to explore an alternative to the wealth of romanticisms and piecemeal operations which are the generators if the ever increasing chaos of our habitat. All components in nature are in a state of flux, subject to continuous change. The capacity of living systems to organise materials in a complex and determined manner is the characteristic feature of life. CT is structured and performs in a manner analogous to open living systems. Its ‘organised complexity’ does not depend so much upon the number or richness or relations among its elements. The physical components of CT consist of there subsystems: 1. The computer which compares essentially to the brain 2. The material distribution and reclamation which compares to the mechanisms that facilitate metabolism. 3. The sensing structure which compares to the body of the living organism


+

Coral Regeneration System Developing floating installations that can harness the tidal power from the constant movement of passing vessels entering the canal. This power can be used to electrify and activate the specifically constructed biorock structures below. Instead of the shipping industry damaging coral and marine left, they are empowered to help sustain and develop them. The distances between buoys are determined by shipping paths and can power the corals from a great distances.


+

Early Material Exploration Mixing up materials to replicate the texture and materiality of the biorock. The mixture includes oyster shell, portland cement and salt crystals. The salt crystals enable variation in texture and the creation of voids, where organisms would be able to grow and thrive. Beautiful variation in texture and composition - to be developed into more complex forms and other architectural components.


1.5 volts

Test material

3 volts

Brass tube - anode

6 volts

Test chambers

9 volts

Base

Circuit

12 volts Power supply

Assembly

Growth Rate Experiment - Testing Different Voltages The separate containers will initially allow me to test different voltages - to explore what voltage produces the most successful, plentiful and stable mineral accretion after a few days/week. The process is to explore and test for my own understanding those figures for efficiency - voltage that Hilbertz has previously determined. This will enable me to later alter voltage supply when required, whilst understanding the outcome. The material being used in this experiment is a simple steel wire mesh with 6.3mm spacings.

VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 1.23 1.5 3 6 12 17

EFFICIENCY (PERCENT) 100 82 41 20.5 10.25 7.24


+

Growth Rate Experiment I designed and constructed a series of 5 water containers to provide 5 separate test beds for the potential growth of biorock in salt-water. The separate containers will initially allow me to test different voltages - to explore what voltage produces the most successful, plentiful and stable mineral accretion after a few days/week. I will then be able to move onto to exploring accretion around different forms - created from steel mesh as well as to test the concentration of the salt mix within the chambers - to explore whether higher amounts of calcium, magnesium and strontium affect the growth and accretion process. Following the process of electrolysis each chamber is connected to a separate battery set. The cathode is connected to the steel mesh - hoping to attract the mineral accretion, where as the brass tubes act as the anode to complete the circuit. Each chamber can then be safely turned off and modifications to the wiring or the chamber or the materials can be made easily.


All Test Containers

+ 2 hours

+ 6 hours

+ 24 hours

+ 36 hours

+ 72 hours

Steel Mesh

Brass Anode

Water Temperature 25 degrees

Salinity 5%


+

Observation After a few days, I began to notice the water turning blue, as the water began to split into oxygen and hydrogen. Then solid clumps began to form with each of the chambers, more noticeably within the higher voltage tests. I presume that these clumps were formed from salt reacting with an alien agent within the experiment. I realised after a few days that the reason for this colouration was the presence of the copper wire used to bind the brass anodes. The material was unintended, despite creating a very interesting and vivid environment and series of colours. There was also very little accretion over the wire mesh even after a few days. I left the experiment run for 5-6 days as it was the first time I had experiment with this process and the process of electrolysis. The few series of results were very interesting, however the desired outcome had not been achieved. Black growths began to form piecemeal around the wire mesh, and this could be attributed to the nature of the anode.


Sacrificial Brass Anode

1.5 volts - 1 week

3 volts - 1 week

6 volts - 1 week

12 volts - 1 week

12 volts - 1.5 weeks


+ 36 hours

6 volts

Steel Mesh

Aluminium Anode

Water Temperature 25 degrees

Salinity 5%


+ 72 hours

6 volts

Steel Mesh

Aluminium Anode

Water Temperature 25 degrees

Salinity 5%

+ 72 drying hours


+

+ 120 hours

6 volts

Steel Mesh

Aluminium Anode

Salinity 10%

+ 72 drying hours

Successful Accretion After investing weeks in trying to understand and develop this process, I finally achieved successful mineral accretion, with salt being deposited evenly and in significant quantity onto the mesh framework. During the 4 day process I had to replace the aluminium anode 4 times. Despite the successful growth the process was also hampered by the safety mechanism of the car battery, and the amp level tripped out the power source due to the intense conductivity of the anode and the hybrid solution that had been created by its dissolving. I was really happy with the amount of growth, which enabled me to talk confidently about the biorock process and the notions of growing material, having achieved it within my own experiment. This whole process has been frustrating but the result seen here in this book, though relatively small, marks a big success and landmark for my project. Being able to understand the material’s qualities and the process of its production will help to inform my factory proposal and architectural ambitions for the material.


utilising the redundency of the canal - images........... empty canal (cleaning)

+

Redundant Panama Canal The historical photographs of the canal's construction provide an interesting glimpse into an environment that could exist if the existing locks and chambers become left, forgotten and redudant. These vast chambers are maginifcent and monumental and real scar in the natural landscape. They could not be left entirely unmainated as they hold back the freshwater in Lake Gatun from running into the ocean and vice-versa. An amazing areana for an architectural proposal to reinvent the use of the canal chambers.


+

Panama Canal - Potential Futures A competition launched by a local University to explore a potential future that may propose a dramatic departure from the existing use - exploratory visions that project a future transformation of the canal - to either support and retrofit the canal or explore and illustrate its return to nature through ruin and failure.


+

Drawing Tourism to Gatun and Colon Unlike the highly popular and accessible locks at Miraflores, Gatun only has a small viewing platform, with no public and tourist facilities. Miraflores is well connected to and benefits from the tourism hub of Panama City. An intervention at Gatun could provide a tourist and local pull towards Gatun and help to establish a trend of regeneration around the area - with the ultimate intention of this benefiting and improving the fabric of Colon and the lives of its citizens. It was incredible to see the facilities provided at Miraflores to cater to tourism. Viewing passing vessels was treated as a spectacle or piece of theatre.

Colon

Local Education

Gatun Lock

Panama City Miraflores Lock Visitor Centre

The Global Tourist

Local Employment


+

I n i t i a l _ R e s e a r c h

+

S p e c i f i c _ R e s e a r c h

+

B r i d g e _ D e v e l o p m e n t

+

Factory_Development

+

F i n a l _ D r a w i n g s


towards

CRISTOBAL towards

COCO SOLO

Proposed Atlantic Bridge

towards

FORT SHERMAN

towards

ESCOBAL

towards

PANAMA CITY

Centennial Bridge

Pan-American Highway

Bridge of the Americas

Key Potential Bridge Location Existing Bridge Location

towards

La CHORRERA

Shipping Route

Centennial Bridge - 2004

Bridge of the America’s - 1962

• • • • • •

• • • • • •

6 vehicle lanes Length - 1052m Height - 184m Width - 34m Main span - 420m Clearance - 80m

4 vehicle lanes Length - 1654m Height - 177m Width - 10m Main span - 344m Clearance - 61m


towards

Gatun Lake

Gold Hill

Pan American Highway ADDITION

BIOROCK BRIDGE

160m

320m

Contractors Hill

160m

Pan American Highway Paraiso

Pan American Highway ADDITION

Centennial Bridge

towards

+

Locating the Proposed Biorock Bridge - Double Span - Culebra Cut In pursuit of a suitable location for my bridge proposal, I was guided initially by the capacity of the Canal chambers, as this would inform the maximum length of spans able to be grown. Therefore I looked for the most narrow points of the Canal. Above is my chosen location in the Culebra Cut, which was created as a large hill was carved in half to accommodate the waterway. What remains are these two large artificial hills called Gold Hill and Contractors Hill. The ambition is to span between these two points as they offer the narrowest point along the Canal. Here I am able to propose a double span bridge, spanning a total of 640m - requiring the growth of two spans of 320m (able to fit in the chamber). The two intermediate supports would sit close to the bank of the Canal as to not impede the vessel thoroughfare. This is also a good location as it is located close to the Pan-American Highway and would require miminal expansion to the surrounding road network, when compared with other locations.

Miraflores Lock


Bird bone sections - optimised structure for lightweight flight Concrete bridge in Sul Ponte by Sergio Musmeci MX3D - Printed bridge in Amsterdam Optimised structural steel components - 3D ptinted by ARUP engineers

+

Topological Material Optimisation Topology optimization is a mathematical approach that optimizes material layout within a given design space, for a given set of loads and boundary conditions such that the resulting layout meets a prescribed set of performance targets. Using topology optimization, engineers can find the best concept design that meets the design requirements. Topology optimization has been implemented through the use of finite element methods for the analysis, and optimization techniques based on the method of moving asymptotes, genetic algorithms, optimality criteria method, level sets, and topological derivatives. Topology optimization is used at the concept level of the design process to arrive at a conceptual design proposal that is then fine tuned for performance and manufacturability.


Optimisation Parameter Canal Chamber Capacity Parameter

Wind loading

Pure bridge or double span

Vehicle load

Span Length

Dead/material load

Load/Supports

(W) 30m

(L) 320m (H) 28m

OPTIMISATION KEY Initial Formal Input Tier 1 - Maximum Optimisation

Topological Material Optimisation

Tier 2 - Effective Optimisation Tier 3 - Adequate Optimisation Tier 4 - Inadequate Optimisation

Waterway Transit Parameters

Tier 5 - Ineffective Optimisation Iteration Developed Further

640m 320m

70m

Material Mass Input Design Space Mass Targets

1

Min. Material Thickness 2

3

Site Location Parameters

Max. Material Thickness

Symmetry 320m 70m


+

Initial Experiments with Topological Optimisation Software and Process To explore the process of topological material organisation, I searched for various software able to process the complex algorithms required to optimise mass, material thickness’s and structural integrity. I found the program SolidWorks Inspire the most accessible and easy to use. I also had to learn how to you SolidWorks Evolve to a relatively basic level to enable the easy creation and transfer of input forms for the optimisation process. Inspire was fairly easy and intuitive to use. I began by experimenting with the software with simple inputs - to understand mass targets, loadings, supports etc and the capacity of the software. This was a really big learning curve - testing some basic structural knowledge. The following images illustrate my first experiments with the software - enabling me to understand the material optimisation process.

Sketch-up Make - 3D Modelling

Solidworks - Evolve - 3D Modelling

Curved Overhead Tunnel - Developed at Mass Target 15% Mass and 3m Minimum Thickness Constraint

Mass at Opposing Fixed Points - Developed at Mass Target 15% Mass and 3m Minimum Thickness Constraint

Curved Overhead with Mass at Opposing Fixed Points - Developed at Mass Target 15% Mass and 3m Minimum Thickness Constraint

Solidworks - Inspire - Topological Organisation Tool


+

Over Platform Mass Topological Material Organisation - Single Span Exploration

Block Mass Overhead Tunnel

Mass Target 30% Mass 3m Minimum Thickness Symmetry

Reducing Mass at Fixed Points Overhead Tunnel

Mass Target 15% Mass 3m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Reducing Mass at Fixed Points Overhead Tunnel

Mass Target 15% Mass 3m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Angle to Centre Overhead Tunnel

Mass Target 15% Mass 3m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Single Arch Overhead Tunnel

Mass Target 15% Mass 3m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Central Pinch Point Overhead Tunnel

Mass Target 15% Mass 3m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Curved Overhead Enclosure

Mass Target 15% Mass 4m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry


Mass Target 30% Mass 4m Minimum Thickness Symmetry

Ineffective mass distribution

Mass Target 30% Mass 4m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Effective intermediate support contact

Mass Target 15% Mass 2.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Ineffective intermediate support contact

Mass Target 15% Mass 5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Mass Target 30% Mass 2.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

+

Extending the Span Intermediate Supports After exploring the basic principles, tools and inputs of the software I began to explore the process with the dimensions of my bridge. Inputting an initial block of material to optimise measuring 27m (H) x 30m (W) x 320m (L) the max. dimensions of a growth able to fit into the canal chamber. I experimented with end supports and developed onto optimising a span and intermediate supports. I explored the option at different mass targets and varied the min. material thickness to explore the impact of the optimisation. OPTIMISATION KEY Initial Formal Input

Mass Target 30% Mass 5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Mass Target 45% Mass 2.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Mass Target 45% Mass 5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Ineffective

Effective intermediate support contact

Effective intermediate support contact

Excessive amount of mass

Excessive amount of mass

Tier 1 - Maximum Optimisation Tier 2 - Effective Optimisation Tier 3 - Adequate Optimisation Tier 4 - Inadequate Optimisation Tier 5 - Ineffective Optimisation

Double Span Bridge Form Intermediate Supports Support Material Added

Mass Target 30% Mass 4m Minimum Thickness Symmetry

Ineffective intermediate support Perpendicular angle as weak point

Mass Target 30% Mass 4m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Ineffective mass distribution

Mass Target 15% Mass 2.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Effective mass optimisation Intermediate supports too minimal

Mass Target 15% Mass 5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Excessive material thickness


Double Span Bridge Form Intermediate Supports Modified Span Input

Mass Target 15% Mass 2.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Effective optimisation Support material with continuous connection Potentially weak intermediates under compression

Mass Target 15% Mass 5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Break in support material Weak under compression

Mass Target 30% Mass 2.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Excessive amount of mass

Mass Target 30% Mass 5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Excessive amount of mass Excessive material thickness

Mass Target 45% Mass 2.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Ineffective mass distribution

Mass Target 45% Mass 5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Excessive material thickness

OPTIMISATION KEY Initial Formal Input Tier 1 - Maximum Optimisation Tier 2 - Effective Optimisation Tier 3 - Adequate Optimisation Tier 4 - Inadequate Optimisation Tier 5 - Ineffective Optimisation

Developing the Extended Span Optimisation Developing from the previous series of tests, I began to explore altering the geometry and form of the input material mass, in order to guide the optimisation of the material into a structural span reflective of standard existing and constructed bridge forms. Here I tapered the form to reduce the amount of mass at the centre between intermediates - as a more efficient structural diagram. This led to some interesting results, however the input resulted in the dramatic reduction of the intermediate supports - creating potential failure points when the bridge is under compression and tension forces. This needs to be addressed, but already successful optimisation is beginning to occur.


Double Span Bridge Form Intermediate Supports Modified Span Input

Mass Target 30% Mass 8m Minimum Thickness Symmetry

Excessive amount of mass Ineffective optimisation Ineffective structural profile Obstructive formation

Successful optimisation Effective support material distribution Various sections unsupported

Mass Target 5% Mass 8m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Effective optimisation Effective support material distribution Desirable material thicknesses

Mass Target 15% Mass 8m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Mass Target 30% Mass 8m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Excessive material thickness Poor optimisation

Mass Target 45% Mass 8m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Excessive amount of mass Ineffective optimisation

OPTIMISATION KEY Initial Formal Input

Theoretical Growth of Entire Bridge Structure - Span and Support Optimisation

Tier 1 - Maximum Optimisation Tier 2 - Effective Optimisation Tier 3 - Adequate Optimisation Tier 4 - Inadequate Optimisation Tier 5 - Ineffective Optimisation

I also briefly experimented with the theoretical potential of growing whole bridge structures that would provide the most optimum double span and supports to bridge the Canal. The iterations above explore this process, however such a proposal would not be possible within the Panama Canal as they far exceed the dimensions of the chambers in depth. This was a really interesting exploration, as it demonstrates not only the capacity of the software to generate recognisable bridge forms and diagrams, but a potential future in which entire and holistic structures could be grown as self-supporting entities.


Double Span Bridge Form Intermediate Supports Modified Span Input

Mass Target 30% Mass 8m Minimum Thickness Symmetry

Mass Target 5% Mass 8m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Mass Target 15% Mass 8m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Mass Target 30% Mass 8m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Mass Target 45% Mass 8m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

+ Theoretical Growth of Entire Bridge Structure - Span and Support Optimisation


Double Span Bridge Form Intermediate Supports Modified Span Input - Arch

Mass Target 30% Mass 2m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Unsubstantial material thickness in places Ineffective optimisation

Mass Target 30% Mass 3.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Effective optimisation Effective support material distribution Desirable material thicknesses

Mass Target 30% Mass 5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Excessive material thickness

Mass Target 50% Mass 2m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Successful span optimisation Effective support material distribution Intermediate support optimisation unsuccessful

Mass Target 50% Mass 3.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Excessive amount of mass

Mass Target 50% Mass 5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Excessive material thickness

OPTIMISATION KEY Initial Formal Input Tier 1 - Maximum Optimisation Tier 2 - Effective Optimisation Tier 3 - Adequate Optimisation Tier 4 - Inadequate Optimisation Tier 5 - Ineffective Optimisation Iteration Developed Further

Refining the Double Span Bridge Optimisation - Span Width 30m Learning from the previous experiments, I altered the input material mass further, to introduce curves to the span in both axis, in order to further optimise the structure of the initial input. Similar to the Garden Bridge, this produced some really exciting results. The optimised forms created were more seamless and better connected and more evenly distributed the support material. A far more interesting and considered bridge form begins to emerge. However the intermediate supports remain relatively solid - which does not fit with the ambition of the exercise and ambition. There more standard column form could easily be achieved in concrete and do offer the most optimised solution and are not befitting of the proposed growth process.


Human Bone Structure

Vehicle and Wind Loading + Foundation Supports

Optimum Topological Optimisation


Major Principle Stress

Maximum Shear Stress

Tension and Compression

Percentage of Yield

Factor of Safety

Displacement

+ Double Span Structural Analysis The strength of the Inspire software is the ability to analyse the structural forms produced from the optimisation process. Above illustrates the various analysis available - enabling me to make further amendments to the input material in order to correct potential weak points of the structure or areas which are over-engineered. Again from this analysis it is clear that the intermediate supports require further developments.


Double Span Bridge Form Intermediate Supports Modified Span Input - Arch

Mass Target 15% Mass 2.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Unsubstantial material thickness in places Ineffective optimisation

Mass Target 15% Mass 5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Susbtantial areas of span unsupported

Mass Target 30% Mass 2.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Effective optimisation Effective support material distribution Desirable material thicknesses Intermediate support partially optimised

Mass Target 30% Mass 5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Susbtantial areas of span unsupported

Mass Target 50% Mass 2.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Successful span optimisation Effective support material distribution Intermediate support optimisation unsuccessful

Mass Target 50% Mass 5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Susbtantial areas of span unsupported

OPTIMISATION KEY Initial Formal Input Tier 1 - Maximum Optimisation Tier 2 - Effective Optimisation Tier 3 - Adequate Optimisation Tier 4 - Inadequate Optimisation Tier 5 - Ineffective Optimisation Iteration Developed Further

Refining the Double Span Bridge Optimisation - Span Width 15m As I continue to refine the optimisation process I began to consider growing two spans with widths of 15m to explore the effect on the outputs and to also proposed the growth of this double span bridge in one chamber - above are the results. Within this series of tests the intermediate supports are also being optimised - however they still appear rigid and standard in comparison to the optimised span form. The structures emerging are also producing solutions that reflect the Fourth Bridge. With the intermediate spanning to support smaller bridges in their own right. A really interesting result of the optimisation process - clearly illustrating this as the most optimised solution.


Optimised diagram from Inspire

Drawing faces over the optimised diagram in Rhino using T-Splines

Creating a solid in Rhino using T-Splines

Converting into a poly-surface

Adding road platform to optimised support structure

Excessive material mass - initial input to be reconsidered

+ Interpreting Optimisation Form + Developing the Bridge Geometry (T-splines and Rhino) After exploring the optimisation process for a large amount of time, I decided to take the most successful form (mass target 30% + min. thickness 3.5m) and generate a solid form. Using the Inspire output as a guiding diagram I was able to model and further modify the form using T-Splines. This process allowed me to create a more seamless structure and further omit any excess material. However I became clear that there were areas within the form that looked awkward, with the central span retaining far too much mass material.


Scale 1:1000

+ Interpreting Optimisation Form + Developing the Bridge Geometry (T-splines and Rhino) After translating the form into a poly-surface I was able to apply the Biorock texture to the form, to begin to visulaise the material mass as a grown bridge form. I was also able to then locate the form into a simple section of context, to illustrate the scale of the bridge and indicate the connection points with the land.

Scale 1:1000


Pedestrian walkway - 2.5m

Cycle lane - 2m

Vehicle lane - 3.3m

Vehicle lane - 3.3m

Vehicle lane - 3.3m

Horizontal service zone

Vehicle lane - 3.3m

Vehicle lane - 3.3m

Vehicle lane - 3.3m

Pedestrian walkway - 2.5m


Schanerloch Bridge by Marte.Marte Architects Zhenzhu Bridge - China Natural Bridges - USA Manipulated natural growth - India

+

Bridging Precedents - Pure + Natural Bridges Analysing how manufactured geometry and design can begin to draw strong influence from natural occurring constructions. This ranges from the untouched natural rock bridges that have been weathered and reduced to a naturally formed structural state to the root bridge trees of India - whereby the roots of the rubber tree are sliced down the middle and hollowed out, to create root-guidance systems. Manufacturing is now able to move far close to replicating some of these complex geometries that work on the basis of topological organisation - the maximum possible strength under load using the optimum amount of material resulting in lighter bridges that require far less material. This can currently be achieved by 3D printing and complex casting form-work, but can these structures be grown into optimum complexity.


3750m

3500m

3250m

3000m

2750m

2500m

2250m

2000m

1750m

1500m

1250m

1000m

750m

500m

250m

0m

0m

250m

500m

750m

1000m

1250m

1500m

1750m

2000m

0m

2250m

32

Extension to Highway

2500m

2750m

Contractors Hill Biorock Bridge

3000m

3250m

Gold Hill

3500m

3750m

4000m

Extension to Highway

Centennial Bridge 4250m

4500m

4750m

Pan-American Highway

5000m

5250m

5500m

5750m

6000m

Scale 1:15000

320m

Required land infill Existing topography

Scale 1:5000

+ Single Span Bridge Location - Culebra Cut Due to the constraints of the Canal chamber, land will have be infilled in order to create a void to facilitate a single span grown bridge.


+

Bridge Transportation - Vessels and Barges The ambition is to grow the bridge in its entirety within one of the canal chambers, which can then be lifted and transported along the canal and loaded and fixed into place. This will require research into various types and capacities of heavy barge transportation - taking into account the dimensions and the ability of the barge to traverse into the canal and through the expanded canal system. The capacity of the chosen vessel will begin to inform the capcacity and size of the potential bridge growth.

McDermont - Derrick Barge 50 4400 tonnes CRANES Crane: Clyde Model 80 Boom Length Main: 262 ft Boom Length Aux: 312 ft Boom Length Whip: 344 ft Main Hook Capacity Fixed: 4,189 ST; 4,400 ST tied back Main Hook Cap Revolving: 3,527 ST Aux Capacity: 551 ST Aux Whip: 100 ST Deck Crane: 1 Liebherr LR1300; 200-ft boom

Official Flag: Panama Built/Year: UK - 1988 Class: ABS A1, FIFI Class 1, AMS, ACCU, DPS-2 HULL Dimensions: LOA: 497 ft Beam: 151 ft Depth: 41 ft Operating Draft: 24.6 ft minimum / 31 ft maximum

Exchange of the Loenerslootse Bridge, The Netherlands - 1,050t, 124m long arch bridge onto a 66m x 19m barge

Asian Hercules II - Smit International - Capacity of - 3,200 tonnes - installing the Millenium Bridge in Gateshead/Newcastle


+

+

+

+

+

Land manipulated to accommodate bridge span. Adjoining roads and abutments constructed prior to the completion of the bridge growth

Floating barge to transport bridge span along the Canal to the site

On site cranes positioned to hydraulically lift and rotate bridge span into place to adjoin the abutments

Biorock bridge connected secured to pre-installed concrete abutmnets

Basic Outline Proposal for Bridge Transportation and Installation These diagrams illustrate the basic proposal of shipping the grown bridge from the Canal chambers to the bridge’s installation location. This needs to be developed further to explore how the bridge is lifted into location.


Single Span Bridge Form Minimising Thickness at Fixed Points Maximising Thickness at Centre

Effective material mass distribution

Mass Target 20% Mass 2m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Too many areas of span unsupported Poor material distribution

Mass Target 20% Mass 3.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Excessive material thickness Too many areas of span unsupported Poor material distribution

+

Mass Target 20% Mass 5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Under Platform Mass Single Span Progressive Testing Sequence After exploring a double span bridge, I made the decision to explore single span or pure bridge options as this would allow for growth of a single structure - saving time and enforcing the purity of the idea of growing a bridge. These iterations explore my first attempt at a single span bridge.

Mass Target 30% Mass 2.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Excessive material thickness Too many areas of span unsupported Poor material distribution OPTIMISATION KEY Initial Formal Input

Mass Target 30% Mass 3.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Tier 1 - Maximum Optimisation Tier 2 - Effective Optimisation Tier 3 - Adequate Optimisation Tier 4 - Inadequate Optimisation Excessive material thickness Too many areas of span unsupported Poor material distribution

Tier 5 - Ineffective Optimisation

Mass Target 30% Mass 5m Minimum Thickness Symmetry

Excessive amount of mass

Mass Target 50% Mass 2m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Effective mass optimisation

Mass Target 50% Mass 3.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Excessive material thickness

Mass Target 50% Mass 5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry


Developed at Mass Target 15% Mass and 5m Minimum Thickness

Ineffective mass optimisation Input to be modified - ineffecient form Excessive material

Developing the Topological Parametres Adding Extra Loading Support

Developed at Mass Target 30% Mass and 2m Minimum Thickness

More effective mass optimisation Input to be modified - ineffecient form Excessive material in places


Double Span Bridge Form Intermediate Supports Modified Span Input - Arch

Mass Target 15% Mass 2.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Effective optimisation Unsubstantial material thickness in places

Mass Target 15% Mass 5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Excessive material thickness in places

Mass Target 30% Mass 2.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Successful span optimisation Effective support material distribution Excessive material thickness in places

Mass Target 30% Mass 5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Effective optimisation Excessive material thickness in places

Mass Target 50% Mass 2.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Effective optimisation

Mass Target 50% Mass 5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Excessive material thickness in places

Mass Target 25% Mass 2.5m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

OPTIMISATION KEY Initial Formal Input

Effective optimisation Effective support material distribution Desirable material thicknesses

Sub-Platform Massing Organisation - Principle Strategy - Single Span Bridge Typology Developed for Growth - Two Anchor Points

Tier 1 - Maximum Optimisation Tier 2 - Effective Optimisation Tier 3 - Adequate Optimisation Tier 4 - Inadequate Optimisation Tier 5 - Ineffective Optimisation Iteration Developed Further

As I continue to refine the optimisation process I began to consider growing two spans with widths of 15m to explore the effect on the outputs and to also proposed the growth of this double span bridge in one chamber - above are the results. Within this series of tests the intermediate supports are also being optimised - however they still appear rigid and standard in comparison to the optimised span form. The structures emerging are also producing solutions that reflect the Fourth Bridge. With the intermediate spanning to support smaller bridges in their own right. A really interesting result of the optimisation process - clearly illustrating this as the most optimised solution.


Developed at Mass Target 25% Mass and 2.5m Minimum Thickness

Displacement

Factor of Safety

Percent of Yield

Tension and Compression

+

Successful Optimisation of Sub-Platform Massing After spending a substantial amount of time with SolidWorks Inspire, I managed to achieve a really successful topological material optimisation, show here within this iteration. The initial input guided the process sucessfully to produce a highly effecient single span bridge. This form can now be refined further. Effective optimisation Effective support material distribution Desirable material thicknesses


Single Span Bridge Form Arched mass input

Majority of span unsupported

Mass Target 5% Mass 2.2m Minimum Thickness Symmetry

Mass Target 15% Mass 2.2m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

+

Majority of span unsupported

Mass Target 15% Mass 2.2m Minimum Thickness Symmetry

Successful span optimisation Effective support material distribution Ideal material thickness Connection to abutments to be developed

Single Span Development Arched Bridge Form

Mass Target 15% Mass 3.8m Minimum Thickness Symmetry

Successful span optimisation Effective support material distribution Material thickness can be reduced Connection to abutments to be developed

These series of iterations have been generated from the most efficient structural mass input this far. I tested a range of mass targets and material thickness’s to successfully distil the most optimised form which was able to retain structural integrity and fit within the parametres wet by the Canal chamber and by the requirements of passing ships and vehicles to use the bridge

Mass Target 20% Mass 2.2m Minimum Thickness Symmetry

Successful span optimisation Effective support material distribution Connection to abutments to be developed

Mass Target 30% Mass 2.2m Minimum Thickness Symmetry

Effective mass optimisation Connection to abutments to be developed

Mass Target 30% Mass 2.2m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Effective mass optimisation Connection to abutments to be developed

Mass Target 30% Mass 3.8m Minimum Thickness No Symmetry

Effective mass optimisation Connection to abutments to be developed

Mass Target 30% Mass 3.8m Minimum Thickness Symmetry

Effective mass optimisation Connection to abutments to be developed

Mass Target 45% Mass 2.2m Minimum Thickness Symmetry

Excessive amount of mass

Mass Target 45% Mass 3.8m Minimum Thickness Symmetry

Excessive material thickness Areas of span unsupported Poor material distribution

OPTIMISATION KEY Initial Formal Input Tier 1 - Maximum Optimisation Tier 2 - Effective Optimisation Tier 3 - Adequate Optimisation Tier 4 - Inadequate Optimisation Tier 5 - Ineffective Optimisation Iteration Developed Further


+ Developing the Biorock Bridge: 3D Modelling - Chosen Iteration with Texture - Model 3f This iteration was chosen because of the overall form and adequate support that it provides when analysed in Solidworks Inspire. The form has been optimised, but additional elements where added - extracted from other tests, to add extra support at the centre and at either end of the span, with columns that connect to the concrete abutments


Pedestrian walkway - 2.5m

Cycle lane - 2m

Vehicle lane - 3.3m

Vehicle lane - 3.3m

Horizontal service zone

Vehicle lane - 3.3m

Vehicle lane - 3.3m

Vehicle lane - 3.3m

Pedestrian walkway - 2.5m

Vehicle lane - 3.3m

+

Developing the Biorock Bridge: 3f Short Section This iteration has been developed successfully in elevation however when it came to cut the model for various sections, as seen above, it is clear that there is a lot of excess mass that can be removed from this structure to further its optimisation. Therefore the model will be developed to be arched in the both axes - cutting away all of the rigid and perpendicular edges.


Arched Mass Input Single Span Bridge Form Minimising Thickness at Centre

Mass Target 20% Mass 2.5m Minimum Thickness Symmetry

+

Arched Bridge Forms Final Refinement Iterations Arched in Both Axes These iterations represent the most refined initial mass material input - employing an arch as the most effecient structural span system. Here symmetry is employed and I also tested a more accurate support case input to explore the results - which can be seen in the last 3 iterations. The marked iteration has the potential to be developed into the final/chosen form.

Desirable material thickness Mass distribution not as successful

Mass Target 30% Mass 4m Minimum Thickness 8m Maximum Thickness Symmetry

Effective material mass distribution Effective optimisation

Mass Target 30% Mass 3m Minimum Thickness 6m Maximum Thickness Symmetry

Excessive material thickness

Mass Target 40% Mass 3m Minimum Thickness 6m Maximum Thickness Symmetry

Effective optimisation Excessive mass material at junction with abutments

OPTIMISATION KEY Initial Formal Input Tier 1 - Maximum Optimisation Tier 2 - Effective Optimisation Tier 3 - Adequate Optimisation Tier 4 - Inadequate Optimisation Tier 5 - Ineffective Optimisation

Mass Target 30% Mass 2.5m Minimum Thickness Symmetry

Too many areas of span unsupported Poor material distribution

Iteration Developed Further

Mass Target 45% Mass 3m Minimum Thickness 6m Maximum Thickness Symmetry

Effective material mass distribution Desirable material thicknesses

Model 15h Mass Target 35% Mass 3m Minimum Thickness 6m Maximum Thickness Symmetry

Effective optimisation Effective support material distribution Material Thickness can be reduced


Structural Precedent - Fourth Bridge, Scotland

+ Alternative Single Span - Model 15h This form was developed into a solid model to further explore the geometry and reduce areas of material thickness where deemed appropriate. The optimised form clearly retains the form of the arch, and structure is reflective of the structural system employed within the Fourth Bridge Effective optimisation Effective support material distribution Material Thickness can be reduced


PHOTOGRAPHS OF MODEL

+

Acetate Sectional Model - Model 15h


+ Final Iteration and Bridge Form - Model 15a


Major Principle Stress

Maximum Shear Stress

Percentage of Yield

Tension and Compression

chosen bridge - coloured stress levels etc

Displacement

Factor of Safety

+ Developing the Biorock Bridge: Model 15a - Single Span Analysis This model demonstrates the most successful single span bridge iteration produced thus far, therefore I have run it through the analysis within Inspire to double check the structural integrity and to assess where the bridge needs to be strengthened with additional mass material, and in which areas mass can be reduced further.


Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6

Section 7 Section 8 Section 9 Section 10 Section 11 Section 12

Section 10

Section 13 Section 14 Section 15 Section 16 Section 17 Section 18

Section 10

Section 19 Section 20 Section 21 Section 22 Section 23 Section 24

Section 10

Section 25

Section 26 Section 27

Section 28 Section 29

+

Arched Bridge Forms - Section Cuts of Model 15a


+

Acetate Sectional Model - Model 15a


PHOTOGRAPHS OF MODEL


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

+

3D Modelling - 3D Prints Selection and Presentation Model This is the proposed list of iterations chosen as key examples to represent my engagement with topological material optimisation. These various bridges illustrate the development I have made as well as show the progression of learning and refinement of mass targets, material distribution and material mass inputs. I plan to produce a arcylic cabinet to display all of these bridges, which will be 3D printed for display.


+ SLS 3D Printing Set-up - Model Planning and Production This is my first real engagement with SLS 3D printing and I had to carefully set up my models for the process- cleaning up the geometry of all 24 models. This was a time consuming process, but will ensure a high quality of print. The precision of the SLS printer will hopefully capture the detail of each of the models.


+

I n i t i a l _ R e s e a r c h

+

S p e c i f i c _ R e s e a r c h

+

B r i d g e _ D e v e l o p m e n t

+

Factory_Development

+

F i n a l _ D r a w i n g s


+ Gatun Locks - Chosen Site Location for Factory

site analysis

200m


Marine Laboratory Floating Rigs

Growth Testing

Fabrication Lab

Observation Pods

Filtration Cover

Testing Rig

+ Conceptual Section for Growing Biorock Structures in Canal Chamber

Bridge Cranes


MAIN LABORATORY ADVANCED MATERIAL TESTING AND MARINE ANALYSIS

INTEGRATION BIOROCK AND MARINE RESEARCH

BIOROCK PAVILION

ADVANCED GROWTH LARGE SCALE GROWTH CHAMBER - OBSERVATION AND CONSTRUCTION

MATERIAL TESTING SMALL SCALE GROWTH CHAMBER - OBSERVATION

INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH

FORMWORK TESTING

FABRICATION

+

Factory Masterplan and Fabrication Process


Showing one of the framework testing labs, observation pods and filtration curtain

Showing one of the framework testing labs and the close proximity and relationship each lab has with the water below

Showing the over-arching crane structures suspending walkways and equipment over the Canal chamber

+

Factory Perspectives


Individual Labs

Growth Bed Secondary Lab

Small Scale Growth Bed Communal Capsules

Individual Capsules

Horizontal Crane

Large Scale Growth Bed

Panels, Walls, Sheets, Facades

Observation Pod Dock

Central Lab

Growth Rate Test Bed

Hybrid Material Growth Bed

Plant

Main Horizontal Crane

Spine - Bridge connection

+

Labratory Component Plan


Spine - Bridge connection

Plant

Central Lab

Accommodation Pods

Observation Pod Dock

+

Communal Pods

Labratory Component Axonometric

Individual Labs

Secondary Lab


Tensile structure + Suspended framework

Meeting space

Walkways

Filtration curtain + Suspended framework + Contained experiment

Ground level infrastructure

Growth rate test rods

+ Laboratory Section Showing framework suspending various experiments within the chamber which are retractable to allow observation and sampling of growths at walkway level. Filtration curtain controls the quality and quantity of water fed to particular growths. The almost parasitic structure only comes into contact with the chamber at the foot of the tensile structure.

Central Lab

Plant

Spine - Bridge connection

Chamber water supply


+ Laboratory Elevations Perspective showing tenstile structure over canal chamber to allow laboratories, cranes and filtration curtains to be suspended over and connected to the water


+ Internal Perspective Showing the growth beds suspended within the framework - hanging growths to be observed and monitored along the walwkays and closely connected to the internal laboratories


Showing one of the framework testing labs, observation pods and filtration curtain

Showing one of the framework testing labs and the close proximity and relationship each lab has with the water below

Showing the over-arching crane structures suspending walkways and equipment over the Canal chamber

+ Internal Factory and Marine Laboratory Perspectives


Prefabricated laboratories can be installed and expanded on framework

Prefabricated living capsules for researches

Main water supply Structural support bed Suspended framework support Secondary water supply

Drip arms

Extendable rails

Ground level facility infrastructure

Water

Filtration curtain with salt substrate

Suspended and moveable water filtration and supply curtain

Gridded framework to suspend and provide electricity to growth experiments

+ Laboratory Component Axonometric Showing the tensile structure that supports and suspends the framework that accommodates the laboratories and growth beds below. Such an approach allows for adaptability of space and reconfiguration without any major intervention to the existing chambers. The facility supports and enables the growth, testing and observation of biorock structures for construction. The facility can be occupied by numerous researchers desiring to experiment with salt-water in a controlled environment. The architecture remains relatively detached from the growth material.


+

Framework Weaving Capabilities and Influences

Weaving around a precast moulded element

Weaving around a precast moulded element

Triaxal weaving machines - Lexus car manufacturing - carbon fibre weave

Braiding and Weaving Machines

Traditional fabric looms


+ Cage Welding Machine and Operation I briefly explored the use of huge machinery - similar to that used in the production/welding of foundation cages and weaving of carbon fibre products. Such machines could be created to run along the chamber walls, weaving the complex metal frame structure. However no such machines exist at this scale and though conceptually exciting, realistically such a proposal would not be appropriate.


+ Construction Crane Component Developing a bridge crane component that can travel across the chamber utilising the tracks and power of the existing locamotives to guide them. These components will facilitate the stage by stage construction of the proposal - assembling the support structure for the growing structures as well as providing the heavy lifting potential to load materials into the chamber. This component will house equipment/offices and will be able to descend various pods and lifts for construction of the growth frameworks.


+

Segmental Bridge Growth The redundant lock chambers can be used to grow segments of the bridge - utilising the technology of post tensioned tendons to ensure that each segment lines up and is connected structurally. Segment size can vary depending on requirment - the framework will have to be accurately established before placed in growth chamber. Each segment can then be monitored independantly. Upon growth completition the segment can be shipped down the canal into position where they can be lifted and fixed into place. The factory can expand over each of the chambers depending on the size of the proposed bridge and its components.


+ Growth in the Chamber - Emerging Constructions Growths would emerge suspended in surreal isolation within the vast holding chambers - a true specacle. This perspective quickly illustrates the potential scale of growths within the chamber. A really quite surreal prospect and sight but with truly exciting potential. Such potential begins to reflect some of the ambitions Wolf Hilbertz had - envisaging huge structures growing out of the ocean.


+

Growth Constraints - Developing Observation/ Submersion Zones To initially accommodate the construction/weaving of the tension cable wire-frame, container drops zones have been designated to enable recycled shipping containers to be lowered into the Canal chamber. These will provide construction platforms for workers, suspended and lowered by gantry cranes above. These containers will then be re-purposed to allow for subsequent observation of the growing process.


+

The Biorock Bridge - Grown in Panama for Panama Estimated Growth time 5-10 years An architectural and engineering proposal that’s components or entirety is a ‘locally’ grown construct that uses the redundant infrastructure of the canal to create an alternative infrastructural future for the historic waterway. It is a future that is regenerative. It is a future orientated infrastructure seeking to compensate and resolve the canal’s dramatic physical division of Panama whilst having the potential to orientate Panama’s assumed future as a trade and transit thoroughfare into a self-reliant and productive nation with a process and product of its own to share. The projects ambition is to transform the obsolete canal lock chambers into a production facility for the growth of a material that extends its function beyond pure fabrication. Due to the time based nature of the process, the site and facility can be adopted, occupied and tailored to researchers and other educational platforms seeking to explore and understand the future of this material and others, to create a symbiotic environment for future orientated construction. In conjunction the material can be tested and integrated into the marine research of the Smithsonian – to further fuse ecological concerns with construction based agendas. This platform can also be exposed to the individual visitor who can view or be immersed in the chamber, to further communicate the far-reaching potential and wonder of this material and its production. Panama’s future has always orientated around and been underpinned by the future of the canal and its reuse is deserving of another future-orientated legacy – but one that is not achieved at the expense of the surrounding natural and human environment. To drive the proposal full circle – failure, ruination and redundancy are an inherent part of this material thinking. The enviable failure will not be one that costs surrounding ecology, but will be one that can be integrated and reborn in a marine environment.

r

ea 1y

rs

ea 2y

rs

ea 3y

rs

ea 4y

rs

ea 5y

rs

ea 8y

10

rs

yea


+

I n i t i a l _ R e s e a r c h

+

S p e c i f i c _ R e s e a r c h

+

B r i d g e _ D e v e l o p m e n t

+

Factory_Development

+

F i n a l _ D r a w i n g s


+ Growth Facility - Construction Crane Component Developing a bridge crane component that can travel across the chamber utilising the tracks and power of the existing locamotives to guide them. These components will facilitate the stage by stage construction of the proposal - assembling the support structure for the growing structures as well as providing the heavy lifting potential to load materials into the chamber. This component will house equipment/offices and will be able to descend various pods and lifts for construction of the growth frameworks.


1

8

6

9

+

11

12

Biorock Growth Facility - Locating Components and Operations This is the overview of the factory with all the key elements. The facility has been divided into three parts - 1. Research shed, for the Smithsonian Research teams to experiment and take residence. 2. Fabrication shed - assembled first to aid in the production and manipulation of the tension cables for the growth frame. 3. Central site management shed - residency, storage and office facilities for the personnel responsible for monitoring, observing and maintaining the growth process. These sheds are connected by stripped down shipping containers, which also connect to the cathodes and submersible observation containers. The marine and material bays and central sheds have been explored in more detail.

14

13

11

16

13 15 12

13

13

14 13

5

6

14

1

5

4

8

11 13

4

13

13

12 14

4

9 7

13

15

2

14

19

13

11

8

13 10

13

12 14

7

13

Biorock Growth Factory Key 14

1

Central Research Shed

2

Central Fabrication Shed

3

Central Site Management + Storage Shed

4

Marine Research Bay

5

Material Testing Bay

6

Resident Researchers Accommodation Pods - Long Stay

9

Main Gantry Crane

10

Locomotives/mules

11

Secondary Gantry Cranes

12

Support Framework - Walkways

13

Cathodes

9

5

15

3

8

18

17 16 16

Canal Chamber Gates

17

Central Chamber Wall

7

Resident Researchers Accommodation Pods - Short Stay

14

Observation Containers

18

Main Water Culverts

8

Resident Researchers Office Pods

15

Support Power Generators

19

Support Chamber - Potential Expansion

18

18


Central Research Shed

1

Material Testing Bay

5

Office Pods

8

Marine Research Bay + Accommodation Pods

Central Research Shed + Associated Components

4

6


Material Testing Equipment

Material Testing Bay

5

Filtration Curtain

+

Material Growth and Testing Bay


Accommodation Pods

8

Marine Labratory Equipment + Growth Pool

Marine Research Bay + Accommodation Pods

6

+

Marine Research Bay


Gantry Crane + Framework

11

Submersible Containers

14

Cathodes

Support Generator

15 Stripped Container Walkways

13

12 14

13

Submersible Material Test Bed

+

Support Structures - Walkways, Cathodes and Container Drops

13


Bridge Wireframe Framework

Biorock Growth Factory Key

1

Central Research Shed

2

Central Fabrication Shed

3

Central Site Management + Storage Shed

4

Marine Research Bay

5

Material Testing Bay

6

Resident Researchers Accommodation Pods - Long Stay

9

Main Gantry Crane

10

Locomotives/mules

11

Secondary Gantry Cranes

12

Support Framework - Walkways

13

Cathodes

16

Canal Chamber Gates

17

Central Chamber Wall

7

Resident Researchers Accommodation Pods - Short Stay

14

Observation Containers

18

Main Water Culverts

8

Resident Researchers Office Pods

15

Support Power Generators

19

Support Chamber - Potential Expansion

8

1 5 11

4

15

6 13

14 13

14

11

13

12

17

13 13

14

18

Filtration Curtain Detail Main water supply Structural support bed

Suspended framework support Secondary water supply Drip arms Extendable rails Water Filtration curtain with salt substrate

13


15

15

15

10

13

14

13

14

13

14

13

14

13

14

13

14

8

5

4

4

6

5 11

1

12

7

2 3

30m

11

11 12

11

11

12

5

8

5

4

5

13

14

13

14

13

14

13

14

13

14

13

8

14

10

320m 9

9

Roof plan view of Biorock growth factory Scale 1:250

Biorock Growth Factory Key

1

Central Research Shed

2

Central Fabrication Shed

3

Central Site Management + Storage Shed

4

Marine Research Bay

5

Material Testing Bay

6

Resident Researchers Accommodation Pods - Long Stay

7

Resident Researchers Accommodation Pods - Short Stay

8

Resident Researchers Office Pods

9

Main Gantry Crane

10

Locomotives/mules

11

Secondary Gantry Cranes

12

Support Framework - Walkways

13

Cathodes

14

Observation Containers

15

Support Power Generators

16

Canal Chamber Gates

17

Central Chamber Wall

18

Main Water Culverts

19

Support Chamber - Potential Expansion

+

Factory Plan + Tension Cable Growth Framework This roof plan shows the planning of the factory and its relationship with the Canal chamber and the growth the occurs below the suspended structures and infrastructure. The framework is assembled manually from tension cables, connected to the sides of Canal chamber. These are pulled tight and isolated in the locations that do not want to attract mineral accreation.

29.5m

Plan view of tension cable growth framework - platform above hidden for clarity Scale 1:250


30m

320m

Roof plan view of Biorock growth factory Scale 1:250

+

Factory Plan + Optimised Biorock Bridge Structure This roof plan shows the planning of the factory and its relationship with the Canal chamber and the growth that occurs below the suspended structures and infrastructure. The rigid and ordered layout is to ensure consistent growth and observation of the mineral accretion below. As a second layer, the large gantry cranes are able to move up and down the chamber freely - moving containers, personnel and materials where required.

29.5m

Plan view of optimised Biorock support structure - platform above hidden for clarity Scale 1:250


+ Factory Short Flat Section - Container Drop Focus for Assembly and Growth Observation


REPLACE


+ Weaving Tension Cables as Biorock Growth Framework Though the form of the Biorock bridge is complex, it can be created in the chamber as a 3 dimensional diagram, utilising tension cables to pull, weave and secure the form into place. These cables can then have electric current run through them transforming them into an active growth framework. The framework can then be isolated in places to restrict growth to areas not requiring growth. The framework can also be assembled in such a way to allow specific control of voltage supplied to various areas - therefore areas with highly dense accretion requirements can be grown first. This separation process is carefully planned and coordinate - a process that can be monitored and controlled electronically. This was enable successful seamless and controlled accretion. This process of weaving is supported by the drop containers. Tension cables have been used by Anish Kapoor to create many of his large sculptures - the framework in the chamber will be assembled in a similar way - utilising the mass of the concrete walls to successfully anchor the cables.


+

Factory Long Section + Biorock Bridge Growth This long section through the 320m long Canal chamber shows the scale of the growth, and draws focus to the containers that are suspended and lowered into the chamber by the secondary gantry cranes and framework above. During the growth process the iron cathodes will require maintenance and replacement when they dissolve. The submersible containers will be used again as observation points - to check the growth process, whilst acting as a platform for divers if required.


320m

28m Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5 Load Testing Growth Assessment Provisional Completion

Year 6 Assessment

Year 7 Assessment

Year 8 Final Assessment Benchmark Completion

+

Developing the Biorock Bridge: Growth Time-line Estimated from my experiment with material growth, I project that the structure can be built up at a rate of 1mm of accretion a day. The estimated growth time for this structure is therefore projected to be between 5-8 years, given the mass and thickness’s. At Year 5 the bridge will be tested and assessed and further growth maybe required up until the 8 year benchmark.


+ The Biorock Bridge - Unveiling and Inspecting Grown Structure As the water drains the Biorock bridge emerges as a surreal object in a contained space - ready to be inspected and placed under various structural tests.


A

Transporting Huge Structures on Water - Floating Barges

The Blue Marlin

12 ft long and 138ft deep Able to transport other ships - semi-submersible barge

B

Barge Crane Lifting Capacity on Water

Huisman Crane

The boom will have a length of 145 meters and with the boom up, it will reach a height of 210 meters above the waterline

C

Land Crane Lifting Capacity

Left Coast Lifter

Capacity of 20000 tonnes and able to lift 328 feet high

Crane Mammoet PTC 200 DS

Can lift a load of 3,200 tons to a height of 120 meters in 12 minutes and make a turn of 360 degrees in 15 minutes.

Thunder Horse platform 59,500tons semi-submersible


A Biorock growth complete Primary chamber cranes lift bridge

1

Bridge is loaded onto semi-submersible barge

Bridge is transported along the Canal

2

B Extensive temporary works to accommodate super-cranes Barge arrives at site location

3

Super-cranes attach to central clamp of bridge

Super-cranes begin to raise the bridge off the barge

Central clamp is fixed to bridge Clamp rotates the bridge to be in line with constructed concrete abutments

Super-cranes lower bridge onto concrete abutments Concrete abutments installed with foundations into the opposing hill sides

Keystone concrete i- fill added to connect the Biorock bridge with the concrete abutments

4

5

6

7

+

Transporting and Installing the Biorock Bridge - Outline Sequencing


Scale 1:300

+

Activating the Biorock Bridge Elevation - Scale, Texture and Perspectives


Reinforced Biorock safety barrier + zone for street lighting

Retrofit - walkway lighting and bannister

Reinforced Biorock safety barrier

Pedestrian walkway

Retrofit - asphalt walk/road surface Drainage in retrofit surface depth Substrate + waterproof line Concrete screed with water collector pipes Biorock bridge deck

Reinforcement bars

Biorock span support structure


Grown Biorock safety barriers

Retrofitted gutter and road/walkway surface

Retrofitted walkway lighting

Retrofitted road lighting

Service zone


3750m

3500m

3250m

3000m

2750m

2500m

2250m

2000m

1750m

1500m

1250m

1000m

750m

500m

250m

0m

0m

250m

500m

750m

1000m

1250m

1500m

1750m

2000m

2250m

m

0 32

Extension to Highway

2500m

2750m

Contractors Hill Biorock Bridge

3000m

3250m

Gold Hill

3500m

3750m

4000m

Extension to Highway

Centennial Bridge 4250m

4500m

4750m

Pan-American Highway

5000m

5250m

5500m

5750m

6000m

Scale 1:15000

Biorock Bridge Concrete Abutments 70m Required land infill

Scale 1:5000

Existing topography

+

Single Span Bridge Location - Culebra Cut Land Infill


BIOROCK BRIDGE 320 M SPAN 70M CLEARANCE

50M

100M

150M

AUTOPISTA PANAMÁ-LA CHORRERA

ADJOINUNG ROAD CONSTRUCTION

CONTRACTORS HILL MODIFIED FOR FOUNDATIONS AND SPAN

200M

VESSEL TRANSIT CHANNEL

250M

300M

350M

400M

VESSEL TRANSIT CHANNEL

GOLD HILL - MODIFIED FOR FOUNDATIONS AND SPAN

ADJOINING ROAD CONSTRUCTION

TOWARDS PANAMA CITY


+

Sectional Model - Biorock Bridge in Topography

Final model illustrating the scale of the Canal and extent of the bridge and its span


+

Biorock Bridge in the Culebra Cut - Panama Canal

Design Portfolio - Growing a Bridge - MArch Architecture - Unit 16 - Bartlett School of Architecture  

Mineral Accretion + Topological Material Optimisation and the Panama Canal. A Material Study of Biorock

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you