Ricardian Bulletin Magazine of the Richard III Society
ISSN 0308 4337
Contents 2 From the Chairman 3 Society News and Notices 12 News and Reviews, including 12 Compline at Fotheringhay 14 The Leeds Medieval Congress 15 The American Visit 2010 16 Great Battles of the Wars of the Roses: Mansion House, York, by David Johnson 18 Book Review: The Battle of Wakefield, by Helen Cox, reviewed by Lynda Pidgeon 19 A New Home for Jeremy’s Boar 21 ‘Re-enactment’ at Stony Stratford, by Iris Day 22 Blood and Roses at Christ Church, Oxford, 2011 23 Stop Press: new Society Papers Librarian wanted 24 Media Retrospective 29 The Man Himself. The Other Yorkshire Homes of Richard, Duke of Gloucester, by R.J.A. Bunnett 32 Anne Mowbray, Duchess of York: her place in history, by Bruce Watson 34 Not the royal wedding of 1486: a medallic misidentification, by Frederick Hepburn 36 Tips from our beauty consultant: the Duke of Buckingham, by Tig Lang 38 The Asthall Hoard, by Peggy Martin 43 All Saints, Aldwincle, Northants, by Lynda Pidgeon 44 The Coventry Pageants, by Peter Lee 45 Correspondence 47 The Barton Library 48 Reports on Society Events 57 Future Society Events 58 Branches and Groups: contact details 60 Branches and Groups: reports 63 New Members and Recently Deceased Members 64 Calendar Contributions Contributions are welcomed from all members. All contributions should be sent to Lesley Boatwright.
Bulletin Press Dates 15 January for March issue; 15 April for June issue; 15 July for September issue; 15 October for December issue. Articles should be sent well in advance.
Bulletin & Ricardian Back Numbers Back issues of The Ricardian and the Bulletin are available from Judith Ridley. If you are interested in obtaining any back numbers, please contact Mrs Ridley to establish whether she holds the issue(s) in which you are interested. For contact details see back inside cover of the Bulletin The Ricardian Bulletin is produced by the Bulletin Editorial Committee, Printed by Micropress Printers Ltd. © Richard III Society, 2010
From the Chairman
ere, in the United Kingdom, we have a new government and, of course, it is very scornful of the record of the previous one. In this context, one newly-elected MP, the historian Tristram Hunt, notes that, ‘Ever since the scribes of the Renaissance branded the Middle Ages as “the Dark Ages”, propagandists have deployed history to codify the future. You rubbish the past as a lost opportunity of waste, indecision and stupidity and you celebrate the present as a blessed release from such hopelessness.’ How appropriate this is for the post-August 1485 scenario too. In other words, plus ça change ... It never ceases to amaze me how, every three months, the Bulletin editorial team comes up with a fresh range of articles and reviews. This issue is no exception. We have reviews of Society outings and our important presence at the Leeds Medieval Congress, reports from our active and busy branches and the always interesting Media Retrospective. The article on beauty tips from the duke of Buckingham is a must! There is a distinctly Yorkshire zest to this issue and, since this year the Yorkshire Branch celebrates its fiftieth birthday, why not? On behalf of us all, I congratulate the Branch on this great achievement. As well as a short history of the founding of the branch, there is a review of a new Wars of the Roses exhibition in Micklegate Bar, and we devote The Man Himself to God’s own county with an article written many years ago by a doyen of the branch, R. J. A. Bunnett, who became a Society vice-president and died at the age of ninety-six. Mention of Mr Bunnett’s age reminds that one of our current vice-presidents, Kitty Bristow, will be ninety on 18 September this year. Congratulations, Kitty, we wish you many more happy returns for the day. I must take this opportunity to thank John Ashdown-Hill and everyone involved with arranging the annual Requiem Mass for King Richard and Queen Anne Neville. Much commitment and hard work goes into organising such events and many members have appreciated the opportunity of attending them over the years. Sadly, John and his team have decided to relinquish the task, but we hope someone else will take up the mantle – or is that the cope? – so that the Mass can continue in future years (see p.49). I write this hot foot from a visit to Fotheringhay, where the Wakefield Historical Society and ourselves hosted the final event in a commemoration of the transfer from Wakefield to Fotheringhay of the bodies of the father and brother of Edward IV and Richard III. Since Richard of Gloucester led the cortege as it headed south it was fitting that the present Duke of Gloucester, our patron, was in the procession into the church and later gave a short address during the service. Afterwards, he met members of both Societies. We thank him for his continued support and interest in our work. (For more about this event, see pp. 12-13) As this Bulletin goes to press, the sad news has come from the American Branch of the death of Carole Rike, a stalwart member of the Branch who did much for the Society in the States, including being editor and distributor of their magazine, The Register. We send our sympathy to Carole’s family and friends. There will be a full appreciation of her in the December Bulletin. We will be in Leicester on 2 October, the anniversary of King Richard’s birth, for this year’s AGM. As well as the business side of things, there will be many other interesting and exciting things to do and, most importantly, there is the opportunity to meet and talk to other Ricardians. I do hope that as many of you as possible will support the AGM. It is particularly important that we do so when they are held outside London. I look forward to seeing you there. 2
Society News and Notices Subscriptions Due Subscriptions for the forthcoming membership year fall due on 2 October 2010. See renewal form in the centrefold and Membership Matters below.
Richard III Society Members’ Day and Annual General Meeting Saturday 2 October 2010 As is the established practice, Saturday 2 October is both the AGM and a day for members to meet each other and get involved and, although using a new (to us) venue, the event will follow a similar pattern to those recently held in London and York. At the time of writing this article, mid July, only one motion has been proposed by the Executive Committee – referred to elsewhere in this edition of the Bulletin - and no individual motions have been received by the Chairman or the Joint Secretaries. All members are reminded that motions and resolutions for the AGM agenda, proposed and seconded by Society members and signed, should be sent to the Joint Secretaries, in hard copy, by no later than Friday 17 September 2010. Similarly, nominations by Society members for membership of the Executive Committee, proposed, seconded and accepted by the nominee and duly signed by all, should also be sent to the Joint Secretaries by the same date. Forms for this purpose may be obtained from the Joint Secretaries – by electronic or hard copy means or downloaded from the Society’s website. The Annual Report is to be found in the central section of this Bulletin. It contains much of the material formerly reported by officers at the AGM. This means that officers’ reports will provide attendees with any relevant updates which will enable the focus of the meeting to be on the future and members’ issues. As with other years, there will be an Open Forum/Question Time to enable members to raise questions and issues. These can be submitted by email or in writing to the Joint Secretaries (contact details on the inside cover of the Bulletin). If you wish to submit a question in advance, it would be helpful if it is received by Thursday 30 September. You will also be able to put questions on the day and ‘post-it’ notes will be available for you to place on a board within the hall. Queries and questions may be submitted anonymously, but, if they cannot be answered on the day, questioners may be asked to give their contact details to a Society officer to enable an answer to be provided at a later date. Please remember that this is your day. Please try to attend and take the opportunity to raise any question that you have, to meet old friends and to make new ones. Further to the official notification in the June Bulletin, set out below is the proposed programme for the day: Programme: 10.30 12.00 13.15 14.45 16.15 (estimated)
Doors open; members arrive, time to visit stalls etc. Lecture – Susan Ronald: (further details below). Lunch and short tours of ‘Historic Leicester’. Annual General Meeting and Open Forum/Question Time followed by raffle. Conclusion of Members’ Day and dispersal 3
Details of the venue and how to get there are given below: Venue: Public Transport:
Refreshments: Lunch: Historic Leicester:
Leicester Adult Education College in Wellington Street, Leicester LE1 6HL. Nearest station is Leicester (National Rail) and the College is within easy walking distance (15 minutes – about 700 metres) from the station. Bus routes include: 47, 47B, 73, 84, 84A, 85, 86, 87, 88, 88A and X40. There is limited on-street parking in Wellington Street and this is short -stay only. The nearest public car park (less than 10 minutes walk) is located in Newarke Street: this is a pay and display site. The venue will be open from 10.30 a.m. Members will be asked to sign in at the reception table which will be staffed by members of the East Midlands Group. We would like to record our appreciation of their assistance in providing this service. Tea, coffee and biscuits will be on sale in the hall during the morning from 10.30 to mid-day. Own arrangements. Details of local facilities will be available on reception. There will be opportunities to take a short walking tour of the historic City during the lunch period. This will include Newarke House Museum, Castle Gardens and the church of St Mary de Castro. Details will be available on the day.
Other attractions: Major Craft Sale:
The thirty-first Major Craft Sale will be held around the AGM/ Members’ Day. The sale will start at 10.30 am and run until 12.00 noon and then will continue in the lunch interval. The proceeds will be devoted to the Ricardian Churches Restoration Fund. On sale there will be books, Ricardian embroidery, cakes and sweets (for home consumption only), paperweights, RCRF Christmas cards, knitted items and baby clothes, soft toys, collages, etc., and Ricardian and other bric-a-brac. We would warmly welcome offers of items for sale. We do appeal to members to try to provide some item(s) for sale, so please try to look out some items of jumble or bric-a-brac. We would of course also warmly welcome all items of any sort of craft-work. If you wish to give or send items in advance, please contact Elizabeth Nokes, 4, Oakley Street, Chelsea, London SW3 5NN, Tel. 01689-823569, email Elizabeth_Nokes@hotmail.com, to check that the items are suitable. If you wish to bring items along on the day, it would be most helpful if you could mark them with an indication of the price(s) at which you think they should be sold.
Ricardian Sales Stall:
There will be a range of Society and Trust publications and Society artefacts. Beth Stone, the Web Content Manager, will be present. Paul Foss will be available to receive payment of subscriptions on the day and will have a table for this purpose. As last year, Starkmann Limited will be in attendance with a range of publications and associated sales items.
Website: Treasurer’s Table: Bookseller:
Branches & Groups: Yorkshire Branch: Visits Committee: Ladies of Soper Lane:
Battlefields Trust and Bosworth Battlefields Visitors’ Centre Annual Grand Raffle:
The librarians will be selling off duplicate library stock at bargain prices and a selection of the Society’s books and artefacts. They will also be showcasing the diverse services that the Library can offer to members. This is an opportunity to showcase their publications and activities. The branch will again be represented and be selling some Ricardian publications and items with specific local focus. This table will be hosted by members of the Visits Committee and will display information on past visits and details of future visits: suggestions for the latter would be very welcome. We have arranged for two representatives from this organisation to be present. Soper Lane demonstrate the work and life of medieval and early Tudor silk-women and they will include examples of fingerloop braiding and tablet weaving, as well as samples of the various types of items that the silk-women produced. Both these organisations have indicated that they would like to have a display at the AGM. No further details were available at the time of going to press. As usual we shall be having a raffle in aid of the Ricardian Churches Restoration Fund. The tickets will be 25p. each or five tickets for £1.00, and will be on sale at the meeting. The prizes include:
a set of six white rose glasses M&S toiletries bag ‘Richard III’ portrait ceramic pot ‘Moroccan Rose’ forty-hour candle BBC ‘This Sceptr’d Isle: The Dynasties’ audio CD collection: the story of ambitious families who helped shape the history of the British Isles ‘Past Times’ Art Deco perfume bottle Medieval People by Eileen Powers (Folio Society), colour illustrations, illuminated cover The Book of Margery Kempe: a woman’s life in the Middle Ages (Folio Society), illustrated
Prizes are not ranked in any order. The first ticket drawn will have first choice, and so on. We thank all those who contributed prizes.
We are delighted to welcome the author Susan Ronald, who will be speaking on: ‘Who will rid me of this bad historian – Shakespeare?’
Reminder to Branches and Groups If your branch/group wishes to make a report at the AGM, please let the Joint Secretaries know by Friday 17 September so that it can be included on the agenda. Reports can be made in person by a branch/group representative or, for overseas branches/groups, a printed report can be supplied to be read at the AGM. Reports should not exceed three minutes and should consist of new material not previously reported verbally or in print. If you have any queries about any matters relating to the Members’ Day or AGM, please get in touch with the Joint Secretaries – contact details on the back page of the Bulletin. 5
Motion for AGM 2010 It is proposed to raise the annual subscription to be implemented immediately for new members and from October 2011 for existing members according to the figures detailed below. It is further proposed to introduce pro rata changes as required to cover the cost of additional overseas charges as necessary.
Proposal to increase subscriptions The Executive Committee has concluded, with regret, that it is necessary to increase subscriptions by £2.00 per annum for all categories of membership. This is the first such increase for three years. In the interim period, the Society, like so many others, has been faced with increasing costs. We need to ensure that a sound financial footing is maintained. If agreed at the 2010 AGM, the proposed new rates will apply to new members with effect from October 2010 and for existing members, from October 2011. The proposals are as follows: Full membership rate to increase from £24 p.a. to £26 p.a. Family membership (all living at the same address) from £30 p.a. to £32 p.a. Senior citizen member (over the age of 60) from £18 p.a. to £20 p.a. Senior citizen family membership from £24 p.a. to £26 p.a. Junior member (joining before 18th birthday) from £18 p.a. to £20 p.a. Student member (over 18 in full-time education) from £18 p.a. to £20 p.a. Full Academic membership from £24 to £26 p.a. Academic membership (The Ricardian only) from £10 to £12 p.a.
Increase in Overseas Postage Supplement Because of the ever-increasing postal charges, the Committee has reviewed the cost of sending publications to overseas members and, reluctantly, the supplement (which is currently £7.50) last set in October 2008 will be increased by £1.50 for all countries with effect from 2 October 2010. Overseas members renewing their subscriptions are asked to ensure that they include the new rate. Overseas branches with separate postal arrangements will be contacted individually about their revised rates. Executive Committee
Membership Matters Subscriptions will become due on 2 October this year. There is a subscription reminder form in the centre pages of this Bulletin for those of you who prefer to pay by cheque, and you also have the option of using PayPal (see datails on p.7 of the Autumn 2008 Bulletin or, for new members, the sheet in your joining pack). Please let us know if your circumstances have changed in a way which necessitates a change of membership category. This can be done by ticking your new category on the subscription reminder form and ticking the box at the bottom of the page; this helps considerably with our administration. Please note that our system does not automatically change your category if, for example, you move from full membership to senior citizen, having reached the age of 60 by 2 October, as we do not hold birthdates for all our members. If you pay by standing order and you have amended it to pay a different rate, please do tick the relevant boxes and return the renewal form to the membership department. If by any change you will not be renewing your membership, we would be grateful if you could let us know. To facilitate this there is a space on the reminder form. This will save us the expense of sending out reminder letters and helps to ensure that the Society’s membership 6
database is up-to-date. This in turn helps us to determine the correct print-runs for our journals, and thus avoids any unnecessary expense. Of course, we do hope you consider the Society good value for money and will continue to enjoy your membership for many years to come. The Society needs a strong membership base in order to carry out its work, and we value all our members. Finally, for non-branch overseas members, please note the new postage supplement announced on the preceding page. Brian and Wendy Moorhen
Credit Cards and Overseas Cheques: Important News Credit Cards Our bankers have advised that they will not be accepting paper credit card payment documents from the beginning of September this year. We have investigated the possible use of remote chipand-pin machines as an alternative, but the cost of operating this facility is not cost-effective relative to the likely number of transactions. As a consequence, we are no longer able to accept direct credit card payments, but you can make a credit card payment online through PayPal. To do this, just go to www.paypal.co.uk and set up an account by following the payment procedure. It is quite straightforward.. Your payment is to email@example.com Don’t forget to add on the fee of 5%. For full details see p.7 of the Autumn 2007 Bulletin or, for newer members, the sheet in your welcome pack. As we go to press, we are investigating the possibility of setting up direct credit card payments via PayPal, which would not involve going on line. If this proves a viable option we shall publish full details in the next issue of the Bulletin and on the website immediately they are to hand.
Overseas Cheques Payment by cheque should be in pounds sterling whenever possible. However, if it is necessary to send non-sterling cheques, then the equivalent of £15.00 should be added to cover bank charges. We have had to increase this surcharge to cover the ever-rising costs being incurred by the Society when processing non-sterling cheques. Paul Foss, Treasurer
New Pewter Boar Badges for Sale We are delighted to advise members of a new item that has been added to the sales stock. This is a pewter boar badge, a replica of the white boar badge of King Richard III. It is based on a silver gilt boar found in Sussex which is now in the British Museum and is very similar to another example found recently on the revised site of the Battle of Bosworth. The badges are made from lead-free pewter and each is sized just over 1¼ inches long by just under ¾ inch high and is individually packaged in a blue padded box, with an explanatory card insert. The sale price is £6.00. P&P for individual badge sales will be: UK and Europe £2.00, rest of the world £2.50. 7
Dinner in Leicester after the AGM At last year’s AGM, London Branch member Elisabeth Sjǿberg asked if a Society dinner could be organised after the 2010 meeting in Leicester. It was subsequently explained that it would not be possible for the Society officially to organise such an event since most members will only be travelling to Leicester for the day and would be returning home immediately after the meeting. However the Society would have no objection if Elizabeth wished to organise on her own initiative a meal for members staying overnight in Leicester. She is happy to do this and has provided the invitation below. She proposes to hold the dinner at the San Carlo restaurant in the city. To find out more about the restaurant, its menus and prices, visit: http://www.sancarlo.co.uk/ leicester Elisabeth requests that those interested in joining her for the dinner contact her by 18 September; if there is sufficient interest she will go ahead and book a table. If the dinner does go ahead we hope that everyone will have an enjoyable time. Bon Appetite. Loyaulté me lie
GRAND DINNER to celebrate the 558th anniversary of the birth of
King Richard III at 7 p.m. on Saturday 2 October after the AGM at the San Carlo Restaurant, Leicester. 15th- or 21st-century evening finery to be worn. Please book your place at table with The Mistress of Ceremonies, Elisabeth of Greenwich, at the latest by 18 September. email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Society’s Bursary for 2010 tenable at York This bursary (a scholarship of £500 tenable for one year) has been awarded to Mark Williamson. The title of his dissertation is ‘Physiognomy, Emotion and Spectatorship in early Netherlandish Martyrdom and Judicial Scenes of the Fifteenth Century’. Mark is a long-term York resident who is self-funded and has been a committed student who has so far achieved two clear distinction-level marks in his course essays. He is concerned with the ways in which painted scenes of martyrdom and justice engage the viewer, particularly in relation to the guilt or innocence of the victims. Although his principal focus is on Netherlandish works of art, since these are the most numerous and best preserved images from the period, he makes the point that Netherlandish artists were patronised by English patrons, and portable Netherlandish works of art circulated in this country, and were very influential on locally-produced works of art. His study should help to elucidate the ways in which such works of art were perceived and understood in fifteenth-century England. Analysis of the way in which viewers reacted to images of those who were condemned and guilty compared to those who were condemned but innocent could be particularly illuminating in the context of the debates surrounding Richard III. Thus Mark’s study will further our knowledge of the period, considering what Richard and his contempoaries might have seen. We wish Mark well in his studies, and look forward to hearing about them in due course. 8
The Future of the Society’s Website Wendy Moorhen comments: I noted with interest, and some delight, that the Society’s website had received an award. Whilst acknowledging the excellent current work on the site by Beth Stone and Jane Weaver, the article also recognised the work of Neil Trump and myself, and indeed we were responsible for the design, initial content and project management of the new site. However, a website to be attractive and interesting has also to be visually exciting and to this end, apart from the overall design, requires images. Neil and I acquired everything we legitimately could but at the end of the day the site was enhanced by the artwork of two artists, Geoffrey Wheeler and Graham Turner. Graham graciously allowed us to reproduce his paintings and Geoffrey created some new artwork, the logos for some of the sub-home pages and drew the numerous coats-of-arms for the protagonists in the Wars of the Roses section. The role of Helen Cox should also not be forgotten. With her background in archaeology, Helen created an entire new section, Ricardian Archaeology, for the website, adding a further aspect to the Society’s interests. Another key player during the frenetic run-up to the launch of the new site at the end of January 2006 was Lesley Boatwright who proofed, literally, hundreds of pages of content. No mean feat in the timescale the Website Committee had set itself to upload the new site. I believe it is necessary to reiterate the role of Geoff, Graham, Helen, Lesley and all the other people who contributed to the site. It was truly a co-operative effort. I noticed also from the front cover of the Bulletin that the Website Committee is not listed any more. Does this mean that it no longer exists? I would express great concern if this were the case; from my own experience I know only too well how important it is to have a dedicated team responsible for and overseeing the on-going development of the website. Beth’s eagle eye for detail and tenacity in obtaining updates and contributions to the site from other officers and members together with Jane’s technical knowledge are crucial but there is another dimension, creativity, which can emerge from a such a team. I would very much like to know what arrangements are now in place to support Beth and Jane if indeed there is no web committee? It is important to allocate sufficient resources to the management of our website and to have a forward looking strategy to ensure that it grows and develops. With my membership hat on I know just how important the site is for recruiting new members, indeed it is our greatest source. Websites are organic and do have to be constantly updated and at appropriate intervals redesigned, retaining what is still relevant and useful and adding what is new and needed. Our website is increasingly the Society’s window on the world. I think therefore that it would be very helpful and reassuring to members if the points I have raised could be addressed.
Beth Stone replies: The June Bulletin, in announcing the website award received, paid tribute to Neil Trump and Wendy Moorhen who were directly responsible for the development of the site. Wendy’s letter rightly identifies other members and partners who provided their support to make this amazing project happen. Words cannot thank Neil, Wendy and all the others enough for the hard work which provided the foundation and core of the current site. When Jane Weaver was appointed as webmaster, a working party, consisting of the Chairman, Joint Secretaries, Web Content Manager, and Webmaster, was established. As this is a working party, not a formal committee, its members have not been identified in the Bulletin. It regularly liaises with the Executive Committee and submits reports summarising web activities and seeks guidance or action when required. The website is a permanent agenda item for the Executive Committee, who maintain a close watching brief on developments. The Research Committee also have an obvious and keen interest and they are currently engaged in a review and updating of the site’s historical content. 9
One of the ongoing tasks of the working party is systematically to review and update the website as necessary, while still keeping the work within budget. Once the review has been completed, a formal website committee will be re-convened and its members identified in the Bulletin. Its primary task will be to provide the ‘creative’ engine to ensure the site remains relevant and dynamic. I hope that this gives Wendy the assurance that she is seeking; members can be confident that the Society attaches the highest importance to the website and its future development.
Advance Notice: the 2011 Study Weekend The 2011 study weekend will take place from 8 to 10 April, and will be based at the Elmbank Hotel in York, where we held our very successful 2010 study weekend earlier this year. Our theme for 2011 will be the de la Poles, tracing the history of this fascinating family from their obscure and humble origins in Hull in the early fourteenth century to their prominence in Lancastrian and Yorkist England, and their equally dramatic decline under the Tudors. Few late medieval families have risen so far and so fast and fallen so quickly. Marriage brought connections to the Chaucer family, epitomised by the doughty Alice Chaucer, Duchess of Suffolk, and her son John’s marriage to Richard III’s sister Elizabeth Plantagenet brought them into the royal family and into the line of succession. After 1485 they were at the forefront of Yorkist opposition to the Tudors under both Henry VII and Henry VIII. The weekend will begin with a talk on Friday night by Rosemary Horrox, a leading expert on the family’s early history. Full details and a booking form will be in December’s Bulletin, but in the meantime note the dates in your diary.
Celebrating 50 Years of the Yorkshire Branch This year the Yorkshire Branch celebrates its fiftieth birthday, so we thought that this milestone should be celebrated in the Bulletin too. After all, Yorkshire are the first and oldest branch in the United Kingdom, and because they are Yorkshire that makes them rather special, to Ricardians at least. However, before the branch was formed there were many individual Ricardians active in the county, chief amongst them R.J.A. Bunnett, who had been carrying out sterling work to promote Richard through his papers, lectures and letters to various newspapers. He was in fact one of the early members of the Fellowship of the White Boar and had been in contact with our founder Saxon Barton since the 1920s. R.J.A. Bunnett will be the next subject in my series on Ricardian Heroes, which will appear in December’s issue of the Bulletin. The founding of the Yorkshire Branch followed the successful unveiling of the Society’s memorial to Queen Anne Neville in Westminster Abbey on 1 October 1960. The event generated much publicity both nationally and regionally. The Yorkshire Post had reported the event and this was followed by an exchange in the letters page. A Yorkshireman, living in exile, as he put it, in Hampstead, wrote to ask why there was no memorial to Richard III in York, and asked, ‘Is there no Yorkshireman to fight for this maligned King?’. Yorkshiremen responded, and a few days later another letter was published from a Mr Halliday of Otley who noted ‘that a Yorkshire branch [of the Richard III Society] would be most desirable’. Later in December an In Memoriam notice appeared in the Bradford Telegraph and Echo in respect of Richard, Duke of York, who had been killed at the battle of Wakefield five hundred years previously. The newspaper followed this up and published a long article about the Richard III Society, noting that one of its most enthusiastic members in the county was David Murgatroyd, who had been working hard to establish a Yorkshire Branch of the Society for a number of months. His name will be very familiar to some of the longer serving Yorkshire members. 10
Yorkshire Branch members and visiting Ricardians outside St Alkelda’s church Middleham after the dedication of the altar frontal, a gift from the Society, 9 June 1963. Top left: David Murgatroyd; front row, left to right: Joyce Melhuish, Olivia Wigram, Isolde Wigram, Patrick Bacon. If anyone can identify the others, please let us know.
Events moved swiftly. The Society’s membership newsletter for January 1961 noted that Mr David Murgatroyd was making ‘determined efforts … to weld the very scattered Yorkshire members into real branch’. And so it came to pass that the Yorkshire Branch was established on a formal basis, although it had existed on an informal basis since the previous October. By May the branch was already coming up with ideas for the London Committee to consider, such as a Society tie and scarf, which were eventually introduced and remain with us to this day. Yorkshire also persuaded the Society to change the AGM date to the nearest Saturday to 2 October rather than the actual birthday itself, which would allow members from outside the Home Counties more easily to make the event. So the Yorkshire Branch hit the ground running and in June 1961 Isolde Wigram noted with pleasure that ‘it is most encouraging to know that the Yorkshire Branch is now a growing concern’. David Murgatroyd became the first chairman of the branch and R.J.A. Bunnett, then in his eighties, its first secretary. Murgatroyd remained in post for much of the decade and from then on until very recently the branch has been in the stalwart hands of great Ricardians such as John Audsley, Mary O’Regan, Moira Habberjam and the much missed Arthur Cockerill amongst others. Now a new generation has come to the fore to ensure that Yorkshire remains in safe and sure hands. Over the years the branch has been vigorous in its defence and promotion of King Richard in his home county and has made a constant and valuable contribution to the work of the Society as a whole. In that spirit it has also not been afraid at times to remind the Society that there is life beyond the Watford Gap. As a branch it has achieved much, most significantly its magazine Blanc Sanglier, which is published three times a year, its involvement with the preservation of Lead Chapel, its medieval banquets, the publications of the Rosalba Press, and its annual lecture. As we celebrate the first fifty years of the Yorkshire Branch we wish the branch well for their next fifty years.
John Saunders 11
News and Reviews Compline at Fotheringhay
n Thursday 29 July, just after 6.30 pm, a service of Compline began in the church at Fotheringhay to mark the end of ‘Pontefract to Fotheringhay’, a nine-day reconstruction of the removal of the bodies of the duke of York and the earl of Rutland from their ‘temporary’ resting places in Wakefield to their permanent places in the choir of Fotheringhay church, give or take the intervention in the sixteenth century of Elizabeth I. Led by a small but excellent choir, our patron, HRH the Duke of Gloucester, representing his namesake who had been chief mourner as the cortège made its way south, processed into the church with the Rev. George Nairn-Briggs, former Dean of Wakefield and deputy Lord Lieutenant of West Yorkshire, bearing the banner of Richard of York, together with the Rev. Brian Rogers, vicar of Fotheringhay, and Bishop John Flack, assistant bishop of Peterborough, who took the service. Among those already in their places in the church were the Lord Lieutenant of Northamptonshire, Lady Juliet Townsend; the Lord High Sheriff of Northamptonshire; Mrs Pam Judkins of the Wakefield Historical Society who had organised much of the event, and a good many members of that society and the Richard III Society. Members of the public swelled the numbers, making the church pleasantly full. Rather than Vespers, the service of Compline had been chosen as one more suited to the occasion – the completion of the day and the completion of the commemoration – and very well it sounded, especially as much of it was in Latin. The choir had been put together from local singers for the occasion and they were splendid. Early in the service, Angela Moreton and Pauline Pogmore, of the Yorkshire Branch, placed an arrangement of flowers, including white roses, of course, in front of the tomb of the duke of York and Cicely Neville, his duchess. The address was given by HRH the Duke of Gloucester, who talked about war and the spoils of war, including the way winners are so able to damage the reputation of the losers. Once again referring to the fragility of reputation, His Royal Highness made much of the Society’s aims of promoting research and seeking to know the truth behind historical events, telling the assembled congregation that was why he was so pleased to be patron of Angela Moreton and Pauline Pogmore of the Yorkshire Branch place flowers in Fotheringhay church the Richard III Society.
After the service, there was a small reception, hosted by the two societies. Members of each were gathered together and introduced to the Duke in turn. Thanks to a request from the Duke’s security men, we were split into two groups and, by chance, we split along society lines. After Pam Judkins had introduced members of the WHS and the choir, and Dean NairnBriggs had presented Brian Rogers with a plaque to commemorate the occasion, I took the Duke over to the other side, but not before he and I, the Dean, Brian and Lady Juliet had all been outside to see the spot where the Chairman Phil Stone with HRH the Duke of Gloucester actual tomb of the duke of York probably stood. Much conversation took place and yet again it was fascinating to listen to the Duke on matters of history. Back inside, he met with members of the Society and as ever, our patron was good company to be with and had a kind and interested word for everyone he met. When it came time for him to leave, on behalf of the Society, I gave the Duke one of the boars that we have recently added to our sales list. He seemed very pleased with it, making one of his notoriously bad puns – ‘Oh what a bore’ – followed by his admitting that he did often demonstrate a very childish sense of humour. Some may ask why we didn’t organise a coach for members to attend the event? Although we had advertised it in the Bulletin and on the website, for a while, we were never quite sure that it was going to happen. Also, despite us issuing the Duke’s invitation, since he is our patron, and although we shared the costs, including a donation to the church, we had only a little say in what was going to happen. Another reason was the practical one. It was a weekday. How many members are free to come to Fotheringhay in the week? It would have been costly. Coaches don’t come cheap and members would not have returned to London until after 11 pm and then they had either to get home or to stay in a hotel, all for an event lasting a little less than two hours. However, it was good to see those members who were there and I thank them for making the effort.
Fotheringhay church: Yorkshire Branch Committee members and others From left to right: Peter Hammond, Angela Moreton, Beth Stone, Pauline Pogmore, Sue Wells, Hannah Moreton and Marjorie Hodgkinson
The Leeds Medieval Congress 12-15 July 2010
he Leeds International Medieval Congress is a huge gathering which is held every year. Over a thousand medievalists gather to give and hear talks and to buy books. Each year it has a theme, this year’s being ‘Travel and Exploration’, although this is not restrictive. Of the 400 sessions available, 180 were directly related to this theme. Subjects cover every aspect of medieval history that you can think of, and many you hadn’t even considered. As well as papers, there are trips and workshops and musical evenings, not to mention a number of sponsored wine receptions in the evenings. Timing and planning is crucial to make the most of the Congress, and mini buses shuttle all day until midnight between the three sites, conveying delegates to sessions, meals or bed. As reported last year, in 2009 the Society sponsored a session of three talks based on Logge, and had a stall at the one day Historical & Archaeological Societies Fair. This year it was decided that we would try a bookstall to be open all week instead. The book fair is an important and very busy part of the Congress. Book publishers present include Boydell and Brewer, most of the University Presses and many European publishers including Brepols. The choice is huge and the lure of conference prices irresistible, and by the end of the week it proves costly. Our book stall was a joint venture between the Society and the Richard III and Yorkist History Trust. Being there for a week required a car load of books to be carried to Leeds and a number of volunteers to man the stall over the four days. Ken Hillier and Heather Falvey attended on Tuesday and proved to be our best sales people, although I think we contributed equally to the takings of the other booksellers. Ken only discovered there was a second room of books as he was leaving, which was probably just as well, the temptation is simply too great. Carolyn and Peter Hammond took over on Wednesday and Thursday and made steady sales. By the end of the week we had sold about half of our stock. As well as selling our books, the aim was to publicise the Society and so our new ‘murrey’ tote bags were given away to help people carry their purchases. Several were later spotted around the congress displaying their new bags, which apparently elicited some comments, not all favourable. At least it showed we were getting noticed even if they didn’t approve of Richard III. As one owner of a bag replied when challenged, there was a question mark ‘Good King Richard?’ It remains to be seen if anyone will join the Society, but we made friends with the Yorkshire Archaeological Society who had a table next to us and we spoke to a lot of people. Also our bags are now hopefully on display Ken Hillier and Heather Falvey man our book stall 14
around the world and some of our books were destined for university libraries. It may be a small beginning but we may now have a wider presence. My thanks to Heather, Ken, Peter and Carolyn for manning the stall, to Lesley Boatwright who helped set it up on Sunday and came along during breaks in the lecture sessions, and also to Cris Reay Connor, who volunteered to help but owing to a last minute hospital appointment couldn’t make it.
The American Visit 2010
e used to think that Joyce Melhuish’s trips were action packed, with as many sites as possible being packed into any one day, but I think Linda Treybig could have taught Joyce a thing or two. Just reading through the itinerary for the visit with her group of American members was exhausting. Still, if you are travelling 3,000 to 5,000 miles in order to begin the trip, you want to see as many places as possible. For instance, on Tuesday, 29 June, the itinerary began with travel from their overnight hotel near Stansted to their first stop at St George’s Church in Gravesend to admire the statue of Pocahontas, the Indian princess who is buried somewhere in the churchyard. From there, they went to Rochester to visit the castle. Some even packed in a very quick visit to the cathedral. After lunch, they took off for Canterbury for the cathedral and some shopping and finally, they would travel back to their overnight stop outside Maidstone – phew! It was at the Crown in Rochester that the party had lunch and where Beth and I met up with them. One lady was from Canada but the rest – another eight ladies, including Linda, and one man – came from all over the States. Chatting with them, we got the impression that they were really enjoying their visit and various places were mentioned as having been particularly special. They were all looking forward to their last few days in London, too. During that time, they were hoping to fit in a visit to Lambeth Palace – strangely, when Linda had been planning the trip, there had been no mention in the States of the exhibition, so our pointing out that Richard’s Book of Hours was on display came as welcome news. Once lunch was over, all too soon it was time for them to board their coach and be on their way. If they were to have as long as possible in Canterbury, they needed to get out of Rochester quickly – not easy with roadworks on just about every major route in and out of the city. As Beth and I waved them off, I reflected yet again on one of the more pleasurable aspects of being chairman of our great Society – sociable gatherings and meeting up with members.
Phil Stone 15
Great Battles of the Wars of the Roses: Mansion House, York
n Monday 31 May 2010 York Archaeological Trust hosted a special event at the Mansion House in York celebrating the launch of a new Wars of the Roses exhibition at the city’s Micklegate Bar museum. Great Battles of the Wars of the Roses featured talks on the battle of Wakefield by historian/ re-enactor Helen Cox, the battle of Bosworth by our own Peter Hammond, and the battle of Towton by archaeologist Tim Sutherland. The event was of particular interest to Ricardians as the talks focused on the battles that bookend the Yorkist kings: Wakefield and Towton bringing Edward IV to the throne, and Bosworth, of course, marking the end of Richard III’s tragically brief reign. The afternoon was made all the more fascinating and informative by the intent of each speaker to bring the audience right up to date with the latest thinking on each of their respective battles. Remarkably, perhaps, our understanding of these crucial engagements is constantly evolving, and the unofficial theme of all three talks was most definitely what’s new. Helen Cox was first up with a highly entertaining yet deeply Helen Cox with the Lord Mayor of York at the penetrating reassessment of the battle Micklegate Bar Museum of Wakefield. Helen, resplendent in medieval costume, began by demolishing a whole series of myths and traditions frequently associated with the battle, including the supposed conduct of Richard, Duke of York. Instead of the time-honoured assertions of the duke’s martial incompetence, impetuously coming to the rescue of Yorkist foragers under attack from the Lancastrian army, Helen proposed a much more convincing explanation for the duke’s defeat and death. It was, she argued, nothing less than a cold-blooded case of premeditated treachery. John, Lord Neville, had arrived at Sandal castle with an army of reinforcements to bolster the duke’s heavily outnumbered forces, but when battle was joined Lord Neville traitorously turned his men against the unsuspecting Yorkists. The duke of York was defeated not by military ineptitude or a lack of tactical nous, but by a traitor, the dishonourable John Lord Neville. Helen outlines in absorbing detail the full story of her research and reassessment in her new book, The Battle of Wakefield Revisited, published to coincide with the launch of the new Micklegate Bar exhibition. For anyone remotely interested in the duke of York and the Yorkist cause in general this book is an absolute must. Unexpectedly, owing to technical problems, there was a change in the batting order, and Peter Hammond replaced Tim Sutherland as the afternoon’s second speaker. Peter began by reminding us of the very exciting discoveries unearthed by Glenn Foard and his team of archaeologists 16
during the final hectic weeks of the Bosworth battlefield project in 2009. The finds have the potential to revolutionise our understanding of the importance of battlefield artillery (as opposed to siege artillery) in late-fifteenthcentury warfare, including the use of hand-held guns. But, more importantly for Ricardians perhaps, the new archaeology has once again shifted the location of the battlefield. Just when we thought Peter Foss had once and for all identified the correct site of the fighting, these new discoveries move the battle westward in the direction of, but not as far as, the area controversially suggested by Mike Jones in Bosworth 1485: Psychology of a Battle. Peter Hammond, while conceding that future archaeological discoveries might well modify or even invalidate what he had to say, nevertheless made a valiant attempt to reconcile what is currently known of the fighting with the new battlefield location. As with Helen Cox and the battle of Wakefield, Peter explains his theories in much greater detail in a forthcoming book on Bosworth to be published shortly by Pen and Sword. Tim Sutherland, the third of our speakers, Medieval lord and modern lady explained that his talk on the battle of Towton would not, owing to earlier technical problems, be accompanied by a presentation of photographs and illustrations. Instead he treated his audience to a riveting, technology-free description of the continuing story of Towton and its fascinating archaeology. Tim, as many Ricardians will remember, featured in Blood Red Roses, the television programme (and book) that first brought the discovery of Towtonâ€™s mass graves to public attention. But, rather than simply remind us of those momentous discoveries, Tim regaled the audience with the latest Towton developments, including exciting new evidence to show how medieval armies mass-produced arrowheads. Remarkably we now know that huge quantities could be manufactured simply and quickly, without the need for skilled blacksmiths, explaining how Wars-of-the-Roses archers were able to fire thousands of arrows during a single battle. As Tim pointed out, this represents an important insight into medieval weapons production. And as for the future, Tim revealed that the five mass graves cleared in 1484 for the construction of Richard IIIâ€™s Towton chapel are to be reinvestigated. Apparently only large bones were removed in 1484, meaning that even more archaeology is waiting to be discovered and analysed. Interestingly, and significantly, the position of the five mass graves coincides with a line of arrowheads uncovered by metal detectorist Simon Richardson. All in all this was a very informative and highly enjoyable afternoon. Each speaker demonstrated that there is so much more to be discovered about each of these pivotal battles and how our ideas about them are constantly changing and evolving. These talks left me wondering whether it would be possible to bring Helen, Peter and Tim together again at some point in the future. And if it were possible to invite more speakers to talk about other battles, the military/ archaeological history of the Wars of the Roses might make a suitable subject for a study weekend.
David Johnson 17
Book Review The Battle of Wakefield: A Fresh Perspective on Richard of York’s Final Battle, December 1460 by Helen Cox, Herstory Writing and Interpretation/York Publishing Services, 2010. Hardback, £12 + pp Available from www.YPD-books.com; email: email@example.com; tel. 01904 431213. Some of you may remember Helen from a study weekend held in York in April 2007. Along with her husband, Mick Doggett, she gave us a tour of Towton battlefield on a day with equally perverse weather as in 1461, except it was unseasonably hot rather than blinding snow. During the weekend Helen also talked about the battle of Wakefield. Since that weekend Helen has undertaken further research on Wakefield. The result is this superb book which she has published herself. The first two chapters succinctly and clearly set out the events which led to Wakefield. Not an easy task, but one which Helen has achieved, so that someone with little knowledge of the Wars of the Roses will have a good idea of what was happening during this complicated period of family feuds and the struggle for power. Having set the scene in the earlier chapters, chapter three gets to the point: what did happen on that fateful day in December? Typically, as for many battles of the period, information is rather thin. Helen takes us through the surviving evidence, some of it contradictory reports by chroniclers and historians, some of whom were writing much later. The chapter called ‘Dispelling the Myths’ takes the many assumptions that have been made from the sparse information and looks at each of them critically, ‘the Vanquished Vanguard’, ‘York’s Rashness’, ‘Provocation’, ‘the Ant-hill Throne’, ‘Hapless Young Rutland’. This last is particularly interesting; I think we have all been blinded by the somewhat romanticised view of Victorian history painters. Here we are given a salutary reminder that Rutland was not a child ‘… it was the execution of an equivalently armed and armoured enemy on the battlefield …’ Chapter four is Helen’s interpretation of the battle from the records. What exactly did the chroniclers say and how should this information be interpreted? The date of the battle and the size of the armies are examined first. There are eight chronicles and four proposed dates. The majority give 30 December, perhaps the most compelling evidence being that the Act of Attainder states the duke of York was killed ‘Tywesday XXX day Decembr’. As to the size of the respective armies, as is usual, each chronicler gives a different figure. By looking at the figures for casualties a further clue may be given. In the end it still comes down to the best guess but Helen takes us through her reasoning and her theory is more plausible than some. As with Bosworth, a number of archaeological finds have been made over the years, Helen Cox at the Micklegate Bar Museum many of which are now lost, so that they 18
cannot be dated with any accuracy. Without the objects or the context of the finds they cannot be taken as evidence for the site of the battlefield. Some of the items are known only from descriptions and may not even be fifteenth-century. The only intensive archaeological investigation made on the site was at the castle itself which shows that despite being small, it was rather grand. Finds include painted window glass and decorative masonry, some of it showing York’s heraldic falcon. Just as the castle was relatively small, so is the site of the battle. The castle is only a mile from Wakefield and nine miles from Pontefract. This is important for understanding the battle; however rather like not giving the ending away in a novel, I would suggest you buy the book to see what conclusions Helen draws regarding ‘The Real Battle of Wakefield’. Helen uses archaeology, maps, place names and local tradition to give a much fuller picture of Wakefield. If this sounds familiar it is because this is the process applied to the search for Bosworth Battlefield. Once again the importance of looking at maps is demonstrated, as is the use of place names. These are techniques that have perhaps not been fully utilised in the past by historians who tend to rely on the written word alone. This book shows the benefit of a multidisciplinary approach and Helen’s previous experience in archaeology is an obvious advantage. This is not only a good book on the interpretation of the battle but is a very useful example of how to explore the past in a less one-dimensional way. I can do no better than to quote from the blurb on the back of the book, as Peter Hammond says, ‘This thoughtful, perceptive account discusses various “myths” surrounding the Battle of Wakefield, including the alleged incompetence of the Duke of York, and convincingly disposes of them. An excellent book based on a thorough study of the sources’. Helen also has her own web site www.helencox-herstorywriting.co.uk
A New Home for Jeremy’s Boar Carolyn and Peter Hammond begin the story: When Jeremy Potter retired in 1989 as Chairman of the Society after a record 18 years in post, the members of the Committee had to consider how to mark the occasion. This was not easy since he never missed a committee meeting and so the then members had to contact each other in clandestine ways. It was decided that we would present Jeremy with a boar carved by Richard Epsom, who had carved the massive sculpture of Richard’s coat of arms which the Society had presented to Crosby Hall (now on the barn at the Battlefield Centre on Ambien Hill). We put a flyer in the September 1989 Bulletin (except in Jeremy‘s copy) asking for donations and also asking members not to mention this to Jeremy, both of which they faithfully carried out. Carolyn and Peter had always dealt with Richard and so they went to see him in his studio and commissioned the carving. Time was necessarily short and the boar was not ready until the day before the AGM. Carolyn had to rush to the studio when we were told that we could collect it and bring it back to our London house by taxi – it is large and heavy. Jeremy was duly presented with the carving after chairing his last AGM and most of us assumed that would be the last we saw of it. When Jeremy died, alas, all too soon after we had made him President, we lost touch with his family as his widow, Margaret, died not long after her husband. It was with some surprise, therefore, that we learnt of the reappearance of the boar in somewhat unexpected circumstances.
At this point Peggy Martin takes up the story: Last January, while looking around a local auction house in Oxfordshire, my husband pointed out a striking carved wooden figure of a boar. I glanced down at it and noticed a plaque with an inscription at its base. On closer inspection I read that it had been presented to Jeremy Potter on 19
his retirement as Chairman of the Richard III Society. I had not been a member at the time of the presentation but I knew about Jeremy Potter so when I recovered from my surprise I considered what I should do. The boar was in a lot with two old trunks, neither of which I wanted, in spite of the low estimate. We could not stay for the sale which was shortly due to start. Should I leave a bid for the lot with the boar? I had no contact numbers for the Society with me to seek advice. In the end I left a bid, after promising my husband that if successful we would leave the trunks for the next sale. We left the sale but as soon as we arrived home I rang Peter Hammond. Only Carolyn was at home and, as time was short, we decided to up the bid and hoped the committee would approve. I quickly rang the auction house and increased the bid. Alas, it was too late, I was the under bidder by £5. However, all was not lost. With Peter’s approval, I spoke to the auctioneer and explained that some friends of ours collected models of boars and would be Boar by Richard Epsom, presented to Jeremy interested in the boar, if the purchaser Potter on his retirement as Chairman in 1989 would be happy to sell it as surplus to requirements. I thought there was a good chance that the lot was bought for the trunks because it would not be easy to sell the boar with the inscription. After a couple of days’ suspense, I had a phone call from the purchaser. After a bit of canny bargaining on my part he agreed to part with it at a very reasonable price. He was a small dealer who lived locally. We agreed to meet in the car park of a village I had to pass through, on my way to Waitrose and in best Del Boy fashion the boar and the money changed hands to everyone’s satisfaction. The boar was secure and no trunks to dispose of. Now the problem was how to deliver the boar to Peter and Carolyn. Eventually as we were all going to the Bosworth Battlefield Conference in Leicester we agreed to hand it over there. After a brief sojourn in the car park at a Premier Inn in the boot of Lynda Pidgeon’s car, the boar continued its journey to spend some time with the Chairman in Gillingham. If the boar could speak it might well tell a more interesting tale of how it arrived at an Abingdon auction house, to return to its natural home at the Richard III Society.
Phil Stone finishes the story: As Peter and Carolyn do not drive, several drivers have been required in this saga, and I think that boar must now be one of the most travelled pigs in the kingdom. It seems to have a liking for car parks. At the last exchange, it was given over to me at the meeting in Leicester in February and, at the time of writing, it is in our dining room, looking very handsome. In due course the boar will be taken over to Peter and Carolyn’s flat. I will be sorry to see this handsome beast go, but it is quite big and shelf space will be useful. When the finding of the boar was discussed by the Executive Committee, it was agreed that as President Peter should be made its custodian and, in future, when he retires, it should be given over to whoever is next made President of the Society. 20
‘Re-enactment’ at Stony Stratford a few days before it happened I discovered that the villagers of nearby Grafton Regis J ust would be staging a re-enactment at Stony Stratford of the kidnapping of the uncrowned king Edward V by the duke of Gloucester. Apparently this was to advertise the medieval fair to be held at Grafton at the end of the month. As it was such short notice only myself and Marjorie Lewis from the Beds & Bucks Group were able to go, so off we went, armed with cameras and Ricardian badges, ready to do battle if necessary. The first thing we saw, of course, were the two little princes, along with their sister Elizabeth (!) and various servants, all dressed in mourning for Edward IV. There is a local legend in Stony Stratford that both princes were here, but Elizabeth of York was a new one on me. We all marched off to stand in front of the house, formerly the Rose and Crown inn, where Edward was said to have stayed the night, whilst one of the presenters set the scene. He explained that on 30 April 1483 the young Edward V was on his way from Ludlow to London and stopped the night at Stony Stratford. He was being escorted by his mother, Elizabeth Woodville (who had been born at Grafton Regis) and his sister and brother. It was then time for the action. A man appeared (it wasn’t made clear who he was) and asked for the Queen. On being told that she would be along shortly he said that he had a letter for her from the duke of Gloucester which explained that he was to take the boy to London. He gave the letter to the maid and went off with Edward, who didn’t seem to be at all upset. Then everyone began shouting and calling for the Queen. In the distance we could see three figures on horseback, who proved to be Elizabeth Woodville and two attendants. Looking around her she asked, ‘where is my prince?’ and was given the letter. After reading it she shrieked, ‘they have seized my boy’, and everyone began to wail. She then announced that she would fight to get him back and that we must all go along to Grafton Regis on 31 July and 1 August to help her. Whereupon they all rode off and the fun was over. Incidentally, there was no sign of Richard III, so the Beds & Bucks had no-one to cheer. There was quite a good gathering of people, especially as it was so poorly advertised, and Marjorie and I were pleased that our badges were recognised by the organisers, who asked if we belonged to the Society. They said they knew that the murder of the princes was unproven but it was all just a bit of fun. The actors were all people from the tiny village, who had made a great effort and it was difficult to be annoyed with them.
Iris Day 21
Blood and Roses at Christ Church, Oxford, 2011
ou may have wondered (having of course read the Annual Report on coloured paper in the centrefold of this Bulletin) why our Triennial Conference has turned this time round into a quadrennial event. This is because we discovered that there will be a Special Interest (long) Weekend next March at Christ Church, Oxford on ‘Blood and Roses: the Wars of the Roses c.1450-1485’, and we felt that to hold our own conference so close to such a relevant event would mean that most people would feel they could not attend both, and be forced to choose. Christ Church asked if we would like to be associated with their weekend, and we were happy to do so: it is not costing us any money, but is gaining us publicity and a concession in their prices. Another associated organisation is Holts Tours, who are arranging a separate battlefields tour immediately after the weekend, and our friend the artist Graham Turner provided the image of the Battle of Towton used as the front cover of the brochure. The actual dates of the weekend are from Thursday 24 to Sunday 27 March 2011. Participants arrive from 2.00 pm onwards on the Thursday, and the first event will be a paper on ‘The Origins of the Wars of the Roses’ by John Watts, Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Other papers will be given by Diana Dunn (‘The Role of Margaret of Anjou’), James Ross (‘The Rose of Rouen: Edward IV and the establishment of the House of York’), Caroline Barron (‘The View from London’), Magnus Sigurdsson (‘Arms and Armour of the Late Fifteenth Century’), Anne Curry (‘The Army of Richard III’), Tony Pollard (‘Richard III, Reputation and Reality’), Glenn Foard (‘The Battle of Bosworth’), and finally Simon Favell-De Montfort-Broughton, who is a reenactor running a living history group called Histeria, will speak on ‘Dress Makes the Man’. There will also be a coach excursion to Ewelme, where Rowena Archer will talk to participants in the church on ‘Alice, Duchess of Suffolk, and the Wars of the Roses’, an evening session on ‘Medieval Monarchs at the RSC’, and a Gala Banquet in the Great Hall, which according to the brochure will be a ‘black tie’ occasion. We checked, and this does mean dinner jackets for men and ‘suitable attire’ for ladies. The dinner will include a ‘traditional college dessert which is the social highlight of the week’. The weekend closes after lunch on Sunday, but we are told that Christ Church Picture Gallery will be open that day from 2.00 pm. The weekend costs £525 per person to the general public, for a standard single or twin room – the charge is per person, not per room. As as associated organisation, we are in the happy position of having a substantial reduction, and it will cost us £450 per person. En suite accommodation is available on the payment of a supplement of £75 per person. All rooms have tea- and coffee-making facilities, a telephone, a free internet connection, and a fridge. House wines, included in the price, are served at dinner. Vegetarian meals are available if you tell them in advance. The price also includes ‘the full lecture and activity programme’, including the coach excursion to Ewelme and the Gala Dinner. The application form asks you to give the decade of your age (beginning at 20-29 and ending at 80+) and says this is ‘for accommodation purposes only’: rooms may be on the ground, first, second or third floors, so may it be deduced that there is no lift, and the older you are the more likely you are to be accommodated on the ground floor? A deposit of £100 is required with all bookings, and the balance by 31 January 2011. To secure the special Richard III Society price, your booking form must bear the words Loyaulté me Lie, as a (not so secret) sign that you are a member of the Society. We have in fact typed the words on the booking form in the centrefold, but it would do no harm to circle it in red before you send it off. Additional accommodation is available for Wednesday and Sunday nights. All bookings and any further enquiries should be made to: Special Interest Weekend, The Steward’s Office, Christ Church, Oxford OX1 1DP. Tel. 01865 286848; email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Website: chch.ox.ac.uk See the Booking form in the centre section of this Bulletin, at the end of the Annual Report. 22
STOP PRESS New Society Papers Librarian Wanted We are sorry to report that Gillian Paxton, the Society’s Papers Librarian, has had to resign for personal reasons, and so we are looking for a new person to join the Library Team. The job involves caring for the Collection, responding to requests from members to borrow items, and keeping a look out for interesting new items to add to the Collection. Professional experience is not necessary, just an interest in the wide range of information on our period to be found in articles, booklets and extracts from books. We will explain all you need to know. There is probably no more than one loan request in a week, so the job is not onerous. Since the Library operates by post, the new Librarian could be based anywhere in the country, but access to e-mails and the internet would really be necessary. All expenses (mainly postage and photocopying) would be refunded by the Society. The Collection is presently housed in two standard four-drawer filing cabinets and approximately eight shelves of folders and boxes. The filing cabinets will be supplied with their contents. If you feel you might be interested in joining the Library Team, which we can promise you will find both interesting and rewarding, especially the opportunity for contact with other like-minded members, please do get in touch with me to discuss the possibilities and any questions you may have. Carolyn Hammond, Library Co-ordinator, Flat 4, 9 Devonhurst Place, Heathfield Terrace, Chiswick, London W4 4JB; telephone: 0208 995 3068; e-mail: email@example.com
Bulletin Advertising Rates If you wish to advertise goods or services for sale in the Bulletin (for example, secondhand books or medieval-themed memorabilia), please note that the following charges apply: £10 for small boxed text-only advertisements £50 for a horizontal quarter-page illustrated display advertisement (dimensions up to a height of 55 mm and a width of 135 mm) £100 for a half-page illustrated display advertisement (dimensions up to a height of 100 mm and a width of 135 mm) £150 for a full-page illustrated display advertisement (dimensions up to a height of 200 mm and a width of 135 mm) Please note that any illustrations can only be reproduced in black-and-white, as with other material in the Bulletin.
For further information contact the Advertising Officer, Howard Choppin. For contact details, see the back cover. 23
Media Retrospective provides a great experience for everyone from historians to members of the public’. It is illustrated, not by a picture of the boar, but by a picture of Mr Sprason.
The new site for the Battle of Bosworth has continued to generate interest in both the national and the local media. From Bill Featherstone Leicester and Rutland Life, April 2010 Two-page spread on the recent Bosworth discoveries: ‘Discovering where Richard III died and [the] Tudor Age was born’.
From Richard Van Allen Classic Arms & Militaria (specialist bimonthly magazine) leader page: Bosworth Site Announced.. ... The new site of the great battle between the armies of Richard III and Henry Tudor ... has been formally announced. ... Leicester County Council [decided] to maintain the current visitor centre, but to create a new discovery trail to the newly found battlefield. This will make something of a wilderness day out for many families and enthusiasts, who will be able to enjoy a walk through Leicestershire’s fine countryside en route to this new field of Mars. ... Researchers also believe they have identified the medieval marsh where Richard was dragged from his horse and killed, another hotly argued detail. ... Pete Riley, one of the team which surveyed the site, said, “The main part of this project was to identify where the battle was, and we have done that. Now we’ve got to understand the evidence we’ve picked up.” ‘The Richard III Society, possibly the best informed scholars of this particular period, are very pleased with the new announcement, keen in their pursuit to puncture the “Tudor Myth” as it has grown over the centuries, thanks mostly to Shakespeare’s play. With this latest battlefield revelation perhaps the truth behind our most maligned monarch has been brought just a little closer.’ The piece concludes: ‘the Richard III Society can be found at www.richardiii.net Richard Van Allen had seen a brief mention of the discovery of the new site in a previous issue of this publication, and he wrote suggesting that it should be accorded more space in the journal, and that they should send a correspondent to the battlefield briefing. The journal did both.
Bill writes: ‘The article provides a simple and factual account of the debate relating to the site of the battle although reference to “500 years of speculation over the location of the epic battle” seems a bit overblown. It quotes Dr Glenn Foard extensively including emphasis on the European importance of the artillery shot discoveries. The comment that nearly all the iron shot is on one side and all the stone on the other is interesting and one I had not seen before. Other finds mentioned are a silver gilt boar badge, a bullet from a hand cannon, coins of Charles the Bold and a very high status sword scabbard of a type not seen by the Royal Armouries before. There is a nice little piece about Alf Oliver, the owner of the site, Fenn Lane Farm. “I am proud to own a bit of British history,” said Alf, who knew there had once been a marsh on the land, but didn’t realise it was the marsh the historians wanted to find. Alf is said to be in negotiation with the County Council to ensure access and the article concludes by saying the outdoor trail will be changed by the autumn.’ From Cris Reay Connor Leicester Mercury? ‘Silver Boar badge found at Bosworth Battlefield. Historians believe that the tiny emblem fell from the tunic of a knight whilst in battle alongside the doomed King.’ The piece quotes David Sprason, ‘Leics County Council’s cabinet member for adults and communities’ as saying that Bosworth Battlefield ‘continues to grow in stature and 24
the foot of a staircase in the Tower, while a sinister face peers down at them and a shadow hand holds a shadow dagger. The lads look remarkably like Mr C. and Mr C.
From Peter Hammond The Hinckley Times, 1 April 2010 Shock crown find moves battle site to Mead by Sally Diproof ‘A dramatic discovery has led experts to believe that the Battle of Bosworth actually took place on Argents Mead in Hinckley. Professors in Leicestershire archaeology say they have found a vital piece of new evidence: a blood-stained gold crown, which moves the site of the 1485 battle to the council offices ... Lost for over 525 years, a borough councillor found the crown, believed to belong to Richard III, under a hedge in the mead. Fixed to it was a note penned in old English that read “alas I die, tell Mummy I love her” ...’ The article continues in much the same vein, and is illustrated by a splendid photo of a bejewelled gold crown amid branches below grass below a bandstand. You will all by now have noticed the date of the paper which printed this piece.
About the Dukes of Burgundy ‘Vintage Burgundy’ is the heading for another piece contributed by Geoff Wheeler. It is from the Daily Mail, 3 May 2010, in the Answers to Correspondents compiled by Charles Legge. People write in with their queries, and other people send in answers. The query was, ‘I recently read a novel about Charles, Duke of Burgundy, Flanders and Navarre. Was this a genuine title/person? An answer was sent in by Simon Sparrow of Edinburgh, who pointed out that there were several men named Charles who laid claim to these lands. One was Charles the Bold (husband of Margaret of York), another was Charles II (The Bad), King of Navarre 134987. The paper illustrated the section with a picture entitled ‘Title race: Charles the Bad laid claim to the dukedom of Burgundy’ BUT, as Geoff points out, the picture is in fact that of another somewhat Bad King Charles II: Charles Stuart.
Still in the field of mockery, Geoff Wheeler has sent us this from The Spectator, 5 June 2010. They held a competition to submit a news bulletin on the outcome of the general election as delivered by a well-known figure from history. A winning entry, submitted by George Simmers, is delivered by Richard III:
Geoff Wheeler also found the following: The Independent, 28 May 2010 Headline: The Duke of Burgundy lives. But for how long? by Michael McCarthy, Nature Studies. It is about a butterfly, Hamearis lucina, known as ‘the Duke of Burgundy’, which is splendid to look at (if you look at it closely) and in danger of extinction. The author is reminded of Charles the Bold (calling him Charles the Rash), killed at the battle of Nancy in 1477, ‘bejewelled magnificence, suddenly snuffed out’. Apparently Hamearis lucina is from a family which produces splendid butterflies in South America, but ours is the size of a postage stamp. ‘First called “Mr Vernon’s small fritillary” ... why it was raised to the peerage, probably in the early 18th century, is a mystery entirely ... it is a tiny sparkling lattice of brown and marmalade-orange’, and it is animated and vivacious. It lives on chalk hills in Hampshire, where its caterpillars feed on cowslips.
‘Now is the winter of Brown discontent Made multi-coloured springtime by this pair Of well-groomed lovebirds, singing smooth refrains ... ... Yet in amongst the restive packs they lead, The others wait, the persons of my kidney, The not-fresh-faced, the unappealing ... ... And they can wait and wait and waiting smile, In happy knowledge that their day will come When mischief finds its chance to thrive pellmell ... Richard Plantagenet, from deepest Hell.’ The Independent, 29 May 2010 had another Ricardian adaptation of a work of art as a comment on the election results: a cartoon by Dave Brown, ‘after Millais’, shows two freshfaced lads apprehensively holding hands at 25
not professional historians. The interested laity likes a good conspiracy theory.’ He points to ‘Shakespeare’s colourful renovation of the ever-popular Machiavellian schemer that goes back to the Lucifer character of the liturgical drama. Lucifer, of course, didn’t have a hump and a withered arm; but then neither did the historical Richard.’ The programme notes have a boxed quote from Machiavelli, The Prince, to stress this aspect of the production: ‘War should be the only study of a prince. He should consider peace only as a breathing-time, which gives him leisure to contrive, and furnishes an ability to execute, military plans.’ Geoff tells us that the poster advertising this production features Richard III behind a bevy of microphones with a chainsaw ... Ewen Leslie plays Richard, Meredith Penman Lady Anne and the messenger, Bert LaBonté Richmond and a Murderer (nice doubling there). Roger Oakley is Brackenbury and Hastings and Tyrell.
Richard III on the stage From Geoff Wheeler Shakespeare’s Richard III at Melbourne, 24 April to 12 June 2010 Programme notes by Simon Phillips, Director ‘Each time you re-read Shakespeare you ought to prepare yourself for a few fresh surprises. Going through Richard III again last year I was pulled up by a marvellous little soliloquy ... a humble scrivener who tells the audience how he has worked for eleven hours writing up an indictment for treason. The thing that troubles him is that Hastings supposedly committed his treason only five hours ago. As he ruefully remarks, ‘Who is so gross, that cannot see this palpable device?’ For the scrivener, this trumped-up charge was a sign of the times, but, the surprise is, it’s a sign of ours too. Choose your own blatant political swindle from recent times: Stalin’s show trials ... Mugabe’s faux election, or that skulduggery in Florida in 2000. Everyone saw through these palpable devices, yet they still got away with it ... ‘The political manoeuvring in Richard III strikes me as shockingly up to the minute ... I decided on a contemporary setting. In Shakespeare’s day power came dressed in ermine and purple, topped by a crown; now it wears a well-cut, single-breasted suit, but the dynamism is the same. ... I was intrigued by the parallels between the atmosphere in the court of Richard III and the belligerent craftiness that marked the recent Bush administration ... what remains of those early thoughts ... is a certain swagger ... a Masters of the Universe mentality ... This Richard isn’t Bush, this Buckingham isn’t Carl Rove, and not even Shakespeare had the imagination to create a Rumsfeld ...’ Phillips edited the text to simplify complex relationships between historical characters, removed many ‘arcane’ references to the Wars of the Roses, and renamed the odd character to avoid confusion, but his cuts, he says, are ‘nowhere near as radical’ as those in the Olivier or Ian McKellan film versions. ‘The revisionist concept of Good King Richard is so widespread as to be the orthodoxy nowadays, at least among us who are
From Philippa Langley and others, and found on Facebook Richard III as a musical ‘Orkrater presents a Shakespeare production with music by Tom Waits in co-production with the Amsterdam Stadsschouwburg. Gijs Scholten van Aschat plays and sings Richard III. ‘Richard III is Shakespeare’s moving portrait of a career man, oozing charm and with a lust for power. The play describes his unlikely rise and fall. ... the impossible is for him precisely the greatest challenge. Intriguing, flirting, smiling, threatening and on occasion killing, he makes his way to the highest position ... [and then] he is confronted with the painful question: And now what? Is this all? Music is by Tom Waits and Kathleen Brennan. ‘Just like Shakespeare did, Waits incorporates poetry, provocation, seduction and irony in his numbers.’ The band is led by Vincent van Warmerdam, ‘complemented by The Sadists, a young group of three actors/musicians and a troupe of mainly young actors. Over and against this youthful ‘posse’ of Richard’s there is a gener26
ation of strong women who offer more opposition than all the men put together. These characters are portrayed by powerful, experienced actresses.’
done at Kenilworth and Dover. It really is breaking an intellectual logjam in the heritage business and I cannot see what’s wrong in presenting a building so that ordinary people can understand it.’ One of the illustrations to this article is of Middleham Castle looking at its most ruinous, and the accompanying caption says, ‘Middleham Castle in Yorkshire is one of the great castles of England but today it is a difficult-to -read ruin. How big a challenge would it be for English Heritage to rebuild it as it was in its heyday as Richard III’s northern bastion, a kind of English Carcassonne, a building that really does convey what history is about, what a big castle was like, and how it was run?’
Phil Stone reminds us that Tom Waits was the composer of ‘The piano has been drinking’ and ‘Small change got rained on by his own .38’. (Eh?) There is a trailer to watch on Youtube if you really want to: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=2OA8F4RjNw0&feature=player_ embedded and if you get lost in trying to type all that into your browser, ask yourself if it was worth the effort. We hope that someone who lives in Amsterdam will manage to see the production and review it for us in a future issue of the Bulletin.
Would you like to see Middleham Castle rebuilt? Do you agree that it is a difficultto-read ruin?
More from Geoff Wheeler: (2) Should historians write fiction? BBC History Magazine, August 2010 Opinion, by Ian Mortimer. Ian Mortimer has just written a historical novel, Sacred Treason, under his middle names of James Forrester, and believes that ‘historical novelists should not be ashamed of telling lies’. A number of historians have turned to writing historical fiction. What, he asks, are the implications of historians making things up, putting thoughts into the minds of longdead people, and even inventing speeches for them? The main character of his novel is one William Harley, Clarenceux King of Arms in 1563 but, as Ian says, ‘I have made Harley do and say things that Harley never did or said’. Five of his six main characters have entries in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, and he even wrote one of the articles himself, on Henry Machyn, an early-sixteenth-century chronicler. So they were real enough. But Mortimer says he wanted to write about a world ‘in which religious doubts and disloyalty to the throne were mixed together in one sense of betrayal’, about ‘a man’s relationship with the state and God, unencumbered by the modern reader’s expectations about daily life in the modern world’. He
(1) Re-building Middleham Castle? English Heritage Conservation Bulletin issue 64, Summer 2010: article ‘Popularising the Past’. Question by the Conservation Bulletin to Simon Jenkins: ‘When he was Chairman of English Heritage, Sir Neil Cossons talked about keeping historic properties in a “heritage zoo”. Is that how you see them, rare survivors kept in captivity for what they can tell us about the past?’ Answer by Jenkins: ‘Today I think we are more sophisticated than that. Because we see the environment as a continuum, historic buildings don’t just have a past but a present and future. They were intended to be used and need to be kept alive. ‘On the other hand, a ruin really is an endangered species. It has lost its purpose and has become just a work of art or piece of archaeology. I think we’ve got our approach to the presentation of ruins completely wrong in this country. I’m a Victorian and I would like to do more of the kind of restoration that William Burgess did at Cardiff Castle or Castel Coch. I’d love the National Trust to rebuild Corfe Castle in Dorset and I hugely admire the work that English Heritage has 27
wanted to explore the sense of fear and confusion Catholics must have felt under a Protestant queen. ‘The lies may be seen to have a greater purpose’ and to draw out truths that we find difficult to define in our modern lives. He points out that we like scientists writing science fiction: their novels benefit from their inside knowledge. Is it different when historians write historical fiction? ‘There are many forms of truth besides factual accuracy.’
noted. Further north, for example, is the Gateshead car park which starred so vividly in Get Carter, Michael Caine’s best film. If you want to visit, hurry, it’s being knocked down. As a result of rather earlier demolitions during the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Richard III is probably buried under the Shires car park in Leicester, while Henry I is supposed to be under one in Reading. Do not, though, get too excited should you encounter King Arthur’s car park in Tintagel, as this relates to the nearby pub.’
We have often debated the value of historical fiction in the Bulletin, but what about historical fiction when written by someone who, wearing another hat, is a real historian?
Stirling Castle Excavations From Marilyn Garabet The Times, 18 May 2010: ‘Mystery knight’s skeleton shows he’d have been just the man to tend a nightclub door’, by Charlene Sweeney. This article concerns an episode of the BBC2 History Cold Case series, scheduled for 20 May. The remains of ten skeletons were found in 1997 during excavations at Stirling Castle, under a building known as the Governor’s Kitchen, thought to have been the site of a royal chapel. The one selected for study in the programme was a robust male, about 5 ft 7 in. tall, who died in his mid twenties. His bone structure showed he spent a lot of time on horseback, and had been trained in the use of heavy weapons. He had been hit on the head by a sharp instrument such as an axe or sword, but the bone had re-grown, so this was not the cause of death. He also had an arrowhead in the chest but perhaps survived that too, and he had lost a number of teeth, but died from a sword-blow on nose and jaw. At first Historic Scotland suggested that the body might be that of an English knight named Robert Morley, who died during a tournament at the castle in 1388, but another suggestion, made in the TV programme, is that he might be Sir John Strickley, who died in the siege of Stirling Castle after the battle of Bannockburn in 1314. There appears to be some caution about this, for no amount of Googling reveals this name, though fairly thorough accounts of the programme may be found. The skeletons found are to be compared to those recovered from the Battle of Towton.
(3) Richard Armitage would like to play Richard III Reader’s Digest, May 2010. Article, ‘Tough Act’, by E. Jane Dicks, on ‘what Richard Armitage did next’. Armitage’s first professional engagement was with a circus in Budapest ... ‘he did, however, have a strong sense of destiny. His father, an engineer, had a passionate interest in Richard III, and Armitage grew up with a sense of mystic kinship to the enigmatic king. “I was called Richard and I was born on August 22, the day Richard III was killed so yes, I guess the connection’s always been there. I’d love to play him, though not necessarily the Shakespeare role, which is mostly myth. There’s a darkness and mystery to Richard. I like the idea of someone who isn’t ambitious, but gets put on a fast track to the crown and almost finds himself there against his instincts. I feel that, in a way, I have a similar temperament. I might be just a bit too old to play him, it’s the big 4-0 for me next year, but I do have a need to explore that story.”
(4) Burials in car parks The Independent, 15 July 2010, Charles Nevin in the Viewspaper section. ‘Unease that the churchyard in Scarborough where Anne Brontë lies buried is being used as a car park reminds me that this facility’s role in our culture has been insufficiently 28
The Man Himself The other Yorkshire homes of Richard, Duke of Gloucester R.J.A. BUNNETT
ince we are shortly to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Yorkshire Branch we thought it appropriate for the The Man Himself to have a distinctly Yorkshire flavour. So we looked in the archives for something appropriate and found it in the January 1962 issue of The Ricardian: an article about Richard’s other Yorkshire homes apart from Middleham, and even better, it is by one of the founding members of the Yorkshire Branch, R.J.A. Bunnett. As mentioned elsewhere in this issue, we will be covering Mr Bunnett’s contribution to the Ricardian cause in more detail in December’s Bulletin. We shall also in the future be considering some of Richard’s castles in more depth, in a series of articles by Peter Lee. Mr Bunnett’s 1962 article has stood the test of time well, even though it too is almost fifty years old. There are however a couple of points we need to make in light of hindsight. Firstly, in respect of the tomb in Sheriff Hutton church, Mr Bunnett wisely added the caveat ‘though it is not absolutely certain that the boy was buried here’. Jane Crease’s recent articles in the Bulletin (September and December 2009) have conclusively shown that the tomb does not belong to Edward of Middleham. Secondly, in respect of the entry for Richmond, Edmund Tudor was not attainted,.so Henry had the right to call himself earl of Richmond, and Richard, Duke of Gloucester, was never created earl of Carlisle or Richmond.
lthough Middleham was Richard’s main residence, he often stayed in York, Pontefract and Sheriff Hutton – the lastnamed being conveniently close to York – and elsewhere. In 1475 a grant to him of all the properties of the late earl of Warwick in Yorkshire and Cumberland was confirmed by Act of Parliament.
numerous hospitals. By 1472 the mighty Minster had been completed, wherein on the death of Edward IV (9 April 1483) his brother held a solemn funeral service, so it is stated, whilst the local nobility swore allegiance to the late king’s son, Richard himself being the first to take the oath. At the feast of Corpus Christi in 1477, Richard and his wife walked in procession from Holy Trinity Priory to the Minster, in which, on his progress through the country after his coronation, their son Edward was invested as Prince of Wales, at a most impressive ceremony, the ensuing week being distinguished by a round of State occasions. The trio walked from the building, wearing their crowns, ‘to the great honour, joy and congratulations of the inhabitants, and in show of rejoicing they extolled Richard above the skies’. He is stated to have founded a chantry in the Minster with 100 chaplains, and also to have repaired York Castle.
York No place outside London had closer connections with Richard than the city of York, capital of the north, then at the height of its medieval greatness, and where he enjoyed considerable popularity, being ever ready to lend a willing ear to the requests of the City Council when in trouble. In his day, some 13,000 people were lodged within the walls, amid three score churches, with the great Benedictine abbey of St Mary’s, four friaries (Richard was wont to stay at the Augustinian Friary in Lendal), and 29
Sheriff Hutton Bertram de Bulmor, sheriff of Yorkshire, it is said, built the original castle, c.1140. By 1382 it seems to have fallen into decay, when John de Nevill was empowered to build a stronghold there. Today the remains are scanty, consisting mostly of the south-west angle towers. In the castle Anthony Woodville, Earl Rivers, was imprisoned (1483) and here he made his will, prior to being later removed to Pontefract for execution. The young Earl of Warwick, son of George, Duke of Clarence and Isabella Neville, was a resident in the castle under the care of his cousin John, Earl of Lincoln, son of Richard’s sister, the Duchess of Suffolk. To Sheriff Hutton also the king despatched for safety his niece Elizabeth when the landing of Henry of Richmond was imminent. In the church of St Helen’s, where Richard built an additional chapel, is to be seen the tomb of young Edward, Prince of Wales, his son, who died in 1484, though it is not absolutely certain that the boy was buried here.
The scanty remains of Sheriff Hutton Castle
enough to deal with the French and Scots. Next month he was there again, actively engaged in rearming and revictualling the ships, and possibly he took command of the ensuing naval expedition in which the Scots were defeated. On Sandside, near the harbour, are the remains of the fourteenth-century house, with its square bay window, where Richard is said to have resided.
This is notable for its magnificent setting above a rocky cliff 80 feet high overlooking the River Tees. The great round tower was built about 1300. After Clarence’s death, Richard obtained the undivided lordship of the place, of which he had hitherto only held a moiety in right of his wife, and also was granted a licence to found a college (though it is questionable if this ever was established) for priests and choristers to perform service continually for the good estate of the royal family. Near the castle tower is a fifteenth-century oriel window, part of the great chamber, over which is a slab carved with a boar, Richard’s badge, enclosed in an incomplete interlacing ornament, which appears to have been brought from another part of the building. More’s story of the alleged murder of the Princes gives a Miles Forest as joint assassin with John Dighton. A man of that name appears to have been Keeper of the Wardrobe
The valuable North Riding estates of Sir Thomas Rous, including the castle and manor of Helmsley, were granted to Richard by Edward IV. The oldest part of the existing castle ruins, which occupied a strong defensive position, can be ascribed to Robert de Roos (1186-1227), Lord of Helmsley, and was held by his descendants for 17 generations.
Scarborough In March 1475 Edward IV, with Parliamentary sanction, handed to Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the castle and lordship of Scarborough, and other neighbouring estates, in exchange for properties in Derbyshire and Herefordshire. The castle, standing in a commanding position between two bays, was built about 1145 by William le Gros, Earl of Albemarle. In June 1484 King Richard visited the town, and, by commandeering every available vessel, assembled a fleet powerful 30
at Barnard Castle: the date of his appointment is unknown, but he died some time before 1484, as an annuity of 5 marks was then granted to his widow.
respectively. At Pontefract on 25 June 1483, the conspirators against Richard, Earl Rivers, Sir Richard Grey, Sir Thomas Vaughan and Sir Richard Haute, were executed.
This was built, it seems, by Ralph Neville, the original grantee of Raby House, and in 1441 the castle (of red stone) and manor were granted for 3 years to Richard, Earl of Salisbury, at a yearly rent of 1,000 marks. From the Nevilles it passed to John, 9th Lord Clifford of Skipton; and when he was slain at Ferrybridge (1461) – just before the battle of Towton – and was attainted, the castle was granted to the Duke of Gloucester (he was residing there in 1471) who, it is said, erected a tower, a porter’s lodge and other buildings. With the advent of the Tudors the place appears to have been left to decay. Richard is stated to have stayed also in what is now the Gloucester Arms Hotel, dating from 1477, one of the oldest inns in England.
The castle, with its remarkable keep over 100 feet high, occupies a dominating position in Swaledale. Henry VI made a partial grant of the castle to Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, about 1450; but the Honour was in the possession of Edmund Tudor from 1453 to his death three years later. Henry Tudor styled himself Earl of Richmond as his father’s heir; though as the latter had been attainted he had no right to the title. When Richard, immediately after Edward IV’s coronation, was created duke of Gloucester, he was also made earl of Carlisle and Richmond respectively; but he resigned the fee-farm and castle of the latter to his brother Clarence, upon whose death Richard received the grant of the castle and lordship of Richmond, but only in exchange for the manors of Sudeley, Farley and Corff. Edward retained most of Clarence’s estates in his own hands.
Pontefract (Pomfret) The once magnificent castle was built soon after the Norman invasion by Ilbert de Laci. Today, one can still see the site of the Norman chapel, the King’s and the Queen’s Tower, the kitchens, and King Richard II’s chamber, where it is alleged he was starved, poisoned or hacked to death; also the Round Tower and underground chambers. As chief Seneschal of the Duchy of Lancaster north of the Trent, this castle was the Duke of Gloucester’s official residence. On his progress after his coronation, Richard seems to have reached Pontefract on 24 August 1483, where he summoned to meet him 70 knights and gentlemen of the north ‘to read them the same lecture on administering justice which he had delivered to the lords in London’. Edward IV made the castle his headquarters before Towton, after which the heads of the Duke of York, the Earls of Rutland and Salisbury were removed from Micklegate Bar, York, and placed with their corpses at Pontefract, prior to their gorgeous obsequies at Fotheringhay and Bisham
Skipton About 1080 Robert de Romille first built a castle here; but the seven round towers and nine-foot thick curtain walls are the work of Robert de Clifford in Edward II’s reign. The striking entrance was made in the mid-17th century by the famous Lady Anne Clifford, Countess of Pembroke. John de Clifford, 8th lord of Skipton, spoken of as the Black-faced or Butcher, is accused by both Hall and Holinshed of having stabbed to death the young Earl of Rutland at Wakefield in 1460, and Shakespeare perpetuated the story. Clifford was killed at Ferrybridge on the eve of the battle of Towton: he was attainted and his honours and estates were forfeited to the Crown. Edward IV first granted the Skipton lordship to Sir William Stanley, but later bestowed it on Richard, who, it is recorded, repaired the castle.
Anne Mowbray, Duchess of York: her place in history BRUCE WATSON MUSEUM OF LONDON ARCHAEOLOGY
he life of Anne Mowbray and the chance discovery of her remains have already been the subject of several articles in the Bulletin. Some years ago Wendy Moorhen drew attention to the non-publication of the context of Anne’s burial and the fact that most of the analytical work which was carried on her remains before her re-interment in Westminster Abbey in 1965 is also still unpublished. Articles on Anne’s teeth and skeletal remains were published some years ago (see further reading). However, in recent years, as my colleague Bill White explained in 2009, we have been systematically researching the burial of Anne Mowbray, so the context of her grave and the analytical work on her remains could be published. Now with support from the Society of Antiquaries the context of her grave and the unpublished analytical work are being prepared for publication as a journal article. This article will include the Latin text of the inscription on her coffin. A short account of this research will be published in the summer 2010 edition of the London Archaeologist. Copies of the all the analytical material and many of the contemporary press reports concerning Anne Mowbray are available from the Museum of London Archaeological Archive and Research Centre, 46 Eagle Wharf Road, London N1 7ED (LAARC file AMS64). Following the chance discovery of Anne’s remains in December 1964, Dr Francis Celoria, Archaeological Field Office of the London Museum, quickly organised a comprehensive programme of work on Anne’s remains including her bones, teeth, hair, shroud, the botanical and insect remains
inside the coffin; and even the metallurgy of her coffin. Study of her hair using electron activation to determine its metallurgical content, revealed an unusually high level of antimony which might have been ingested as medicine. This amount of scientific research might seem excessive, but the chance discovery of the burial of a named medieval person is extremely rare, especially one who was a member of the royal family. The context of Anne Mowbray’s burial Anne was initially buried in the Chapel of St Erasmus in Westminster Abbey as befitted a member of the royal family. However, some time before 1538 her body was moved to the London church of the St Clare Minoresses (or Minories) (Franciscan nuns), without Aldgate (established by 1281 and dissolved 1539). The various archaeological investigations of this nunnery are discussed in another forthcoming article (see further reading). It is documented that during the winter of 1502-03, the chapel of St Erasmus and the adjoining Lady Chapel were being demolished to make room for Henry VII’s new mausoleum, so it is assumed that Anne’s remains were removed from the chapel during this period. As Anne’s mother Elizabeth (the Dowager Duchess) was still alive at this time she may have requested possession of her daughter’s remains and arranged for her reburial. Whether this move was intended as a permanent arrangement is not known. By 1487-88 Elizabeth was living at the London house of Minoresses, where she rented the ‘great mansion’ for £10 per annum. Elizabeth 32
was still residing here at the time of her death between 6 November 1506 and 10 May 1507. She left instructions that she was to be buried in the nuns’ or ‘inner’ choir at the Minories and that 100 marks (£66 13s. 4d.) be distributed amongst the poor of Hackney and Whitechapel. A pre-Reformation list of the nobility buried in the Minories includes as item 5; ‘Dame Anne Duchess of york daughter to lord mowbray Duke of Northfolk [Norfolk] be buried in the said Quire’. Item 6 was ‘Dame Elizabeth Duchess Northfolk [Norfolk] mother to the said Dame Anne Duchess of york be buried in the Quire afor said’ (Landsdowne MS 205, Volume of Heraldic and Historical Collections formerly belonging to Elias Ashmole, fo.19 ‘The Names of all persons of Noble blood whom be buried in the monastery of the minories’, British Library). These two brief entries confirm that there were either one or two tombs or monuments bearing inscriptions commemorating these individuals; the wording of the entries could imply that there was actually only one monument, but as they were not interred in the same vault this may not have been the case. Anne’s anthropomorphic lead coffin was discovered on its own in a small subterranean vaulted chamber, which was probably built up against the south wall of the choir. This is curious as there was room in this vault for another burial, so it suggests that Anne’s mother Elizabeth had made some separate provision for her own grave. The exact location of Anne’s mother’s grave is unknown, but it seems likely that mother and daughter were interred close together in the nuns’ choir. Possibly Anne’s mother was interred in the smashed empty vault found nearby.
marriage of Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York to Lady Anne Mowbray’, which was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1821. The idea of depicting historic events as dramatic art was very fashionable during the 1830s in Britain and France. James Northcote and M. Paul Delaroche were two the leading exponents of this genre. Several engravings of Northcote’s painting were published during the early 19th century. Anne’s wedding was also depicted in the 1939 Universal Pictures film The Tower of London directed by Rowland V. Lee, which starred Basil Rathbone as Richard III, five-year-old Donnie Dunagan played Prince Richard and six-year old Joan Carroll played Anne Mowbray. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to Cath Maloney of the Museum of London Archaeological Archive and Research Centre (LAARC); Bob Mclean, Records Manager at the Wellcome Trust; John Clark of the Early Department of the Museum of London (now Curator Emeritus); and Professor Roger Warwick for their assistance during our research. Thanks to Geoffrey Wheeler for providing details concerning of the images of Anne Mowbray’s wedding, and to the Society of Antiquaries of London for funding the production of the artwork for the final publication. Further Reading Moorhen, W., ‘Anne Mowbray: in life and death’, Bulletin Spring 2005, pp. 24-6. Rushton, M.A., ‘The teeth of Anne Mowbray’, British Dental Journal 119, No 8, (1965) pp. 355-59. Thomas, C. and Watson, B., forthcoming, ‘The Mendicant Houses of Medieval London: an archaeological review’ in Harlaxton Papers for the 2007 conference. Warwick, R., ‘Anne Mowbray: skeletal remains of a medieval child’ London Archaeologist 5, No 7, 1986, pp. 176-79. White, B., ‘Anne Mowbray: publication at last’, Bulletin, September 2009, pp. 14-16.
Images of Anne Mowbray There are no surviving contemporary images of Anne Mowbray, but some of the events in her brief life have inspired reconstructions. The occasion of Anne’s marriage was depicted in a splendid ‘history’ painting by James Northcote R.A. (1820) entitled ‘The
Not the royal wedding of 1486: a medallic misidentification FREDERICK HEPBURN
he handsome gold medallion whose obverse is shown in the accompanying drawing will be familiar to many Ricardians.* Over the past thirty years or so it has been illustrated a number of times in books and articles and described as having been made to celebrate the wedding of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York in January 1486. So frequent has its appearance now become that it is time for the truth to be made more widely known. In fact the medal does not represent Henry and Elizabeth, nor is it connected with the Tudors in any way. The error is evidently an old one, though I have not been able to ascertain quite how old. Edward Hawkins (or his editors) catalogued the medal in his Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great Britain and Ireland of 1885, noting that its inclusion there was due ‘solely to its having been supposed to commemorate the marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, a supposition grounded only upon the introduction of roses into the device and legend’.¹ Hawkins went on to identify the medal as ‘one of a series of medallions, of similar style, supposed to have been made by some goldsmiths at Prague towards the close of the sixteenth century’, and gave a reference to volume VI of J.D. Koehler’s Historische
Műnz-Belustigung, published in 1734. There indeed, in an illustration of another medal from the same group, the legend has exactly the same distinctive style of lettering, and the supposed medal of Henry and Elizabeth is listed in the sub-category of medals with ‘moral’ (as opposed to ‘historical’) subjects, simply as an unnamed bride and bridegroom.² A closer look at the medal (of which Hawkins records two extant examples, one in the British Museum and the other in Munich) reveals features which ought to have made historians suspicious. The young couple look suitably idyllic, but can we really believe that Henry Tudor would have been content to be shown wearing a chaplet of roses while his wife wore the crown? As we know, this was a particularly sensitive issue and Henry delayed Elizabeth’s coronation for as long as possible, until November 1487, so that there could be no doubt in people’s minds that he was king in his own right rather than in right of his wife. And the inscriptions on the medal tell their own story. Around the couple the legend reads IUNGIMUS · OPTATAS · SUB · 34
AMICO · FOEDERE · DEXTRAS (‘We join in a loving union the right hands we have each wished for’). The words round the edge of the reverse are SICUT · SOL · ORIENS · DEI : SIC · MULIER · BONA · DOMUS · EIUS · ORNAMENTUM. As Hawkins observed, the word dei is almost certainly an error for diei, so that the meaning is ‘As the rising sun adorns the day, so also is a good wife the adornment of her house’. In the centre of the reverse, within a circle of roses, is another inscription: UXOR/ CASTA/ EST · ROSA/ SUAVIS (‘A chaste wife is a sweet rose’). The emphasis on the reverse is therefore very much on the wifely virtues of the woman – and it is interesting that the word casta is made to stand out by the use of larger and more elaborate lettering. Had this been an early Tudor medal, the inscriptions would surely have carried a different, more political message celebrating the union of the rival royal houses of Lancaster and York.
The medal is illustrated in the Plates, published separately (London, 1904-11; reprinted 1979), Pl. I, 5. Photographic enlargements of both sides of the medal are conveniently reproduced in Neville Williams, The Life and Times of Henry VII (London, 1973), pp. 34-5. (The actual diameter is 2.25 inches.) ² Johann David Koehler, Historische MűnzBelustigung, 24 parts (Nuremberg, 1729-65), VI, pp. 137-9. I should like to record here my gratitude to Mary Hinton, librarian of the Department of Coins and Medals at the British Museum, for enabling me to consult the works by Hawkins and Koehler. The illustration is of a gold medallion showing a bride and bridegroom. Prague, late sixteenth century. Facsimile drawing by Geoffrey Wheeler, reproduced by kind permission. *By the time this article is published, another short piece making the same point will have appeared, by arrangement, as an appendix in Peter Hammond’s new book, Richard III and the Bosworth Campaign (Pen and Sword Books: Barnsley, 2010).
Notes ¹ Edward Hawkins, Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great Britain and Ireland to the death of George II, ed. by Augustus W. Franks and Herbert A. Grueber, 2 vols (London, 1885; reprinted 1969), I, pp. 19-20.
Notes and Queries Fiona Price asks: I don’t know whether anyone would know anything about Richard III and Sir Henry Wyatt, father of Thomas Wyatt, the poet? I have been reading and enjoying, so far, Hilary Mantel’s novel Wolfhall about Thomas Cromwell and the Tudor court. However, I have just come across a sequence when Sir Henry Wyatt is talking with Cromwell, and describes his imprisonment in the Tower under Richard III, and says that he was tortured by the king’s orders. Checking Google, there are various stories about Henry Wyatt’s imprisonment, and some accounts say Richard watched the torture! I imagine Wyatt was involved in the Buckingham rebellion, but is there any evidence in any of the written records about the use of torture in Richard’s reign
Tips from our beauty consultant: the Duke of Buckingham TIG LANG
ollowing my paper on British Library manuscript Harley 1628 in this yearâ€™s Ricardian, I thought members of the Society might like to see the full text of what I cannot resist thinking of as the Duke of Buckinghamâ€™s beauty tips (an image makeover for the newly powerful in the 1480s, perhaps?). As the text is in English, it is more accessible than most of the manuscript: it is also in beautifully legible handwriting, which helps.
drie and than cast on it rose water and muske and camphore resoluid in the seid rose water and lete it drie perfitly and than make of it litill smale pelettes as grete as a hasill note and drie hem perfitly and kepe hem in a close glasse. And in like wise ye may make ceruses of diuerse rotis, as of lilie, wilde vyne, loueache, sperage, and diuerse othe. And in like wise ye may wasche ceruse of lede to be usid in medicines for the clerifyng of the skynne.
BL MS Harley 1628, folio 34v. Monsenior hary dewke de bokyngham Here begynnyth the makyng of divers cerusis and ffyrst of whete flowre and after of divers rotes, that is to say dragance, wilde vyne, loueache, affodille, barba aaron, et cetera. To make ceruse of whete or of barlie. Thake whete flowre ij quart put it in fayr clere water I galon, rubbe it with your handes and then late it stonde vj or viij owres, and than caste a waye the whater that stondith a boue, and put to hit fresche water a gayne, and rubbe it and stere it as ye dede be fower, and than cast a waye the water that stondith a boue as ye dede be fore, and so do vij or viij dayes continually, and than whan ye haue caste a waye the last water, cast to hit rose water and lett hit stonde till it be drie and so do iij or iiij tymes, and than drye hit in the shawdowe in a close place, and whan it is perfitly dried than kepe it in a close boxe of tre or in a fayr glasse suerly stopped.
[folio 35r] Now folowth the makyng of diuers clarificaciones. Take ceruse of lede, wasshe after the maner aboue writen, ij unces ceruse, of dragance and other rotis of eche ij dramys, litargium of siluer subtily powderid, borace, bitter almondes blanchid, of eche i drams camphore half i drame. Make all theis subtill with a molire on a marbill stone as ye grynde colowres, and than take sewet of a dere made with white wyne and rose water ij li, put to hit all your medicines subtily powderid and medill all to gidr on the fyre and than put it in a close boxe of tynne or elles in a glasse, and use it at night, and watter the face be fore with the broth of salt befe, and on the morow take the water of strawbery levys, wilde tansey, bene flowris, and rosis, and warme them and wete a sponge or elles a softe lynne clothe therin, and wasshe softely the face. And ye may put in the sayd wateris a litell quantite of wheten branne, and than strayne it oute, and with the seid water warme wasshe the face. Also it is good to anoynt at night otherwhile the face with the blode of an henne hoot or of an hare, and lete it be unto be mornyng and than wasshe.
Ceruse of rotis is thus made Take the rotis of dragance ij or iij lb brose hem small than cast on hem fayre water and strayne oute the juce as moche as ye can than latt hit stonde till it haue residewe than cast awey the water that stondith a boue and put to hit fresch newe clere water and so do vij or viij daies as ye dede i be fore and than at the last caste on hit womanis milke and late it
Commentary Womanâ€™s milk, which seems a peculiar ingredient to our modern sensibilities, was 36
commonly used in medicines in the Middle Ages. The blood of a hen ‘hoot’ simply means ‘hot’, again something we would probably not choose to plaster all over our face today; but, as I mentioned in my Ricardian paper, women were still using blood to whiten the skin at the end of the 17th century. For reasons which I hope will be obvious, I have not tried to see if this works. (Apart from anything else, I’m fond of my hens). Loueache is probably Levisticum officinale, lovage. Tony Hunt’s invaluable book Plant Names of Medieval England enables the following further identifications to be made: Dragance: either Polygonum bistorta, bistort, or Dracunculus vulgaris, dragon arum, or Sinapis arvensis, charlock, or Raphanus raphanistrum, wild radish. Affodille: either Asperula odorata, sweet woodruff, or Allium ursinum, ramsons.
Barba Aaron: Arum maculatum, cuckoopint Sperage: probably Geranium molle/ Columbinum, dove’s foot cranesbill/longstalked cranesbill Wilde Vine: either Bryonia dioica, white bryony, or Clematis vitalba, traveller’s joy, or Vitis vinifera, wild vine, or Sonchus oleraceus, sowthistle, or Delphinium staphisagria, stavesacre. The recipe is unusually detailed for this manuscript, its clear instructions and fine details making it stand out among the other recipes, as do its English and its legibility. I find it delightful, much as I shudder at the effects on the body of litharge of silver and ceruse of lead. And I wish I knew whether the Duke of Buckingham recommended these to the owner of the manuscript, and if so, if he did so from his own personal experience.
Don’t mention the War(s of the Roses) On 27 April this year, on a website relating to news from the area around Castle Donnington in Derbyshire and somewhat north of Leicester, an article appeared with the mock German headline ‘Eine horse, eine horse, meine Kingdom for eine horse!’ It would seem that a film crew from Germany had arrived unannounced at the Bosworth Battlefield Centre, asking for a re-enactment. They were preparing a programme on past-life regression and wanted scenes of the battle in full costume and body-armour, and with weapons to include swords. They also wanted a damsel in distress able to handle a bow and ride a horse — and, oh yes, they’d like the horse too. Richard Mackinder, Operations Manager at the Centre, who is rarely fazed by anything, said he was somewhat surprised. Although they get many requests for re-enactments, he explained that they’d never had one for a programme on past lives before. Bosworth has numerous re-enactors on its books, of course, from the two kingly protagonists to archers and men-at-arms, blacksmiths, fletchers, etc., and of course all the hangers-on, so it was no great problem for them to assemble the required army, the damsel, and, presumably, the horse. There was no mention in the article of when the programme will appear and whether it will ever be seen on English television, but I couldn’t help thinking that the story gave a new meaning to Basil Fawlty’s telling his staff not to mention the war. Phil Stone
The Asthall Hoard PEGGY MARTIN
n 22 August 2007 a hoard of gold coins was found by a builder digging a soakaway in the village of Asthall, near Burford, in the county of Oxfordshire. The find was reported to the district coroner and the coins taken to the Ashmolean Museum for identification. It was not until April 2010 that the coroner’s inquest took place and the hoard declared treasure under the Treasure Act of 1997. The coins are now at the British Museum and have been valued in the region of £265,000. Among the most valuable are the coins issued in the reign of Richard III. Depending on condition, an angel of Richard III can make £6,000 at auction. The Ashmolean Museum hope eventually to acquire the coins for their collectioin. The coins were all of fine gold, angels and half angels, spanning the period from 1470 to 1526 including the reigns of Henry VI, Edward IV, Richard III, Henry VII and Henry VIII.1 There were 2 coins of Henry VI (second reign, 1470-71), 43 of Edward IV (second reign 1471-83), 7 of Richard III (1483-85), 116 of Henry VII (1485-1509) and 42 of Henry VIII (1509-26). The condition of a few of the later coins of Henry VIII suggested that they had been in circulation for only a very short time. 1526 was the date of the first coinage reform of Henry VIII. No gold denominations other than angels and half angels were produced in the second reigns of Henry VI and Edward IV, but the older ryals remained in circulation.2 The ryal was first issued in 1465 weighing 120 grains with a value of 10s. The noble, introduced in the reign of Edward III, had an original value of 6s. 8d. This amount became the standard professional fee and thus with the production of the ryal, the old noble was missed. Therefore the angel at 80 grains was issued to replace it and the ryal was discontinued.3 Angels and half angels continued to be the bulk of the gold output, but other gold
denominations – ryals, again, and sovereigns – were minted in the reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII.4 The design of the angel and half angel showed, on the obverse, St Michael spearing a dragon. On the reverse was a ship with a shield of arms surmounted by a cross, placed centrally. New mottoes referred to the Holy Cross: PER CRUCEM TUAM SALVA NOS CHRISTE REDEMPTOR (Save us through thy cross, O Christ our Redeemer) on the angel (see fig. 1), and O CRUX AVE SPES UNICA (Hail, O Cross, our only hope) on the half angel.5 The use of a ship in the design goes back to 1344, when the noble was introduced. The noble showed the king of England standing in a ship with a drawn sword and shield of arms. This emphasised the royal embodiment of the ship of state but more especially the claim of naval supremacy, since the defeat of the French fleet by Edward III at the Battle of Sluys 1340.6 The appearance of the angel was brought up to date in the early 1490s by modifying the gothic figure of St Michael. The large wings and spiky feathers were replaced by a more realistic figure in armour, representing the humanistic idiom of the age.7 Coins can be dated by their control or mintmarks. These can be found near the top of the coin. In fig. 1 the mark of a pierced
Fig. 1 Angel from the Asthall Hoard
cross and pellet can be seen by the mast, and denotes a date of 1477-80. Lord Hastings was Edward IV’s moneyer for many years. He was succeeded by Bartholomew Reed as master of the mint at the final indenture in 1483. The cinquefoil coinage then came to an end and the sun-and-rose mintmark was introduced. This mintmark continued through the short reign of Edward V and into the reign of Richard III. It ended with the indenture of 20 July 1483 when Robert Brackenbury, who had been Richard’s ducal treasurer, became his master of the mint and the boar’s-head mintmark was used.8 See fig. 2 for mintmarks of Edward IV and fig. 3 for those of Richard III. The standard and contemporary values of the coins in the hoard did not change during the years represented, nor were there any recoinages. Therefore finding these coins together is usual and representative of other hoards. That the majority of the coins come from the later reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII suggest that the coins were issues in current circulation and had not been collected over a long period. It is probable that the coins were taken out of circulation and deposited over a short time span and given the contemporary value of the hoard (£67 10s ) the concealer expected to recover them.9 Other hoards consisting of coins of all one metal have been found but it is more usual to find a combination of ryals and angels, as found in some English gold hoards deposited just before 1526.10 Coins of silver belonging to the concealer could have been exchanged for gold before depositing the hoard. In today’s money £67 10s would be worth between £20,000 and £25,000. The hoard was found on land that had belonged to the church. The land in question was probably called Eton Close in 1872. The church of St Nicholas, Asthall, was founded in the twelfth century. The benefice was a vicarage by the early thirteenth century. It included a house, offerings and tithes, and was valued at 5 marks (£3 6s. 8d.) rising to £7 3s. 4d. in 1293-4. In 1525 the stipend was still only £8, paid by the lessee of the rectory, now owned by Eton College, who reimbursed the lessee. The abbey of St Mary at Ivry in
Normandy held the advowson and rectory with the tithes, until the crown’s final seizure of the possessions of alien religious houses in 1414.11 Between 1441 and 1453 the advowson was granted by Henry VI to Eton College. From 1457 to 1501 Eton leased the rectory estate to vicars of Asthall, but from then on the lessees were laymen. From 1525 the leases were for 20 or 21 years.12 The lessees were required to maintain the chancel and the rectory barn.13 This barn was first mentioned in 1525,14 standing about 55 feet south of the village street. It ranged west-east, measured about 48 by 19 feet and was said in 1826 to be of four bays. Whether it was a tithe barn is not certain. It was demolished in 1873 to allow a new parsonage house to be erected. In 1872 a faculty was applied for by Henry Gregory, vicar of Asthall, to build a new parsonage house.15 This was to be built on a piece of land called Eton Close, given by the provost and scholars of Eton College, containing about half an acre, and the same added to the ancient glebe belonging to the benefice. Standing on the land called Eton Close was a barn, probably the barn previously mentioned, and upon the ancient glebe adjacent a cottage and stable, in a dilapidated state. The barn and other buildings were to be demolished and the materials used for the new house. The faculty was granted. It was upon this land that the hoard was uncovered. It has not been possible to identify who may have owned this piece of land over the period when the coins would have been deposited. According to a lease book of Eton College 1445-1529, a William Sanson or Sampson leased the rectory estate in 1525, but there are no details of which lands this comprised. An enclosure map of 1814 shows a tithe barn and close,16 with a parsonage meadow and vicarage house and garden adjacent, possibly in the area of that was named as Eton Close in the faculty, but it is difficult to be certain as new roads have been built since then. However it is possible that the buildings that were demolished, mentioned in the faculty, may have included the old vicarage house. 39
Fig. 2 Edward IV mintmarks Edward IV, Second Reign, 1471-83 The Angel and its half were the only gold denominations issued during this reign. The main types and weight standards remained the same as those of the light coinage of Edward’s first reign. The use of the ‘initial mark’ as a mintmark to denote the date of the issue was now firmly
1471-83 1471 1471-2 1471-3 1472-3 1473-7
Rose (33, York & Durham) Lis (105, York) Short cross fitchee (12) Annulet (large, 55) Trefoil (44) Rose (33, Bristol) Pansy (30, Durham) Annulet (small, 55) Sun (28, Bristol) Pellet in annulet (56) Cross and four pellets (17)
1473-7 1473-7 1477-80
Cross in circle (37) Cross pattée (6) Pierced cross 1 (18) Pierced cross and pellet (19) Pierced cross 2 (18) Pierced cross, central pellet (20) Rose (33, Canterbury) Heraldic cinquefoil (31) Long cross fitchee (11, Canterbury) Halved sun and rose (38) (listed under Edward IV/V)
Fig. 3 Richard III mintmarks
Halved sun and rose, 1, 2 and 3 Board’s head, 1 (62), 2 (63) Lis (105, Durham) Rose only (33)
We are very grateful to Spink & Son for allowing us to use these diagrams of the mintmarks. 40
Over the period in which we are interested, Eton College held the advowson of the church and between 1492 and 1549 presented its chaplains to the living.17 Thomas Warner was in possession of the living in 1525, followed by John Lucas in 1528 to 1549. Probably few incumbents resided. Ultimately it is impossible even to speculate who deposited the coins and for what purpose, nor why he was unable to recover them. Life and death were uncertain. Death then as now could be sudden and unexpected. The care of the soul in the early sixteenth century was more important than the care of the body. It was important to be ready. Had he stored up treasures in heaven, as well as on earth?
Part 1, English gold coins and their imitations 1257-1603 (Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles, no. 47, 1996). 7 Stewartby, English Coins. 8 Spink, Coins of England (2001). 9 Baker Gold angels and half angels from Asthall. 10 Ibid. 11 S. Townleye et al. eds, The Victoria County History of England: the County of Oxford, Vol. XV (2006), s.v. Asthall. 12 Eton College Lease Book, 1445-1529. 13 Eton College Recs LII, nos 1-2. 14 Eton Collge Lease book 1145-1529. 15 Oxfordshire Record Office, Ms Oxf Dioc, c1702/1 draft faculty petition 27 July 1872. 16 Oxfordshire Record Office QSD/A Vol D. 17 VCH Oxfordshire Vol XV, Asthall.
Notes 1 Julian Baker, Gold angels and half angels from Asthall, Oxfordshire (2007 T 433), Report to HM Coroner submitted 17/1/08 (unpublished). 2 Ibid. 3 Spink, Coins of England (2001). 4 Baker, Gold angels and half angels from Asthall. 5 Lord Stewartby, English Coins 180-1551, (2009). 6 P. Woodhead, Herbert Schneider collection.
Acknowledgements I am grateful to Dr Julian Baker of the Ashmolean Museum for allowing me to use his report on the Asthall Hoard and giving of his time to show me similar coins from the museum`s collection, and to the archivist at Eton College for helping Lynda Pidgeon and myself to use the college archives. Diagrams of mintmarks by kind permission of Spink & Son.
More about coins: Ricardian loose change ... On Thursday 24 June Spink, the London auction house, held a sale of coins. The star item was expected to be an Anglo-Saxon gold shilling of King Eadbald of Kent, the oldest English coin to be sold in many years. It sold for £26,000. In the same sale, there were a number of coins dating to the reigns of Edward IV and Richard III. A ryal of Edward’s first reign went for £4,200 and an angel of his second reign went for £3,200. A couple of angels from the restoration of Henry VI sold for £9,000 and £5,200. However, the real prize went to a gold angel of Richard III which was described in the catalogue as showing St Michael spearing a dragon on the obverse, with the text ‘ricard[us] d[e]i gr[aci]a rex angl[ie] & franc[ie]’, and a shield within a ship on the reverse, with a small cross, the letter ‘R’ and a rose. The estimated price was about £8,000, but the extremely rare and almost extremely fine coin sparked a bidding frenzy and actually went for £27,000. Phil Stone
All Saints, Aldwincle, Northants Evidence for an ardent Yorkist? LYNDA PIDGEON This article has been written to show how much information can be found quite quickly by using printed primary sources, online sources and Society publications, and to encourage people to become involved in their own research and the Society’s suggested new project to compile a ‘diary’ for the reign of Richard III (see p. 6 of the June Bulletin). It also demonstrates how useful the Society’s Wills Index can be. Under ‘Chambre’ is to be found ‘Parish Churches and Religious Houses of Northants’, by the Rev. R.M.S. Sergeantson and the Rev. H. Isham Langden, Archaeological Journal of Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, (vol. 70, London, 1913), which is also available at www.archive.org/bookreader/print.php?id=archaeologicalj48unkngoog&server
hile looking through The Medieval Stained Glass of Northamptonshire (Richard Marks, Oxford, 1998) I came across the following: ‘The white rose quarries in the Chambre chantry at Aldwincle All Saints would appear to allude to some connection between the Chambre family and the House of York, and their 1489-93 dating is a warning against assuming that the presence of Yorkist devices invariably means a preBosworth date.’ My curiosity was aroused. Who was Chambre and what was his Yorkist connection? The presence of white roses in stained glass into the reign of Henry VII raises a number of questions. Was it considered acceptable to continue to demonstrate Yorkist (if not Ricardian) support? Was Aldwincle so far from the centre it was considered safe to do so? Was it Chambre or someone else connected to the chantry that was the Yorkist? The licence to build the chantry was dated 26 November 1488. William Chambre asked for a licence to found a perpetual chantry of one chaplain to celebrate divine service at the altar of the Virgin for the ‘prosperity of the king and Elizabeth his consort, and for the good estate’ of himself, his wife Elizabeth and her first husband William Aldewynkell. Chambre also requested a licence for the
chaplain to acquire lands to the value of 12 marks p.a. in mortmain. £40 was paid for the licence. The chaplain John Selyman later acquired the manors of Armeston and Denford, two messuages, one toft, 300 acres and one virgate of land, 30 acres of meadow and seven acres of wood in Armeston, Denford, Aldwyncle and Benyfeld to meet the request. Elizabeth Chambre in her will of 1489 requested ‘my husbands chauntre and myne be made suer according to lawe. I wyll that a chapel be made for the same chauntre in the churche of All Halowes of Aldwyncle and a house for the preste of the same chauntre’, and granted lands worth 10 marks. Further ‘I wyll that xxvj s. viij d. be made sure yerely for ij almesmen and a house that John Wever dwelleth in, to pray for the soule of William Aldwyncle Esquyer, William Chambre esquyer, and Elizabeth wyfe to them both’. William Chambre in his will of 1493 wished to be buried in the chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the church of All Saints Aldwinkle. This certainly confirms the date of the chantry as being post 1485. The design was presumably determined by Chambre and or his wife, and they were certainly concerned that it should be well endowed and ‘suer’. 42
The Inquisition Post Mortem following William’s death shows they had no children, which may perhaps account for their anxiety in securing their chantry. The prayers for the king and his consort are fairly standard and doubtless helped to grease the wheels to get the licence approved. There is nothing in this to indicate any Yorkist connections. William Aldwynkle died in 1463, so he is perhaps less likely to have been the one with Yorkist links being commemorated this late. Chambre’s career may therefore give some clue to any Yorkist connections. The calendars of Fine Rolls and Close Rolls contained nothing on Chambre, but the Patent Rolls show that in February 1477 William was appointed to a commission to enquire into the holdings of Sir Thomas Tresham, who had been attainted of high treason. His fellow commissioners included Sir William Catesby, John Catesby and Roger Wake. This places Chambre amongst some of the important and trusted members of the county. During the period 1480 to 1483 he also served on commissions of the peace. Those serving with him included William Hastings, the duke of Gloucester, Sir Richard Wodevyle, Sir William Catesby, Roger Wake and Thomas, Marquis of Dorset. He is therefore amongst the Yorkist establishment. Interestingly, he did not serve on any commissions during Richard III’s reign. However he once again appears on commissions of the peace during the years 1486 to 1493, along with Thomas, Marquis Dorset, Richard, Earl Rivers, John Tresham, Andrew Dymmok and Richard Emson. In October 1486 he was appointed to deliver the gaol of Northampton and in January 1488 a
commission to collect a subsidy from the county. William Chambre would therefore appear to have served Edward IV but not Richard III, given the names of some of the other commissioners was his link possibly to the Wydeviles? The name Chambres occurs fairly regularly in the records, in 1408 a John and William Chambres were ordered to be arrested and brought before the king, one of those ordered to carry out the arrest was ‘Thomas Wydevylle’. The medieval soldier data base lists a number of men called Chambre dating back to 1372, of particular interest are John and Thomas Chambre who served with Richard Woodville, Lord Rivers in Acquitaine in 1451. Were these men related to William and were the family part of the Wydeviles wider affinity? Their paths certainly crossed so they were at least known to one another, it may also explain William’s lack of employment by Richard III. Is it possible that the white rose is not just a mark of Yorkist sympathy, but an acknowledgement of Elizabeth of York, who was not only the recipient of prayers in Chambre’s chantry but the grand-daughter, sister and niece of the family he had worked alongside? References Calendar of the Patent Rolls (CPR), 1476-85 and 1485-94 Inquisitions Post Mortem, Henry VII vol. 1. Medieval Soldier website: www.icmacentre.ac.uk/soldier/database Victoria County History (VCH), Northampton vol. 3 (also available at www.british– history.ac.uk).
Ancient and Medieval History Books (3500 BC to 1600 AD) For a catalogue of secondhand fact and fiction send SAE to: Karen Miller, 59 Psalter Lane, Sheffield S11 8YP
The Coventry Pageants PETER LEE
aving starting towards the end of the fourteenth century, by the late fifteenth century these pageants had become an immensely popular event; clerical in origin and once performed in the Greyfriars church, they had become increasingly secular in nature, with performers drawn from the various town guilds and crafts. Furthermore, to accommodate the ever larger audiences, the plays had moved, first out into the churchyard, then to travelling from station to station around the town. Each pageant was performed on a sort of outsize ‘Punch and Judy Show’ style of stage, mounted on a cart and with the performers hidden behind curtains underneath while the action took place above. The popularity was not limited to the ‘rude peasantry’; nobles were regular visitors, and even royalty also attended from time to time. It is on record that Henry V in 1416, Margaret of Anjou in 1457, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, in 1477, and Henry VII in 1493, all attended and enjoyed the performances. Richard himself was in Kenilworth on Tuesday 31 May 1485,1 but arrived in Coventry the following day, Wednesday 1 June, ‘where he rested many days’, again according to the same sources. He could well have been there specifically for the feast of Corpus Christi, which in 1485 was on Thursday, 2 June, and is next recorded back in Kenilworth (a comfortable day’s ride) on Monday, 6 June.2 The pageants were performed at regular stations around the town; although no scripts
have survived, the number and individual scenes seem to have varied from year to year. It is believed that around ten pageants were regularly performed, however, beginning with the Creation, moving on through successive events in the life of Christ and ending with Domesday, which was performed by the Drapers. A list of the characters and equipment needed for one of the Drapers’ ‘Domesday’ performances has survived in the Coventry archives. They had to find twenty five actors and quite a few ‘props’: Characters: God, two demons, three white (saved) souls, three black (damned) souls, two spirits, four angels, three patriarchs, two worms of conscience, a prologue, two clerks for singing, one bass singer and a pharisee. Machinery: a hell-mouth – a fire kept at it; a windlass and three fathoms of cord; an earhquake and a barrel for the same; a pillar for the words of the barrel painted; three worlds painted and a piece that bears them; a link to set the world on fire; pulpits for the angels; and a cross, rosin and a ladder. Unfortunately, the plays themselves have not survived. There are just passing references to them, the descriptions are vague, and we do not even know how many there were. References 1 BL Harl. MS 433, vol. 2, p.226 and TNA C81/907/1078. 2 BL Harl. MS 433, vol. 2, p.227 and TNA C81/907/1079.
Several towns held Corpus Christi processions and put on series of plays that day. What evidence can be found in local or national records for peformances during Richard III’s reign, and can we discover who actually attended them?
Correspondence Will contributors please note that letters may be shortened or edited to conform to the standards of the Bulletin. The Bulletin is not responsible for the opinions expressed by contributors. kind enough to download everything she could find from journal databases on the sources of More's Richard III, and also some inter-library-loaned nineteenth- and early twentieth-century books and articles, thinking it possible that the ‘Honorr’ source might have been posited to exist in an earlier period of scholarship and was since discredited. Her final conclusion, in a recent email to me, was, ‘I am now entirely satisfied that it does not exist.’ Upton tells me that he intends to excise the Wikipedia entry, but first wishes to spend a little more time making absolutely sure it is fictitious. Hopefully it will have been corrected by the time this is published. Meanwhile, I am sure the infection has by now spread to considerably more than the 128 sites he originally located, and presumably is still rebounding around cyberspace. I wonder whether the effects of the hoax will ever be eradicated?
A Cautionary Tale From Annette Carson, South Africa We all know we shouldn't believe everything on the Internet, and I’ve also heard that Wikipedia can be very unreliable. But the following, if true, seems to reveal a singularly successful hoaxer at work. The story started when I read an interesting article about Richard III on one of our very good branch websites, written by an associate professor at a leading university (not a professor of history, I hasten to add). To spare her blushes I will call her Dr X. The article mentioned the following: ‘Thomas More’s History was based on a contemporary source, Sir Robert Honorr’s Tragic Deunfall of Richard III, Suvereign of Britain (1485), a text that has not survived.’ This surprising claim was news to me, so I did a Google search and found several websites quoting the same thing in precisely the same words. I began to realise that a lot of copying had been going on. Significantly, I could find no trace of the mysterious Robert Honorr himself, or any of his alleged writings. I then found an admirable summary by an enterprising blogger named Upton Rehnberg, who was as dubious as I was. Upton had been on a similar mission to learn more about the Honorr story, and had evidently spent far more time on his researches than I could spare. Using eight or nine different search engines he uncovered no fewer than 128 results, all quoting exactly the same words, the origin of which he traced to the Wikipedia entry for Thomas More, http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_More. The Wikipedia reference cited no source. With my suspicions well and truly aroused, I sent an email to Dr X asking her the source of her information. She was then
John Howard did not play Pandarus From John Ashdown-Hill In his recent review (Ricardian vol. 20, pp.110-12) of my book on John Howard, Duke of Norfolk, Professor Pollard suggests that I see John Howard as having played Pandarus to the young Edward IV. This is inaccurate. In a book which explores Howard’s relationship with the House of York it was naturally important to include an examination of Howard’s relationship with Edward IV’s women. However, I concluded that ‘Howard probably had no particular involvement in the sexual activities of Edward IV, and was not, for example, in the habit of procuring women for the royal bed’ (Beloved Cosyn, p. 78). 45
‘If luck had been with him, Richard III might well have ruled long and wisely.’ An added bonus is Fiennes’ assessment of Henry VIII: ‘with no inbuilt bias for or against any particular monarch, I have come away with an active dislike for only one of them: Henry VIII. He was in every way a right evil bastard, as we used to say in the army, and with no redeeming features.’ I recommend the book as a fun read, not necessarily high in academic analysis but interesting and entertaining in his reporting of great events and the part that the extented Fiennes/Twistleton/Saye family played in them.
Books to Read — perhaps From Betty Beaney, London Has anyone come across Lisa Hulton’s book Queens Consort: England’s Medieval Queens? Quite a revelation, I assure you. The earlier chapters are very interesting, even though she does rather sideline Eleanor of Aquitaine. When she gets to Elizabeth Woodville and Anne Neville, she really goes to town! She states categorically that Richard murdered his nephews and then, worse, accuses him of an adulterous liaison with Elizabeth of York. She says Henry did not marry Elizabeth straight away in case she was pregnant with Richard’s child. She also suggests that Richard may have had a hand in Anne’s death. I see that this lady is speaking at the Norfolk Branch study day, and I’m sure a lot of members will wish to question her.
Carcassonne versus Calais From Phil Stone In her letter in the June Bulletin, Carol Carr comments that the Society trip doesn’t know what it is missing in choosing Calais over Carcassonne. Sadly, many of us know only too well what we are missing, having been there many years ago with Joyce Melhuish. Indeed, because we had so little time in Carcassonne on that visit, we have long been determined to return for a longer stay. Unfortunately, when we sat down last year to discuss the details and make plans, it quickly became obvious that, with the pound sinking against the euro and all the other problems with the economy, the cost of a visit with time to spend a whole day or two in Carcassonne would be in the region of £800 to £1,000, a sum which we knew members would not be willing to pay, even if they were able to pay it. It was for this reason that I threw out, in passing, the suggestion that we visit Calais. After all, it has so often been a town to pass through on the way to somewhere else, and we had never actually stopped to see its historic sites. Having now had a few days there, I am very glad that my fellow Visits Committee members didn’t throw out my slightly tongue-in-cheek suggestion. Calais and its environs have much to offer.
From Richard Caryl I have just enjoyed what I can only describe as a romp through the last thousand years of British history in the company of Ranulph Fiennes. His book entitled Mad Dogs and Englishmen describes the many ways that his antecedents have, as it were, touched the hem of great events, and occasionally led them. What was particularly pleasing was his generally sympathetic view of Richard III. The following are some extracts: ‘Thanks to Shakespeare turning him into a murdering hunchback, [Richard] is still thought of as the ultimate villain. This, in my opinion, is grossly unfair. ... ‘Richard was everything anyone could wish for in a brother ... utterly loyal to King Edward throughout the latter’s life and young Richard Fiennes was lucky to have him as his guardian and custodian ... his loyalty to his brother the King helped keep the peace for a long period of prosperity ... even his behaviour to his unbelievably duplicitous brother Clarence shows him in a good light ...
The Barton Library Postal Book Auction The deadline for receiving bids is 18 September – so you still have time to pick up some bargains – and raise money for a good cause (i.e. the Society’s Library). Full details of the books on offer, and how to submit your bids are on pages 53 to 54 of the June Bulletin.
Additions to the Non-Fiction Book Library The Last Days of Richard III by John Ashdown-Hill (The History Press, hardback, June 2010) As this new book has only just been received full details will be in the December Bulletin. It was kindly donated by member Elisabeth Sjoberg, the third book donated by her to the Barton Library, very welcome and much appreciated. The Battle of Wakefield revisited: a Fresh Perspective on Richard of York's Final Battle, December 1460 by Helen Cox (Herstory Writing and Interpretation, paperback, May 2010) A new look at the Battle of Wakefield, this thoughtful, perceptive account discusses various ‘myths’ surrounding the Battle, including the alleged incompetence of the Duke of York, and convincingly disposes of them. There is a full review of this book by Lynda Pidgeon on pp. 1819 of this Bulletin. Most of the new books added to the Library in the last year are reviewed more extensively than we have space for here, in the latest issue of The Ricardian, including the two books on John Howard mentioned in the last Bulletin. Look out for more new novels and additions to the Audio-Visual Library in the next Bulletin
Non-Fiction Papers Library We are sorry to report that Gillian Paxton, the Papers Librarian, has had to resign for personal reasons, so that loans from the Papers Collection are temporarily suspended while we look for a new Librarian. If you feel you might like to volunteer for this rewarding post, please see the notice on page 23 for more information about what is involved.
Contact details for all the Librarians are on the inside back cover.
Reports on Society Events An aviary fit for birds of paradise: Society visit to Kenilworth Kenilworth may not be Ricardian, it isn’t even medieval, but it was certainly well worth the visit we made on 15 May. The weather was in our favour, too. At first, it was a bit overcast but by the afternoon the sun shone continually and it became very warm. The castle is best known for being the scene of a visit Elizabeth I made to Robert Dudley, the earl of Leicester. She was lodged in the keep, and Dudley apologised for the rather mean accommodation. In the hope that she would visit him there again, he built a new house alongside the keep and the ruins of both stand within the outer wall. Elizabeth never saw the new house as she didn’t visit her ‘sweet Robin’ there again. Having crossed the dam upon which was built the tilt-yard and which is the entrance to the castle, the first place we went to was the newly refurbished Gatehouse, which was due to close for a wedding only an hour or so after we arrived. Many of the rooms are furnished as though being lived in, but the furnishings are not Tudor and look slightly out of place in their setting. The top floor had a small but interesting exhibition on the subject of ‘Elizabeth and Leicester’, while the oak-lined hall, with its ragged-staff decor, looked as if it would make a splendid venue for a wedding reception, though. The other part of the castle to be visited was the Elizabethan garden and aviary. Robert Dudley had everything laid out and constructed anew for the queen’s visit and, using contemporary accounts and drawings, English Heritage have tried to reconstruct it as accurately as possible. It looked splendid but another year or two and a month or two later should see it looking magnificent. The borders of the knot-garden are done in wild strawberries and thrift, and each section is laid out in a different but complementary design. The huge wooden obelisks give height to the design, while in the middle there is a huge fountain, consisting of two semi-clad male figures holding aloft a ball from which the water spouts, though this was somewhat fitful while we were there. The principal structure in the garden, of course, is the new aviary. Built to the original style out of solid oak, it is somewhat alarming to see how badly the wood is cracked. According to the Elizabethan account, the aviary was decorated with great jewels and these have been represented with large chunks of glass or plastic. The originals cannot possibly have been of such a size – they were all larger than the Koh-i-noor. The openings in the aviary for viewing the birds are filled with wire netting, but the mesh is almost as close as chain mail, making it nearly impossible to see the birds within. However, close up, it was possible to see that there were birds in there – two pheasants and two guinea fowl, birds that couldn’t have escaped if the mesh had been ten times larger. Overlooking the garden, alongside the keep, is a short walk, with stairs at each end down to the planted area. In the middle, there are two wooden bear and ragged-staff statuettes, presumably for Robert Dudley, but the bears have been painted white. Surely not the ‘polar bear and ragged staff’!
Kenilworth Castle and restored Elizabethan garden
Despite the glorious sunshine that brought out the traffic, our journey back to London was uneventful and I’m sure that all who had taken part in the visit had thoroughly enjoyed their day. Thanks go to Marian Mitchell for organising the trip, though she couldn’t actually be there when it came to it, and to Carolyn West for taking charge at the last minute.
Phil Stone Last Richard III Society Annual Requiem Mass: 26 June 2010 At twelve noon on Saturday 26 June 2010 in the medieval church of St Mary-at-the-Elms, Ipswich, some twenty-five Ricardians and guests assembled to commemorate King Richard III and Queen Anne Neville in the annual Requiem Mass. This small church houses the restored Shrine of Our Lady of Grace (Our Lady of Ipswich), patronised before the Reformation by members of the Royal Family including Queen Elizabeth of York, and by John Howard, Duke of Norfolk. The ancient plainchant of the Requiem Mass was sung, and Canon David Skeoch, wearing an embroidered black fifteenth-century style fiddle-back chasuble, conducted the service with moving simplicity and spoke in his homily about the importance of removing the stain from Richard III’s blackened name. After lunch members of the congregation enjoyed a short guided walk around those parts of historic Ipswich which could easily be visited on a busy modern Saturday afternoon. A blazing Yorkist sun shone of all the day’s proceedings. The only cause for regret concerning an otherwise very enjoyable day is that this may have been the last regular Annual Requiem Mass for the Society. The small group of organisers of this event feel that attendance this year was so low compared to previous years that it is probably not worth continuing to expend the quite considerable outlay of time which is required to set up such an event.
John Ashdown-Hill We very much hope that this year’s will not be the last Requiem Mass and are therefore seeking someone else to take on the responsibility. We also need a volunteer to organise the commemoration of Queen Anne Neville at Wesminster each March. Are there any members prepared to take on the organisation of one or both these events? If you can assist, please contact the Joint Secretaries. 49
Fair Stood the Wind for France ... The Society’s visit to Calais 15-18 July 2010 It was good to be returning to France after the two-year gap since we went to Provence, even though our original plans to go to Carcassonne had to be shelved as the euro steadily rose to nearparity with the pound. Calais, on the nearer shores of France, is a place we had all been through in the past, many times, but few of us had ever stayed there and explored its streets and buildings. Crécy and Agincourt are within reach, as is the great cathedral at Amiens, and the area has reminders of later, more dreadful wars than the Hundred Years War. It was also good to see old friends again, especially Don Jennings, who came all the way from St Louis, USA, to join us. Don Where we went - from a different angle lived in this country for a number of years till his retirement, and was a prime mover in setting up the Visits Committee when Joyce Melhuish died and we thought the visits would die with her. France nearly rejected us at first: the ferry was delayed an hour or so because of windy weather in the Channel, but it sailed at last. The crossing was very choppy, though with the compensations of nostalgia: fish and chips and mushy peas in the restaurant, sea-spray on the windows, nausea in the lavatories, and children racing about in the heaving open spaces. What with British Airways subject to strikes and volcanic ash, and Eurostar also having problems, will ferries eventually come back into their own? But we were in Calais at last. When Ricardian visits have been made to other destinations in France or beyond, people say to us, thinking how clever they are, ‘But I didn’t know Richard III ever went to Avignon / Aachen / Angoulême, etc.’ For Calais, there is no such problem. Richard was there, and on the bridge at Picquigny too. In northern France there were green trees, grey skies, pink hollyhocks in the gardens, clusters of windfarms. Is there a name for an individual component of a windfarm, one of those restless creatures with the circling spokes – is it a windmill? Or, more prosaically, a generator? The motorway bridges had a sort of statuary, white metal cut-out figures at their entrances, representing various sports: golf, fishing, archery, tennis, shooting. Beautiful new houses have been built on the outskirts of Sovereign’s stall misericord, St George’s Chapel, Windsor, villages, and at intervals came showing the meeting on the bridge at Picquigny in 1475 between older, more substantial houses Edward IV and Louis XI of France. Drawn by Geoff Wheeler.
with pointy towers and smart brickwork. Both Crécy and Agincourt have smartened-up museums, very up-to-theminute with electronics and themed information, but precious few artefacts from the actual battle sites. As usual, it was easier to see what happened in the battles from the contoured models of the terrain in the museums rather than from the fields themselves. The historian Froissart, said our guide at Crécy, said the French had been defeated ‘by men of no value’, meaning our plebeian archers. We all know the gesture our archers would have made to Froissart in return: the one showing that they had not been captured and had their fingers cut off to prevent them from ever drawing their bows again ... It was a very good trip, and the rain mostly stayed away. We had a preview of the Society’s new pewter pins in the shape of Richard’s boar (see p.xx). Dave Wells brought two dozen with him and sold nearly all. The hard work of a number of people made this visit a very enjoyable one. There were the three Rs. Rosemary Waxman and Ros Conaty organised it, wrote the tour guide, and Rosemary was our efficient tour manager, taking endless trouble to see that the arrangements worked. Ros brought round little presents for each of us at the dinner on the final evening, little bundles containing a white rose apiece and a pin to fasten it on with, some sweeties and a little glass or eggcup – such a nice thought. The third R was Rodney, our coach driver, who was no speed merchant (not that you want a Jehu in a motor vehicle) but very safe and steady. We should also thank Geoff Wheeler, who drew the most exquisite pictures for the front cover of the tour guide and has given us permission to reproduce some of them here. Each day has been written up here by a different person: four different takes on four very good days.
Windsor misericord: the French king leaves his castle
Edward IV and his brothers outside his tent
Thursday 15 July Calais: England’s ‘last corner of a foreign field’ Le Nord (covering some of historic Artois and Picardy) may not be the most glamorous part of France: however; any Ricardian will appreciate its significance as the one area of modern France of which Richard III had direct experience, coming here during Edward IV’s 1475 short-lived military expedition against Louis XI. We would actually be following in Richard’s footsteps on later stops in our trip: Richard and Clarence had a sibling re-union in St Omer with Margaret of York; and, after the signing of the Treaty of Picquigny, Richard received gifts of plate and horses from King Louis at Amiens. As with us, Richard entered and left France through Calais: a very different Calais, naturally. Apart from the fact that Calais was then part of the English kingdom, the physical fabric of Calais is much-changed from what Richard knew: Richard came to Calais to wage war in France and similar twentieth century ‘visitors’ caused immense destruction during the two world wars. Much of Calais is therefore of modern construction: the Flemish-style Hôtel de Ville looks as if it might be medieval, but dates from 1926. Even so, it is still a handsome backdrop to Rodin’s famous and fine statue of the Burghers of Calais, which commemorates their surrender of the 51
town to Edward III in 1347 which followed an elevenmonth siege, and the beginning of two hundred years of English rule here. A few structures in Calais actually date from the medieval period: less than five minutes walk from our hotel was the Tour du Guet. The tower dates from the thirteenth century and it was from here that the surrender terms of 1347 were announced; it has been sturdy enough to survive everything that war and even earthquake can throw at it since. Another medieval building has been less fortunate. The church of Nôtre Dame was started in the thirteenth century and then completed during English rule Plaque on Calais monument: Charles in an English Perde Gaulle and Yvonne Vendroux, pendicular style. It married at Calais, 7 April 1921 was severely damaged during World War Two and restoration work has been continuing since. In happier times, the church was the venue for Charles de Gaulle’s wedding in 1921. Unsurprisingly, modern Calais, given its significant role as a ferry port and shopping attraction for British tourists, has plenty of reminders of its neighbour across the Channel and also how this is a two-way relationship. So, an advertisement in a travel agent’s invites locals ‘Découvrez Canterbury’ and a pub nearby is called ‘The Rodin’s Burghers of Calais London Bridge’, though the effect is slightly spoiled by the images of Tower Bridge in frosted glass on the windows. However, my first day ended with a comforting reminder of France: a leisurely, four-course meal for €15. Howard Choppin
Friday 16 July: Crécy and Amiens The 75-mile drive from Calais to Crécy and Amiens in Picardy, took us along the A16 motorway passing farmland, Boulogne, small villages and, nearer Crécy, an elaborate nineteenth-century (?) chateau. The battlefield site is farmland now, and half a mile north of the outskirts of Crécy-enPonthieu. On arrival, we met a real knight: our guide Sir Philip Preston, founder of the Battle of Crécy Trust and co-author of the 2007 book on the battle. Did his ancestors fight there, I wonder? We climbed the viewing-tower built on the site of the windmill where Edward III had watched the battle. Edward drew his army on the highest point of the ridge, and the French army was forced to fight uphill. Edward had arrived in northern France in July 1346 to stake his claim to the French crown. He captured Caen and arrived at Crécy on 26 August. The French king, Philip VI, with his ally, blind King John of Bohemia, and his army including Genoese crossbowmen arrived at midday. Philip was forced by his advisers to engage the English. A sudden rainstorm caused the strings of the crossbows to get damp, and when fired, bolts fell Seal of the blind King John of short of the English army. The English archers, however, Bohemia, killed at Crécy 52
Looking at the battle plan in Crécy visitors’ centre: L to R: Joan Cooksley, Fiona Price, Kitty Bristow, Jeanette Underhill, Gillian Lazar, Rosanna Salbashian, Jane Barrett, Sheila Hamilton Smith, Audrey Howes (just), Faith Lewis and Ros Conaty
had kept their bowstrings dry by placing them in their clothing and under their hats. The chronicler Froissart described how the English archers ‘let their arrows fly so wholly and so thick that it seemed snow’. The resulting casualties caused the Genoese to retreat into the advancing French cavalry. The surviving crossbowmen were later hunted down and killed in the streets of Amiens for their treachery. Philip VI fled the battlefield. The ensuing English victory against the larger French army meant that Crécy is more important than Agincourt. Edward, Prince of Wales, the Black Prince, won his spurs and adopted the motto of the dead king of Bohemia ‘I serve’. Edward III besieged Calais, which surrended in 1347 and was held by the English until 1558. The Order of the Garter was set up in 1348 as the highest chivalric ideal, and the longbow was recognised as the decisive battle weapon. Crécy is less well known because Shakespeare did not write a play about it. The Crécy museum contained a model of the battle, diagrams, a replica of Gloucester cathedral’s Crécy window, and a French illustrated children’s history book of the middle ages with biographies of Jeanne of Arc and Robin de Bois – Robin in the wood. The museum also contains World War Two relics, as an airbase and V1 rocket launch site were situated nearby. Our next stop was Amiens, a city much damaged in World War One. It was in the streets of Amiens that Edward IV’s English soldiers got drunk on French ‘hospitality’ before the Treaty of Picquigny was signed in July 1475. Amiens was ceded to the Duchy of Burgundy from 1435 to 1477. After lunch in a small bar, enjoying ‘ficelle de Picardie’ ( a mushroom, ham and cheese crêpe) I visited the cathedral. Louis XI called the cathedral of Nôtre Dame one of the most beautiful in his kingdom, and it was much admired by John Ruskin. The cathedral is the largest in France, and when completed in 1288 could hold the whole population of Amiens. The stained glass was destroyed during during World War One. The west front with its 3,000 stone figures, including signs of the zodiac, and rose window is most impressive. Inside, treasures included a reliquary containing (it was averred) the head of St John the Baptist brought from Constantinople in 1206 in the fourth crusade, and venerated by kings and princes. Nearby polychrome carvings from the 1470s tell the stories of John the Baptist and the martyred St Firmin, with figures in fifteenth-century costume. The choirstalls with 4, 000 carving of religious and social scenes were completed in 1522. On the journey back to Calais, I thought how evocative the day had been: the names of Crécy, Amiens, the Somme and Picardy redolent of history and memories of Englishmen of different centuries who had left their bones in France. Fiona Price 53
Saturday 17 July: Agincourt and St Omer Saturday morning dawned bright and fair for the day when we happy, and not so few, coach-load of brothers and sisters sallied forth for the Field of Agincourt. A short journey south-westward along the almost empty auto-routes brought us to the country road by which we would approach the remote village of Azincourt – this is the first and last time I will spell it with a ‘Z’, and my spellchecker doesn't like it either. Agincourt is Middleham’s twin town but is much smaller. There is little signposting to show that one is approaching such an important historic site and the first signs are lifesize wooden cutouts of bowmen half hidden in the hedgerows, to be joined later by knights in armour, and the intensity of their number increases as one draws nigh to the village, finally being joined by their comrades ensconced in cottage front gardens. This is not nearly so naff as it sounds and actually induces a sense of impending excitement. I would not recommend this approach for Bosworth, though! We arrived at the new custom-built Battlefield Centre and it was decided that we would go around the battlefield on a ‘moving grandstand’ (i.e. our coach) before sampling the delights of the Centre, and not forgetting the nearby Charles VI restaurant. Our guide, who must remain a man of mystery, as we only ever knew him as ‘Monsieur’ climbed aboard and with no introduction possible, sat invisibly in the low front courier seat and began his lecture. He was a paragon of impartiality, although French of course, and this may explain his apparent wish to remain anonymous. Rodney, our driver, was ordered to stop at certain relevant points as we skirted the battlefield. A farm on a hill was on the site of the old castle where the French had camped, and Maisoncelle, where Henry probably camped, was thought, by its name to have been an old leper centre. The battlefield itself was, in the main, planted with cereal, and in the sunlight, was more reminiscent of The Field of the Cloth of Gold than the muddy ploughed acres of the October battle. A minor road horizontally bisects the battlefield and the opposing armies would have been each side of this modern road, illustrated by a concentration of cutout bowmen on the English side and knights on the French. It was interesting to note that the harvest was under way and the French half of the field was already cut down and the English still waving proudly in the breeze. A nice touch! Monsieur explained that the story about Henry slaughtering thousands of French prisoners in retaliation for the murder of the English baggage-train boys was untrue and invented by none other than Shakespeare, who could not always be trusted with the facts. The baggage boys were not murdered and Henry only killed the prisoners because the English were already tremendously outnumbered and he couldn't risk the prisoners salvaging weapons from the dead and regrouping. Monsieur said he had no choice but to disregard the laws of chivalry and allow the ‘Cry Havoc’ to be sounded. We did not visit the cross erected in 1793 in the copse where the French were reputedly buried as the site had been recently excavated and found to be empty. The grave sites are now believed to be in the middle of cultivated land, so Garter stall plate of Sir Thomas alighting on the copse in earlier times may have just been Erpingham, commander of the agricultural expediency. archers at Agincourt 54
The Battlefield Centre was extremely well laid out and was (if I remember rightly), not unlike the new Bosworth one. After a good look around and much purchasing in the shop we retired in relays to the rather small Charles VI restaurant where we could eat anything we liked as long as it was omelette. Madame had to turn French people away. Iâ€™m sure Charles VI would not have approved. We then set off for Calais by way of St Omer where we spent a pleasant and relaxing afternoon. This town has as many English connections as Calais itself. It is twinned with Deal and it was the HQ for the Royal Flying Corps in the First World War. It was a refuge for English Catholics after 1593 when a Jesuit College was founded. It is believed that the Gunpowder Plot could have initially been hatched here. In 1793 it was Modern stained glass window deemed safe to move the college to England, where it became of St Omer in the cathedral. Drawn by Geoff Wheeler. Stonyhurst. On a less happy note, another export from here was the expert swordsman demanded by Henry VIII for the execution of his hapless second wife. There is a splendid basilica here which on one side has a typically English close, whilst the usual streetscape skirts the other side. A wedding was in progress when we arrived and some of us took the opportunity to take the weight off our feet and augment the congregation. Other features to admire were an astronomical clock designed by a contemporary of Copernicus, with the earth at its centre and the sun on the outside, and a truly splendid organ dating from 1717 made of Danish oak. We then encoached again for our Calais base to prepare for our special Saturday night dinner, which we knew would be somewhat more substantial than the lunchtime omelettes. Joan Cooksley
Saturday evening dinner After the day visiting Azincourt and St Omer, the party gathered for dinner at the CafĂŠ de Paris, just along from our hotel. It was, as these events so often are, a very convivial evening, with good food, good conversation and quite a lot of good wine. As the evening went on, it seemed as if each of the five tables was vying with the others as to which could be the loudest. As has become customary on these occasions, I gave thanks on behalf of us all to various people, to our driver, Rodney; to Ros and Andrew Conaty for the party favours which we had been given at the beginning of our meal; to Ros and Rosemary Waxman for organising the whole trip and, finally, to Rosemary for making such a good job of being our tour manager. Recalling that I had thanked
Ros Conaty, Rosemary Waxman and Andrew Conaty
Geoff and Joyce Tindle, Lesley Boatwright, Don Jennings, Dave Wells, Elaine Robinson (just) and Howard Choppin
visits organisers for nearly every one of the last 30 years, I commented on how pleased I was that the Visits Committee had taken my somewhat throwaway suggestion of Calais seriously (see my letter on page 46).
Sunday 18 July: Boulogne It was bright and blustery on Sunday morning as we left Calais for the last time and headed for Boulogne. There, we stopped near to the castle, the former home of the Counts of Boulogne. Some found time to visit the cathedral, with its enormous dome-topped tower, while others headed straight for the castle. Before either, however, we all had to pass the monument to Auguste Mariette, Egyptologist and founder of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. A grey stone pyramid, topped by a bronze statue, it is set in gardens, where one of the bushes is also shaped like a pyramid. Nearby, and looking equally magnificent was a full size replica of the so-called ‘solar boat’ of Khufu, which was found some years ago next to the Great Pyramid at Giza. The walk to the castle took us through a small market where one stall had some water melons exquisitely carved to look like flowers and leaves, while nearby, in the grounds of the Hôtel-de-Ville was a sculpture display, with gardening implements or fruit and veg, including a ten-foot -tall pair of green wellies, a six-foot-high radish and a twelve-foot-high spade. Brobdingnagian garden implements In the castle is an interesting museum, part of the on show in front of the Hôtel-de-Ville collection being ethnological, beginning with artifacts from Ancient Egypt, with an unwrapped mummy, amulets and shabtis – very typical of the finds in many a provincial museum, and none the worse for that. There were also many Greek vases, as well as items from Peru, Africa, and Alaska. There were also some pieces of medieval art, mostly depictions of the Virgin, in various states of decay. Another floor had a collection of modern art, and another a collection of nineteenth-century glass, paintings and sculpture. In the basement, it felt like walking through a fridge, which was not unwelcome with the ambient temperature elsewhere being so very warm. There we saw some Roman statuary and the ‘vaulted room’, with, as you would expect, a vaulted ceiling. As well as visiting the castle and the church, some people walked the massive walls of the old town, some went in search of lunch and others just made their way back to the car park next to Mariette in order to sit in the Castle Museum, Boulogne, drawn sunshine and await the coach. by Geoff Wheeler Back on board, we headed for Calais and the various procedures required – passport inspection, checking for illegal immigrants in the engine compartment, etc. – before being allowed to board the ferry for Dover and what was to be a very comfortable crossing, as smooth as Thursday’s had been rough. Phil Stone
Future Society Events Christmas at Fotheringhay: Saturday 11 December 2010 It’s June and I’m shivering indoors whilst watching the rain pouring down the window so it’s clearly time for me to be arranging Christmas at Fotheringhay, which many of us think of as the start of the festive season. It’s a great chance to meet up with old friends for lunch followed by the uplifting and joyful experience of the Carol Service. If ‘flaming June’ is time for me to arrange the event, then September is very much the time for you to book – see below. At 12.30 pm, there will be a buffet lunch in the Village Hall, and this will include a vegetarian option for those who have let me know beforehand. Desserts will include Christmas pudding and fruit salad and there will be wine or soft drinks as desired, followed by coffee and mince pies. If this is not enough to encourage you to join us, Kitty Bristow plans to hold one of her raffles. The Carol Service, which is shared with members of the parish, begins at 3.00 pm in the medieval church of St Mary and All Saints and is similar in style to the Festival of Nine Lessons. As usual, the music will be led by our friends, the St Peter's Singers. The coach from London will leave Charing Cross Embankment at 9.30 am, getting back between 7.00 and 7.30 pm. Pick-up in Bromley at 8.30 am will be available for those who let me know. If you wish to take part (and who could not, surely?), either by coach or using your own transport, please let me know as soon as possible which option you require: a) lunch and a place on the coach b) lunch after making your own way to Fotheringhay c) just a place in the church The costs will be as follows:a) £36.00 to cover hire of coach, lunch, choir, admin., etc. b) £20.00 for lunch, choir, admin., etc. Please complete the coupon in the centrefold and return it to me at 181 Rock Avenue, Gillingham, Kent, ME7 5PY, with a cheque endorsed ‘Fotheringhay’, together with an SAE, as soon as possible.
Phil Stone The 2011 Study Weekend will take place from 8 to 10 April in the Elmbank Hotel, York
Theme: the de la Pole family See page 10 57
Branch and Group Contacts Branches America
David M. Luitweiler, 1268 Wellington Drive, Victor, New York, 14564 United States of America. Tel: 585-924-5022. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Canada Mrs Tracy Bryce, 5238 Woodhaven Drive, Burlington, Ontario, L7L 3T4, Canada. Email: email@example.com Web site: http://home.cogeco.ca/~richardiii Devon & Cornwall Mrs Anne E Painter, Yoredale, Trewithick Road, Breage, Helston, Cornwall, TR13 9PZ. Tel. 01326-562023. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Gloucester Angela Iliff, 18 Friezewood Road, Ashton, Bristol, BS3 2AB Tel: 0117-378-9237. Email: email@example.com Greater Manchester Mrs Helen Ashburn, 36 Clumber Road, Gorton, Manchester, M18 7LZ. Tel: 0161-320-6157. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Hull & District Terence O’Brien, 2 Hutton Close, Hull, HU4 4LD. Tel: 01482 445312 Lincolnshire Mrs J T Townsend, Westborough Lodge Farm, Westborough, Newark, Notts. NG23 5HP.Tel: 01400 281289. Email: email@example.com London & Home Counties Miss E M Nokes, 4 Oakley Street, Chelsea, London SW3 5NN. Tel: 01689 823569. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Midlands-East Mrs Sally Henshaw, 28 Lyncroft Leys, Scraptoft, Leicester, LE7 9UW. Tel: 0116-2433785. Email: email@example.com New South Wales Julia Redlich, 53 Cammeray Towers, 55 Carter Street, New South Wales, 2062, Australia. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.richardiii-nsw.org.au New Zealand Robert Smith, ‘Wattle Downs’, 61 Udy Street, Greytown, New Zealand.Email: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.richard3nz.org Norfolk Mrs Annmarie Hayek, 20 Rowington Road, Norwich, NR1 3RR. Tel: 01603 664021. Email: email@example.com Queensland as New South Wales Scotland Juliet Middleton, 49 Ochiltree, Dunblane, Perthshire, FK15 0DF Tel: 01786 825665. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org South Australia Mrs Sue Walladge, 5 Spencer Street, Cowandilla, South Australia 5033, Australia. Email: email@example.com Thames Valley Sally Empson, 42 Pewsey Vale, Forest Park, Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 9YA. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Victoria Hazel Hajdu, 4 Byron Street, Wattle Park, Victoria, 3128, Australia. Email: email@example.com Western Australia Helen Hardegen, 16 Paramatta Road, Doubleview, Western Australia 6018, Australia. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: http://members.iinet.net.au/~hhardegen/ Worcestershire Mrs Pam Benstead, 15 St Marys Close, Kempsey WR5 3JX Email: email@example.com. Website: www.richardiiiworcs.co.uk Yorkshire Mrs P.H. Pogmore, 169, Albert Road, Sheffield, S8 9QX Tel: 0114 258 6097. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Groups Bedfordshire/ Buckinghamshire Bristol Croydon Cumbria Dorset Mid Anglia North East North Mercia Nottinghamshire & Derbyshire Sussex West Surrey
Mrs Rose Skuse. 12 Brookfield Rd, Newton Longville, Bucks, MK17 0BP Tel: 01908 373524 Email: email@example.com Keith Stenner, 96 Allerton Crescent, Whitchurch, Bristol, Tel: 01275-541512 (in affiliation with Gloucestershire Branch) Email: Keith.firstname.lastname@example.org Miss Denise Price, 190 Roundwood Rd, London NW10 Tel: 020 8451 7689 John & Marjorie Smith, 26 Clifford Road, Penrith, Cumbria, CA11 8PP Babs Creamer, 27 Baker Road, Bear Cross, Bournemouth, BH11 9JD. Tel: 01202 573951 Email: email@example.com John Ashdown-Hill, Genistae, 115 Long Road, Lawford, CO11 2HR. Tel/fax 01206 393572. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.freewebs.com/r3midanglia/ Mrs J McLaren, 11 Sefton Avenue, Heaton, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE6 5QR Tel: 0191 265 3665. Email: email@example.com Miss Marion Moulton, 6 Shrewbridge Crescent, Nantwich, Cheshire CW5 5TF. Tel. 01270 623664 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Mrs Anne Ayres, 7 Boots Yard, Huthwaite, Sutton-in-Ashfield Notts, NG17 2QW. Email: email@example.com Liz Robinson, 14 Queen’s Park Rise, Brighton, BN2 9ZF, tel. 01273 609971, email: firstname.lastname@example.org Rollo Crookshank, Old Willows, 41a Badshot Park, Farnham, Surrey, GU9 9JU. Email: email@example.com
Richard III and the Knave of Cards: An Illuminator’s Model in Manuscript and Print, 1440s to 1490s Anne F. Sutton and Livia Visser-Fuchs The Antiquaries Journal, Volume 79 (1999), pages 257-99 For over 200 years it has been asserted (originally by Joseph Strutt) that an unflattering portrait of Richard, Duke of Gloucester, exists in the presentation miniature of the copy of the Chronicle of England by Jean de Wavrin owned by Edward IV. The authors recite the history of this assertion and prove that no such portrait exists. In fact the figure of the courtier concerned turns out to be a figure commonly used by illuminators and painters of all sorts, ranging from Dürer to the first designers of playing cards. The figure in fact was the original knave of cards. When Strutt and his imitators searched for a figure that answered their imaginary idea of what a villainous Richard looked like they chose, by chance, the knave of cards! They did not find a portrait of the historical Richard. This off-print is extensively illustrated. Price £3.50 including p&p, for UK members, from the Sales Officer, or direct from Dr A.F. Sutton, 44 Guildhall St, Bury St Edmunds, IP33 1QF. Overseas members please consult the Sales Officer 59
Branches and Groups East Midlands Branch Report A review of this year’s Branch activities must begin with an expression of our relief that the memorial plaque to King Richard on the former St Martin’s Bank in Grey Friars has been restored to public view. It had been obscured by a hoarding placed by developers, with the apparent consent of the City Council. Thanks to the efforts of the Society, the Branch and public protest in the local media, good sense eventually prevailed and the episode had a happy outcome. Thanks to all who supported us to ensure that the plaque can again be seen.. We have enjoyed a full programme of meetings, which has included talks on recent archaeological excavations in Leicester by Richard Buckley of Leicester University; ‘Four Medieval Ladies’ by Rowena Edlin-White; Janet Parker, costumed in the guise of a medieval wise woman, describing her craft and her potions; an account of the Bosworth Battlefield Conference from those lucky enough to be present; Bob Trubshaw on ‘Mawming and Mooning – the Minds of Medieval Masons’ (often quite disgusting!) and to end the season in grand style our Secretary, Sally Henshaw, gave a most well-researched and innovative talk on ‘The Court Jester’. A group visit was made to Tewkesbury, led by our Branch Chairman, Richard Smith, and a welcome return visit to the Leicestershire Records Office was made, where the ever-helpful staff displayed some medieval documents from their collection, including one signed by Lord Hastings, and we were given an insight into the conservation and repair of documents in the collection. We look forward to next season, starting in September with a walking tour of Medieval Stamford, again led by Richard Smith. In October Gareth King returns to talk on ‘Medieval Myths and Legends’ and there will be ‘Who was Robin Hood?’ from another returning favourite speaker, David Baldwin, in November. A full programme is available from our Secretary, and, if you live in the Leicester area and have not yet joined in our activities, please do get in touch. Unless you do we have no way of knowing you are out there, as the Society does not give out members’ details to Branches, leaving it to the member to make contact with the Branch. Please do, you will be assured of a warm welcome from a group of enthusiastic Ricardians dedicated to learning all they can about King Richard and his times, and locally presenting well-reasoned arguments about his cause. We hope to meet many of those members who are coming to the Society’s AGM in Leicester in October and please look out for details of our Branch Study Day on the theme of ‘The Power Behind the Throne’ planned for June 2011. Marion Hare, Branch Vice-Chair
Worcestershire Branch Report The summer has seen the Worcestershire Branch making visits outside the county, as well as enjoying an excellent talk. On 8 May the Chairman, Judith Sealey, organised a most interesting day’s outing to Bridgenorth in Shropshire. Members gathered in the morning at the ruins of the castle, which was probably founded by the Lady Æthelflæda, was certainly a royal fortress under the Plantagenets and was most definitely slighted by Cromwell. The first stop on the tour was Thomas Telford’s church, built in the 1790s; it was an austerely elegant building made unusually light and airy for a church by its enormous arched windows of clear glass. By contrast, the medieval St Leonard’s church was much darker and retained many Gothic features, including some stained glass and finely carved corbels, despite heavy Victorian 60
restoration. A walk through the old town clearly showed the medieval street plan. The poor weather ensured that a brisk pace was maintained, but some fine buildings were nonetheless noted en route to the only surviving town gate, the North Gate. After a fine lunch in a pleasant hostelry, the party descended the steps to the river to look at the ruins of the fourteenth-century house of the Grey Friars, a site only recently excavated after the removal of modern buildings. Jumping forward to the early nineteenth century, Judith pointed out the place where Richard Trevithick had built his steam locomotive, ‘Catch as catch can’, which predated Stevenson’s ‘Rocket’. Members wisely took the funicular railway back to the castle at the top of the hill and repaired to one of Bridgenorth’s splendid cafés for well-deserved tea and cakes. No direct Ricardian associations had been found, but it was a most enjoyable and thoughtfully planned day for which Judith was thanked by all. On 11 June the Branch was delighted to welcome Steven Goodchild, an historian and Chairman of the Tewkesbury Battlefield Trust, to give an illustrated talk about the battle, prior to our visit to the Festival in July. He lucidly explained the complex connections between the English and French royal families, the political web woven by Louis XI, the ‘Spider King’ of France, and the devious behaviour of Warwick and Margaret of Anjou. He then vividly described the advance of the armies and their meeting at the fogbound Battle of Barnet and he detailed the roles of the principal nobles, Warwick, Somerset, Oxford and Devon, as well as those of Edward IV, the hapless Henry VI, Margaret of Anjou and Richard of Gloucester. Steven’s account of the subsequent progress of the Yorkist and Lancastrian forces to Tewkesbury and of the battle itself was dramatic. He clearly explained the disposition of the different contingents and the manoeuvres and encounters that led finally to the Lancastrian rout. He used evidence from the sources, particularly from The Arrivall, quoting the account of the fate of Edward, Prince of Wales, who was ‘taken fleinge to the townewards and slayne in the fielde’, not treacherously murdered by Richard. He described the subsequent executions and burials and noted that Edward’s monument in Tewkesbury Abbey was destroyed in the eighteenth century, though a drawing of it survives; above the brass plate which marks the place where he was buried there is, appropriately, a Yorkist ‘sun in splendour’; the Duke of Somerset lies beneath the Abbey Gift Shop. Steven added that one of the Sforzas of Milan noted that Edward of Lancaster was a nasty child and that another story said that, while still young, he had told his mother to behead the captives she held. Edward was also generally referred to as a ‘boy’ while Richard of Gloucester, only a year older, was universally written about as an adult, not unreasonably since he had had considerable experience of both war and politics by 1471, though he was still only eighteen. Steven Goodchild’s talk had prepared members for their excursion to Gloucestershire for the Tewkesbury Festival on 10 July. The weather was glorious and it was agreed that the town had had never been more splendidly decorated with flags and banners. The Mayor arrived formally in procession at the battlefield and the principal guest was actor, author and authority on the longbow, Robert Hardy. Many people were in costume, including some of our members, and the tented village was larger than usual with numerous authentic tents equipped in true fifteenth-century style. The Branch’s stand proved popular, with many items sold and leaflets distributed. One member, Pam Benstead, had produced a large and detailed display showing the future Richard III’s role in the battle. And three new members joined. The re-enactment of the battle was spectacular with some 2,400 participants. Steven and the Tewkesbury Battlefield Trust are to be congratulated on their excellent organisation of a memorable Festival, which we would certainly recommend other members of the Richard III Society to attend in the future. Carol Southworth
Yorkshire Branch Report The Branch Chairman, her daughter Hannah and Lynda Telford, our Swaledale representative, met the party of American (and one Canadian) Ricardians who visited Britain this June: we were delighted that the weather was so good, and as always it was good to meet old friends and make some new ones. We spent time together at Middleham (a very quiet morning at the castle and no visitors apart from ourselves) and then at Fountains Abbey. The duty custodian at Middleham kindly let us pose for group photos with the English Heritage Ricardian boar banner which is usually flown from the top of the keep on notable anniversaries. At Fountains, Lynda guided the party round to such good effect that a passing Australian couple asked if she was an official guide and if they could join us; they did anyway. A special word of thanks must go to Linda Treybig and her group for the lovely birthday card they had prepared (and calligraphed) and signed for the present writer, whose birthday was that day. Their kindness and forethought were much appreciated. The following day saw our visitors in south Yorkshire; our Committee members Pauline and Marjorie met them at Bolsover and took them round the castle, and I gather the younger members of Pauline’s extended family were most helpful in showing people up and down the four storeys of the ‘Little Castle’, the oldest part of the structure, begun by Charles Cavendish in 1612 as a ‘fantasy house’ in which to entertain his guests and described by Mark Girouard as ‘an almost untouched expression ... of the lost world of Elizabethan chivalry and romances’. It was also heartening that the day was a good sales opportunity for the Branch! The Bulletin deadline prevents reports on our visit to Fotheringhay on 29 July and on our Bosworth commemoration on 15 August and AGM at the beginning of September, but there is time to remind members of the Branch 50th Anniversary event at Bedern Hall, York, on Saturday 23 October. There will be stalls, short talks, and demonstrations by re-enactors, and a Medieval Banquet will be held at the same venue in the evening. The dress code for this last is medieval costume OR lounge suit, as we don’t wish to deter people who would like to come but aren’t keen on ‘dressing up’. Please contact our Secretary at firstname.lastname@example.org for full details. Subscribers to our Branch magazine should have received the menu and a booking form with their August Newsletter. The Branch will be holding its commemoration of the battle of Wakefield with a wreathlaying at the Duke of York’s statue in Sandal, to take place at 2.15 p.m. on Sunday 2 January 2011. Please meet at the statue and let’s hope the weather isn’t as bad as it was last year. Angela Moreton
Fotheringhay events for your diary: Friday 10 September at 8.00 p.m.: the Tenth Annual Organ Recital Robert Quinney, sub-organist at Westminster Abbey Music by Mozart, Byrd, Mendelssohn, Gardner and Bach Saturday 6 November at 2.30 p.m.: AGM of the Friends of Fotheringhay Church followed by the annual lecture: John Whitehead, of Bosworth Battlefield Centre, will speak on ‘The Battle of Bosworth: lost and found’. The Society thanks Juliet Wilson for all her assistance while churchwarden of Fotheringhay Church, and welcomes the new wardens, Ann Gould and Jenny Martin. We look foward to a happy association with them both. 62
New Members Ronald Page, Crawley, Sussex Paul Rose, Leicester Rosemary Sanderson, Sheffield Samantha Smith, near Lymington, Hants Richard Smolowik, London Frances Stevenson, Bracknell, Berks Elizabeth Sutherland, St Albans, Herts Elizabeth Williams, Colchester, Essex Patrick Worthy, Totnes, Devon
UK 1 April to 31 June 2010 Robert Briggs, North Harrow, Middx Mark Carr, Alton, Hants Christine Clarke, Jarrow, Tyne & Wear Peter & Diana Clegg, Sheffield S. Cottrill-Bent, Mount Hawke, Cornwall Annette Davies, Stafford Wendy Drinkwater, Nottingham Winifred Farrington, Sandbach, Cheshire Michael Farrow, London Susan Franks, Ossett Lee Gibson, Doncaster Marianne Gilchrist, Glasgow David Hawes, Slough, Berks Mike Holland, Staines, Middx Jennifer King, Llandeilo, Carmarthenshire Chris Lake, Aberdeen Katie Leaver, Redditch, Worcs Stephen McQuiggan, Craigavon, Co. Armagh Thomas Munch-Petersen, St Leonards on Sea, E.Sussex John, Moira & Jane Oliver, Barnard Castle, Co. Durham
Australia 1 April to 31 June 2010 Kathryn Gauci, Eltham, Victoria Elizabeth Howatt, Camberwell, Victoria US Branch 1 April to 31 June 2010 Joyce Cowles, San Antonio, Texas Jennifer Depold, Sacramento, California Pam Milavec, Northglenn, Colorado Louise Troehler, Fort Wayne, Indiana Marti Young, Chico, California
Recently Deceased Members Gwyneth Jones, Ruislip, Middx, joined 2009 George Smith, Ilford, Essex, joined 2010 Donald Templeman, Sheffield, Yorks, joined 2002 Mr M. Bowden, Devizes, Wilts, joined 1985 David Oldroyd, Biggleswade, Beds, joined 2002
We are also very sorry to report the death of Carole Rike of the American Branch, news of which came when the Bulletin was about to go to press. There will be a full appreciation of her in the December Bulletin.
Calendar We run a calendar of all forthcoming events. If you are aware of any events of Ricardian interest, whether organised by the Society (Committee, Visits Committee, Research Committee, Branches/Groups) or by others, please let Lesley Boatwright have full details in sufficient time for entry. The calendar will also be run on the website. Date
Society AGM, Leicester
Secretaries (see p. 3)
Yorkshire Branch 50th Anniversary Event
Norfolk Branch: talk by Glenn Foard on Bosworth Battlefield Discoveries
Norfolk Branch Study Day, Norwich
Christmas at Fotheringhay
Chairman (see p. 57)
Yorkshire Branch Commemoration of the Battle of Wakefield
Yorkshire Branch (p. 62)
Blood & Roses: special interest weekend at Christ Church, Oxford
Christ Church, Oxford (see p. 22)
Study Weekend at York
Research Committee (see p. 10)
East Midlands Study Day on â€˜The Power Behind the Throneâ€™
East Midlands Branch
Long Weekend based in Sussex (see December 2010 Bulletin for details)