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Ricardian Bulletin Magazine of the Richard III Society

ISSN 0308 4337

March 2010



.1I1.arcli 2010

Contents 2 From the Chairman 3 Isolde Wigmm: Obitua ry and Tributes 9 Society News and Notices 11 Study Weekend at York

12 New Trust Book Launched: The Heralds' Memoir, at Ihe College of Arms 15 Bosworth Found? by Lynda Pidgeon 19 News and Reviews, including T he Road 10 FOlhcringhay

27 Corrections and Comments: by GeofflVheeler 28 Med ia Re trospective

31 Med ia Retrospective extra 34 Noles and Queries 35 The Man Himself: A Defence of King Richard by Isolde Wigram 36 They Died of a Catarrh? 37 Reflections on the Princes in Ihe Tower: by Pafricia Payne 39 A Dagenham K night and his Lady: by Pefer Foley 4 1 Henry VI cures a Deaf Clergy man by Lesley Boatwright 43 Renovations at Astley Castle: by Andrew Charles Plallfagenef SUlllmers 45 Richard 111 , hi s ni ece, and thei r Chri stmas fun: by Lesley Boatwright 46 Corresponde nce 49 T he Barton Library 5 1 Reports on Society Events 52 Australasian Conventio n 2009: by Carole Carson 54 Future Society Events 55 Branches and G roup Contacts 57 Branches and G roups Reports 63 New Members and Recently Deceased Members 64 Calendar

Contributions Contributions are welcomed from all members. All contributions should be sent to Lesley Boatv.Tight.

'Buffelin 'Press 'Da.les I S January for March issue; I S April for June issue; I S July for September issue; 15 October for December issue Articles should be sent well in advance

'B u ffettn & Rica.nilan 'Back Numbers Back issues of The Ricardian and the BII/le/in are available from Judith Ridley. If you are interested in obtaining any back numbers, please contact Mrs Ridley to establish whether she holds the issue(s) in which you are interested For contact details see back inside cover of the BII/le/in The 1{ica rmon 'Buffetin is produced by the Bulletin Editorial Committee. Printed by Micropress Pri nters Ltd. 0 Richard UI Society, 2010

:from the Cfiairman


e begi n this new decade on a sad nOle with the death or Isolde Wigmm our senior VicePresident She was just three weeks short of her ninetieth birthday_ As most members wi ll know, Isolde, more than anyone, was the dri vi ng force behind the fe-founding of the Society back in the 1950s The Exec utive Committee is looking into how we mi ght establish a permanent memorial 10 her withi n the Society and we ho pe to be able 10 make an announcement al this year's AGM in Leicester. Meanwhile, I am sure that everyone wi ll join me in recognising her unique contribution 10 the Society and in expressing our sadness at her passing. I would like 10 add my own thanks 10 Isolde for her support when I became Chairman_ One was always aware that the Society was very much ' her baby' and thai, if somethi ng was done of which she didn't approve, you would hear of it - nO! necessarily from her, but by a roundabout route. Isolde was never one for shouti ng from the rooftops. It was a great help to me to know that she was happy with the Executive's choice of a replacement for Robert Hamblin and to be given her advice on the occasions when it was needed. It is noted in Isolde 's obituary that the Society today far exceeds in its range of activities and achievements anything that she and Saxon Barton could have dreamed. The Richard III and Yorkist History T rust certainly fits here and I am very pleased to see that the Trust's latest book n'e Heralds路 Memoir has now been published with the launch appropriately enough at The College of Arms, an institution that owes so much to King Richard. Founded in 1986, the T rust is the c haritable arm of the Society, designed to encourage and support research and associated publications. It has brought the Society considerable esteem and next year it will celebrate its twenty-fifth anni versary. Bosworth has again been in the news following the completion of the recent archaeological investigations aimed at pinpointing exactly where this see mingly peripatetic bailie did actually take place. The full results were revealed on 20 February, too late for inclusion in thi s issue, but Lynda Pidgeon has provided a very helpful summary of what had been made public before. We wi ll report furth er in the next Bulletin, and will , of course, update members via the websi te as soon as any new information is to hand. A mongst our usual features in this issue we have an interesting approach to the perennial matter of the Princes in the Tower by a new Blllletin contributor, Patricia Payne; in another article we learn about a knight from Dagenham, and we have de tails of a further miracle attributed to Henry VI There is also an account of the Australas ian Convention held last October and it is clear that a very good time was had by all . Our congratulations go to members down under for holding such a successful event. The Wakefield Hi storical Society are organising a re-enactment of the funeral route of Richard, Duke of York, in commemoration the 550th anniversary of hi s death at the battle of Wakefield in 1461. Unfortunately, it comes at a time when the Society is involved in several other events, but I do encourage members, particularly those local to the route of the reenactment, to support this worth y project. Of course, there will be a fu ll report of the event in a future issue of the Blliletin; in the meantime see page 2 1 for further detai ls. Isolde gave over fifty years of service to King Richard ' s cause and r have no doubt that we wi ll continue to build on the solid foundations that she and Saxon Barton laid. So, whilst it is has been an unhappy start to 20 10, we can ne vertheless look forward to another busy and productive Ricardian year. 2

5l trufy great 'lHcaraian Isolde Wigram, Senior Vice-President and second founder of the Richard III Society, died on 27 November 2009 at the age of89.

With the death of Isolde Wigram the Richatrd III Society has lost its last link with Saxon Barton, who foundled the Society as the Fellowship of the White Boar in 1924. Isolde wa s a truly great Ricardian, one who deserves to share the name of 'founder' with Saxon Barton himself.


Isorae Wferam 1919 - ~W09


orn in 1919, Isolde became interested in Richard [II -by chance when in 1952 a friend gave her 10 read a copy of Josephine Tey's recently published detective novel The Daughler of Tillie. Reluctamly she did, and noted later, '] had never learnt anything about Richard III at school, nOI havi ng studied that period of history, 1 had seen Sir Laurence Olivier in a stage production o f Shakespeare's play, but my first anli 路Rich,ard indoctrination had been at a later date. I was ripe for conversion, and converted J was, 10 such an extent that I felt I had to do something about this manifest injustice. I have seldom felt such a compul sion. '

The novel lit a fire that was to burn for the rest of Isc.lde's life; it sparked a fie rce belief in Richard Ill's innocence and an equally fi erce resolve to do something about it. She read widely on the subject, and came across references to Saxon Barton and the Fellowship_ Eventually she made contact with him, only fo r her to di scover that the Fellowship was almost moribund, but with Saxon' s help, and aided by fortuitous external events, it was refounded in 1956 Isolde was greatly supported in her work by her mother, Oli via Wigram, a notable Ricardian in her own right and author of the pro-Richard III play The 5111/ of York. T he years p:rcceding 1956 had seen the growi ng popularity of Josephine Tey's novel, the release of Olivier' s classic film of Shakespeare' s Richard /1/, the publication of Paul Murray Kendall's sympathetic biography of the king, and the Royal Court Thealre production of Olivia Wigram' s play. All these, and the publicity generated, created the right conditions for Ricardians to come together again. Despite all these helpful fac tors, a lot of hard work was still required to re-found and build the Fellowship, which became the Richard III Society in 1959. A full Isolde receives her Vice-Presidential badge from account of the refounding of the Society and the Duke of Gloucester. Chairman Phil Stone is the central role played by Isolde, can be found on the left. in the spring 2006 issue of the Blillelifl. It was very much Isolde's energy and enthusiasm that fuelled the efforts to re-found the old Fellowship, and much of the work thereafter to build the fl edgli ng organisation fell also to her. Indeed, she was the obvious choice to be its first secretary, a role she carried out with skill and fortitude until her retirement in 1968, by which time the Society was firml y established. It was during her tenure that many facets of the Society so fami liar to us today had their beginnings, The Ricardiall and the Annual Bosworth Memorial Service_ T he Annua l General Meeting of \968, held in the Great Hall of Crosby Place, saw a record turn -out of members wishing to pay their respects to Isolde on her retirement. To mark the occasion, and in recognition o f her great contribution, she was presented with a thirdcentury BC terracotla Etruscan Boar Isolde was always modest about her contri butio n and always declined the office of President; she felt she did not deserve it, when in fact she deserved it more than anyone. She was modest too aboUi her contribution to Ricardian studies, but her interventions through the pages of The Ricardian and the BIII/erill and also her letters to newspaper a nd historical journals all show a sharp mind and a real familiarity with late-fifteenth-century history. 4

After her retirement from office Isolde remained an ever-present source of advice and encouragement, moving e flortlessly into the role of the Society ' s ' Grande Dame' She also provided support and encouragement to branches and groups, especially the Continental and Croydon Groups. In more recent years ill health prevented her regular and much loved presence at AGMs and other Society functions. Her final appearal.1ce was a most poignant one, for the Society came to her. On Sunday 2 Apri12006, in the year we were celebrati ng the fiftie th anniversary of the refounding, a group of present and former Executive Committee members, including the President and Chairman, travelled down to Isolde' s retirement home in Hampshire, to pay tribute to pivotal her role in the Society's refounding. As our Chairman, Phi l Stone, said at the time, ' Isolde, we thank you for what you did fifty years ago. Without you, there would be no Richard III Society.' Isolde lived long enough to see the Society enter the internet age and grow far beyond anything she and Saxon Barton could have dreamed. None of thi s would have been possible withoUi her pioneeri ng work, personal dedication and commitment. The Richard III Society will forever be in her debt.

John Saunders

:More :Memories of Isofde Elizabeth No kes writes: I have three short recollections, all from quite early in my membership of the Society. The first must have been in the spri ng of 1967, a few months after I had joined, when the Questors' Theatre, Eal ing, was presenting Lydia Ragosin's two plays A Oy of Treason [on Richard] and A Crown for the Strong [on Henry]. Patrick Bacon was pl aying Lord Stanley. In the first flush of new-member enthusiasm, I had volunteered to man the Society sales table in the foye r, which necessitated stayi ng until the outgoing aud ience had departed. Thus, some how, I found myself in a car with Patrick and Isolde, both she and I being given a lift back into central London. Patrick sang to us: ' How happy could I be with either / Were t'other dear charmer away / Bul while you are bOlh here togelher I To neither a word wil l I say ' - a slight adaptation from HIe Beggar's Opera, where the third line reads ' But whi le you thus tease me together' which we weren't, but then, nor was he . getting Patrick to say not a word would be no easy thing. Chronologically somewhat later, I think, but still f~arl y in my me mbership, I found a production of Richard ffI in Worthing - an adapted, 'modern' production. I must have been a student in those days, wi th time 10 go and see such Ihing;s, and, being a keen, new, member, I wanted to take some brochures wi th me, and so I pestered Isolde, unti l she agreed I could come 10 Lennox Gardens and collect some [Later in my mem'bership, I gathered that the old hands viewed keen, new, members, with some cynicism, wondering how long it would be belore they lell by the wayside. Presumably by then I'd proved I hadn ' tj. However, I went 10 Worthing, saw the show, and wrole it up for The Ricardian, and I recall Isolde being amused at my reference to the ' female Buckingham ' - as I said, it was a 'modern' production. The other recollection concerns an early American Branch visit, where they hosted members of the Society, or vice versa, at the Baynards Castle Inn, on the riverside at Blackfriars. I was invited, and cherished a comment Isolde made : 'You are rather my idea of Anne Nevi lle,' she said, 'Taller, of course Much later, Isolde passed on to me a seed pearl parrure, consisting of an elaborate neck lace and bracelel, which I wore, in costume, at the London Branch tenth birthday party, for GeotTto photograph. It was too delicate to take up to York for the Yorkshire Branch medieval party. 5

Shirley Linsell writes: I have known Isolde for a very long lime, since I first joined the Society just over 46 years ago, went that first year to the AGM and tea at Crosby Hall, and met her and her mother Olivia who was presiding over a very large urn. It was an awesome si'ght, and I later told Isolde her mother had always terrified me, and she thought that very funn y. One year at Bosworth Isolde explai ned where the different armies had stood, and questions over that very confusing battle became very clear. Lawr on the statue was unveiled. Joyce Melhuish had twisted her ank le, and Isolde and I kept her company, and I very much enjoyed being with these very lovely people. Over the years Isolde and I would talk on the phone . and my husband Roy and I went to Greathed Manor, her reti rement home, for lunch several times, and saw the area of the garden she tended. All the talk was Richard talk. After she moved to Eastboume the phone would ring. and she would ask, 'W hen are you coming to sec me?' We al ways got a very nice lunch and we would talk about the old days, remembering Patrick Bacon and Joyce Melhui sh with great anection: Isolde, Patrick and Joyce were instrumental in re-founding the society, and we should all be grateful to them lor their dedication. She came to our son's wedding and attended all our parties. She became president of the Croydon Group, which Roy and I had started, and she was always a great support. All of us were delighted with Phi l as Chairman. She helped Diana Kleyn to publish her book about Perki n Warbeck. One thing she and I never agreed on was the nne of the Princes, and we loved arguing gentl y aboUi it. With Isolde ' s passi ng all the links for me have gone, She knew Saxon Barton, and now the triumvirate are no longer with us, God bless you, Isolde, the Society 's friend and mine.

Carolyn and Peter Hammond write: Others have wri tten of Isolde' s role as re-founder and eml~ient first Secretary of the Society and her indefatigable campaigning and letter-writing on Richard's behalf, so we will mention two other aspects of her life, Firstly her love of gardening and birds; she had a beautiful garden at Meadow Bank, her country home at Little Horsted, long and sloping down to her painting room at the boltom of the garden. When she moved to Greathed Manor she di scovered the long-neglected rose garden with a formal lily pond in the centre and practically singlehanded ly brought it back to life, her ' secret garden' Isolde was also a very talented artist, from designi ng th.e kneelers fo r Little Horsted church to her large portrai t of her mother, a speaki ng likeness, Her apartment at Greathed Manor was full of examples of her work. We once admi red the intricate carvi ng of the marble fi replace in her si lting room onl y to be told to touch it. It was completely flat: Isolde had created an amazing trompe l'oeil effect. The bathroom and hall way leading to it were decorated with swags of greenery and flowers si milarly pai nted. When she worked for Sebastian Comper, the architect" work ing ostensibly as a secretary, he noticed her talent and she worked for the firm on variOllS projects. If you are in Westminster Abbey, look out for the floor stone in the north aisle in me mory of Sir Ninian Comper: Isolde designed the lettering. She was a multi-talented lady and we feel privileged to have known her, and without the Society we would never have met each other, so thank you Isolde.


.Jl TfianksgivirllJ for

a fife we{{ ave a

If solde died on 27 November 2009, just three weeks short of her ninetieth birthday. Her funeral

.1. a week or so later was a small family affai r, but her wide circle of friends, including members of the Society, were given their opportuni ty to remember her at a service of thanksgiving for her life on Friday 22 January, in SI Michael and All Angels church in Little Horsted in Sussex, where Isolde had worshipped for many years. The snow of previous weeks had cleared bUi lhe weather was sti ll distinctly cold and damp as we gathered in the lovely little church. (In fact, I think it rained most of the day.) Altogether, there must have been 45 to 50 people gmhered in the church, represeming organisations of which Isolde had been a member or for which she had worked, together wi th friends and, of course, her famil y, including her cousin Gail and Gail's husband, Tim. The service, whic h had been planned in its entirety by Isolde, began with a welcome by the Rector, the Rev. Brian Wilcox, fo llowed by a Bidding Pr,-ayer. I then read from King Richard's prayer, first commenting that the translation used was the one that had been a particular favouri te of Isolde's. This reading was followed by the singing ofth,e hymn, ' For all the sai nts' , and I have to say that the singi ng was most joyous, as it was throughout the service. Next, the congregation said together Psalm 104, before the reading of the eulogy. This had been compi led by Isolde, with a few addi tions from Gail, a nd was read by Canon Bill Peters, the fonner rector at St Michael ' s. As he told us, he and Isolde joined the church much about the same time. The eulogy was fascinat ing and we learnt some new things about Isolde. Others will give their reminiscences in this Bulletill and there is an obituary, too, but none o f these will tell you that during World War II , Isolde worked for MIS and was evacuated with the service to

A tabl e of Ri ca rdians at lunch after th e service: clockwise round the tabl e from left, Elizabeth Nokes, Dave and Sue Wells, Peter Hammond, Prof. and Mrs Kincaid, Kitty Bristow. Beth Stone and Carolyn Hammond are also there, but hidden behind Elizabeth Nokes and Prof. Kincaid respectively.


Blenheim Palaee_ Onee agai n, we were left wi shing we had known more while someone was alive rather than finding out about them when it was too late to ask questions Ineidentally, though it wasn' t mentioned during the service, I have also discovered that she had been a member of the Bri tish Society for the Shroud of Turin, contributi ng to thei r newsletter. The eulogy done, we sang ' All thi ngs bright and beautiful ' and the rector read from the Gospel of St John, telling the story of the rai sing of Lazarus. Afte r this, he led the prayers, during which many used the kneelers throughoUl the church. Earl ier, we had learnt that Isolde had designed them all , and made a few, every one of them representing houses in the village. (lfonly I had known thi s duri ng the FOIheringhay kneelers project!) After the prayers, we sang 'Jerusalem ', Blake' s words and Parry' s music ringing out much as we know Isolde would have rejoiced to hear. The third reading was from The Enchallled M Olllllaills by Robin Fedden, for whom Isolde had worked when he was Hi storic Bui ldings Secretary of the National Trust. The Commendation was fo llowed by a final prayer, this being a passage fro m Christopher Fry ' s play, A Sleep of Prisoners, read by Gai l, and, to fin ish the service, we li stened to a recording of James Johnson singing an aria fro m Mendelssohn' s Elijah. The thanksgiving service over, we retired across the road from the church to Horsted Place, now a hotel, for lunch. Looking around, as we sat there, I counted fifteen members of the Society, maki ng us about a thi rd of those present. It was appropriate. As we had heard during the eulogy, the Society played a very important part in Isolde' s hie and, as has been said many times, without her, there would be no Society today_ Aft er lunch , as we sat over conce and petit fO llrs, Peter 1路lammond said a few words about Isolde and the Society , explaining to the non-me mbers what it was all about and why we hold her in such great esteem Aller some personal reminiscences, he fi nished by reminding us of her modesty where all thi ngs were concerned and especiall y the Society_(Isolde was asked to become President on a number of occasions, but she always refused, saying it should go to someone more worthy.) One of the lunch guests was Prof Arthur Kincaid_ He (~ xplained that he had known Isolde lor some filly years, having fi rst contacted her as a scho olboy interested in Richard III She encouraged his research interests and he subsequently, in 1982, produced the defi nitive edition of The HistOly of King Richard the Third, by Sir George Buck, which lor the first time systematically defended Richard's reputation agai nst the Tudor chroniclers. Aft er lunch, the party broke up 10 go its separate ways, everyone, I' m sure, fi lled with the happy memories of Isolde 's very fu ll life - truly, a life well lived.

Phil Stone

Isold e at th e Westmin ster Abbey memorial to Ann e Neville: I,eft, at its original unveiling in 1960, and right, o n a more recent occa s ion


Society News aMNotices Notice of the Annual General Meeting of the Richard III Society This year, the Society's AGM and Members' Day will take place on: Saturday 2 October 2010 at Leicester Adult Education Collt."gc. 2 Wellington Street. Leicester tE 1 6H l Further details will be given in the June Bulletin but, in the meantime, plcase put this date in }'OUIr diary.

Executive Committee: the Low Down Although this column has been quiet lor the last few :issues, this docs nOI mean that your Executive Committee has been donnanL Far from it, and following the 2009 AG M and Members' Day, which appeared to be we ll received, we arc turning our attention to the 2010 Leicester event and that for 201 1 Ricardian life goes on_ The Committee has agreed to continue the Society ' s support fo r the work of the Richard III and Yorkist History Trust in promoting education and research into fifteenth-century England. We are eagerly awaiting the formal launch of a new book from the Trust in late January - The Heralds'Memoir: 1486 to /490 by Dr Emma Cavell By the time that you read this, the book wi ll be avai lable : see pp. 12-14 in this Blllletin. Your Joint Secretaries have also taken on the role of Joint Secretariat to the Trust and are findin g that the two are very distinct and diverse aCli vi ties bUitogether form a signi ficant factor in studies of the period. 2010 marks a number of anniversaries, including the Golden Jubilee in October of the Yorkshire Branch and the 550th anniversaries of the Battle of Northampton, in Jul y, and Wakefield, in December. See p. 2 1 of this Blllletin. T he Society has been suppli ed with a review copy of a new DVD in the ' Richard III Collect ion ' on Sandal Castle and the Battle of Wakefield, produced by ' Loyalty Bi nds Me' , who released a similar DVD on Middleham in 2008. A review will be publ ished in a future ed ition of the BlIllelin. T he Committee has been examining recruitment and retention issues and is look ing at communication as a key medium to link wi th the wider Society membership. T hey are to examine new techniques, suc h as Facebook, as well as more traditional methods, suc h as the media: here we have been advised of a number offi lm and television projects on which a posi tive response from the Society would also enhance general pub lic interest in the period. A lot of work has gone into updating the website and we hope that you have all noticed the huge improvement. A design has been produced by Geoff Wheeler for a Gift Membership card and the Society has now made this available to p urchase. (see overleaf} Overall, the Committee has been examining the way in wh ich the Society presents itself With this in mind, business cards have been designed for some Commillee members who have some contact with external organisations and presentation and display material has been upgraded 10 enable us to project a more professional image at the many events at which the Society is represented. .Dave and Sue Wells 9

Why not give someone the gift of membership of the Richard III Society? Every so ofh:n, someone writes to ask if they can give a membership to a friend or fami ly member who is inter{:sted. Naturally, the answer is always, \'('c1com e ' Yes, of course you can ' . to the Do Y OII know someone who would like to be a Richard III Society member of the Richard III Society? Is there someone to whom you would like to g1ve membership of the Society? Just te ll the Membership Department their details and make the necessary payment - there is no extra charge for the service - and a ll wi ll be done. Geoffrey Wheeler has produced another of hi s excellent designs and Ihi s has been made into a card, as sho wn, which will give the year of Ihe me mbership and who it is from, and Ihi s wil l be sent wilh Ihe introductory we lcome pack. The front shows King Richard ofle ring hi s membership to Wi lliam Catesby ( I), while Ihe back shows Ihe arms of lhe SocielY. So, if yoll know someone who would like to be a me mber oflhe Richard III Sociely, why not make Ihem Ihe gin ofa year's membership using one of our new cards?

The Richard III Bursary tenable at York Members will recall Ihat in Ihe December Bulletin we :a.nnounced that Ihi s bursary of ÂŁ500, tenable lor one year al lhe University of York Centre lor Medieval Studies, had been awarded 10 Sarah Fellowes. Un lortunalely, Sarah has not been abl e to take up he r MA place because of olher funding problems, which is very disappointing all round. However, Ihere is some beller news Our bursary a1,vardee for the year 2008-9, Meghan Kawka, received a distinction in her MA. Her di ssertation was on 'Chi valry in late filleenthcentury England ', and a copy oflhi s will be placed in our I:ibrary in due course Ly nda Pidgeon, Resea rch Officer

Reprints of Best-Sellers We have now sold out of the first printing of The Logge lVills, and have had a second batch printed. We did not find that any corrections were needed, so this second edi tion is exactl y the same as the ori ginal one. It was very pl easing to hear at the launch of Emma Cavell's book 7he Heralds' Memoir 1486- 1490 rsee pp. 12-141 one scholar -remarking that it was ' a brilliant book and everyone should have one' . The tote bag has al so sold so well that we have ordeTl~d another batch. Thi s time, while the background colour re mains the same, the pri nting will be in the York ist colour murrey. See p. 30.

Bulle/ill Distribution: a reminder If you have any problems concerning the distribution, or the non-arri val, or arri val in a damaged cond ition of the Bllllerill, the person to contact is our Business and Di stribution Manager, Diana Lee. Her address is 16 1 Green Lane, Shepperlon, TW 17 8DY (tel. 0 19322 19665 ) and her email add ress for Bulletin purposes is 10

'I'Fie Stuay Weekend" at york 2010 ... tFiere is now a waitine fist This has proved 10 be a very popular event, and long before the closi ng date of 3 1 January we already had a wai ting list. I am afraid we are therefore unabl e to accept any more bookings. For those of yo u on the wai ti ng list we hope to know by the middle of March if any morc rooms in Ihe hotel will be made avai lable 10 us. The programme IS now

almost complete, and confirmed speakers arc: Peler J-Iammond: ' Richard Ill' s York' A nn Rycroft: ' Richard Ate Here! Food, cooking and eating in York. Claire Cross : ' The Last Decades of Medieval Calholicism at Holy Tri nity, Goodramgate' fo llowed by a CD Rom on the history and architeclUre of the churc h. We hope also 10 have Gareth Dean from the Yo rkshi re Arc haeological Trust talking on Medieval York .

Gareth has recently published a book Medieval York Unlortunately, o ur aller-dinner speaker, Josephine Wilkinson, is now unavailable, but Hob the Swineherd will be tell ing us some medieval tales instead. T here will be an opportunity to purchase the CD Rom on Holy Trinity, and we are planning 10 bring along some copies of some Society books, including of course Ihe now-reprinted Logge Wills. A fu ll re port on the weekend, with piclures, wi ll appear in the June Bulleri//. Ho ly Trini ty, Goodramgate, in the snow, January 2010 (and the intrepid photographer, John Saunders). Claire Cross w ill be speaking about thi s church at the study week-end


New Trust 'Book- Launcfiea at tfie Cofrege of j\rms


n Tuesday 26 January the College of A rm s hosted a very successful launch for the latest book to be publi shed by the Richard III and YorkiSI History T rust, The Heralds' Memoir 1486. /490, by Dr Emma Cavell. This is Ihe first scholarly edition of Bri ti sh Library Cotton MS. Julius BX II - a manuscript which contains one of the vel)' lew narrati ve accounts of events compiled by English heralds in Ihe fiHcenth century , g iving detail s of ceremonial and military events in which they were invol ved in the years immediately after Bosworth. II may well have

been compiled to show Henry VII how indi spensable heralds were, and sheds light on these first dinlcull years of hi s reign The College is situated on London 's busy Queen Victoria Street, but once through the door visitors find themselves in a world apart, in rooms with dark wooden pane lling, portrai ts on the wall s, heavy furni ture, and loos for commoners added as an afterthought on the very top noor of the building. A copy of Richard 1J1 ' s grant to the Colleg(: in 14 84 was on show, as were some colourful carved crests removed from the stall s ofrecently路路deceased Kni ghts of the Garter, which become the perks of Garter King at Arms.

At the College of Arms: Peter Hammond, Emma Cavell and C li ve Cheesman, amid portraits of past wo rthi es and painted c rests of deceased Garter knights. The c;rown behind Peter comes from the stall of th e late Queen Mother. Behind Clive is the tabl e w here TruHt books were sold. [Photo: Phil Stone]


We were welcomed 10 the College by Dr Cli ve Cheesman Peler 1路lammond, speaking as Chairman of Ihe Trust, thanked him and the heralds, and spoke briefl y about the Trust as the charitable publishing arm of the Society, 10 which the Society made grants to hel p with its work. Dr Cavell Ihen spoke about her researches. Prof. Michael Bennett of the University of Tasmania (where she was studying) had suggested that she should work on thi s edi tion, an idea she was very pleased to accept since it entailed a research trip to England. She had enjoyed working at the College of Arms, and was grateful to the archivist for allowing her to conti nue her work after closi ng time, until he himself left the bui lding. She is now a Junior Research Fellow Emma Cavell signs copies of her book in History at Oriel College, Oxford. Shaun Tyas had brought along a se lection of other Trust books and sold a good many of them, with the new book naturally being the best-se ller of the evening. A number of distingui shed scholars were present, and so were nearly all the heralds (Dr Cavell ' s mother expressed a slight regret that they were not wearing thei r tabards.) Our secretaries, Dave and Sue Wells, had provided a magnificent spread of things 10 eat (via Marks and Spencers, and an unexpectedly modern oven in the Coll ege ' s basement). Our thanks go to all concerned lor a very good occasion.

Those present at the launch party included Garter King of Arms, Peter Llewellyn Gwynne路Jones (centre, with folder). On the right are Be,th and Phil Stone. 13


Regislcred Chari ty No. 327005


THE HERALDS' MEMOIR 1486-1490 COURT CEREMONY, ROYAL PROGRESS AND REBELLION edited by Dr Emma Cavell 'T'hcre arc a handful o f extan t narratives or memorial accounts co mp iled by the Engli sh herald s d uring the fi ftee nth centu ry. T he fu llest and most complex o f these, an ambirio us compilation pm together by heralds in (he service of the first Tudor king, derails ccremon:iaJ and military events in whic h officers of arms were involved between 1486 and 1490. This document owes mu ch to the unique, tes ting circums tances in which it was created- indeed, it may well have bee n co mpiled to convince the new king that the royal heralds, once favo ured by Richard III , were indispensable to the crown whoever wore it-and it shines new and muc h-needed light on to the first uneasy years of I lenry VII 's reign . l lere is the first fuU modern ed ition of the narrative now p reserved in Bri tish Library Cotton MS. J ulius B.X 11 . It corrects the incomplete version p ublis hed

Firml Cor" ilblslmliOiI. IW balld 0/ Jrriw .A. BL Als Colloll jlllillS B.XII is rrprodll((d roIlrteg of1"( Bnils" LilmJry

by Tho mas I feam e in the eighteenth cen tu ry, and it makes accessible fo r the first time a strictiy contemporary so urce fo r the ea rliest

years o f the reign of I fenry Vll. Complete with detailed tex tual commentary and a probing, scholarly introd uction by Dr Emma Cavell, this new edition takes the reader to the heart o f I lem)' VII 's court as he struggled to hold the throne he had so fortuitously won on the fi d d of Bosworth.

Boo k Cover Price: ÂŁ30 Price to Rich ard III Society M embers : ÂŁ 20 (+ p&p) Available from the Society's Sales Liaison Officer Sally E mpson, 42 Pewsey Vale, Bradene l ~ Berkshire, RG12 9YA sally.brad en ell@virgin.n et 14

'BoswortFi :found'? LYNDA PIDGEON The BBC news on the morning of Wednesday 28 October started ofT with a bit of lease. There was news about exciti ng finds at Bosworth. The eight o'clock news showed the battlefi eld and talked of finds. This see med to be only a little morc exciting than the press releases that had

appeared at the end of September, The item ended by saying a full anno uncement WQuid be made at ten o'clock.

However, it was News at Qlle which carried the fu ll story , an interview with Glenn Foard , archaeologist and Project Officer of the Battlefi elds Trust, and pictures of some of the finds made whil st searchin g the area around Bosworth. We still don' , have quile Ihe full picture yel, which is

10 prevent ' night-hawks' from knowing Ihe exaCI location of the find s and therefore the exact location of ' Bosworth' These ill egal detectorists, intent on personal gain rather than historical discovery, have destroyed vital pieces of evidence in the past on some of our battlefields_ Hopefull y, the site of ' Bosworth' will remain a secret until the archaeologists compiete their task and reveal all at the conference scheduled for Saturday 20 February this year The most thrill ing part of News af a ile was seeing the important finds themselves_ Those with internet links can sec pictures of some of them on the Bosworth Balliefieid site www_bosworthbattlefield com The announcement is the result of four years' work partly fund ed by a Heritage Loltery Fund grant. The press conference showed Glenn Foard talking about the project and then in a dramalic gesture he swept the cover off a display cabinet to show the conclusive proof of where the baltle took place, lead gun shot. The batllefield was located throu gh a ' systematic archaeological survey with metal detectors. The combined evidence proves that the battle was fou ght in the area between the villages of Dadlington, Shenton, and Sto ke U pton Golding - in a locat ion not previously suggested '. Thi s is perhaps the mo s t Lead Shot with replica sword and jack intriguing part of the announcement We have some tantalising hints but must awai t a final announcement on 20 February, whic:h of course will have happened by the time yo u read this, and all will have been revealed_ As Glenn Foard reminded everyone, 'Bosworth was one of England ' s lour great decisive ball ies of the last thousand years, alongside Hastings, Naseby and the Baule of Britain '. He began working on a reassessment of the evidence for site of Bosworth in 2004 which led 10 the


Battlefields Trust being commissioned by Leicestershire County Council in 2005 to undertake a major investigation T he Heritage LOllery Fund provided ÂŁ 154,000 towards the costs A group of specialists worked together, covering a variety of approaches to try to establish where the bailie actually took place. Documentary evid.ence, a reconstruction of the historic landscape, analysis of early field and place names, soil analysis and an archaeological survey were all combi ned 10 identify the site. A key phrase in PolydoreVergi l' s AlIglica HislOria gave topographical clues: ' Between the armies was a marsh which Henry purposely kept on hi s right, so it would serve as a fortre ss to protect hi s men. At the same time, also by doi ng thi s he left the sun behi nd' I By reconstructi ng the medieval landscape, through mapping the fen , moor and heath names, the team was led to the general area, where Peter Foss had suggested the bailie had taken place.2 However, pollen analysis and Carbon 14 dating of peat delXlSits showed that this area had ceased to be a marsh centuries earlier than Bosworth. Now si milar tests on another area proved that it had been marsh at the right time. Stoke Golding's claim was also found to have some validity. Crown Hi ll was 'al most certainly the location where Henry Tudor became Henry VI I ' A document from just before 1485 fou nd that Crown Hi ll was then called Garbodys. The name-change to Crown Hill on a map of 1605 is the first record o f its new name. Whi le all these types of evidence gave the general area it was the archaeological survey with metal detectors thaI finally located the ballieficld. Afler painstaki ng work, reducing the potential area down fro m 7 sq km 10 I I sq km the metal deteClorists struck gold, or, more accurately, lead gunshot. The 22 pieces of lead shot which have been found were fired from arti llery and early hand guns T hi s is ' more Ihan all the lead roundshOI from all the other bailie field s o f the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in Europe pUltogether' The French chronicler Jean Molinet,writing in 1490, said that, ' T he king had the artillery of his army fire on the earl o f Richmond, and so the French, knowing by the king's shot the lie of the land and the order of his battle, resolved, in order to avoid the fire, to mass their troops against the flank ratherthan the front o f the king's battle'

Display of varyi ng s izes of lead shot, w ith scale

The scatter of shol from artillery and hand guns covers an area of more than a square kilometre. Glenn Foard emphasised, ' These fi nds require a major rethink of the way in which battles have been interpreted . no comparable evidence has been seen before from a medieval battlefield. The interpretation of the pattern we have recovered demands various new research. This wil l involve the ap plication of modern ball istics and other met hods of scientific analysis. Boswort h has shown the potential o f archaeology to contribute to our understanding of the 16

origins of firepower - a story of international signi fi cance which must now be explored on battlefie lds across Europe' Professor Richard Holmes summed it up perfeclly. 'We can now see where those round-shot thudded into the Leicestershire soil when Richard Plantagenel was still king of England and Henry Tudor was a mere pretender. We are given to using expressions like 'exciting' and 'ground-breaking' 100 easily, but no hi storical discovery has elated me more than this one, and I have seldom fel l more conscious of bei ng able 10 touch the past '. Two of the more personal finds, which re minds us that living people were at the receiving end of the lead shot, are coins, as illustrated below.

A groat of Edward IV

A double petard of Charles the Bold

Leicestershire County Council, the Battlefields Trust, the Heritage Lottery and Engli sh Heritage wi ll be working together to protect the battlefield. area for future generations. The finds from the site wi ll be put on display in a new gallery at the Heritage Centre from Easter 20 10 The Heritage Centre will be 'a perfect interpretation hub for the battlefield' according to Richard Knox, curator of the Battlefield Heri tage Centre. Meanwhile, talks are taking place wi th landowners to negOliate access for visi tors using rights way to view the battlefield. The remarkable finds at Bosworth are hopefully just the beginning. To quote Frank Baldwin, chairman of the Battlefields Trust ; 'Now thai we can find the battles of the wars of the fifteenth century , it should be possible to find sites of other battlefi elds where firearms were used, including fo r example, Northampton and Barnet. It al so means that we need to preserve these undi scovered battlefields from threats from development, treasure hunting and intensive farming' . For more information on the Trust and the work they a re doing to protect our battlefield see Noles l. 71le Anglica His/oria of Polydore Vergil AD 1485-1537, ed . and trans. Denys Hay (Camden Society 3rd series, 74), London : Royal Hi storical Society. 2. Peter Foss, The Field of Redem ore. York : Rosalba Press, 1990. I am grateful to Lydia Wi lson of the Bosworth Battlefield Centre for provid ing me with a copy of the press release, Glenn Foard 's statement and for givin;g permi ssion to usc it along with the pictures above. 17

lIut artilTery is oUkr tfian 11oswortfi ... Michael Jones, Emeri tus Professor of Med ieval French Hi story at the University of Noltingham (M ichael ' Brillany ' Jones) had a leiter published in The Tillles on Tuesday 3 November, in which he says: 'As early as the Battle of Othee ( 1408) between Duke John the Fearless of Burgund y and the townsmen of Liege, both sides disposed of such weapons [cannon used as mobile battlefield weaponsl_ Duke John's own account of the battle commented that as the Licgois passed by Tongrcs to allaek him, "There they Slopped, drawn up in excell ent order, and immediate ly opened fire on us with their cannon" A lew years laler gunpowder artillery was used in the Hussite Wars. Every leading cantonal museum in Switzerland possesses al least one, and sometimes many more, small, two-wheeled , field pieces made in Burgundy between c. 1430 and 1475. These were captured when the Swiss inflicted three successive severe defeats on Duke Charles the Rash in 1476-77.'

... ana battleJields are a lIritisfi banasyot Mauhew Engel, writing about the reported discovery of the Bosworth si te in the Fillallcial Times Magazille for 5-6 December 2009, points to a great contrast in the British treatmen! of battlefie lds and other sites. Anyone who lives in a building listed for its architectural interest, he says, knows that the least action needs permission from the council. ' Routine old cottages have statutory protection, yet the great battlefields where the nation 's hi story was decided are hardly covered at all .. a promised government bill on thi s issue has not material ised.' This is not so in the US, or, for example, at the 'amazing shrines that exist on the Western Front' . 'T his blind spot in Britain 's obsession with heritage is extraordinary .' Leicestershire County Council did, of course, open 'an impressive new heritage centre on the hill where the battle was, um, not fought. Officials are plann ing to rewrite the interpretative signboards and modify part of the exhibition '

'lIoswortfi lIattleJieta'R.eaiscoverea This is the name of the conference at Leicester on 20 February which wi ll reveal all. Prof Richard Holmes, President of The Battle field s Trust, will introduce the conference. The other speakers wi ll be Glenn Foard, who supervised the explorations that led to the discovery, on 'F inding Bosworth Field ', Prof. Anne C urry from the University of Southampton, who is an expert on English fifteenth-century warfare, will speak on the documentary evidence for the baule, and Prof. Mauhew Strickland, author of The CreOl Warboll' , will deal with archery on fifteenth-centu ry battlefields. They will be followed by Prof. Steve Walton, of Pennsylvania State University, on ' Gunpowder Weapons on the fifteenth-century battlefields', and Dr. Derek Allsop, ballistics expert at Cranfield University, on 'Experimental firing of fifteenth -century artillery '. The chairman will be Prof. Richard Morris, of Leeds University, and Robert Hardy, whose interest in the longbow is well-known, will be there : he is described on the programme as 'd iscussant ', so presumably wil l initiate a number of discussions. Several members of your Committee, and a number of other Society members, have signed on for this conference. By the time you read this (the date could not have come at a worse time for the Bulletin schedules), all wi ll have been re vealed, and we shall have full reports in the June issue of the Bulletin of what was said and done. 18



Exhibitions, conferences and seminars in prospect 'Painting History: Oelaroche and Lady Jane Grey ' Naliollal Gallery, 24 February 10 23 May 20/0

'T he exec ution of Lady Jane Grey ', one o f the most popular pai nti ngs at the National Gallery wi ll form the focus of the spring exhibi tion, fe-assessing the career o f the French artisl Paul Delaroche (1797- 1856). [I will also feature the Louvre' s original 'Princes in the Tower' which is more familiar 10 Londoners from the small copy in the Wallace Collection. (Geoff Wheeler tells us that on his lasl visi lla the Louvre, the pict ure was poorly displayed there, 100 high and ill1 it.)

' Horace \Valpole' s Strawberry Hill ' Victoria and Alherl Muselllll, 6 March 10 4 J uly 2010, tmnsferred fro m the Yale Center fo r Bri tish Art in Newhaven, USA, where it opened last year. Michael Snodi n' s catalogue presents a major study of the history and reception of the collection as it was fo rmed and arranged at Twickenham, and coincides wi th the restoration o f the Gothic Revival house Naturally, relerence is made to Richard 111 and Walpole' s book, Hisloric Doubts, whi lst Lisa Ford 's chapter ' Lancastrians and Yorkists at Strawberry Hi ll' illustrates in colour the two famo us (or notorious?) examples of this attribution the so-called ' marriage' pictures of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou, and Henry Vll and Elizabeth of York (sec GeofT Wheeler's leiter in the Bllllelin, June 2002, noting d iscussion of these pai nti ngs in The Prime Millisler of Taste, by Morris Brownell (Yale University Press 200 1)_

Treasures of Lambeth Palace Library - 400th Anniversary (1610-2010) Lambelh Palace Greal Hall, 17 May 10 23 Jllly 2010 (Mon-Sal 10-5 , tickets bookable In advance: adults ÂŁ8, concessions ÂŁ7; entrance charge incl udes free aud io guide) The library has buil t up a magnifice ntly diverse and splendid collection of books, manuscripts and archives over the last 400 years. T hey incl ude the ninth-century MacDuman Gospel book, once owned by Ki ng Athelstan of Wessex, the twelft h-cf~n t ury Lambeth Bible, described as ' a masterpiece of Romanesq ue art', the thirteenth-century Lambeth Apocalypse, a Gutenberg bible printed in 1455, 'books owned by Richard III ', the warrant for the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots (how did they get that?) and papers of archbishops, bishops and others fro m the thi rteenth century until the present day. Intcrnationall\"lcdicval Cong ress: Journc,,:ing along m(~dicval routes : narrAtivcs, maps and archaeological traces Leeds Unil'ersily 12-15 July 2010. The congress wi ll open with two plenary lectures ' each of which aims to start 011' a debate that we hope will run all the way thro ugh the congress' says the bl urb_ Patrick Gautier Oa1chc o f Paris wi ll lecture on ' Maps, Travel and Exploration in the Mi ddle Ages' , and Dionisius A Agius (University of Exeter) will follow with a lecture entitled ' In these seas, horrors beyond count befell [us): travel in medieval Islam ' There will be 180 sessions to ' explore the meani ng of space and distance, and how di fferent nalio ns and peoples perceived the world and each other', as well as many other sessions on a wide variety o f medieval topics. In fac t, Ihere is always such a wide variety of topics o n offer at Leeds Ihat everyone should h~ able to find somethi ng interesting 10 atte nd all the time. 19

There wil l also be round-table discussions, workshops fo r singers, workshops on calligraphy and tablet weaving, other special lectures, musical and dra matic performances. T here will be 'an exploration of the uses of spices across the globe in cooking, med icinal and other uses . and a demonstration in the makeing of beautiful lamp work beads'. Excursio ns include visits to the cast les of Richmond, Helmsley and Middleham, the monastic sites of Byland, Mount Grace and Rievaulx, York Mi nster and Durham cathedral. Publishers, booksellers a nd academic depa rt ments will be there, wi th more tha n 70 stands showcasing their publications, and there wil l be antiquarian and second-ha nd books on sale on the Su nday and Monday. O ne great advantage is the special conference prices at which most o f the publ icatio ns can be bought. On Wednesday 14 July there is a Historical and Archae,ological Societies Fair, at which many inde pendent societies includ ing the Richard II I Society, wil l be present to d iscuss their work and, where relevant, sell their publications. The Society's Research Officer, Lynda Pidgeon, and Lesley Boatwright wi ll be present for the whole conference, so if you would like to come you can be sure of having someone to show you the ropes and to tal k to, if needed. Booking is open at the Congress's website. For registration information, go to mc/imc2010.html

Latin and Palaeography Summer School Keele University, 24 to 30 Jllly 2010 As we said in the spring 2009 Bulleti n, this is a summer school for people who are interested in doi ng thei r own historical research, whether it's family, local or national history Absol ute begi nners in both Latin and palaeography are wclcome, as are experienced students and all those in between. II's great fu n as wcl l as a marvellous opportunity to meet like-minded people, many o f whom are doing their own research. The tutorial sessions do entail hard work, but it's worth it. Documents are sent out to part icipants several weeks in advance, so that you get a chance to look things up and work things out, if you so wish. On ofTer fo r this year: a n introduction to Lati n, for beginners or people who wish to count themselves as beginners, having forgotten the Latin they learnt at school; an introduction to medieval docume nts, for people who already have a basic knowledge of Latin grammar; ' an El izabethan Miscellany', docu ments fro m the reign of El izabeth 1 written in English. T his will be a good seminar for people who want to get to grips wi th palaeography while knowi ng no Lati n, although the hands studied wi ll be somewhat later than ' m~~dieva l' ones. There are two intermediate modules, for which you a re expected to know some Lati n and some palaeography. One is on manorial documents between 1500 and 1700, and the ot her is called ' Tricks of the Trade', and the tutor is Lesley Boatwright. Again, this means that if you want to come to Keele you need not be afraid there will be no -one to talk to - make yourself known to Lesley when you are there. The two advanced modules, ' The common law in 1398' (tutor, Chri stop her Whittick, senior archivist at East Sussex County Record Office) and ' The conquest of Wales, 1200-1283' (tutor Charles Insley, Senior Lecturer in Med ieval History at Cante rb ury C hrist Church University) are only suitable for people with a good knowledge of both Latin and palaeography. The drawback is thaI the week costs quite a lot of money . £599 full board, including tuition and teaching materials (basically photocopies of doc uments), and £490 half board (i.e . without lunches). Food is provided very plentifully, so most people do choose half-board. There is also a non-reside ntial option lor £420, which incl udes lunch and d inner. The supplement lor an en-suite room is £75. For furt her details email theorganiser. NigeI Tri n.j.


The Road to Fotheringhay The Funeral Procession of Richard , Duke of York, 21 to 29 July 2010 As we reported in the last issue of the Bulle/ill, the Wakefield Historical Society are comme morating the 550th anniversary of the death of Richard, Duke of York , by undertak ing a re-enaetment of the fu neral procession from Pontefractto Fotheringhay that originall y took place in 1476. The journey will follow the route along which hi s body was taken for reburial , staying each night at the places where it rested overnight on the original procession in 1476 The programme for each day will include visits to local places of relevance to the fifteenth centul)'. an optional short walk along part of the route, the ceremony of Vespers of the Dead, and an evening talk. For details of the itinerary and other use ful information, see the panel below More information can be found at the special website wwwrichardd ukeofyorkfuneral org uk Members are encouraged to support the event, particularly when it passes through their locality The website also provides full contact detai ls for those wishing to be involved. Those without internet access can write to Pam Judkins, Wakefield lIistorical Society , 8 St John's Sq uare, Wakefield, WFI 2RA. We will update members in the next issue about plans for the reenactment and will provide a full account of the event after it has taken place. This is a bold and unique venture to commemorate the death of Duke Richard, the father of both Edward IV and Richard Ill , who was a crucial figure in the history of the House of York. We should also remember that his second son, Edmund, Earl of Rutland, was also killed at the bail ie, and his body was also exhumed in 1476 and carried in the procession back to Fotheringhay. The re-burial was an important symbol ic event for the House of York and it was Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who acted as chief mourner leading the seven day procession from Pontefracl. On arrival in Fotheri nghay there were two days of ceremony with no expense spared; it was very much a funera l for a king who had not been crowned. Much of the surviving source material for the original procession and reburial can be found in the Society publication lhe Reburial of Richard, Duke of York, 21-30 July 1476, edited by Anne Sutton, Livia Visser Fuchs and Peter Hammond, published in 1996. Copies can be purchased from the sales officer (see back cover fo r contact detai ls) for £4 plus £ 1.50 postage and packing.

The Duke of York's body, toget her with that of his son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, was taken from Pontefract to Fotheringhay, resti ng each night at Doncaster, Blyth, Tuxford Ie Clay, Newark, Grantha m, and Stamford For the 550th commemoration, each evening wi ll incl ude a performance of a medieval Vespers of the Dead, if possible in the same church where the bodies rested, and a talk by an invited lect urer The provisional iti nerary incl udes Sandal Castle and the chantry chape l on Wakefiel d Bridge, Pontefract Castle and Hermitage, Conisborough Castle, Roche Abbey, the medieval Doom pai nti ng in Blyth ch urch, Gai nsborough Old Hall , Tuxford wi nd mi ll , Laxton's med ieval field syste m, Southwell Mi nster and Bishop's Palace, Newark Castle and Town Hall , Grantham 's med ieval Angel and Royal Hotel, Boothby Pagnell and Woolsthorpe manor houses, Browne's Hospital in Stamford, Burghley House and Apethorpe Hall. The cost per person per day (to incl ude coach travel a nd entrance fees, but not meals or accommodation) is esti mated at £20-£25 . Participants will be responsible for booking their own accommodation (l ists of hotels and bed-and··breakfast establishments wi ll be provided). A coach will collect a nd deliver people at the nearest East Coast Main Li ne stmion each day for those who are only able to come for single days.


History Man Film Season at the Nation a l Ga ll,e ry For a number of SalUrdays during February and March, the National Gallery in London pUi on a season of films . On 6 February the film was Olivier' s Richard 111. Phi l Stone, who sent us this information, says, ' I am indebted to Helen Nash for I{:ning me know that the mai li ng she received from the Gallery informed her that "Shakespeare 's Richard 111 is one of the most compelli ng villains in English literature. He is a disfigured man who seduces a young widow. He is also the apparently loyal brother of King Henry VII who gives the order for the murder of his own nephews." I am sure this would have come as a surprise for Margaret Beaufort! I am pleased to see that the National Gallery website has the correct gen,ealogy for Richard.'

Richard the Third came second ... .. in a two-mile novice hurdl es race at Uttoxeter in late December last year. The odds were 20 to I Thanks to Patricia Payne for finding this information. A horse to be lollowed?

Free Battlefield Tickets for Teachers Bosworth Battlefield Heritage Centre arc oflering teachers a chance to ' bring their famili es on a pre-visit to test just how suitable these attractions [the Battlefield and Snibston] are lor school visits' . We know what Bosworth has to offer; at Sni bston ' children can see how many people it takes to lift a mini , make fire the 'original' way, hear what life as a miner was like and visit the largest fashion gallery outside of London '. Go 10 www.bosworthbattl

Classified Advertisements For sa le, a collection of The Ricartlian , January 1968 to December 2000, minus 3 vol umes (all from 1974 vols. 44 , 45 and 46). Phone 01732 457 524 Marion J\路loulton is still appealing for Ricardians in the C heshire and Shropshire area to get in touch, with a view to getting logether socially or forming a group. She now has a landline and email address which may help people 10 gel in touch more easily: Miss Marion Moulton, 6 Shrewbrid ge Crescent, Nantwich, Cheshire, CW5 5TF. Tel 0 1270 623 664, email : moult

Forget-Me-Not Hooks Out of print and second hand history books, fact and fiction For my new spring catalogue please contact: Judith Ridley II Tamarisk Rise, \Vokingham Berkshire RC40 IWC Email: Judith_


Book Review: Not About a Hero 1415: Henry V's Year of Glory by Ian Mortimer The Bodley I-lead 2009 , hardback, 640 pp .•

full y illustrated


hen Richard, Duke ofO louCCSler, sct off lor France as a member of Edward iV' s military expedition in 1475, he would have been well aware of the events sixty years earlier when Henry V led a similar venture in 1415. Edward ' s expedition led to Picquigny and a peace treaty with King Louis XI, Henry 's led to one of the most famous baltles in English hi story Agincourt. By 1475 the battl e was al ready well establ ished and embelli shed as a hi gh point in the annals of English history, with Henry V

ideal ised as the perfect warrior king. All Ihis WQuid have been heavily i mpri nted on Richard's

conscience. Ian Mortimer in his latest book takes an innovative look at the year 141 5; the narrative is constructed on a calendar basis, taking us through each day as it happened, an approach that allows us to minimise the intrusion of hindsight We see the events as they were happening to Henry himself: and in that context hi s poli cies and actions are seen in a new light, and we understand the past differently but closer to the real experience of those who actually lived it The reader lives through the build up to October 141 5, the events and acti vities of Henry's court and government, and also, and Just as importantly , the happenings in the rest of Christendom, most parti cularly the Council o f Constance which was attempti ng to resolve the many issues then besetting the Roman Catholic Church Not least the lact that there were three popes vying lor recognition. All these things impacted on Henry and the decisions that he was making. What emerges is not necessarily a pretty picture as far as Henry V is concerned, but it is one which shows the bnllal world of early fifteenth-cemury politics and the rather austere personality of the English king. The great fifteenth cemury historian K.B. McFarlane considered that Henry V was the ' greatest man Ihat ever ruled England '; this book certai nly c hallenges this judgement and the assumptions on which it was based. Mortimer' s Henry, whi lst recognisably a great mili tary leader, is a man lacking in human sympalhy and understanding, a deeply religious ind ividual a nd also something ofa fundamental ist. BUI no hero. This is the fourth book in the author's series of late medieval biographies, following Roge r Mortimer, Edward III and Henry IV . It makes for a compell ing read; the chronological structure allows real insight into the past and it challenges our pre-conceptions about the ' hero' king Henry V. The book is well illustrated, with useful genealogical tables and appendices, one of which looks in detail at the role of Edward, Duke of York. His nephew, Richard, Duke of York, the father of Edward IV and Richard III , wi ll be the subject of the next biography in this series. This pivotal figure in the history of the House of York has not received the attention of biographers that his importance should demand, so Ricardians will very much look fo rward to Ian Mortimer's new biographical study of the duke, which, judgi ng by the first four books in the series, wi ll be well wort h the wait. John Saunders 23

jiction ~views Of the Good Hereafter by Heather Pitt., 2008. Paperback, 3 10pp.

Travelling back 10 the fifteenth cenlury would be an amaz,jng experience - as long as you could retum, of course - and Heather Pitt' s heroine, Emma Harvey, does just thaI. There's no cumbersome Welisian lime machine involved here, just a kind of Celtic ' thin place ' where the worlds of past and present blur in a palindromic convergence of times and dates: a sealed oak door opens for the briefest of moments allowing passage the world ofa medieval manor long gone. With a walch sewn into her skirt, the time-traveller s imply has to wait until the next correct alignment of dates and limes - and walks back across the threshold into the twenty -first century. The house in question is Overthwaite Hall , Cumbri a, a much-altered building based around an old pele tower and bequeathed to Emma by an aunt she has never met. Emma travels to Cumbria to sort out her inheritance and stays alone in the house. Shortly after she arrives she is woken suddenly in the night by a strange sequence of sounds - the loud barking of a dog, a baby's cry and the sound of a heavy door slamming. She investigates and finds nothing amiss, except for an earthy, musty smell in the corridor that wasn ' t there before. Commenting on this to Adam Knowles, her genealogist aunt ' s secretal)', he advises her to read Catheri ne's long leller addressed to her. The leller turns out to be an account of how her Aunt Catherine discovered that the door was a gateway into the fifteenth century, and prepared herself to step over the threshold and into the past li fe of the house. 1路laving thoroughly researched the history of the Rutherford famil y, who owned the house, and when it was altered, Catherine has a good idea who she' ll meet and her cover story is a tale of having been on her way to relatives at Carlisle when she was waylaid and robbed Her 'sore throat' allows her to avoid speaki ng until she has accustomed herself to medieval speech, and her lack of shoes and general dishevel ment are accepted as normal given her experience. 'Mistress Phillips' is offered generous hospitality and soon becomes absorbed into the Rutherford household, meeting Sir Anthony and Lady Margaret, spending time with the servants and becoming acquainted with the two young boys, Roland and Ed\\~n, who are living under Sir Anthony' s protection, together with their tutor A nselm. II soon becomes apparent that these two boys are, in fact , Princes Edward a nd Richard, hidden away in safelY in the countryside at the behest of thei r unele, Richard III, for the date is in fal~t 1484. Heather Pitt is clearly fascinated by medieval life and Catherine's experiences of the day-today life of the household are rendered vividly and in entertaining detail, particularly suc h events as the visit to Kendal on a fa ir day. Here almost the entire household travel to the town where they are swept up into the crowded streets thronging with visitors and trades people: the scribes who write letters and wil ls; the ' fa st food' vendors hawking thei r ' hot sheep's feet' , the bloodcurdling screams from the barber-dentist's stall ; the cockfighting and the street juggler. The hi gh point of the day is a professional performance of HIe Castle of Perseverance, a moral fable about the attacks on a man 's soul by the Devi l, the World and the Deadly Sins in wh ich, to the astonishment of the audience, a member of the troupe seems to fly through the air. In spi te of her fascination with the medieval world she is now part of, Catherine's viewpoint is, of course, as an outsider and she views events from a twenty -fIrst-century perspective. She is acutely aware of the smell s, dirt, poverty, disease and the general suffering: of a servant ' s mi serable marriage She comments ' I remember thinking that their union must have mirrored thousands of unhappy unions over the years : a loveless marriage, a hard li fe with little to look


lorward to and the prospect of an early death. For the second time that day I yearned lor the twenty-first century and home' (p 73). Catherine' s letter to her niece concludes with her return home - and a startling and clever twist in the plot. It is, of course, now Emma's turn to pass through the door. It is not possible to discuss more of the developments without giving too much away but, suffice it to say that, when Emma goes through the door Henry VII is now king a nd the plot revolves around urgently safeguarding the two princes. 'Of the Good Hereafter' is published by, an Arts Counci l sponsored site which appears to be a ki nd of online ' writers' cooperative' , where aspiring authors comment on each other's work, and the most successful have their work reviewed by professional edi tors. There are some problems with the book, both sty listic and in terms of content. Catherine's leiter is printed in over 70 pages of italics - hard 10 read and unnecessary ; as long as we know we ' re reading a document, italic isn 't needed. The book would also benefit from a thorough proof-read, thereby avoiding such infelicities as ' the king refused to see a sole for ni gh on a week ' (p. 145). A new cover and a less obscure title would also help. The re are some factual errors, such as the assertion that Margaret of York was Mary of Burgundy ' S mother; she was actually her stepmother. And the val iant but doomed attempt by the author to invent ' med ieval speak ', an awkward blend of thee and thou, wouldst and couldst, ' twill and mayhap wi th muc h later patterns of speech just doesn' t work. The author's 'solution ' to the problem of the princes' fate is certainly ingenious, but commonsense suggests that this is a fantasy 100 far. '路Iaving said all that D/the Good Hereafter is an imaginative and entertaining read, very pro-Richard :a.nd packed full of vivid detai l about medieval lile in a relatively isolated house, far away from London and the politics of the court Elainc Hcndcnlon

The King 's Mistress by Emma Campion. Century, 2009. Paperback, 536 pp. ISBN 9780434015504 The mistress in question is Alice Perrcrs (c.1340-1400), lover and companion of Edward III and, by all accounts, quite a remarkable woman lor her time Perrers' relationship wi th the ageing king caused considerable scandal and condemnation and allcr his death she faced charges of witchcraft and of seduci ng a seni le ki ng to obtai n land, properties and jewels, c harges which she refuted vigorously. Alice Perrers exci tes widely differi ng opinions even today, with commentators ranging from the vit uperative (she was venal , greedy and unscrupulous) to the admiring (she was a clever, astute woman who used her business ski lls to try and create a secure futu re lor herself and her children). In any event, hers was surely an exciting, vigorous and colourful Ii Ie, whatever its moral complexities, and Alice herself quite a lormidable woman. Emma Campion docs not sec her heroine qui te like this, however Curiously, she has chosen to portray her as a relatively powerless woman, her Ii Ie arranged for her by others (by men) and lorced to comply wi th their wishes A constant refrain is repeated throughout the book: ' When had I a choice to be other than I was? Should I have been more selfish, more stubborn, more rebellious? Have I been too compliant, 100 quick to give the men in my life what they thought they wanted? Am I a fa llen woman or an obedient handmaiden?' (p. 2 fT.) And so, at the age of 13, Al ice Sal isbury willi ngly marries Janyn Perrers, a Lombard merchant, protege of the dowager Queen Isabella, whose family guards an important and dangerous royal secret. Janyn disappears while abroad and Alice is taken into Queen Philippa's service ' for her own protection' . She soon calches Edward's eye and eventuall y, wi thoUl any real hesitation, becomes his mistress: ' I was thrilled to have caught the heart of the king - or, at least, his eye and desire. Seei ng so clearly now that I had no choice, that he had chosen, I thought I might at least play with all my heart. ' (p. 288) The reader fo llows every nuance of the ensuing romance from its inception in 1364 ('Your wildness draws me, Alice. You know that. When you 25

arc one with your hawk, your horse, at ease in the woodland - that is when I most desire you. ' (p. 288)), to the death o f Edward some twelve years later. As the king becomes weaker Alice becomes increasingly aware of her precarious position : ' I walked the palace corridors with eyes cast do wn, avoidi ng the cool looks, the knowi ng grins,' ( p. 440) As befits Campion' s romantic heroine, however, she remains devoted to the king umi l the end, Hated and feared by the courtiers and reviled by the people who see her as a commoner, a usurper of their late and much beloved Queen Philippa - she even wears the queen's je wels - Alice has fe w friends, although Geoffrey Chaucer is one of them. Once the king dies, Alice is without protection and her enemies close in, Here the book springs to li fe and picks up pace as Alice, al ways so acqui escent, is forced imo confrontation 10 protect her considerable wealt h and property, The enigmatic, umrustworthy fi gure of John of Gaunt strides through the pages, fi rst promising her protection and then withdrawing it. Even here, however, Campion still allows her heroine to deny a ny real responsibil ity for her actio ns, impl ying that the serious (and well -documemed ) allegations made agai nst her a re either tri vial: people petulantl y claimi ng unpaid de bts, kin clai ming that 1 had coerced their relati ves to enfeoff land to me that they were furious was now o ut of their reach - all the usual petty compl aints made against wealthy persons ' or invented: ' How they could speak such lies in my presence, 1 could not understand, ' (p, 477) Lies or not, Alice loses her lands, her jewel s are confi scated and she is forced into an unhappy marriage wit h Will iam Wyndsor. After his death she marries her fa ithful steward , John Broun, and spends "the rest of her life tryi ng to regain her lost properties. Campion presems Alice Perrers largely as a victim of her age and circumstances. Her sympathetic portrayal seems to be an attempt to fashion her into some kind of tragic heroi ne de fined by her relationships - obed iem da ughter, loving wife, devoted mother, fai thful mi stress and companion - her 'goodness' exploited by the unscru p ulous and avaricious Indeed Cha ucer te lls her that she is the inspiration for Criseyde in his great poem, Troillls and Criseyde . On the other hand, C. Gi ven-Wilson in hi s emry for Alice in The Oxford Dictionmy of National Biography suggests that Alice was the inspiration for Langland ' s Lady Meed ' a personification of venality' in his Piers Plowma n. Judge Alice Perrers as we may , she was sure ly stronger and more determined than the compliam victim of Emma Campion' s portrayal. Elaine Henderson

A Dutch novel a bout Richard III J\'k-ssire by Els Launspach, Amsterda m 2008, â‚Ź25, ISBN 978-90-450-0620-8 (with a Dutch translation o f Shakespeare 's Richard //I by Ge rri t Komrij, ISBN 978-90-450-0680-2). This novel is in Dutch and most Ricardia ns will be unable to enjoy its contents, but it certainly deserves to be mentioned, Perhaps, one day, it wi ll be translated and become accessible to Engli sh speakers. It was publi shed in a sli pcase together wit h a verse translation of Shakespeare's Richard Iff by the well-k nown Dutch poet and aut hor Gerrit Ko mrij , who was also, for a while, poet laureate o f the Netherlands, T he book has three large, separate sections. T he fi rst is set duri ng the last days o f T homas More, who is contemplati ng his life and work in the Tower and is visited by Kathry n, grand daughter of Jo hn Morton. She gives hi m Lati n notes written by her grand father, which she herse lf cannot read, T he document makes More reali se that Morton has pl ayed wi th him and fed hi m false information about Richard and the events of 1483. In this framework the not-so-wellinformed reader is told the story of Gloucester's accession and made fami liar wi th some of the doubts that surround it. T he second section is set in 16 19 and purports to be a :series of very personal letters fro m Sir George Buck to Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel and later Earl o f Norfolk (died 1646), in which Buck disc usses, and comme ms on, hi s own HistOly of Richard /II which he is fini shi ng His 26

comments include cri ticism and analysis of More' s bio:graphy and Shakespeare' s play, wi th whom both the author herself - as a drama scholar - and her protagonist - as Master of the Revels - are we ll acquainted. Towards the end we are pre.sented wi th Buck ' s sudden realisalion that 'Shakespeare' may have been Edward de Vere, 17th earl of Oxford, who had a political axe to grind. The third part of the book is a fictionalised narrali ve of The Trial of Richard 11/, televised in 1984 . The main character is a female historian, Jennifer Simpson, who is confronted with the general untrustworthiness and \\~Iiness of the other witnesses and experts. The people are different, the names are different and the words spoken at the trial not the actual ones, but to Ricard ians - we who know too much - it is an odd experience to see these, as it were, caricatures of people that we are so familiar with and we can hardly a void reading this part of the book as a romall (I clefs . The only real problem is the fact that Jenni fer Simpson flee s from the scene of action, in despai r aboUi the hopelessness of fighting against slander and misi nterpretation. Her premature departure leaves the story open-ended and the not-so-well-informed reader may well conclude that Richard was found gu ilty. The actual verdict is not given. The author has since told me that it was not her intention to give this impression. One need not agree in every instance with how the author has treated her subject and which version or aspect of the historical events she has chosen to give more emphasis, but this is a novel and agreement is irrelevant. Launspach is obviously a born story teller - this is by no means her first novel - and she is also a fi ghter for lost or weak causes and particularly worried about the way historical eve nts get twisted by later propaganda. Her book is a nicely produced paperback with the NPG portrait on the cover and it includes a map, a family tree and a useful li st of the characters in the story with briefbiographies Livia Visser-Fuchs


ana Comments

GEOFF WHEELER On page 18 of the December 2009 BIII/elill, Moira Habberjam, with her extensive knowledge of the transcribing of medieval wi lls and documents, wi ll no doubt soon have noticed the perpetuation of an oli-quoted error (also noted in the Spring 2009 BIII/elin on p.12) that Richard's leller denounci ng Buckingham ' from Grantham' clearly slates in the original that it was written 'at oure Cite of Lillco/II' . On page 25 , Lesley BOalwright 's report of Prof. Duffy ' s Windsor lecture states that as a saini Henry VI ' had no particular attribute' , which surely overlooks the fact that his heraldic emblem of an antelope, probably deri ved from his father, and also used as a supporter to his royal arms, occurs many times in varied representalions of him, for e~:ample the damaged woodcut showi ng pi lgri ms and suppliants kneeling before an oUisize figure of the king at hi s shrine (Bodleian Library ms Bodley 277 076v), on painted screens in the churches of Lanreath, Binham, Stambourne and Whimple, as well as carved on statues at Al nwick , Toft and the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam , and a number of lead pil gri m badges. These are all discussed and illustrated by Richard Marks in hi s article ' Images of Henry VI ' in The LallCaSll'iall COllrt: Proceedillgs oflhe 200/ Harlaxloll Symposillm, ed. Jenny Stratford, Harlaxton Medieval Studies vol. xi ii, Donnington 2003 . [Lesley Boatwright comments: My thanks for the antelope references, which I shall follow up. However, Prof. Duffy was not dealing with heraldry, but imagery generated from martyrdom. He said that Henry had ' no partic ular attribute as a saint' , in fh e way that St Laurence is shown with a gridiron , the instrument of hi s martyrdom' , but as a saint he was seen as the arc hetype of the suffering king, Christ-like in his humility. Sorry ifmy report did nOI make that clear.] 27

:Meaia 'Retro~ective King Richard III lose both hi s life and crown to Henry Tudor.'

From CL'O((Whcelcr

The Independellt, I December 2009, Nature Notebook, by Michael McCarthy : ' Will history see this as a turning point for climate change? ' ' History is only patterns, patterns we impose with the benefi t of hindsight on the chaotic flow of human events, and these palterns are emi nemly fa llible, even rever-

From Lesley Ware Buried, by Mark Billingham (publ. 2006). Describing Middlesex Gui ldhall Crown Court, the a Ulhor says, ' For all its gargoy les and ornate Gothic styl ing the Guildhall was less than a century old, but it was a n imposing bui lding nevertheless, with a position as hi storic as any in the ci ty. It had once been the site of the Sanctuary Tower from where, ironically, the seven+year-old Duke of York had been dragged, en route to being murdered with his elder brother by the future Richard III ' Lesley wrote to the author, say ing that she had enjoyed the book, but 'was surprised the detective Tom Thome believed the old chestnut about Richard III murdering his nephews, as Edward V might have died naturally and Richard o f Vork might have been sm uggled out to become Perkin Warbec:k ' She also told him about our website. He replied, saying that he was aware of the theories, bUI his detective, Tom Thorne, might not be, but 'I'll send him a li nk to Ihe website '

si ble.' . 'Was Richard III a vi le hunchbacked villain who murde red the Princes in the Tower? Well, he was according to Shakespeare but not according 10 the contemporary citizens of York, who on 23 August 1485 p ublicly recorded their reaction to his death at the Battle of Bosworth in their municipal diary as " King Richard latc mercifully reigning upon us was through great treason __ piteously slain and murdered, to the great heavi ness of this ci ty" trying to impose the right pattern on events is an enterprise n'-aught wi th pitfall s, and an even more chancy affair is the spotti ng of Turning Points which is why I am somewhat hesi tant in sayi ng that what happened last week was perhaps the key turning point in Ihe efforts of human society to deal with climate change .

From Celia Parker, Sheffield Call/olic Herald, 15 January 2010. 'W hen arguments for Shakespeare 's Catholicism surface - as they do regularly they feel suspiciously like "special interest scholarship", the result of preordai ned concl usion in seek of verisimil itude. The Ricardians, who seek to exonerate Richard III from wrongdoing and to "re habi litate his reputation" are perhaps the best examples of such writi ng. '

From Sheila Gove, Kings Lynn A False Mirror, by Charles Todd. 'The bosses were from Henry VII's day, he thou.ght, with the white rose of Lancaster and th~~ red rose of York melded into the Tudor -rose, healing all wounds of the long bloody wrangling among the descendants of Edward I. Or suc h was the hope. Henry Tudor had certainly done hi s best to rid hi mself of any opposition.' She'ila comments: ' Charles Todd is an American author who writes about a police inspector 111 England haunted by his experiences in the Fi rst World War. In A False Mirror he has gone to I-Iampton Regis (obviously Lyme Regis) and into the church

From Neil Skidmore, West Midlands This Eng/and magazine, autumn 2009, p. 81 ' The baltic [Bosworth] brought to an end the Wars of the Roses and saw the infamous 28

Mr Todd might have the colours of the roses wrong, but he's right about Henry VII ' Sheila has also told us about The Bloody Tower, by Carola Dunn. In this novel an amateur sleuth named Daisy Dalrymple and her police-inspector husband, Alec FlelCher, investigate the murder of a yeoman warder at the Tower of London. Several mentions are made of the deaths of the Princes, all followi ng the onceaccepted version of Richard Il l's guilt. 'However,' says Shei la, ' I am nOI sure whether that is the author' s bel ief or because the story is set in the year 1925.'

pontification and an entirely magni fice nt aberration", and at least three Engli sh ki ngs come within his sights. Henry V, a cartoon version of the fami liar profile, but with stubble,. si mply declares, "Hey ! I' m a Plantagenet. How cool IS that? " The paragraph of "facts" on Henry VIII states he was ki ng "during the period now known as the lro:n Age. He was well known for his fondness for chopping off his wives' heads and eati ng them", and "His servants all had four arms and he invented the cartwheel movement in gymnastics". Invention seems to flag with Richard III, and we get a "Salvador Dali meets Picasso" caricat ure of the NPG portrai t, with the speec h bubble "I am mercil ess. O h yes. I am the cruel ki ng known as the Pitiless Plantagenet. So you better watc h your step, cock, or I j ust might do you in. Oh yes." And the caption to a photo of two chil dren (are they the author's own?) and a dog concl udes in traditional vei n: "Richard the Third was a ruthless king. He was respons ible lor kill ing Henry VI, his brother Clarence, the Duke of Buckingham, and, most dreadfull y, his two nephews, the Princes in the Tower." ,

From Geoff Wheeler n'e Times, Thursday 26 Nove mber 2009, 'Two sacked over bullying of Tower's fi rst woman Beefeater' , by Lucy Bannerman. The article was ill ustrated by a picture of Edward IV, with the caption 'Edward IV ( 146 1-83) was on the throne when the fi rst Beefeaters were appointed' and gives the source of thi s as 'The Tower of London' Geon' comments: ' it's not very often that Edward IV is confused with Henry VII , but thi s report appears to beli eve that Henry ' s institution of his Yeoman Bodyguard shortly after Bosworth was attributable to him. The Independelll of the same date also reported 'their origi ns stretch back to the reign of Edward IV'.

From Geoff Wheeler Lime Magazine 2009 (Alridiziak Theatre News). Theatre : interview with Adrian Lester, starri ng in Cal 0 11 a HOI Till Roof Asked if he thought the production 's 'colour- blind' casti ng would in spire producf!rs in the UK, Lester replied, ' I don' t think it's colour-bli nd casti ng. It's act ually colour specific . because it' s a classic and is written about something that is unspoken about -- that we can't fi nd words for - the c haractl~rs can be played by anybody. It' s like Richard III being played by a woman or a black man. These things can be done because the story allows that. '

From Gt.'OffWheeler Vie Reeves' Vasl Book of World Knowledge (Atlantic Books 2009) Geoff writes: 'i n the December 2009 med ia pages the editor re marks that "Richard has been tumi ng up in some rat her strange contexts", so perhaps we should not be surprised at comedian Vic Reeves' take on the king - also not forgetting that in 2009 AI Murray (ot herwise known as 'the Pub Land lord' ) in serious mood, defended Henry VIII on Channel 5's Britain ' s Greatest Monarch). However, here Vic Reeves combines his comedic ski ll s wi th that of successful artist, and it is presented as "an irresistabl e visual romp" by one of the country ' s "most remarkable and idiosyncratic minds a reve lation, a celebration, a

From GeoffWbccler b be II i S for y mag a:: i n e. com I b I 0 g l ballie/ie Id-lleall II-and-sa fely , J u I i a n Humphreys, 2 September 2009. ' I once heard it said that Richard III is the only English king with his own fan club and the first tent that you came to as you entered \II \II 11'.


the site [at Bosworth Battlefield Centre commemorative event : see December 2009 Bllllerill, pp. 14-17J was that of the Richard 111 Society, an interesting organisation which manages 10 combine some first-rate original research on a variety of medieval subjects with what I have always considered a slightly eccentric desire 10 "restore the reputation" of this long dead monarch. Not thai hi s reputation seemed 10 need much restoration aI Bosworth. Many of the spectators sported Richard 111 badges and I was later told Ihal the re-enactor rather reluclantly portraying one of Ihe Tudor leaders had Richard Ill' s symbol , a white boar, tattooed on his chest. there was no doubt where the crowd' s sympathies lay as the Tudor forces took to the fi eld under a barrage of boos. '

Edward V: ' Royal scandal s: Richard III uncovered a conspiracy to free the princes from the tower. The men responsible were put on trial it was their plot that may have pushed Richard 10 murder the boys. Factfile: Liked learning. He was said to enjoy reading. Di sliked his uncle Richard, for imprisoning him in the Tower of London. Whal has he left behind? endless intrigue. ' Richard 111 : ' Potted hi story : technically Ihe last English king (every monarch since has been Welsh, Scottish or German). His contemporary portrait [sicJ shows a handsome man fiddling, as Prince Charles does, with his signet ring. Fact file: liked murder; di sl iked treason. What has he left behind? The Richard III Society - and the bail system, which Richard introduced in 1484.' Henry VII. 'Potted hi story: he fought several wars, d,~fending his throne against France and the French proxy , Scotland [he] dclcated several invasions by imposters claiming Ihe throne he collected the greatest tax revenu(:s lor a century 10 finance his defence of the kingdom Royal scandals: Henry led a remarkably uprighl domestic life lor a medieval aristocrat. He only had one illegitimate child - by an unknown Breton woman during hi s exile in France when he was ag(:d Just 17. Factfile: Liked a wide range of sports and games. Di sli ked subj ects who kept money from him. What has he left behind? an entrenched Tudor monarchy in a country without private baronial armies. And the firs"! use of Ihe word " foOiball ", in 1486, to describe a ball-kicking game.' [Eds: This last is seriously not so. See Lesley Boatwright's article 'A Fifteenth-century Football Hooligan' in the Autumn 2007 Bulletin. l

From Geoff Wheeler The Guardian and The Obse'Ter, 'Ki ngs and Queens' ed Kate Abbott, November 2009. Each monarch is summari sed under lour headings: Polled hi story , Meet the fam ily, Royal scandals, and Faclfile. Henry VI 'Royal scandal s: The king hated seeing naked bodies When bare-bosomed dancers were paraded before him one Chri stmas, he stormed oul, cry ing: "Fy, (y, lor shame" Factfile : Liked si mpl e pl easures, such as dressing as a lownsman; disliked: Joan of Arc, and violence. ' Edward IV : ' Potted history : he quickly developed a reputation for ruthlessness, probably ordering Ihe murder of Henry VI and implicated in Ihe murder of hi s own some brother, George, Duke of C larence interpreted hi s sudden death in 1483 as divine retribution fo r his evil doings. Factfi le : Liked food. He took emetics so he could gorge himself. '

RI CARDIA N TOTE IBAGS Following the launch of this last year (sec September 2009 Bul/erin), the bags have proved to be popular with members and a further stock has been obtained. These will be to the same design as before, but with Ihe mOlifs printed in murrey on the cotton bag. They wi ll again be priced aI £2.50 for members and £3 for non-members, plus £ I postage and packing, and available from the Sales Officer, Sally Empson (full delai ls inside Ihe back cover). They wi ll also be on sale at SocielY events and Ihe AGM . A small stock of Ihe original bags with black printing is still avai lable. Why nOI buy both? 30

:Meaut :Retro extra

'Trust me - I'm a FiistoricaCnoveCist


eoff Wheeler has found two vel)' interesting articles ,,.,,h ich contribute 10 the ongoing debate about historical novels_

The first is a review article in Times Higher Education, 17/24 December 2009. David Barnes, who teaches in the School of Engli sh and Drama al Queen Mary (University of London), i s reviewing The His/oricol Novel by Jerome de Groot (Routl edge, 2009) He asks, ' Is the historical novel in vogue as never before?' We saw that fi ve out of six books shortli sted in 2009 for the Man Booker Prize were historical novels, one of which was the winner: Hi lary Mantel ' s Wolf Hall, on Thomas Cromwell. Barnes describes this shortli st as ' a nostalgia-lest ', and asks, 'Arc we drawn to hi storical fiction because we want to live in the past? Or does the hi storical novel's appeal lie in the idea that, if things are bad, at least they are not as bad as they were?' He selects Daniel Defoe's Robinsoll Crusoe as the start of the genre : ' When . Defoe tried to pass off his travel fantasy . as a true account in 1719, he was not to know that he wo uld set in motion a struggle between "truth" and "fiction" that was to dominate the story of the novel for the next 300 years. As a result, the idea of "true hi story" (or not) has always plagued the novel's an. "I'm tell ing you stories. Trust me," writes the narrator of Jeanette Winterson's n'e Passion.' In his book, de Groot argues that ' playing with concepts of trust, truth and veracity is at the the hi storical nove l encourages our urge to create our own, core of the novel's existence distorted version of the past' As a case study, he looks at "the various views of Anne Boleyn that noveli sts have put forward , from Jean Plaidy to Philippa G regory. Bames concludes his review by remarki ng, ' It remains to be seen where the histori cal novel will go next' . The second article appeared in The Daily Telegraph of Saturday 9 January 2010, and is called 'Poverty , plotting and plagues : what' s new? ' According to the sub-head ing, Phi li p Hensher, the article' s author 'says it is not surpri si ng we are drawn to the dark, difTicult Middle Ages. Why , at diflerent times, do readers start showing an interest in one period of history rather than another?' His answer seems to be that our taste in reading mailer echoes what is act uall y happening in the world around us: we have been afraid of a destructiv(: plague (swine flu) sweeping through the world, our ' leader's court ' has become ' increasingly suspicious, withdrawn and riddled with the sort of plots usually termed "Byzantine", there is not much money in the kiuy and we have to pay lor an expensive foreign war against parts of the Musli m world: 'I t all sounds a lillie bit medieval, and that is what we' ve been reading about' He finds a med ieval echo also in the debate about climate change (and the medieval world experienced one about 1300 AD, when a warm period was followed by something called ' the Little Ice Age' ). 'We think about fu ture catastrophe as a consequence of our past si ns' - a very medieval mind-set. There fo llow discussions of two books, 'two remarkable publishing successes of the past year' , Hilary Mantel ' s Wolf Hall, and Ian Mortimer's Thf! Time Traveller's Gllide 10 Medieval England, which have 'pointed towards a growing taste for a period often thought of as difficult, remote and unattracti ve' . (In hi s list of some of the better-known recent novels set in medieval times he includes 'that lovely classic, Josephi ne Tey's The Dallghter of Time' ) He quotes a London agent, David Miller, as sayi ng that nowadays he i:s seeing 'historians writing novels set in their period of expertise. And historians are showing some interest in fictional techniques' ' What see ms absolutely clear is that readers are se{:ki ng vivid, accurate accounts of the indi vidual experi ence,' he concludes. 'W hat was it li ke to li ve in fear of damnation, plague and the king? And audiences are happy to find out from Hilary Mantel .. or from Ian Mortimer's inventive hi story. ' 31

:Meaut :Retro extra



rom The Dallghter 01 Time onwards, people have looked aI the portraits of Richard III and diagnosed his putative medical condition from them ' ''A candidate for a gastne ulcer," thought Grant, "Someone who had sutTered ill-health as a chi ld. He had that .. indescribable look that childhood suffering leaves behind it. " ' Liver,' said a nurse. ' Polio,' said the surgeon. The latest person 10 make the aitempi is Isabel Tulloch, writing in the JOllmal oflhe Royal Society of Medicille, vol. 102, no. S, pp. 3 15-323 , for August 2009: 'Richard III a st udy in medical misrepresentalion' . Geoff Wheeler, who found this article, has made a number of detailed comments on some of the assertions in ii, which we have given in footnotes. The article begins by considering Richard's place in Engli sh history, and remark ing ' Hi s reputation has taken a number of beatings over the cen turies, due to a series of unfortunate incidents in which he played a central role' . Tulloch describes Edward IV as ' Richard's il legitimate brother' , 1 she also says that many suspected Richard had poisoned hi s wife ' as she was too old to bear another chi ld ' . Which source says this, we wonder? The next section is entitled ' Descriptions of Richard III ' , in which we are told that a York schoolmaster was accused in 1491 of calling Richard ' a hypocrite, a crook and a crook back ' 2 Sir Thomas More' s description is quoted, but the author is aware that More was only 8 years old in 1485, and that he mi ght have been writing something he did not expect to be believed. Shakespeare 'did not d isplay conspicuous reliabil ity about Richard III' , and not even John Rous, who said that Richard was born wi th teeth and hair do wn to his shoulders after a two-year gestation, called him a hunchback ' Accounts from near the time of Richard ' s reign agree that Richard was unusually small ' , and most of these say he had a slight shoulder abnormality , though details diner ' The majority of contemporaries who me ntion hi s appearance (the Crowland Chronicler, Mancini and Commines, for example), .. all have agreed that he was not deformed, 3 Now comes an interesting section on 'The nature of the portrait in [the] 15th century ' Tul loch says, following Schneider [The Art of the POl"lrait , Cologne, Taschen, 2002], that a portrait is used to define the si ller' s role in sociely,and probably all portraits were intended to impress. She says Richard ' s portraits resemble the style of Jan van Eyck, using the same pose, the painter ' essentially making a photographic record of what he saw', and not tryi ng 10 ' extraci the essence of the subject' . The inscription on Ihe Royal Collection portrait certifies its authenticity 4 Its purpose was to verify the identity of the likeness to the si ller. There was a growing tendency to document legal transactions in writing during the 15th century. The writing is almost stating: "This is a legal representation of Richard II] ". Tulloch returns to thi s point and emphasizes that the artistes) who painted Ric hard did not ideal ise the sitter, ' therefore . we must regard [the portraits] as photographic legal documents. is as signficant as the defacin g of a passport Hence, the X-ray evidence of al terations photograph. ' She now turns to the portraits of Richard [11, and says ' The portrait in the Royal Collection has been copied many times and is almost certainl y a copy itself . She illustrates it as Fig. l abut this is actually the NPG version. There fo ll ows a long, detai led description of the various paintings, and what X-rays reveal. She illustrates the Society of Antiquaries portrait (of Richard putting a ring on to hi s left hand) in its o ld pre-restoration version, and the same is true of the 'Broken Sword' portrait. The laller 'd isplays Richard ' s left hand with abnormal positioning of his fin gers' , though he is usi ng Ihe muscles of his left hand when he ' fiddl es with Ihe ring on his right hand ' in the Royal Collection picture, and no abnormalities can be detected in this 32

depiction. Thi s, of course, has a bearing on More's remark that Richard had a 'wearish wi lhered ann and small , as it was never other', and the whole business of the arm withered by witchcraft. Her conclusion here, after considering the reported abnonnalities in Richard 's appearance (and noting thaI More's reports must be treated wi th gf(~at caution) is that ' potential medical explanations for Richard 's abnormality will therefore have to take into account both the unevenness of his shoulders, with his right being higher than his left, and condi tions which could have affected hi s left forearm muscle bulk and the smal l muscles of hi s left hand '. The first really medical section is headed 'Compensatory development of uneve n shoulder muscle mass' Richard would have needed 'well-develop{:d arm, shoulder and back muscles' to wield a sword in battle - and ' reports from the Battle of Bosworth have indicated that Richard was a proficient fighter and was described as swinging a heavy battle axe wi th manic energy'. S If he had had an injured left arm, then he could have compensated by "building up a considerable muscle mass on his stronger right side' (This is an obvious point, which many people have made before her.) She rejects the notion that Richard may have suffered from Sprengel's deformity, in which there is under-development of the scapula, restricti ng arm movemenl on Ihe affected side, and turns to 'obstetric neural injuries' Although much of what More says about Richard's birth is had so unrel iable, he did report thaI Richard was born by breech delivery, and ' the Duchess much ado in her Inlvaillhat she could not be deli vered him uncut '. It appears Ihat on statistical grounds an II th chi ld (which Richard was) ' is more likely to have been large', which of course could make the bi rth difllcult, and it could have resulted in ' brachial plexus inj uries', which can result in upper limb abnormalities. 'They are more frequent when the baby is the later child of multiparous women, when the baby is large and when there is breech presentation' [Impey, Obslelrics and Gynoecology, Oxford, Blackwell, 2004]. These injuries are more common if fo rce is used to extract the baby, and two sy ndromes especia ll y may resul t The first is the ErbDuchenne syndrome, 'which produces a classic "waiter's tip" ann posi tion d ue to an imbalance in musculature' - but this is unlikely because nei ther portrai ts nor written sources point to Richard holding either ann in this posi tion . Then there is Klumpke's paralysis, seen in weakness of the small muscles of the hand and part of the forearm This would fit in with 'the abnormal hand positioning seen in the Broken Sword portrait', but this also shows Richard with a raised le li shoulder, which would not fit Her conclusion is that Richard ' had no greal bod ily abnormal ity ', and that vigorous exercise and weapon training might have led to his 'build ing a considerable mass of muscle unilaterally on his right shoulder', for which the most likely explanation is that "he had sustained a left-sided ulnar nerve inj ury' during forceful obstretric traction, Of her 19 references, most are medical. She has deri ved her (footnoted) information about Richard from Pamela Tudor-Craig (the NPG exhibition catalogue, 1973, and Richard III, Boydell and Brewer, 2d edn. 1977); Gardiner, J, ed, Who路s Who ill Brilish HislOry (London 2000); the Camden Society'S ed ition of Polydore Vergil; John Gill ingham's Richard 11/ (London 1993); and the American Branch's website. She also refers to P. Rhodes's article in the Brilish Medical Journal for 1977: ' Physical deformity of Richard III '

Gcoffs notcs: I. 'R ichard's illegitimate brother' - only according to M,K . Jones. 2. 'a hypocrite, etc, ' - this is really ' a hypocrite and a crouchback' . 3. In fact, these contemporaries are the ones who do not mention much about hi s appearance, As far as I can check and recall, Crowl and simply states th,at before Bosworth ' he consequently presented a countenance which, always attenuated, was 011 this occasion more livid and ghastly than usual ' Mancini says nothing - unless she got the impression Ihal von Poppelau's extract, printed as an appendix to Mancini by Armstrong, is actually part of Mancini 's work. Commines is silent on Richard 's appearance 33

4. The inscription Ricardlls 11/ Ang Rex (probably added later) is on the NPG version she illustrates, not the one in the royal collection. It of course occurs in differe nt variations on the later copies. 5. There are no contemporary accounts of Richard using a baltle-axe at Bosworth. The earliest evidence comes from ballad sources such as ' Ladye Bessie'

Did Richard lack front teeth? The October 2009 issue of the JOIIl"llal of the Royal Society of Medicine carried a letter in response from Marianne M. Gilchrist suggesting that trauma should be considered as a cause of Richard 's apparent shoulder irregularity. ' Intermittent pain or di scomfort from an old wound could have caused him 10 carry himself awkwardly at limes, but not constantly - which may explain why some people noticed unevenness and others did not' She also suggests Ihat Richard' s shoulder may appear raised in portraits because artists were attempting 10 convey a sense of depth, and ends, ' In all his portraits, Ihe set of his moulh suggests to me Ihat he may lack front teeth, perhaps from a blow or being unhorsed. Has anyone else noticed this? '

Notes andQ:ueries 1" n the last issue of the Blllletin (December 2009), Jo Quarcoopume asked, ' If Richard realiy JL had Intended to marry his niece, would he not also have had to reverse her bastardisalion? ' No readers have responded to Ihis query , which see ms a very sensible one. 11 would appear that the only way he could do this with 100% certainty Ihat it would nOI give encouragement to future imposters would be if he could prove that the boy s wen~ dead, which he notably did not do Lesley Boatwright has been Ihinking fu rther on the subj e,;t of Richard' s alleged plans to marry Elizabeth - see her note on page 45. Although we had no answers 10 last month ' s query, we have IWO fresh ones to consider Philippa Langley comments Ihat she very much enjoyed Jennie Powys-Lybbe's article, 'Margaret Beaufort's List' in the December 2009 Blllletin, and says , ' I路lavi ng read various accounts as to where Henry Tudor actually stood in line 10 the English throne, could somebody finally answer this particular question? And if they could lisl all those who stood before him, and in order, even beller! ' Margaret Byrne says, 'Wi thoUi straying into fiction , 1 am curious to know about Richard's dai ly life. For example, what did he wear? Who worked with him on a daily basis? What did he do in his spare time? What happened 'at court ' ? What did he eat? What were banquets like? What was the role of ambassadors? What were his skepi ng arrangements? What were his favourite places and why? What would a royal progress be li ke? ' A number of these topics are covered in books about life in the fifteenth century. There are so many of these, on food , clothing, banquets, court procedure and so on that it is difficult to recommend one rather than another. The Society Library contains many books which deal with various aspects of medie val life, and we suggest that members interested in these matters might like to look at the Libmry catalogue on line, and borrow th(: ones that sound interesting. Margaret also says, 'There are some articles in eac h Bulletin which raise further questions for me. For example, the current Bulletin has 'Margaret Beaufort's List' . It mentions attempts to assassinate Richard. r would like to know more about that. Also, about the role of Wi lliam Catesby and how muc h innuence he mi ght have had at court. Perhaps you could develop the 'Notes and Queries' section to respond 10 such questions. ' Yes, certainly Any answers, please? 34

'I'Fie Man J{imseif A DEFENCE OF KING RICHARD ISOLDE WIGRAM As part of our tri bute to Isolde Wigram we are devoti ng The Mall Hilllselfto a piece that she wrote over forty years ago, publ ished in the Septe mber 1969 ed ition of The Ricardian. Isolde wrote the piece in response to an article by Peter Newman that had appeared in the previous issue of Ihe journal. This article had put forward the argument that Richard [[I was responsible lor Ihe demise of his nephews, and it suggested that the John Howard, Duke of Norfolk, might have coll uded in Ihe murder. It argued Ihal Richard was ' a man of his ti mes' and would have been necessarily ruthless 10 protect his own interests Isolde look up Ihe cudgels and wrote a spi rited and reasoned defence of King Richard, now in part a lillie dated but in many ways st ill relevant today Mr Newman considers that Richard would have rega rded the murder of his nephews as a political necessity, as a potential threat to his security_ I wonder if he has considered the analogous situation of Henry VII and Elizabeth I vis-a.-vis Edward of Warwick and Mary Q ueen of Scots respectively_ In both these cases the death of the victi ms was a political necessi ty as proved threats to sec urity (i t is someti mes forgotte n that Lambert Simnel was not the only impostor claimi ng to be the earl of Warwick). Yet in both cases these Tudor sovereigns - who were surely not more merciful than Richard - put off the evil day and postponed a decision fo r as long as possible. Indeed, in the case of Elizabeth she is said to have been fi nally tricked into signing Mary ' s death warrant, while her grandfather Hen ry VII was reported to be so changed after Warwick 's death that we can do hi m the j ustice of believi ng that he fe lt deeply the weight of this terri ble necessity. Does Mr Newman, with all that he has been able to learn through this Society of Richard's character, really thi nk that he would in so short a ti me decide to ' liquidate' as a merely potential threat two boys who were so much closer to hi m than Warwick was to Henry or Mary to Elizabeth? For every reason - their you th, hel plessness, and the fac t that they were commined to his charge by a brother to whom he ha d shown a life long devotion - he was bound to protect them, and even a less merciful and less secure king might well have wai ted to commit suc h a crime until he was sure they were a threat to him. No, Mr Newman, 'pol itical expediency' wi ll not wash! But it is said that Richard was a ' man of hi s times' and that to him it would hardly have appeared a crime. To take the second point fi rst, if it had not appeared a crime to Ric hard's own age we would hardly have heard of it. It is specifically because Sir Thomas More has made of it the cardinal crime that it would have been, if commined, that it has become the central point of the Tudor propaganda campaign_ All else was directed to that end As to Richard's being a man of his times - for who arc we, in age of gang warfare, the Mafia, and mass terrorism, to talk of ruthl essness? - if this means anything it means a live ly sense of his si n against divi ne law, both as murderer and as one who had forsworn the most solemn oaths_ Mr Newman thinks Richard may have had to live with this gui lt, but it is not recorded that he showed any marked change as Henry VII did alier Warwick ' s exec ution_ As Richard was known for his piety a change hard ly less marked would be expected. Nor am I able to discover what advantage Mr. Newman thinks Richard would have gai:ned by general uncertai nty about the boys' death. On the contrary, uncertainty about Richard 11' s end was shown in He nry IV ' s reign to be a mistake, as a character claimi ng 10 be Richard appeared at the Scollish Court. And why 35

docs Mr Newman, who waves away even the possibi lity of Perkin Warbeck being the younger prince, think that Richard would not foresee hi s being plagued with pretenders as Henry Vll was? If the princes were murdered together, and in the Towi~r, it is strai ning credulity 100 far 10 suppose that there would not have been a jOI of evidence t:nabling Henry 10 deal as smanly wit h Perkin Warbeck as he did wi th Lamben Simnel. As for the nobility who either supported Henry at Bosworth or remai ned neUiral , this is far more an indication of prudence than of Lancastrian sympathy, or more of them wo uld have been present to swear allegiance to Henry at hi s coronation. Richard had lost a 101 of popularity through havi ng had to resort to fo rced loans, and a lot of confidence through the death of hi s son. The nobles could not have foreseen how much more Henry would dip imo their pockets, bUl the prospect of poli tical stabil ity offered by Henry' s proposed union of the Roses through hi s marriage with Elizabelh of York was a great attraction and, together with the olher factors memioned above, of lhe utmost importance in deciding the issue aI Bosworth. Finally, although it is rather fashionable 10 favour the Duke of Norfolk as another candidate for murder (a theory first put forwa rd by Professor BindofT in the 1950s), to my mind it ill becomes Ricardians to make accusations for the which there can be no jot of evidence against 'Jock of Norfolk ', who ignored the waming on hi s tent, whom loyalty also bound, and whose name deserves nothing but honour.

'I'liey Vier;{ Of a Catarrli?


remarkable slant on the English lang uage is to be found in n'e HiSfOry of King Richard fhe Third, by Si r George Buck, one of the earlier authors to defend Richard III 'Not long after, King Edward died, and it was held doubtful upon what disease or evil he came to it. Polydore Vergi l saith he died of a disease utterly unknown 10 all physicians, whi ch showeth some that there was some f01l1 play, and that may be And Enguerant de MonSlrelel writelh understood to be either poison or sorcery that some said he died of an apoplexy, and that some other said that he was poisoned in wine of Creu which King Lewis XI sent him. And Phi lip de Commynes seemeth to be of the same opinion, for he saith thaI Aucuns d.isaient que Ie Roi d' Angleterre avait etc mourut d' un catarrhe some say thaI King Edward died ofa catarrh. For so they say in France when a greal man is made away by poison. And of such a venomous catarrh died Ihe young King Ed ward LV!. J And in this sense Ihe French king Henry 111 died of a catarrh. And I came to understand it upon this occasion : it fell Ihen unhappily that when I was in France and in the coun, ,here was news brought Ihat the Lady Mary Queen of Scots was bt:headed in England, and at the a,.,.i\"01 of this news they said tha, she had died ofa cOlar,.h. '

The Oxford English Dicfionary gives as the primary meani ng ' the profuse discharge from nose and eyes which generally accompanies a cold, and which was fonnerly supposed to run down from the brain '; it derives from the Greek word meaning ' :running down' It also says, 'Formerly also applied to cerebral effusion or haemorrhage; apoplexy. Obsolete' and quotes a 1707 author on 'Catarrh of the Spinal Marrow, a Falling-out of the Marrow of the Backbone' , which sounds nasty . The thi rd meaning is ' inflammation of a mucous membrane, usually restricted to that of the nose, throat and bronchial tubes, causing increased fl ow of mucus' Buck' s reference 10 Mary Queen of Scots was pres umably the French court ' s idea of a gruesome joke aboUi fluid (i .e. blood) 'running down' frolTl lhe brain. 36

'RefCections on tFie Princes in tFie Tower PATRICIA PAYNE


ichard, Duke of Gloucester, was a sold ier and, as such, learn! to judge men for qualities of leadership. Conversely, much might depend on recognising weakness of character in young men that debarred them from rising 10 positions ofaUlhority. What if, during the four days they spent together riding from Stony Stratford to London in May 1483, Richard discovered such deficiencies of character and education in his twelve -year-old nephew Edward V as were unlikely to be remedied in the two years before Edward assumed full powers as king? Remembering Ihe years of feud and bloodshed during Ihe reign of Henry VI, a weak king dominated by a queen, Richard knew Ihe kingdom could not uflord a young king manipulated by his mother, Queen Elizabeth Woodville, and her relations_ Richard could loresee fi ve separate foreign treaties signed to England ' s disadvantage, but enabling Elizabeth to boast of 'my five daughters, all queens' Of the two principal sources for the years 1483-85, one was a child at the time while the other, a clerical diplomat, was in the country for three months and probably relied on an interpreter to speak wi th those not fluent in Lalin, Italian or French. Thomas More was only seven when King Richard died. As a boy, he was placed in the household of bishop, later Cardinal, Morton. Young Thomas was obviously fascinated by the events of Richard's short reign, and wrote a history of the period which was left unfini shed at his death and published by his nephew many years later. Great credence was given to thi s hi story as it was assumed Sir Thomas got much of hi s information from Cardinal Morton himsel f. That the Cardinal confided in a young clerk is as likely as a headmaster of Eton tcl ling a pupil just how he came to gel the job_ Far more likely is that Sir Thomas listened to those of Morton's house-

hold who could be induced to recall ancient gossip, rumour and surmise. This comes into the category of ' Housekeeper' s History' The second authority, Dominic Mancini, spoke to someone who knew Ed ward V well . Was it one of hi s tutors? ' The boy was charming. In word and deed he gave so many proofs of a liberal education , of scholarly attainments far beyond his age. He could d i sco u~se elegantly, understood fully and declaimed most excellently from any work whether in verse or prose that came into his hands.' In short, a credit to his uncle Lord Rivers, himself a c ulti vated and we lleducated man Sadl y, Edward appears on this slight evidence to be more fitted to be a bishop "than a king_ The British Library holds a fascinating slip of vcllum_ I At some point on the journey to London Richard seems to have asked his nephew what his official signature was to be_ Edward begins his signature with an claborate 'E' foll()wed by a 'd', but thereafter the letters of Edwardlls become more uneven, slanting to the margi n, the qllillfliS cramped and uncertain. Even given that the signature was written by an angry and resentful boy crouched awkward ly over the page, Richard' s disciplined signature and molto are in marked contrast. Edward's first test as king came when his uncle Lord Rivers, his half-brother Si r Richard Grey and his chamberlain Si r Thomas Vaughan were arrested on Richard's orders. What was required was a moment to gain sel f-control , followed by a little speech to the dTect that ' I know 1 must defer in all things to my good uncle Richard until suc h time as 1 take all matters into my own hand s when of full age ' , leading into a plea for good treatment of hi s faithful and valued servants. What occurred was reported (by Si r Thomas More) as 'at which dealing he wept and was nothing content but it mattered not ' In other 37

words, a teenage tantrum end ing in frustrated tears. T he scene was like ly to be remembered by servants as partic ularly shocking. Well born children were taught sel f-control at an early age and it was the duty of nurses and tutors to see thai they were properly brought "p. Possibly because Elizabeth Woodville had removed so much o f the palace furnishi ngs into Westminster sanctuary, and the wardrobe was awaiti ng orders as to what to do next, Edward spent his first few days in Lo ndon in the bishop' s palace at SI Paul' s before movi ng to the royal lodgings at the Tower of London, to prepare for hi s coronation. Enter Cardinal Archbishop Thomas Bourc hi er, usually mentioned only as an elderly cleric duped by Ric hard. Elderly he may have been, havi ng been born about 1404, but he was a close relation to all concerned, as a son of Lady Anne Plantagenet, daughter of T homas of Woodstock, youngest son of Edward III. Whatever Richard was, or was not, he wo ul d be unli ke ly to risk excommunication via the Cardina l if the boys were treated badly. It is probable, therefore, that Bourchier' s request to Elizabeth Woodville to allow young Richard, Duke of York to join his brother in the Tower because Edward needed company , was genuine. Having spent six weeks in the confined space of Westminster sanctuary wi th a lively tenyear-old boy deprived of his tutors and frie nds and with no occupation except leasi ng his sisters, Elizabeth may not have needed much persuadi ng. Who better than this experienced uncle, great- uncle and great-great -uncle to advise on what sho uld be done with the boys in a d iffic ult situation? There is not hing sinister in the boys' being moved out of the royal apartments and their servants dismissed. There were rules as to what different grades o f court attendants were due wi th regard to free accommodation and livery food, dri nk, light and fi rewood.2 Even as royal bastards the boys were due only two rooms and four servants (t he number mentioned by More), wi th perhaps the wife of a Tower employee 10 act as laundress. That the authorities were worried by Edward's altitude and slate of mind is proved

by Ihe fact Ihat Ihey called in Dr Argentine, the coun physician Mancini met Argenti ne later, when both had relurned to the Conti ne nt. There was a rumour the doctor had bee n called to treat toothache in one of the boys, but he said only that Edward was indulging in confession and penance as he feared death. So the boy had access to a chaplain, and perhaps his fear was a variation on the e ndless teenage threat, 'I' ll die, and then you'll be sorry ' BUI it must have been the most appalling shock to him to be one day being measured for his coronation robes and the next to be told he was only a bastard withoul name, position or possessions and totally de pendent on his relatives' c harity. He ap pears to have collapsed into someth ing between a profound teenage sulk and full blown cli nical depression. Wha tever the boys ' fate , Sir James Tyrell seems to have been impli cated. According to Bertram Fields' book Royal Blood,) King Richard sent Tyrell on a mission to Flanders in late 1484 'lor di vers mailers concerning greatly the Ki ng' s weal' In January 1485 the ki ng appointed Tyrell commander o f the castle at Guisnes and paid hi m a large sum Fields states, 'The nature of this extraordinary transaction has never been discovered' But as every incoming CO of a military establi shment is immediately faced with fi nancial problems over maintenance and garrison expenses, perhaps 100 much should not be made of this paymenl. On the other hand, this money cou ld have disguised an ann uity paid for the boys' support if Ihey were already on the Conti nent. In the spri ng of 1484, El izabeth Woodv ille had come to an arrange ment with Richard and left sanctuary wi th her daughters, At abo ut the same time, rumo urs very damagi ng to the king began to circulate. The boys were nOI to be seen at Tower windows or practising their archery, and supposi tion, suggestion and suspicion filled the vacuum of informa tion. Accordi ng to Stow there had been an abortive attempt to get the boys oul of the Tower the previous summer. Can this be the basis lor the story o f an allempt to gai n possession of the Tower keys lor one night?4 Common sense would the suggest the boys 38

were moved to a new location Michael K. Jones and Malcolm G Underwood, in their book The King's Motlier, a biography of Margaret Beaufort, S describe the lady as a ' consummate and unprinci pled plolter' Strong words indeed, considering the record of other players upon the stage at that period. Margaret's extreme piety and generous chari ty in old age were doubtless an expression of gratitude at her only son survivi ng to become king. It would be unkind to wonder if there was a whiff of fireinsurance as well, a doubt as to her reception in the world 10 come. Margaret Beaufort, who was aunt to the duke of Buckingham by marriage and twice connected to him by blood, was impl icated in his rebe llion in 14 83 . It was well for her that before the duke 's exec ution he did not succeed in speaking to Ki ng Richard. As it was, she escaped wi th a lonn of house-arrest under her husband 's supervision and the lorfeiture of her estates, Could it have been

Margare t and her co-conspirator John Morton , then bishop of Ely (who escaped to the Co ntinent and had the ear of foreign courts), who spread the sensational stories so damagi ng to Richard? Gossip. A woma n' s weapon.. I. British Library MS Colton Vespasian F X III f. 123 .

2. See, for example, BOllche of COlin , a collection of ordinances and regulations for the government of the royal household . Society of Antiquaries 1790. 3. Bertram Fields, Royal Blood. King Richard III and Ihe A1yslery of 'he Princes , (Sutton Publi shi ng 2006). 4. See R.Horrox, ' Richard III and London', n'e Ricardian, vo. 6, no. 85 , June 1984, pp.322-9 . 5. Mic hael K. Jones and Malcolm G Underwood, The King's MOlhe,.. Lady Margm'el Beau/orl. COl/nless of Richmond and Derby, (CUP 1992).

5t Vagenfiam Xni{jfit

aM fiis Laay



hurch, inn and former vicarage stand in a quite charming group in old Dagenham, at the beginni ng of a vi llage street which ends abruptly in twentieth-century mediocrity. The church is an extraordinary amalgam of unprepossessing tower and nave (circa 1800 albeit of ancient material) and intriguing east end lit by chance l windows of 1200 or so. Just north of the c hancel arch stands the table-tomb of Sir Thomas Urswyck, Chief Baron of the Exchequer and Recorder of London. He who once welcomed Edward IV into London as king has lain in this pl ace si nce 1479. Above are some of the most absorbing brasses in this part of Essex, the graphic representations of Sir Thomas, hi s Lady Anne and nine daughters, one of whom, arrayed in her habit as a nun of Barking, was daughter of a previous marriage. The indent of brasses to four sons remains. The Urswycks, someti mes Urwyck, sprang from a small place of that name in Ulverston, where the co unty of Lancashire reaches to the Lakes. SiT Robert of Urswyck was a knight of Parliament in 1399, and his son Robert fought at Agincourt. In SI John's c hurch, Hackney, stands the tomb, with bmss, a ll richly done, of Chri stopher Urswyck, a second cousin to Thomas, who skilfull y contri ved the marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, so ending the Wars of the Roses. Chri stopher is commemorated a lso in St George"s Chapel, Windsor of which he was Dean. Sir Thomas's wile was Anne Rich, granddaughter of Richard Rich, Sherin" of London in 1441 It was thi s family that later produced the infamous and quite dread ful Richard, Baron Rich, the founder of Felstead School , betrayer of Sir Thomas More, the saintl y John Fisher and, in successive reigns, ofCmhol ic and Protestant alike. 39

Contrary to what is wri llen in the Dictionary of Nalional Biography, Sir Thomas's mother was Anne Needham, heiress, who lived at Hatfield Regis, known today as Hatfield Broadoak where the name is perpetuated at Needham Green, Thomas and his lady wife lived at Marks Hall , where that narrow neck of Dagenham parish lies betwi!en Romford and the ancient former bounds of Barking. Much is known about the Urswyck ' s country household. From an inventory at the PRO, we know that the house possessed an old and a new hall, a cleric ' s chamber, a white chamber and a blue chamber, nursery, pantry, kitchen and. bake-house in the usual way, a 'dayhouse' (dai ry) and about ten other rooms, a vacaria (cowshed) and a boster (stable). Interesti ngly, and like other country houses, mostly larger, there was also a chapel, and a chamber for a resident priest. In the chapel, the inventory has listed basic ecclesiastical furni shi ngs and with them a collection of books, among them The CamerblilY Tales and Froi ssart's Chronicles. In the chapel also were alabaster images of Our Ladie of Pere (pity) and of ' Seynte Elyn'. Let it suffice to list the domestic contents of 'the Chamber above the Parlour' a tester of Iynen, a celer, a feder bed and also a Bolster of Tyke, a copeborde, a standarde chest, a Iyti ll cowntour, another standarde c heste, a mantell of russett, 2 peire blankettes and an old coveriett, the whole worth I Ii, 12s.0d. Of livestock, Marks Hall possessed an oxe, two styres (steers), 12 kene (cows), a bulk, a kalif, S wenyd (weened) bullocks, 17 score ewes and lambe, an ambelyng hOTS and 3 ambelyng geldings (ambling as opposed to being able to gallop). Some other property was at Gobyons in Havering, Gale -street Chigwell and at Yeldham. The inventory tell s us about the cost of burying Si r Thomas: ' Linen and a chifte (shift) for hi s corpse, 0 1i.4s.Sd. 12 torchys, 4 h.Os.Od. 40 Ib wex made in taperes, I 1i.0sOd , to poor men whych hy lde the torchis and taperes, 0 1i. 6s.0d. Goven in almes, 2 li.1 3s4d , to the vicare of Dagenham I li Os.Od. , to buryal in churche, a Ii 6s.Sd , to the Prystys (priests) being at Di rige anti Messe 0 li.7s.0d. , In brede and in ale at Diryge and upon the morrow at Messe, a li.7s.0d. ' There is an intri gui ng list of payments made when Sir Thomas died to a large number of persons: 'the Queen, 9 1i.ISs.7d, the Abbesse of Barkynge, 2 1i. 7s.0d. , George Josselyn (of the High Roding famil y), Robert South wode (Thomas was des.cended from this family , subsequently to produce the Catholic martyr, John South worth, whose body lies preserved in the cathedral at Westminster) and Richard Doreward, whose son married Thomas's daughter Anne. Rounding up the expensive busi ness of worthil y laying Thomas Urswyck to rest is 'to the marbe ler for makyng of the tomb of the said Sr Thomas Urswyck 6 Ii. 13s.4d ' The ' marbe1cr' did hi s work well. On lOp of the lomb, made more poignant by the fact thai several of the knight's beloved children had pre-deceased him, we see Thomas himself in prayerful pose, dog al his feel, and the Lady Anne, butterfly headgear, dog and all, wi th the Nun of Barking, IWO married and six unwed daughters and the dim outline of a lost brass to Ihe four sons. Of the IWO married daughters, the elder Catherine sleeps in Rickling church in Essex, wi th Henry Langley , her husband, and Ihe OIher, Anne, married John Dorsward. Of four shields of anns in each corner, two are now blank. One of these must have borne the anns of Urswyck: arge nt, on a bend sable three lozenges of the first, on each a saltire gules (sil ver, on a black diagonal three sil ver lozenges, on eac h red St Andrew crosses). Perhaps the other mi ght have featured the arms of Needham, family of Sir Thomas's mother, In the lower-left corner the shield of Arn is indi stinct, but at the top right -- uncoloured but clear, are the arms of the Rich fami ly, subseq uently of infamous memory. By the covetous hands of people like Richard, Baron Rich, in Queen El izabeth's reign, the ritual of Si r Thomas' s funera l, the Mass and the Dirige of the Dead, were made treasonable acts. Marks Hall is long gone, demoli shed in 1905. Lands wh ich were taken in to enlarge Sir Thomas Urswyck's estate st ill mark the boundaries of the old parish of Dagenham at its narrowest point. Needham Green, where Hatfield Broadoak meets Morrells Roding, still serves to recall Anne Needham, mOlher oflhat long dead knight in hi s marble tomb,

* We are grdleful 10 Peter Foley for permission to Stiles. for finding it for us. 40

n~p rint

this article, and to l\'1argarct

J{enry 'VI cures a 'Deaf CferByman LESLEY BOATWRIGHT age rather than sickness attacking him, fina lly became so deaf that he was completcly unable to hear even the si nging of the clergy, however near he stood, or, 10 tell the whole story, the sound itself of the pealing bell s. Because of this, dreadfully, after the space of ten whole weeks in which the weight of this weakness grew more burdensome to him, since he perceived that it was rather increasi ng than diminishing, sl ipping almost into the noose of despai r, he was amicted inwardl y more perhaps by heartbreak than by the intrinsic quality of hi s sickness, especially since 路that we lcome time of Lent was approaching when indeed each rector of fai thful soul s ought lor himself to fulfil the onlce of his pastoral care and to watch with a special di ligence over the recognising and healing of the weaknesses of his flock. Not only did he perceive that he was unfit lor the exercisi ng of thi s care, but that he had completely lost all his ability to perlonn it Thereli)re, anlicted by a double grief, that is, dist urbed both in body and spi rit, si nce he could hope lor no remedy at all except the mercy of God, he tried at last, by wise counsel and faithfu l mind, to cause, by the urgings of devoted prayers, the height of heavenly aid to bend down to his consolation. ' The old man prayed to Henry VI 'A nd so in order to achieve more easily and mo re quickly the efTect of his desi re, he took that man most blessed and beloved of God , King Henry, as hi s mediator and advocate, urging his prayer and adding, with the spec ial pledge of his devotion, that he would hasten eve n on foot to hi s holy shrine, indeed to revisit it . and, when his vow was made, he awaited the comfort of divine mercy in sobri路ety and patience. [Andl indeed, an event which strengthened the faith and devotion of many people [occurredl. On the Sunday next coming, all that blockage of deafness was exchanged somehow lor


et another of Henry VI's miraculcs has turned up by serendipity in the public records. Heather Fal vey was collecting material to use in her course for Oxford Uni versity 's Department of Continuing Education at Ewert House, Summerton, Oxford, on 'Before and After the Black Death: village life in medieval England', and asked me for detai ls of some Oxfordshire miracles, which r duly provided. She looked them up in one of the lwO publi shed accounts, The Miracles of Hemy VI, by Knox and Leslie, and in doing so came across a name she recognised in the index: Richard Swctlock, priest of Bildcslon in Suffolk, the subject of miracle 49 Heather is editing a register of wi lls (Baldwync II ) in Sunolk Record Officc, and has lound several wi lls in it lor which Swellocke was e ither an executor or a witness. Richard Swellock was a very old man, and anlicted by the ills age brings, but the particular cross he had to bear was a swi II onset of deafness, which made him feel despair thai he could no longer fulfil hi s dut y of pastoral care. The miracle narrative is fairl y short (particularl y whe n the usual moral isi ng introduction is ignored), but as flo wery as usual with this narrator, who never uses one word when th ree or four will do: 'A witness than whom no one is more truthful is the man who, fe eling the grace of the most holy man ri.e. Nellry VfJ in his own person, re vealed this openly before hi s sacred tomb, by the honest evidence both of himse lf and some of his fe llow vi llagers, namel y on 7 October. For there was - to cut a long story short - a rector of a pari sh church which, situated within the borders of the count y of Suffolk , was called by the name of 8yl lesdon. This old and aged man, in winter lime which had long passed those days [i.e. towards the end of winter], perhaps with old 41

sharpness of hearing, and so caused the man to be healthy and cheerful , so that he publicly acknowledged that never before had he by any means had a more effect ive use of that organ, and he showed with the plainest demonstration, that whether it was all the imminent performance of divine service, or for the care of human anxiety, he was rendered most fi t, just like the rest. Therefore let there be praise, honour and glory to him who . has done all thngs well , who has made the deaf hear and the dumb speak.' In short, old Richard Swellock was growing very deaf, and it got measurably worse in ten weeks; but then he prayed to Henry VI and recovered his hearing. Weare not told that he consulted doctors. It sounds as if a heavy build-up of ear-wax was somehow removed - did they have eardrops in the Middle Ages? He is not mentioned in the lists of alumni of Oxford or Cambridge, so must have studied for the priesthood elsewhere. r. S Growse, Collections for a History of the parish of Bildeston (1892), p. 8, records that he was instituted in the church of Bi ldeston on 2 December 1442 at Hoxne, after the previous rector had resigned, ' by lord Henry Dew, Robert Darcy and John Durward, true patrons of Ihis church of Bildeston', and that on 14 March 1490 [i. e. 1490/91] 'Wi lliam Coke, priest, was canonically instit uted rector in the parish ch urch of " Bi lston", vacant by the death of lord Li,e. domillllsj Richard Swaetok the last rector there, at the presentation of our noble John Veer, earl of Oxford, true patron of Ihat church.' I That is, he died one year short of his golden jubilee, if rectors can be imagined to have suc h celebrat ions. He could not have been ordained priest until he was 23 years old, which puts his date of bi rth 10 about 1419, just four years after the battle of Agincourt, and when Henry V was stil l on the throne. Unfortunately our miracle-narrator does not give us the year when he was cured and went on hi s grateful pilgrimage to Henry ' s tomb, just that he went 'on 7 October' . The fact that the carl of Ox lord held the advowson of Bildeston suggests Ihat Ihe place mi ght, in deference to its lord, perhaps have been

inclined to the Lancastrian way of thinking, but did Swellock let it publicly be known he had prayed to Henry VI before Bosworth, under a Yorkist king, or after Bosworth, under Henry VI!? Heather fo und eight wills in all (two of them made by the same man), dati ng between 1446 a nd 1472, in which Swettock was mentioned. He was executor or supervisor in fi ve of the m, and a witness in four, The first will is that of John Wareyn of Bildeston, which seems to be dated 1416, though this is an error and it should probably be 1446. He left 6s.8d, to the rector to pray devoutly in the pulpit for his soul that is, Wareyn wanted his name spoken openly in churc h, not in private prayer, by the rector, Wareyn's mother got lOs" and the church got two bas.ins to hold lights, the best to be placed on the high altar at high feasts, the second placed on the bodies of the deceased in the church. The first witness li sted was the rector (though not by name) and another wi tness was 'Thomas Swettocke, clerk' , presumably a relative The next IWO will s arc not dated, but seem to be about 1452 and 1460 respectively 'Sir Richard Swettok, rector' is the first-named exec utor for John Barown, a mercer, and 'Richard Swettott, chaplain ' is one oflhe two supervi:sors of John Thurmod ' s wi ll. In 1465 'Sir Richard Swettock, rector of Bildeston' was the first witness 10 the will of Wi ll iam Hawkedon alias Glovere, and in 1465 'Si r Roben Swettok, rector' was execU!or of the wi ll of Alice Strut, widow. He also wi tnessed the 1467 wi ll of Margaret Noche, widow, Finally, in October 1472 he was named both supervisor and a wi tness in one will of Ralph Smyth, and was supervisor, but not a witness, in Smyth 's second will. The two wi ll s were made on the same day, 30 October 1472, and proved on the same day, 3 December the same year.

1. David Dymo nd very kindly found me this information in Growse ' s book. I am most grateful to him and also, of course, to I-leather lor spolli ng Swellock in the first place 42


at .Jtstk'Y castk

'I'Fie fimne of XfizaDetFi 'Woodviffe / (jrey ANDREW CHARLES PLANTAGENET SUMMERS


icardians may well be unaware of the recent proposals by the Landmark Trust concerning the future of the Grade II listed Astley Castle in Warwickshire, a build ing of nat ional interest due to connections with royally spanning two centuries. The Trust has drafted plans for

an ambitious restoration sc heme aimi ng to fe-establ ish the castle from its highly regrettable state of dereliction. A l beit a shadow of its fonner grandeur, the sti ll impressive buildi ng has a colourful history, havi ng been within the tenure ofl hree queens of England, includ ing, most notably for Ricard ians, El izabeth Woodville-Grey.

It was at Astley that El izabeth lived duri ng the period of her marriage to Si r John Grey of Groby, whose ancestral property comprised the manor and castle of Astley. Sir John was ki lled fig hti ng for the Lancastrian cause d uring the second battle o f St Albans in 1461 . On Elizabet h's deat h in 1492 the castle passed into the ownershi p of her eldest daughter El izabeth (of York), Queen Consort of Henry VII and mother of Henry VIII. The castle eventually passed to Henry Grey, Duke of Suffol k, in 1553 via his wife Frances Brandon (who was a granddaughter of Elizabeth of York), whose own daughter Jane became England's ill -fated nine-days ' queen. The Greys had acquired the manor of Astley in 1266 and it conti nued to be the seat of senior branches of the fa mily at intervals unti l 1600. The extant building, which is in a rui ned state lo llowi ng devastation by fi re as recently as 1978, incl udes (amongst many other build ing phases) the fortified manor house started by Sir Thomas Astley in 1343 and apparently some fifteenthcentury and much sixteenth-century architecture. Astley first entered the media spotlight during the early 1990s lollowi ng numerous projects 43

and pro posals fro m the Trust to carry out vital structural work, with a view to a complete restoration Due to the absence of fu nding, however, these schemes fa iled to mat ure _ Pl ans drawn up by the Landmark Trust give details of extensive renovation and architect ural reconsolidation work which is vital to preserve the castle's role in the twenty-first century.

Now, with a recent pledge of support fro m the Heritage Loltery Fund to the tune of ÂŁ 1. 47 million, the Trust hopes to work with an entirely new idea : instead of a complete restoration, much-needed repair work wi ll be concentrated on the most important parts of the surviving fabric_Thi s involves a scheme to create 'elegant and comfortable' visitor accommodation withi n the cast le build ing itself, which of co urse will help greatly to generate revenues toward the future maintenance of the build ing. It is estimated, however, that the full cost of renovmion will IOtal around ÂŁ2 .2 million, the HLF havi ng already confi rmed DOO,OOO. This leaves the Landmark Trust in the position of raisi ng the remaini ng ÂŁ408,000 before the work can proceed, a nd they are understandabl y anxious to begi n as prom ptly as possible in order to prevent the fabric of the bui lding from deteriorati ng furt her. I sincere ly hope that they are successful in preservi ng for the future this building of undoubted national importance .

Ancient and Medieval History Books (3500 Be - 1600 AD) For a catalogue of secondhand fact and fi ction sent SA E to : Karen Miller, 59 Psalter Lane, Sheffi eld S II 8YP


'RicFiardIII, Fiis niece, and tFieir CFiristmas fun * LESLEY BOATWRIGHT " Warning: the last par,tgr'.tph is fundamentally unsound.

1" have been having further thoughts on Richard ' s alleged plans to marry hi s ni ece Elizabeth. JL Recently I have been asked by several people writing books about it 10 give my opinion on the actual meaning of the Latin passage in the Cro w/alld Chronicle where the ' scandal' is recorded, so [have been thinking about it vcry carefully. The passage reall y is a vCTy artful piece of work, carefull y constructed in the best traditions of Latin rhetoric, with a scI of three word s listing what dreadful goings-on there wcre at Richard's court thaI Chri stmas There is a build-up fro m the shortest word to the longest, and round ing out the third with exIra adj ectives_ The Chronic ler says they paid too much attention to choreis [ 3 sy ll ables] alii friplldiis [4 sy llables] l'Onisqllc llllIlafOrii,~ [5 sy llables] resfil/III , 'si nging and dancing and vain (or worthless) changes of gannents' Nic.;! alliteration here too: vollis __ resfil/III Al l the tricks of the trade And the build-up technique emphasises that the very worst of the three goings-on was the last, hammered home in three long words: ranisqlle I1Il1falOriis reslilllll , the vain changes of garments_ This progression suggests to me Ihat IIIlIfaloriis means part of the general festivities - perhaps dressing up? Annette Carson has some interesting thoughts here : medieval courtly ci rcles planning their wardrobes so that men all wore the same colour one day, and women another, a nd 'd isguisi ngs' aimed at confusi ng identities. I These 1I.llIfalOria, changes of clothes, were distributed to Queen Anne and the Lady Elizabeth, and were alike in colour and form. (I don' t think the Chronicler meantlhat Anne and Elizabeth looked alike.) But what does mllfatoriis actually mean? The best and most recent d ictionarl says mllfatoria are 'changes of clothes' (apparently in the sense of ' she took three changes of clothes with her'). The exampl e is given that peasants lack llllIfalOria, c hanges of clothes. But the first meanings it gives are to do wi th birds mo ulting, and renewing the ir plumage, as if that had been the primary mean ing of this rather artificiall y-developed word. And all this, of course, led to scandal, accord ing to the Crowland c hronicler, a mi sera ble old devil if ever there was one. So much so that people spoke against it, magnates and prelates were greatly astonished, and people said Richard was planning to marry El izabeth. Another set of three ideas, another build -up to a climax of horror. And just look at the way he slides easil y from hi s disapproval of jollity into insinuations that it caused censure among the populace and astonishment among the bigwigs, and suspicions of a murder in the offing. It sounds 10 me as if the traditional interpretation is correct, and Anne and El izabeth received identical dresses I wonder if there was a deliberate game p layed, with Anne and Elizabeth pretending to be each other lor fun, and it con fused the C hronicler (sclected as a victim because he was such a prim and boring old so-and-so) and got him reall y annoyed and spite ful And, wielding hi s vicious pen, he got hi s revenge down the ages I. Annette Carson, Richard III. The Maliglled King (The History Press, 2008), pp. 249-50. 2. DicliollOlY 0/ Medieval Latin/rom British Sources (OUP for The British Academy) ongoing.


CorreqJ(nufence Wi ll contributors please nOle that letters may be shortened or edited to conform 10 the standards of the Bulletin. The Bulletin is not responsible for the opinions expressed by contributors. mother as Grey through hi s father, and his marriag;e brought the Exeter dukedom into the Woodville orbit. These are facts and prove Annette right. May I also add ho w disrespectful I find it to addr.ess A nnelle as Carson? I know this is common practice, but it is rude all the same , How much more polite it would be for people to use 'A nnette ' or ' Ms Carson' than just 'Carson '.

The Reviewer's Task From Pauline Harrisoll Pogmore. Yorkshire Branch I have read with interest the letters concemi ng Annette Carson's book The Maligned King and its review by .fohn As hdo wn-Hill, I cannot understand how anyo ne can lake

exception to John's reviewing Annette' s work . He has in the past few months published two excell ent books re levant 10 Ihe period and certainly kno ws Ihe period. He has

also advised and assisted AnnellC and so

Happy Days at the Falcon

knows how much meticulous research and care has been taken over it. If as s uggested John was not Ihe right person to do this review, who should have been approached? Please do not say M ichael I-licks or Alison Weir. Neither can be described as objective as far as Richard is concerned. So who wo uld have been suitable? There are also the so-called 'errors' pointed OUI by Susan Higginbotham. Here in Yorkshire we have a name for this sort of thing. Nit picking. I can see what point is being made about the th ree dukedoms allached 10 the Wood vi lies, but Ihe fact thai none of them was held by a mal e of the Woodville name is irre levant. Jacq uella was Duchess of Bedford through her marriage to John, brother of Henry V. She was known as such throughout her life and not as Lady Ri ve rs. Yes, Katherine Woodvi lle was not a duchess in her own right and was female , but the fact is she was duchess by ri ght of marriage. In fact she became duchess twice over through her second marriage to Jasper Tudor, created Duke of Bedford by his nephew Henry VII SO we come to the third dukedom Annelle includes. T hi s was through the marriage of T homas Grey to An ne Holland, heiress of Henry Holland . T he lacl that Thomas was not surnamed Woodvi lle or that he never claimed the title is immaterial He was as much Woodvi lle through his

From Geoffrey Noble, Beds alld Bllcks Grollp At a recent meeti ng of the Beds and Bucks Grou p several members mentioned the photographs, which I had unaccountably mi ssed, on p.57 of the September Bllllelill. In the lower of the two pictures, the gentlema n in the centre is mysciC at that time chairman of the group. The lady on my right (on the left as you look at it) is my wife Joan Noble, Ihen secretary of the group, and Ihe lady on my left is Pat Rume, who aI one time deall with Ricardian and Bllllelin back numbers. The others I do nOI know. The picture must have been taken in those happy days when we lunc hed at the Falcon.

\Vher,e was Edward of Middleham Buried? I-i'om Pamela 1. Evans. Northern Ireland Being one of the few members in Nort he rn Ire land, I look forward to the Bulletin as it is the onl y contact I have with the society, as we do not have a group he re , If any other membe-r from this neck of the woods would like to contact me, they would be most welcome [8 Orchard Green, Randalstown, co. Antrim" BT4 1 3EQ] This is not the only reason lor my writing I read wi th great interest our chairman ' s leller, especially hi s re marks on the Sherin" I-Iullon tomb This d iscovery was not a 46

disappointment to me, as I always felt the little prince was laid to rest much nearer his Midd leham home. I do not claim 10 have any special E.s.P., but somehow I always felt little Edward ' s tomb was at Coverham Abbey. Every time I return to that wonderful dale I feel more convinced about my theory. It was the nearest religious site to Middleham, and I understand Richard like to visit the abbey. The first time I visited Middleham, I could nOI even find the site. Two years later I returned with an O.s. map - and a new hip ! a great help for clambering down river banks. I found the ruins, only to be disappointed to discover the grounds were private. This is very unfortunate, as it is of such historical interest. I am sure if archaeological investi gations were carried out these ancient ruins would give up some of their secrets. I cannot think of a more beautiful , religious and important place for Richard 10 lay his son. This muSI have been one of the great monast ic sites of its time As we do not have an exact burial place for Richard, what a wonderful thing it would be if we could discover where his son's 10mb is As Phil said, let the debate begi n I would be interested to hear if anyone e lse supports my views.

should be included if other readers enjoy them. I think the book reviews are useful and of interest. I would say Ihal fiction shouldn 't be revii~wed - I feel it is 100 subjecti ve. I am excited by the mention in the B1IIIetill of TV and film projects on Richard. Judging by Ihe comme:rcial success of ' The Tudors' (which I never watched) Ihe public have an appetite for ' hi story '. I think that a production of ' The Yorkists', based on Ihe truth and starring Richard Armi tage as Richard, would be a mass i vf~ boost to the cause. I appreciate the work you and the Committee members do. You are clearly very dedicatl~d .

[Eds: Ms Byrne has also sent in a contribution "to the Notes and Queries sect ion. See p. 341

Deja vu - and disillusionment From Geoffrey IV/ICe/er, London Sue and Dave Wells' s photo of the Bosworth Collage in the bar at the Royal Arms in Sulton Cheney (December Blilletill p 14) looked rather familiar, and the colour prints they have si nce supplied confirm, as I s uspectl~d , that it is an imaginative reinterpretation (with some added ' appropriate' heraldry, Welsh red dragons, elc.) of the sixteem h-cemury carved stone mural frieze , originally from Castle Hedingham, Essex, and now at Stowe School. I described the full story of its background and discovery in The Ricardian, June 1972, pp. 2-7, and subseq uently it has appeared in the Bllllelin, June 1993 (cover and pp. 7-9) in an article by Iris Day, as well as a full -colour plate, wi th a key to the heraldry shown , in Michael K Jones's Bosworth - Psychology of a BailIe (Tempus 2002). Helen Ashburn 's report of her visit to the Languedoc (December Bulletin p. 59) also gave me an experience of deja vu as it recalled lor me the Society's fi rst Continemal trip to Bruges, In 1967, led by the indenuigable Joyce Melhuish. Then, like everyone else, i fell under the spell of the city celebrated as ' one of the most mirac ulously preserved jewels of medieval Europe', and that impression survived imact for the next 20 years, until the publication of Br1lges - 'he

Feedback on the Bul/elin I-i路om Margarel Byrne. via email. You asked for fe edback on the Bllllelin. I hope this helps. First of all, 1 enjoy the Bllllefin and look fo rward to reading it. II has up-to-date news on Richard, interesting articles, and I like the informat ion on visits. Recently J particularly enjoyed the Proceed ings of the Triennial Conference 2008. I also enjoyed the articles ' for debate' and was sorry when it stopped. However, I suspect that most of your readers are, li ke me, passIve when It comes to making contributions ourselves, and I don' t feel I have any expertise on the subjects which would enable me to respond. I think the way that controversial Issues are dealt with is good. Personally , I don't like fictiona l short stories - I prefer to read 'the truth' aboUi Richard. However, I think Ihey 47

City Behilld the History, by local hi storian

enormous rat this is a lake, a Disney-enLanguedoc nineteenth-century idea of whal the Midd le Ages were .. ' [Eds: Mr Butler see ms to have had a nasty time, though Helen enjoyed her visit. Perhaps it's just as well, then, that the Continental visit this year is going to Calais and not the first choice, Carcassonne. Thi s is the age-old question: is it better to see even a bad reconstruction than a ruin? Whal do you think?]

Roel Jacobs, which revealed that, architeclUrally, ' Bruges is almost entirely a fake ' with ' only two genuine medieval housefronts in the whole ci ty, and the harbour area, closest to the original character of the place, is not on the tourist trail' . Of the numerous other examples cited, it will also doubtless come as a shock to present-day Ricard ian visitors thai what is known as ' the Burgundian Court ' wi th its wooden facade overlooking the ca nal , dates all the way back to 1932, the picturesque St Boni face 's Bridge was bui ll in 19 10, and even the Market Hall, with its towering belfry, turns out to be a nineteenth-century pastic he. So it was not without amusement that I read Helen's descri ption of the superb ' medieval ' city of Carcassonne, particularly as an article by Lance Butler appeared the very same month in The Oldie magazine (Dec 2009, p.51) naming it as 'One of the World's Worst Dumps' He says' . the evidence of modern slatework makes you smell an

King lRichard III Cheese From C ris Reay COllllor I,ia email

I do realise that some people probably know about this cheese, but [ nearly expired when I saw it in the Del l in Easingwold. [ then searched lor it on line to verily that it was an actual cheese. It is made in Bedale and is very creamy like Wensleydale. I shall indeed be stocking up. The website is hltp:l/pongcheese co. uk/s hop/hard -cheese -c heddariri chard -iiiwensleydale.html

YORKSHIRE BRANCH 50th ANNIVERSARY EVENT RICARDIAN SALES STALLS BEDERN HALL, YORK, SATURDAY 23 OCTOBER 20 10 Yorkshire Branch wi ll be ce lebrating its 50th anni versary year with a day cvent in York, consisting of talks, demonstrations and di spl ays and ending with a dinner at the same atmospheric ve nue. More detai ls in future issues of thi s Bulle/in and th e Branch magaz in e Blanc Sang/ier. If you make pottcry or jcwellery, or are in vol ved in othcr medie val/ Ricardian craftwork, and would like some of your work to bc on sale/di splay at the event, pl ease contact the Branch Secretary for further information. You can email her at secrelary@richardiii.orgorphon eO I1 42586097.



~arton Li6rary

Addition to the Non-Fiction Books Library The Kingmaker's Sisters: Six Powelflll Womell ill 'he Wars of the Roses by David Baldwin (Hi sto ry Press, hbk, 2009) No further details as yet, as the book had nOI arri ved when thi s page was drafted ; ils inclusion in the Barton Library is thanks to a ki nd donation by Eiisab{:lh Sjoberg, a Swedish member whom some of you may have met at FOIheringhay last year. Many thanks 10 El isabeth. Further detail s of the book will be in the June 2010 edition of lhe Bllllelin.

Fiction Library i am sorry for the inconvenience but the Fiction Library will be closed between 15 April and I I June 20 10

Addition to the Fiction Library Medieval Bedaz=le by Tccoa T Washington (pbk, 2009) Returning from a holiday in Britain, an attractive young physics teac her eavesdrops on a conversation between fi ve ghastly individuals. As she hears the se lf-proclaimed ancient spooks discussing a remarkable Shakespearean cover-up, she is propelled into a world of furti ve secrecy and immense terror. Convinced that Shakespeare has slandered Richard 111 she sets out to find the true story of the life and death of that muc h maligned monarch

Additions to the Audio-Visual Library Audio: BBC2: Mastermilld QuestiollS alld AlISlI'ers: Susan Swom on ' Richard 111 ' (October 2009) and Ritchie Venner on ' Henry VII ' (November 2009). BBC Radio 4 HIe 71lillgs We Forgot to Remember: Michael Portillo revisi ts more memorable mo ments in hi story, beginning with the myth and reality of Joan of Arc, seen as the saviour of France in 1429; but history has forgotten her contemporary, Yolande d 'Aragon, the king's mother-in-law, and power behind the throne; with a contribution fro m Dr Margaret Kekewich. BBC Radio 4 Great Lives: Explorer Ranulph Fiennes d iscusses his c hoice of Henry V wit h Matthew Parri s and Juliet Barker, and tries to separate fac t from myt h. Visual : lTV 1 John Sergeant 011 the TOllrist Trail: the pres,enter becomes a member of one of the visiting re-enactor groups at the annual Tewkesbury Festival restaging of the battl e (courtesy of Ann Col e Wil ton) DVD: Sandal Castle: the Baflle of Wakefield 1460 and Bllilding Salldal 's Castles (John L Fox). The opening account of the bailie is rather let down by the inclusion of cartoon-type graphic fi gures of the participants in the pri ncipal reconstruction :scenes Also the writers seem to have overlooked, or igno red, the most recent detailed appraisal of the battle by Keith Dockray and Richard Knowles (The Ricardiall, June 1992, and subsequent re print in booklet form ) which presents evidence Ihat contradicts a number of claims mad,~ in the film . For example, the fact that contemporary accounts show the castle was not full y provisioned (p. 244 and note 33) and also that the surrounding area was under cul tivation, apart from Sandal Park, a paled wood, a nd therefore does not support the traditional ' Lancastrian ambush' theory (p. 259).


For the 'computer reconstruction ' o f the buildings a sixteenth-century drawing exists (although not without its problems of interpretation, as pointed out), together with a three dimensional model in the local museum. Continental archetypes and possible influences on the design of the thirteenth-century castle and its subsequent developments are 'brought to life ' , including Richard 111 's additions to the gatehouse and keep . 11 concludes with observations on the much-quoted breakfast regulations ' for the chi ldren ' in the ki ng' s household in the north (Horleioll MS 433), raising fa lse hopes that this mi ght refer to the mi ssing princes, but as demonstrated recently in the Autumn 2008 Billie/iII (p. I 7), this probably refers to Clarence' s chi ldren and the daughters of Ed ward [v. Contact details for all the Librarians are on the inside hac.k cover.

Richard III & Yorkist History Trust Books The Heralds' Memoir: 1486-1490: Court Cerentony, Royal Progress and Rebellion Edited by Emma Cavell (Donington, 2009) [SBN 978 I 900289863, 226 pp. Retail price: £30, special price to members £20, postage and packing (UK) £4.95 The Estate and Household Accounts nfWilliam WOI'Sle)', Dean of St Paul's Cathedral 1479-1497 Edited by Hannes Kleineke & Stephanie R. Hovland (Donington, 2005) ISBN I 9002879709, 2 16 pp. Retail price: £24, special price to members £ 18 , postage and packing (UK) £5.50 The Beauchamp Pageant Edited by Dr A[exandra Sinclair (Donington, 2003), [SBN 19002896 1X, 179 pp. Retail price: £43, special price to members £30, postage and packing (UK) £6.50 The Merchant Taylors' Comllany of London: Court Minutes 1486-1493 Edited by Matthew Davies (Stamford, 2000) [SBN 1900289369, 342 pp. Retai l price : £2 [, special price to members £ 18 , postage and packing (UK) £5.50 . The Alien Communities of wndon in the Fifteenth Century Edited by J.L. Bo[ton (Stamford 1998) ISBN 1900289156, 189 pp. Retai l price £ 18.50, spec ial price to members £15, postage and pack ing (UK) £5.50. The Politics of Fifteenth-Century England: .Iohn Vale's Book Edited by Margaret Luci lle Kekewich and Col in Richmond (G [oucester 1995) ISBN 0750909 137 , 289 pp. Retai l price £35 .50, spec ial price to members DO, postage and pack ing (UK) £5.50 The Howard Household Books: 1462-71 & 1481-83 Edited by Anne Crawford (London 1992), ISBN 075090 1438, 579 pp. Retai l price £29.50, spec ial price to members £25, postage and pack ing (UK) £5.50 The York House Books for 1461 (2 volumes) Edited by Lorraine Altreed (G loucester 199 1) [SBN 0862999367, 4 10 + 788 pp. Retail price £67.50, special price to me mbers £42 , postage and packing (U K) £900

To order: see insert after page 32


'Reyorts on Society Xwmts Christmas Lunch and Carols at Fotheringhay Once again the Society enjoyed the annual C hri stmas lun<ch and Carol Service al Fotheringhay _ This celebration, begun in the days when Joyce Melhuish used 10 arrange a magnificent lunch in

Ihe Falcon hostelry, has continued to be a hi ghli ght orlhc C hristmas season. These days we have an eq uall y magnificent lunch in Ihe village hall, wi th all Ihe important adjuncts of mince pies, crackers with si lly moltocs and paper hats, and then we walk down to Ihe church of SI Mal)' the Vi rgin and All Saints lor Ihe traditional service of nine carols and nine lessons. Well, not q uite traditional. For Ihe penultimate lesson, instead ora Bible reading, we have an extraCI fro m The JOllrney o/the Magi, by TS Eliot, but this has now become a trad ition in its own right withi n the Society_ The late Arthur Cockerell al ways used to read it, and since Arthur' s death Phil Stone has taken over And in the last lew years we have sung 'Whi le shepherds watched ' to the tune of 'On Ilklcy Moor baht 'at ' , which for all I kno w is an old tradition reasserting itsel I' rather than a surprising innovation_ Members come from lar and wide to be present at the Fotheringhay service T he two furthestnung this year were Julia Camp bell , who li ves in Paris, and Elisabeth Sjoberg, who is Danish but works in Sweden. Cel ia Herrmann came along from Gloucestershire, Maria Hale from Warwick, Marion Moulton from Cheshire, and Keith Horry (our non-路fiction librarian) from Lancashi re. Two dogs were also present at the service. Andrew a:nd Roz Conaty brought Rupert of the Rhine, and Keith and Lisa Horry brought their PAT dog Leigh. Leigh, whose original name was Miss Vivien Leigh, is a trained Pets As Therapy dog, who is petted and stroked by people in hospital who need such comforting therapy. (She originally trai ned as a hearing dog, but ki lled too many rab bits.) It is really good to go to a church serv ice at which animals are welcome : all honour to the Vicar. T he re were some amazingly relevant car number plates on view in the grounds of the Vil lage Hall that day. Inquiries revealed that they emanate from the Li ncolnshire Branch . Rill SOC belongs to Jean Townsend (a surprise present fro m her husband, who also saw to it that there is a true York Rose on the plate)_ Ri l l MEM belongs to Marion Elizabeth Moul ton, and Rill MWN to the Lincolnshire Branch chairman, Mike Wi lliam Needham. Ril l YRK belongs to Susan and Aubrey Gunn. Ask the DVLA if you too, like Lincolnshire Branch members, would like an R i l l number. Many Ihanks yel agai n to Phi l Stone for arranging such a good day, and to the St Peter' s Singers for Iheir music, and the vicar and all our friends at Fotheringhay. 51

.JtustraUzsian Convention 2009 CAROLE CARSON


he Convention began on the Friday eveni ng with a n address by the Western Austral ian presIdent Ms Pal Masters Aller welcommg everybody, especIall y those who had travell ed long di stances - from Ihe olher side of Ihe country , Ihe Tasman Sea, and the world - Pat remarked that al though Richard had overcome challenges in his life, none had been an exploding boiler. This happened in the Con ference Centre the day belOTC overseas members began arriving in Perth, and meant a hurried change in accommodation, with all Ihe d iffic ulties of trying 10 contact those sti ll travelli ng_ The olher challenge was caused by a broken ankle: the keynote speaker of Ihe conve ntion and Ihe entertainer at Ihe banq uet was in hospi tal in Germany as he should have been boarding his fli ght to Australia, and could not let anybody know. This we discovered the day before the Convention began

Serious business by day: th e Convention awaits a lecture

Saturday was fi lled with many excellent speakers from all the branches: presentations incl uded read ings of 'Creation' and ' Fall' fro m the York Mystel)' Plays by the New Zealand Branch: 'The Percys of Northumberland' by Gillian La ughton of South Australia and the A CT, and ' Richard - What' s in a name' fro m Kevin Herbert of the New South Wal es Branch. Instead of the keynote speaker, an open discussion was held on the future of the Society as a whole : whether Ihere were actions which could be underta.ken to boost membershi p and perhaps make the Society more anractive to the wider publ ic. II was considered whether membershi p was undergoi ng a natural decl ine which would recover in a fe w years. The fact that English med ieval history was no longer being taught in senior schools was h<:wailed . Saturday eveni ng was Ihe scene of a medieval banq uel, wi th members and non-members dressed appropriately. The menu was planned by our medieval food specialist, Yvonne Mulder, and consisted of Ihree removes, Ihe fi rst with fi ve dishes, the second with ei ght , and the Ihird


with fo ur The chef of the Conference Centre was enthusiastic in his acceptance of the men u, and it was cooked and presented beautiful ly Indeed, he kept some of the recipes for his own portfolio! The accompanyi ng wi ne was from the Plant agenet Winery, some three hundred kilometres south of Perth.

Saturday evening w as the scene of a medieval banquet

On the S unday morning Iwo workshops were hcld, practi si ng leather craft skills fro m Richard' s time. Travelling-size Ni ne Men ' s Morris boards were made, as were goblet holders. Lunch time saw the close of the Co nve ntio n wi th farewel ls to those tffivell ing either to continue a West Australian holiday , o r home. Perhaps the highl ight of the Convention was the presentat ion to J ulia Redlich of the Robert All pictures by Louise Carson Hambl in Award, given to those who have excelled in the promotion of Ric hard III to those o utside the Society. .! ulia is the secretary of the New South Wales Branc h. rSee the Dece mber 2009 Bulletin for a photo and account of the presentation.l

In s pite of the almost-disasters at the start, the C onvention was a great success, and enjo}'cd b.y everybody. We arc all cagerl}' looking fom'ard to the next Australasian Convention to be held in Victoria in 2011. 53

:future Society Xvents Q uee n Ann e Nevill e Comme mora t io n Sad ly, I have been unable to obtain confirmation from Wc:slminstcr Abbey that the Anne Neville commemoration can take place there in March 2010. In view of this, there is no option but 10 cancel the event Alternati ve arrangements lor commemorating Queen Anne are in hand lor

futu re years_ Jo hn Ashdown- Hill

Ken ilworth Castle Sat urday 15 May 20 10 Although Kenilworth is nowadays more associated with Sir Robert Dudley and his courtship of Elizabeth J, it spans 900 years of turbulent English history . Geoffrey de Cli nton, Henry !'s Treasurer, began building the massive central keep in th(: 11205 and Henry II made it a royal

castle. King John's bui lding works from 1210 to 12 15 greatly strengt hened the fort ress and he enlarged the mere around it to form a moat, which made the castle a virt ual island, It was mainly because of this that the Simon de Montfort was able to withstand fo r over six months the mighty siege engines of Henry iii , succumbing only to starvation John of Gaunt rebuilt the Great Hall and transformed Kenilworth into a palace, whence it became a favourite residence of the Lancastrian kings Things to see apart from the spectacular ruins are the Elizabethan Garden which has been restored to all its 1575 glol)', the Gatehouse, the Stabl es and Leicester' s Barn, which contain new exhibitions charting the castle ' s colourful hi story . Our coach will leave from London Embankme nt at 9am and we should arrive back in London around 7pm (A pick up can be arranged at Broml ey at 8am for those who let me know.) The cost of the trip is £22 per person, which includes cost of coach and driver' s ti p. Kenilworth Castle is owned by English Heritage and entrance is free to EH members - please remember to bring your membership card. Otherwise the cost is £760 (adul ts) or £6.50 (concessions). We may be able 10 get a Group entry if we have sufficient ' paying' participants on the coach, Please let me have a cheque for £20 per person by 24 April 2010. Cheques should be made payable 10 "Richard 111 Society' and endorsed ' Keni lworth ' and sent to: Marian Mitchell, 20 Constance Close, Witham, Essex, eM8 IXL. Tel : 0 1376 501984; email emsquared, witham@vi .


.Brandi aru拢 {jroup Ccnttacts Branches

David M. Luitweiler, 1268 Wellington Drive, Victor, New York, 14564 United States of America. Tel : 585-924-5022 . Email : rochdave@ Mrs Tracy Bryce, 5238 Woodhaven Drive, BuriinglOn, Ontario, Canada L7L 3T4, Canada. Email : ric hardii Web si te : http://home.cogeco.eal- richardiii Mrs Anne E Painter, Yoredak, Trewi thick Road, Breage, Helslon, Devon & Cornwall Cornwall, TRi3 9PZ. Tel. 01326-562023. Email Gloucester Angela Iliff, 18 Friezewood Road, Ashton, Bristol , BS3 2AB Tel 01 17-378-9237. Email ailiff@soi Greater Manchester Mrs Helen Ashburn, 36 Clumber Road, Gorton, Manchester, M 18 7LZ. Tel 0161 -320-6 157. Ema Hull & District Terence O ' Brien, 2 Hutton C lose, Hull , HU4 4LD. Tel. 01482 4453 12 Mrs J T Townsend, Westborough Lodge Farm, Westborough, Lincol nshire Newark, NOlls. NG23 5HP.TeI: 01400 281289 Email路 ian. townsend@talktalk .net London & Home Counties Miss E M Nokes, 4 Oakley Street, Chelsea, London SW3 5NN. Tel 01689823569 Email 路 elizabeth_ nokes@holmaiLcom Mrs Sally Henshaw, 28 Lyncroli Leys, Scraptoli, Leicester, LE7 Midlands-East 9UW. Tel 01 16-2433785. Ernail sallyoHarahill@homecall.couk New Soulh Wales Julia Red lich, 53 Cammeray Towers, 55 Carter Street, New South Wales, 2062, Australia Email路 info@richardi Websi te: www. richardi Robert Smith, ' Wallie Downs', 61 Udy Stree t, Grey town, New New Zealand Zealand .Email: or Web site : www.richard3nz,org Mrs An nmarie Hayek, 20 Rowington Road, Norwich, NRI 3RR. Norfolk Tel 01603664021 Email : annmarie@talktal t Q ueensland as New South Wales Scotland Juliet MiddlelOn, 49 Ochiltree, Dunblane, Perthshire, FK 15 ODF Tel 01786825665, Email. keith.mddltn@tiscali South Australia Mrs Sue Walladge, 5 Spencer Street, Cowandilla, Sout h Australia 5033 , Austral ia. Thames Valley Sally Empson, 42 Pewsey Val(~ , Forest Park, Bracknell, Berkshire RG 12 9Y A. Email. sally,bracknell @vi Hazel Hajdu, 4 Byron Stree t, Wattle Park, Victoria, 3128, A ustralia, Victoria Western Australia Helen Hardegen, 16 Paramatta Road, Doubleview, Western Australia 6018 , Austral ia. Email . helenhardege n@ Web site:, hhardegen! Mrs Pam Benstead, 15 St Marys Close, Kempsey WR5 3JX Worces tershire Email : uk. Website: www richardiiiworcs.couk Yorkshire Mrs P.H. Pogmore, 169, A lbert Road, Sheffi eld, S8 9QX Tel 01142586097 Email: yo rkis trose2 @hotmaiLcom America

G roups Airedale Bedfordshire/ Buckinghamshire Bristol

Croydon Cumbria Dorset Mid Anglia

North East Notti nghamshire & Derbyshire Sussex West Surrey

Mrs Chri sti ne Symond.s, 2 Whi taker Avenue, Bradford, BD2 3HL Tel 01274-774680. Email : Mrs Rose Skuse. 12 Brookfield Rd, Newton Longville, Bucks, MKI7 OBP Tel : 0 1908 373524 Email : Keith Stenner, 96 Aller10n Crescent, Whitchurch, Bri stol , Tel 01275-541 512 (i n affiliation with Gloucestershire Branch) Email : Keith.stenner@ai Miss Deni se Price, 190 Roundwood Rd, London NW I 0 Tel 020845 1 7689 John & Marjorie Smi th , 26 Clifford Road, Penrith, Cumbria, CA I 18PP Babs Creamer, 27 Baker Road, Bear Cross, Bournemouth, BHI 1 9JD. Tel 01202573951 Email riiidorset@talktalk. net John Ashdown-Hi ll, Genistae, 115 Long Road, Lawford, COi l 2HR. Tel/fax 0 1206393572 . Email : Web site: www.freewebs .comlr3 midanglial Mrs J McLaren, II Se fion Avenue, Heaton, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE6 5QR Tel 01912653665. Mrs Anne Ayres, 7 Bo()ts Yard, Huthwaite, Sutton-in-Ashfi eld NOIIS, NG 17 2QW. Emai l: Liz Robinson, 14 Queen's Park Rise, Brighton, BN2 9ZF, tel. 0 127360997 1, email 路 Rol lo Crookshank, Old. Wil lows, 41 a Badshot Park, Farnham, Surrey , GU9 9JU. crookshank@starkmann couk

Richard III and the Knave of Cards: An Illuminator's Model in Manuscript and Print, 1440s to 1490s Anne F. Sulton and Livia Viss<:r- Fuchs 'l7le Alltiquaries Juurnal, Volume 79 (1999), pages 257-99

For over 200 years it has been asserted (origina lly by Joseph StruH) that an unflattering portrait of Richard, Duke of Gloucester, exists in the presentation minimure of the copy of the Chronicle of England by Jean de Wavrin owned by Edward IV. The authors reci te the hi story of this assertion and prove that no such portrait exists. In fact the figure of the courtier concerned turns out to be a figure commonly used by illuminators and painters of all sorts, ranging from DOrer to the first designers of playi ng cards. The figure in fac t was the original knave of cards. When Strutt and hi s imitators searched for a figure that answered their imaginary idea of what a vill ai nous Richard looked like they c hose, by c hance, the knave of cards ! They did not find a portrait of the hi storical Richard. This off-print is extensively illustrated.

Price 拢3.50 including 1)&1), for UK members, from the Sales Officer, or direct from Dr A.F. Sutton, 44 G uildhall St, Bur.y St Edmunds, IP33 IQF_ Overseas members plea se consult the Sales Officer. 56

Devon and Cornwall Branch Report In 2009 the Branc h has enjoyed a varied programme of events. The year commenced with a talk based on The Logge Wills by Lesley Boatwright which showed how much we can learn from wi ll s about people, their personalities and thei r belongings In March we had a social meeting where we enjoyed the tea and cakes provided by the members of the Branch Committee. In May Society Chairman Phi l Stone, accompani ed by his wile Beth, gave an illustrated talk on the Pageant of the Golden Tree, which takes place in Bruges ~~very few year and recreates Margaret of York' s entry into the city when she married Charles the Bold In August the Branch visited Mary Newman ' s 1路louse in SaJtash, Cornwall. Mary Newman was the firs t wife of Sir Francis Drake and the house dates back to the fineenth century. We all enjoyed lunch in the recreated medieval garden Ian Mortimer gave an extremely interesting talk at the September meeting based on his book The Time Travellers Guide 10 Medieval Englalld. Hi s vivid description of lourteenth-century Exeter brought the medieval world alive for us. At the Annual General Meeting in November there was a change of officers on the Committee. Betty Oliver retired after havi ng served in many different roles since the Branch was first formed as a Group in 1979. John Saunders also stood down after eight years as Branch Chairman. We thank them both for all their hard work over the years. Their places have been taken by Elaine Henderson as Chairman (members will be fami liar with Elaine ' s fiction reviews in recent editions of the Billie/iII); and Pat Steed replaces Betty. Anne Painter will continue as Secretary and Mari lyn Sherlock as Treasurer. The year ended wi th a most enjoyable Christmas lunc h at The Mission Bistro in Plymouth. We now look forward to a full programme of talks and eve nts for 201 O. Anne Painler

Scottish Branch Report The year 2009 started with a bit of a bang in February and the visit of John Ashdown-Hill for hi s series of illustrated talks entit led ' Honour My Bones' (see June Bullerill for Dave Johnson 's report). Our AGM followed soon afterwards in March - the Scottish Branch year begi ns on 25 March with the medieval New Year. Here Professor Tony Goodman was made our first honorary member. Tony has been with the Scottish Branch si nce its inception and has been the initiator of many talks and lectures as well as being our mainstay at our Scottish Lecture Days. At the AGM it was also agreed to raise our subs to 拢6.00 p.a. so that our magazine the COllrl Jo urnal could continue its fabulou s work. Our thanks go to its editor, Stuart Akers, for pUlli ng this marvellous read together each year. Raymond Bord, our treasurer, also noted that we had received 27 subscri ptions for 2009, a real achievement, and long may it continue for King Ric hard 's cause north of the Border! We were also thril led to have Marilyn Garabet on board as our new Research Officer. In May it was off to ' The Party at the Palace' to be guests of King James IV and Queen Margaret Tudor over IWO days of medieval lestivities at Linli thgow Palace incl uding a jousting tournament and medieval fayre The ' Party' began with a walk through Linlithgow by James and his queen and court. Al though ' James' did not look much like the man himsel f he made a great show of welcoming us all to the lestivities In June we visited Falkland Palace, not connected wi th Richard 111 but certainly wi th James IV and Perkin Warbeck or as we prefer to call him, Richard of York. It is a beaUliful castle, very 57

well preserved and wi th the most st unning gardens, well worth a visit for those coming to Scotland. In September we met 10 play the famous board game 'K ingmaker' for Ihe very fi rst ti me. Luckily Raymond, our treasurer, is a member of a gami ng club and had played Ihe game only a few days beforehand to master its rules. Like most games, easy when you know how bUi a lot to grasp before you gel under way. I have to say this turned oUlto be one of the biggest successes of the year. I don 't know if any members have played Kingmaker before bUi we most heartily recommend it. II is a game that lruly transports you to Ihe fifteenth century - you have to be so sure of your friends and even more so of your enemies. It is a game of power and allegiances and two particular moments stuck in our minds. The first was when Richard of Gloucester was ki lled by the plague in Calais. Yes, there are plague cards, and we fai led 10 move Richard out of Calais - a potential plague lown. I can' t tell you how we all feh, it was a real body-blow and we determined to be prepared to move Richard out of Calais lout-suite in our next game. The second moment came when David Santiuste had to cail ihe first Parliament and distribute the power Ihal would determ ine not only the game but potentially who lived or died. I have to say we've never seen anyone go so whi te. David, whose new book on Edward IV is out in January, confi rmed that he wi ll never be able to write about a Parliament in quill: the same way ever again. We really can' t recommend this game strongly enough to other branches and groups and must thank Raymond for his wonderful hospitality and for welcoming us to his home. Fi nally , to round off the year we watched The Trial of Killg Richard III. For those who know this Ricardian gem you will understand the hi larity it caused with regards to a certain Dr David Starkey and the accompanying shouts of 'God Bless Jeremy Polter!' at the end. We would like to welcome our newest members. Local Borders resident Patricia Payne has been invaluable in helping to organise the Hulton and B.erwick trip, Thank you, Patricia And Andrea Willers saw ofT the competition at our Kingmaker meet to win the day for the gi rls. See below the Scottish Branch calendar for 2010. All are most welcome to altend any and all events, The trip to Sir Walter Scott's home, Abbotsford House, has now been moved to 2011 Tues 2 February Talk by Peter Yeoman of Historic Scotland on the recent skcleton findings at Stirling Castle. Falki rk Archaeological Society, Falkirk Christian Centre, I Glebe St, Falkirk, 7.30 - 8,30pm, ÂŁ 1.00 donation. Sat 27 Mareb AGM and talk. 10.30 am, lalk by Prof. Tony Goodman 'The Formidable Joan Beaufort (c, 1379-1440): Lancastrian Malriareh of Yorkist Dynasties' - Edinburgh venue, Lunch at Cramond Inn followed by AGM in Ihe afternoon, ÂŁ2 .00 pp Sat 15 May lplease note new date] Visi t to Hulton Field and Berwick. Talk by local historian at Hutton Hall, followed by visi t to Hulton Field and Caslle. Lunch at The Cross Inn, Paxton, fo llowed by afternoon visit to Berwick. Mini coach. Cost tbe. Sat 4 September Talk by David Santiuste from his new book on Edward IV, ' Ill war shmp alld fierce, ill thefield bold alld hardy: Edward IV and the Wars of the Roses'. Glasgow venue. Sat 27 November Kingmaker Board Game - playing of the famous board game to repeat the success 01'2009. 10.00 - S.30pm. Venue tbe. Pbilippa Langle)'

West Surrey Group Report Aller a summer of mainly outside visits, we now look forward to a winter of planning next year's activities, from the warmth and comfort of each other' s homes In May, some of us were lucky enough 10 altend th{: course ' Introduction to Herald ry ' at Madingley Hall , University of Cambridge, The hall is si'tuated four mi les west of Cambridge, with beautiful gardens to enjoy belwee n lectures. The programme for the course included the 'Ori gi n of Heraldry, Evolution of Heraldry in Bri tain' . The founder of the College of Arms was of course our own Richard III . Our fel low students on the course came from all wal ks of life, and two of them had brought Iheir own coats of arms, which Ihey had recently applied for and had 58

been granted The course ended with an exam, which, to our relie!: we passed, thus not letting the good name of our Society down Following several abortive allempts to visi t the Gruuthuis museum in Bruges, a few of our members did fina lly find it open in June. Edward's and Richard 's sanct uary there in 1470-1471 was of such importance to the events thai followed that we hoped to find traces of their visit within the museum, especially as we had been led to believe thai there was an exhibition of their period. At least the chapel was exactly as it would have been when they worshipped there. The exhibition on Charles the Bold was excellent and very comprehensive. Of course it was most pleasurable to visit all the OIher interesting allractions in and around Bruges, the Brewery, chocolate factory (yum !), lace-making and the markets. Also the World War One sites of Ypres, Hill 61 and the Tynecot cemetery. An excellent few days . It seems that the rest of us may now have to cross the Gruuthuis off our list. Unless? In July, of course, it was Tewkesbury, when we had a delightful weekend at the Fair and Bailie Re-enactment. We met up with members we hadn't seen for a long time and endeavoured to visit all the stalls which was pretty well impossible as there were so many. We gave support to our Group leader Rollo, who was manning the Lance and Longbow stall in a large marquee, shared with other Ricardians and Graham Turner the artist. Hi s exhibition of wonderful paintings of the era of the Wars of the Roses was ajoy to behold and attracted a huge number of visi tors. The Fair was officially opened by Robert Hardy and thle atmosphere everywhere was electric, especially the build-up to the actual re-enactment. So many people, c hildren and animals were in medieval cost ume that one felt transported back in time, Dr-Who-like One of the most fascinating performances throughout the day was the music, story-te lling and spectacular dancing of 'Mythago' a group who hail from our part of the country. Their scary masks and all black costumes drew crowds every time they performed In August, we were inv ited to the home of Richard (our treasurer) and Sandra his wife , lor a garden party It was a glorious day, the food was fi rst rate and it was a real pleasure just to relax and enjoy each other's company in their lovely peaceful garden Several of the latest books including John Ashdown-Hill's Johll Howard: Richard ///'s Beloved Cousill and Annette Carson ' s The Maligned Killg were passed around, discussed and ordered . It is amazing how prolific the li terature of 'our' period is, both fi ction and no n-fiction, and the number of snippets of inlormation that constantly still come 10 light No dOllbt there wil l be many more now that Bosworth has been ' relocated ' There were also other goodies 10 be had that day, like mugs and very allractive tee-shirts, courtesy of Tewkesbury stalls September broughl visit 10 Wimborne Minster 10 see the Chained Library, This is housed in a smal l room at the top of a tight spiral staircase - difficult for the none-too-active - and was started in 1686 by the Revd W, Stone wi th hi s personal co:llection. 11 was added 10 from bequests over the years and Ihere are now more than 350 volu mes, the oldest dated 1343 on vellum. There is an Erasmus of 1522 and Sir Walter Raleigh's History o/the World 1634. The collection is the second largest of its kind, after the chained library in Hert:ford Cathedral. The oooks, unusually, have their spines to the wall wi th the page edges on shc>w. Among the many treasures of the Minster is the astronomical clock , built by a monk in the fourteenth century; an unbelievably ancient Saxon oak chest, wh ich was thought to have housed religious relics; also the tomb of Gertrude, wife of Henry Courtenay, Earl of Devon (a grandson of Edward IV). Another tomb is that of Robert Beaufort and Margaret Beauchamp, the e Hi gies unusually hold ing hands. They were the parents of Margaret Beaufort, Thi s was an excellent day 's outing, We now have our Christmas lunch to look forward to, where we shall be joined by several new members, including Gi ll Gibbons and Anne Tetlow, with possibly more to come in the New Year. 2010 is a special year for us, being the tenth anniversary of our Group's formation. At our AGM in January we shall di sc uss our plans to celebrate this, which we intend to do in as Ricardian a manner as we possibly can. Rollo Crookshank, Jean Allen and Renee Barlow 59

Worcester Branch Report Our year ended wi th three splendid meetings despite th.e disappointment of our speakers for October being unable to attend. A very hasty arrangement was made with Ralph Richardson to fill the gap, and as usual he did us proud by leading a really excellent debate on ' The Murder of the Princes in the Tower: the Great Crime of the Reign of Richard 111' To encourage us to contribute, Ralph added the fo llowing evocative state ment to his title: 'That 's how it appears in many of the books on Richard and almost all the general mentions of him. Most people believe that is what happened. Thomas More and Shakespeare described the event in great detai l. Did it happen? Who were the murderers - Richard himself! James Tyrell ? The duke of Buckingham? Henry VII? What evidence is there that they survived the Tower? Were they taken to the north of England? Or to Flanders? Do they reappear in hi story ~' Lambert Simnel? Perkin Warbeck? Others?' There was less than a month to brush up on our facts and fi gures before the meeti ng, so out came the books from our extensive library and our own bookshelves. The debate was well supported by about 18 members and two visitors, and was li ve ly and informative. However, after nearly two hours of disc ussion we discovered that none of us had in fac t changed our original opinions of Richard's character. We were almost evenl y split between those who thought him invol ved and those who thought no\. It was an excellent way to fill a vacant afternoon. November' s meeting saw us at Beoley church near Redd itch, where one of our committee members, Carol Southworth, gave a spl endid lecture on Margaret BeaulOrt. Carol had obviously carried out a great deal of research on her subject as she entertained us to a most inlonnative afternoon. 1 have always found Margaret Beaufort something of an eni gma, as arc most powerful women Carol's tal k was entitled ' Margaret Beaulort - Sa:int or Dynast? ' In it she explained that Margaret had had a colourful life, being married three times, and spending much of her early lile at court . In lact, up to 1483 she appears to have b(~e n a Yorkist supporter, but it was Buckingham' s conspiracy which see ms to have tipped the scales: the lactthat Henry Tudor was her only child meant she was fierce in his defence. After Henry's coronation she rises in status as 'My Lady the King' s Mother', and receives a huge grant of lands, the profits of which help her to found two colleges in Cambridge. Carol's conclusion was that she was certainly no saint bUl a strong woman who was forced to adopt the only course she knew to strengthen Henry ' s chance of survival. As is our custom, we again enjoyed a lovely festive tea at Upton Snodsbury Vi llage Hall in December, everyone bringing a small contribution to the buffet. We enjoyed the fi endish quizzes set by our chairman and also had lots of time just to chat to each other. The rame went well and we collected the grand sum of ÂŁ50 in donations instead of sending eac h other Christmas cards, and this has been donated to the Ast ley Church Restoration Fund. That was the last time we saw each other until February, due to the persistent wi nter weather. Unfortunately we had to cancel our January meeting altogether, for the first time si nce our GrouplBranch began. Let's hope for a better summer this year, so that we can all get out and about seek ing out those Ricardian sites in the Midlands. Future Programmc 10 April AGM at Heightington Village Hall , when we will also visit St Giles Chapel, Heighlington. 12 .Iune Stephen Goodchild will give a talk on the Battle of Tewkesbury at Upton Snodsbury Village Hall. 1O- II.luly The Tewkesbury Festival, which we hope to attend with the Gloucestershire Branch. Detail s of our programme can be found on our branch web site www. richardi ii or contact our Chairman, Judith Sealey, 01386 791407 for further in lonnation We are always pleased to welco me friends and prospective members at any of our meeti ngs. Pat Parminlcr 60

Yorkshire Branch Report Over the years the Yorkshire Branch medieval banquet has been held in various hi storic bui ld ings in the city of York, bUl never at the fourteenth-century Bedern Hall, just opposite the east end of the Minster. The excellent meal which 25 members and their friend s attended on 24 October last year made us think thi s had been an oversight, and we shall certainly consider returning there fo r other dinners. Originally the college of the vicars choral of the Minster, the hall is now the HQ of three of York ' s li very compani{:s and boasts beautiful panelling and ' honours boards' of officers to show thi s. Another interesting part of the hall's hi story is the record of an annual rent often shi ll ings from the Bullln:n in Coney Street (where ' ali ens' , i. e. foreigners, were required to lodge by order of the Mayor and Commonalty) every year from 14 59 to 1643 . As ad vertised, the di shes served were cooked on the premises by Roger Lee and hi s staff, who could not have been more helpful , and were based on reductions of medieval recipes. The menu included thick green pea soup, an optional savoury starter of onion tart, roast chicken wi th prune stuffi ng and a delightful 'York rose' pudding, but one particular aspect of the meal was very welcome to our vegetarian guests: yes, 1 know it ' s not a med ieval concept, but - as some of us di scovered in conversation - there actually were veggi(:s in the Middle Ages. At Bedern they were not fobbed oil" with mushroom risotto yet again (a never-ending source of complaint) but had a ' proper' di sh of their own, pasta sheets with mushrooms and cheese from Maggie Black' s medieval cookery book (British Museum Press 1996) W~~ have to thank Cris Reay Connor lor thi s initiati ve, which was very well received As reported in the December BIII/elin, we were glad to welcome our President, Peter Hammond, who presented her Vice-President ' s badge to Moira Habberjam amid much acclaim. Always a fan of 'glitter', Moira looked most elegant, and, in general , the standard of dress was high. This ineludes the gentlemen, who as a whole have tended to be bashful about 'dressing up' Many photos were taken, some of which wi ll appear on our website Medieval elegance The Society's President and three VicePresidents at the Yorkshire Branch medieval banquet, October 2009. Left to right, John Audsley, Peter Hammond, Moira Habberjam and Carolyn Hammond

Cris Reay Connor conti nues as our Vice-Chairman and Treasurer, and Pauline Harrison Pogmore as our Secretary and Librarian Members of the Committee seem to have been photographed a lot lately , as nOI only did the Chairman, Angela Moreton, and the Sales Offi cer, Marjorie Hodgkinson, appear (to their great astonishment) in the last Bllllelill. recording a very happy visit 10 the Society' s AGM in London, bUl the small group which faced the New Year weather in Wakefield on behalf of the Branch was 61

pictured on page 2 of the Yorkshire POSI and in the Yorkshire Evenillg Posl as well The Chairman brought a spray of white roses to the Duke of York ' s statue in Manygates Lane and said a few words in commemoration of those who died on. 30 December 1460. Since the Visitor Centre at Sandal castle was closed, there were no living history displays or sales stalls this year. A couple of us did take a brief tum round the top of the hi ll, but decided it was much too cold to linger. Assumi ng that the dreadful winter wi ll be on its way out by 28 March - although 1 may well be speaki ng too soon, and we always have the blizzard of 1461 in mind - we hope that the Towton commemoration at To\\10n Hall on Palm Sund.ay wi ll include the usual walks, reenactments and displays by the To\\10n Battlefield Socie.ty and other organisations. Yorkshire Branch will have a sales and publicity point in the barn. Linda Treybig' s party from the US (and elsewhere, perhaps?) will be visi ting Britain this June - their tour begins in Edinburgh th is time - and would be happy to meet up with some of us on their travels. They will be in York on 24 June, Ripon and Middleham on the 25th, and Bolsover castle on 26th. Subsequent places on the itinerary inc.1ude Crowland, Thaxted, Rochester, Ightham Mote, Canterbury, Eastwell and Rye. The Branc h is honoured to have been invited by the Society to take part in the Bosworth 525th anniversary events to be held at and around the Bosworth Visitor centre. We shall be there on Saturday and Sunday 2 1-22 August, but I am letti ng those interested know now that the Branch's usual local commemoration of Bosworth, held in St Alkelda 's church in Middleham, wi ll take place this year a week early, on Sunday 15 August, al2 p,m In October the Branch is celebrati ng its 50th birthday year with a day event at Bedern Hall in York lollowed by dinner at the same venue. For more de tails, please sec the separate notice in this magazine Yo rkshire IJranch t"orthcoming .:ve nts 28 March Commemoration of the Bailie ofTowton Towton Hall, from 10.30 am onwards. 15 August Branch commemoration of Bosworth, Middlcham Church, 2 p.m 21 August Guided tours of Minster Lovell Hall and church. 22 August At Bosworth Visitor Centre. 23 October Branch 50th anniversary day event, Bedern Hall, York A ngela Moreton

CFianee Of contact cktailS ,Iohn Ashdown-Ilill's new telephone number is now confinned as 0 1206393572. DONet Gro up The new contact lor th is group is Babs Creamer, 27 Baker Road, Bear Cross, Bournemouth, BH I I 9.10. Tel : 0 1202 573 95 1, email

Sussex Gro up The new secretary of this group is Liz Robinson, 14 Queen ' s Park Rise, Brighton, BN2 9ZF, tel. 01273609971 , emai l Rita Dicfenhardt-Schmitt (ex Continental group) is now at Ulmenweg 8, 65520 Bad Camberg CherselterslTs, leI. 06483-800 956. Her email address remai ns the same. 62

New :Members UK I October 10 3 1 December 2009 Diana Barshy, Peatli ng Magna, Leics Allan Boyd, Liverpool

Pamela Roy, Monmouth T imothy Slack, Taunton Geoffrey Snaith, Darlington Diana Snell ing, Dere ham, Norfol k Maggie T aylor, Barrow路upon. Humber Mr W. T urton, Nottingham Coli n Ultley, Bul kington, Warwicks Rachel Walsh, Fareham, Hants David WeSICOI!, Stf3 tlord路u pon路 Avon Carol Wilson, North Yorkshire

Val erie B urn side, York

Janel Channa n, Wade bridge, Corn wall Kale Cogan, Swi neshead, Lines Mark Concannon, B righton Ph il i p Cardwell , Bar lborough

David Dawson, Nonh Somerset Jennie Dobson, Stratford-upon-Avon V ictoria Enright, London

Chri stopher Fleetwood, Ringwood, Hants

Overseas 1 October to 31 December 2009 Melissa Barry, Paris, France Lilian Dault, O ntario, Canada Alexandra Fraser, Ontario, Canada Joshua Goldhar, Toronto, Canada Helene Huculak, Toronto , Canada Gerry Marnoch, Ontario, Canada Farrah Mc Fadden, Alberta, Canada Mary Q ureshi, Virginia, USA Jane Roberts & Xavier de Sai nt Simon, NSW, Australia Jane Ross, Calgary, Canada Fletcher Stewart, Wi nni peg, Canada John Wil son, O nawa, Canada Leona Woods, Ontario, Canada

Joanna Green, Louth, Li nes Jean & Edmund Gri bble, Wal sall

Jonathan '-lardi ng. '-li sting, Cambs Marlene Harris, Ply mouth

Wendy Hayes, Walsall Geoffrey Hil ton, Bolton, Lanes John Ho ughton, N orwich

Caroline Hyde-Price, '-larrow, Middx Gwy neth Jones, Ru isli p, Middx David Jones, Loughboro ugh, Leics M. Marjoram, London B. Marlow, London David Marsh, Birmingham Mary Mason, Bracknell, Berks John McGowan, Towcester, Northants Mary Mutton, Torquay Margaret Nichol son, Lo ndon Ronald Oakes, Warrington, Cheshire Charity Pierce, London

US Dranch 1 October to 31 December 2009 Gerald C urtis, Michi gan Bonnie Hi ggins, Arizona Paul Kil patrick, Texas

'RecentCy 'Deceasea:Members Richard Burnett, Banstead, Surrey, joined 1998 Mr C. Hall , Cardiff, joi ned 1998 Mrs Eleanor Mac Kin non, Bowen Island, Be , Canada, joined 1990 Isolde Wi gmm, Fleet, Hants, Jo ined 1956


CaCenaar We run a calendar of all forthcoming eve nls. If you are awa re of any events of Ricardian interest, whether organi sed by the Society (Committee, Visits Committee, Research Committee, Branches/Groups) or by others, please lei Lesley Boatwright have full details in s ufficient time for entry, T he calenda r wi ll also be run on the website .




9-11 A pril

Study Weekend at York

Research O fliccr

24 April

L ecture 'Fi ndi ng Bosworth Battlefi eld' by Dr Glenn Foard

London Branch

15 May

Day trip from London 10 K eni lworth Castle

Visits Committee (see p. 54)

A nnual Requiem Mass lor King Richard II I

John Ashdo wn-Hi ll


26 June

and Q ueen Anne Nevil le, shri ne OrOUT Lady o f Ipswich

IS-IS July

Continental trip based in Cala is

21-22 August

Bosworth weekend

4 September

Day trip from London to T ewkesbury

Visits Committee

2 October

Society AGM, Leicester

Secretaries (see p_9)

23 October

Yorkshire Branc h 50th Anni versary Event

Yorkshire Bmnch (see p. 48)


Visits Committee

2010 03 march bulletin