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REDEFINING THE EDGE BETWEEN THE URBANIZED TERRITORY AND AGRICULTURAL LAND


Bachelor of Architecture Thesis 2012 Department of Architecture, School of ACC Southern Polytechnic State University

Request for Approval of Thesis Project Book Ricardo Adrian Garcia Escamilla Student’s Full Name:_______________________________________________________

Xochimilco: Redefining the edge between the urbanized territory and Thesis Title: ____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________ ____________________________ Student Signature Date

agricultural land. _____________________________________________________________

Abstract: This thesis addresses the combined urban renewal and protection of the agricultural land in the borough of Xochimilco in Mexico City. It focuses on the design of a performative boundary between the urbanized area and the mostly agricultural land. This boundary is composed of walkways, bridges, water remediation systems, canal frontages and communal gardens. The thesis responds to the ongoing process of urbanization and expansion of the city by means of overtaking agricultural land. Xochimilco serves as an example of the ongoing process of changing the physical environment from lacustrine system to an urbanized mega-city. This project addresses the hypothesis that with an increase awareness of urban expansion and a delineation of urban growth, the agricultural land will be preserved for future generations and become a catalyst for change on urban patterns.

Approved: ____________________________________ Primary Advisor Signature

Ermal Shpuza _________________________________________ First and Last Name

____________________________________ Thesis Co-coordinator Signature

_____________________________ First and Last Name

____________________________________ Secondary Advisor Signature

Mine Hashas _________________________________________ First and Last Name

____________________________________ Thesis Co-coordinator Signature

_____________________________ First and Last Name

____________________________________ Department Chair Signature

_____________________________ First and Last Name


DEDICATION

This book reflects a milestone in my life, and within itself represents the journey traveled to complete this stage of my life. Yet, this accomplishment was not the product of a single effort but rather, a combination of people that have given me encouragement and support to achieve this objective. It is with great love and appreciation that I dedicate this book to my mom and my dad. Thank you for your constant encouragement and for teaching me that there are no limits to my potential. But most of all, thank you for believing in me and giving me the tools to fight the battles that came along the way. Los quiero!


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Throughout the development process of this thesis several people helped me reach this goal. First and foremost I want to thank professor Shpuza for guiding me through this process. I would also like to thank professor Richard Becherer for helping me find myself and interpreting this knowledge of self through my thesis, and professor Hashas for her insight. I want to also thank all my professors at SPSU for giving me the tools to accomplish this project. I want to thank the department of urban development of Xochimilco for providing me with some key information necessary for the development of this thesis and to architects of Taller 13 for sharing some of their research with me. I would also like to thank my friends Eden and Jason and my uncle Carlos Escamilla for helping me and supporting me every step of the way.


ABSTRACT

This thesis addresses the combined urban renewal and protection of the agricultural land in the borough of Xochimilco in Mexico City. It focuses on the design of a performative boundary between the urbanized area and the mostly agricultural land. This boundary is composed of walkways, bridges, water remediation systems, canal frontages and communal gardens. The thesis responds to the ongoing process of urbanization and expansion of the city by means of overtaking agricultural land. Xochimilco serves as an example of the ongoing process of changing the physical environment from lacustrine system to an urbanized mega-city. This project addresses the hypothesis that with an increase awareness of urban expansion and a delineation of urban growth, the agricultural land will be preserved for future generations and become a catalyst for change on urban patterns.


X

OCHIMILCO: REDEFINING THE EDGE BETWEEN

URBANIZED TERRITORY AND AGRICULTURAL LAND

This Final Project is presented to The Faculty of the School of Architecture By: Ricardo Adrian Garcia Escamilla In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Architecture Southern Polytechnic State University Marietta, Georgia Fall, 2012


CONTENTS

SECTION 1 - THEOREM 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04

DESIGN HYPOTHESIS

4.01 DESIGN APPROACH

PROPOSED PROJECT NATURE

4.02 MASTER PLAN

CASE STUDIES

4.03 LINEAR DEFRAGMENTATION

4.02 PIER DESIGN

4.02 LINEAR CONTINUITY

THE CITY IN THE GLOBAL CONTEXT THE CITY AS A LOCAL ENTITY THE PROCESS OF THE WATER XOCHIMILCO - THE BOROUGH WITHIN THE CITY

2.05 GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES

2.06 XOCHIMILCO- SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROCESS

2.07 THE CHINAMPA: AN AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM

2.08 TRAJINERA AS A TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

2.09 DEFINING THE EDGE

2.10 SYSTEM OF NODES

CHAPTER 3- DESIGN PROCESS

CHAPTER 4- DESIGN SYNTHESIS

RELEVANCE OF THE DESIGN HYPOTHESIS IN LITERATURE

CHAPTER 2- PLACE 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04

3.02 SCHEMATIC DESIGN

3.01 EDGE MORPHOLOGIES 3.02 EDGE STANDARDS

CHAPTER 5- FINDINGS AND SUMMARY

5.01 SUMMARY AND FINDINGS


1.0


DESIGN THEOREM TEOREMA DE DISEテ前


1.01

DESIGN HYPOTHESIS

This project addresses the hypothesis that with an increase awareness of urban expansion and a delineation of urban growth, the agricultural land will be preserved for future generations and become a catalyst for change on urban patterns. The valley of Mexico presents a unique geological formation created by a series of mountain ranges that, over the years, have lead to the creation of shallow lakes. Due to its central location and physical

characteristics, the valley developed a unique diversity of flora and fauna. As a result of this biodiversity, the valley was rapidly populated by pre-hispanic tribes.

Chinampa technology, allowing the inhabitants of the area to overcome the physical limitations of the site, and develop an agricultural technique that is symbiotic to the lake.

The tribes that settled in the area developed into a well organized society, dedicated to the production and consumption of agricultural products. This independence on food production created an autonomous society. As the needs for food and land expanded, a new agricultural system was develop on the area. This need of land and resources lead to the development of the

Today the city lays on the vestiges of the ancient lakes. The only remnant of the ancient lacustrine city are the canals and agricultural land of Xochimilco and Tlahuac. In this region of the city, some of the canals are still present, serving as both, a “Disneyland� type destination for tourist and agricultural land that is resilient to the changes of the

!"#$%&'()#*$!'+,-$


to spend the day floating on a faux sense of history.

The result of this evolution is the bastardization of a historical site, the miss-use of a scarce natural resource, water, and the urbanization of one of the fertile zones of the city. Walking down the streets of Xochimilco, it becomes evident that the primary source of income for the area is the proximity to the canals serving as touristic destination, the exploitation of agricultural land to produce non vernacular plants and produce, and the opportunity

The site’s agricultural tradition has transcended from generation to generation providing sustenance to its inhabitants and the larger scope of the city. Despite its historic relevance, unique agricultural characteristics and becoming a UNESCO world heritage site, Xochimilco is on the brink of annihilation. Through the continuous process of expansion of the city, the urban fabric has collided with the agricultural land, resulting in

the drying up of the canals and destruction of agricultural land. Today, even after several isolated preservation efforts and incentives for its rehabilitation, the area is still in great danger of succumbing to the unstoppable growth of one of the largest urban areas in the world. It is with this understanding of the conflicting processes faced by Xochimilco that the focus of this thesis is to redefine the edge between the expanding city and the agricultural land by embracing the social, ecological and agricultural qualities in order to preserve the lacustrine region of Mexico City.

GEOGRAPHICAL REFERENCE

+ DESIGN HYPOTHESIS

area.

0 1

Mexico

Mexico City

Borough of Xochimilco


1.02

RELEVANCE OF DESIGN HYPOTHESIS IN LITERATURE

This section focuses on the exploration of different

architectural and social theories and techniques, their use and applications, and their relevance to the scope of the project. The authors explored in this section focus on the idea of space, boundaries and the constant morphological changes experienced by the city and society. Issues of collective memory, cultural identity and sense of place also partake in this investigation.

Of other spaces: Utopias and Heterotopias In this essay Focault focuses on the argument against the notion of linear time, and our perception of how this notion affects our understanding of certain historical events and places. Many times this idea of time can be represented in terms of space and its changes over time. According to Foucault one can begin to understand this two specific conditions - Utopias and Heterotopias (Leach,350). These two conditions are linked to other spaces, yet they are also in contradiction to those other places to which they are linked. Focault explains utopias as an unreal space; serving as a representation of society brought to perfection and therefore unreal. While in contrast, Heterotopias represent places with real time and space. He argues that all cultures are heterotopias, and goes forward providing two categories and five principles of describing these places. The categories include the heterotopia of crisis and deviation, respectively. The first refers to sacred and forbidden places, including the site of the bride’s “deflowering” on the honeymoon trip. This refers to an event that takes place in a hotel room, yet the hotel room could be anywhere at any time. The second category refers to places where people are placed when they do not conform to the norm, including rest homes, psychiatric hospitals, and prisons. These types of heterotopias are commonly found in our society. Focault’s five principles are:

1. Leach, Neil. Rethinking Architecture: A Reader in Cultural Theory. New York: Routledge, 1997. Print. 2. Soja, Edward. Thirdspace: Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real and Imagined Spaces. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1996. 3. Bandlow, R. J. “Theories of Learning, 4th Edition. By Ernest R. Hilgard and Gordon H. Bower. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975.” NASSP Bulletin 60.400 (1976): 134. Print.

1.) All cultures constitute heterotopias; 2.) Heterotopias can change function within a single society; 3.) They may take the form of contradictory sites, such as the representation of a sacred garden as a microcosm of the world in the patterns of a Persian rug; 4.) They are linked with a break in traditional time, identifying spaces that represent either a quasi-eternity, like museums, or are temporal, like fairgrounds; 5.) Heterotopias are not freely accessible, they are entered either by compulsory means, such as jail, or their entry is based on ritual or purification, like Scandinavian saunas, and Moslem hammans. It is with this understating of heterotopias that one can begin to identify moments in certain societies where these instances occur. This idea of heterotopia relates directly to Xochimilco. One can see the ritualistic aspect of the site, becoming accessible only through certain prescribed points of entry. Xochimilco also represents a microcosm within the larger realm of Mexico city. Furthermore, it is also detached from the idea of traditional time by surviving using ancient agricultural techniques. The combination of these elements makes Xochimilico a modern day Heterotopia deeply embedded in the idea of place and the collective memory, yet serving a different reality.


Third Space: Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real and Imagined Spaces

In any space there is always historical memory stamped as cultural identity to the society or individual. Space and memory are generally understood as cultural phenomena that are collectively and consciously or unconsciously linked to the past, present and future identity. In addition cultural identity is intertwined with in historical memory. The historical memory is the main tool to store the identity of a space and society, often the structure of the present. Historical memory plays several significant parts in the lives of individuals or as a whole to the society. Historical memory is the way of detecting any type of event of the prior generations that have an emotional impact, and/or any possibly physical impact on their descendants.

Society or individuals have a tendency to identify themselves with a larger group in order to share a sense of belonging, thus shearing cultural identity and a sense of historical memory. For an individual to develop a particular idea of self, people use historical material to select mental relations by which to connect the inner and outer experience. Furthermore historical memory exposes the hidden facts of injustice. Ultimately, historical memory is significant to the formation of cultural groups that shared common previous experience is the mainly basis for the existence of the group. Historical memory present to the society that history cannot be alienated from politics and power relations. Historical memory will be intertwined to structure the future society. According to Eliad History is compressed in these places. They are intensely located in the present, but the past impresses them, and they bleed into the future.

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Cultural Identity

RELEVANCE OF DESIGN HYPOTHESIS IN LITERATURE

The idea of “Third space” is presented by Edward Soja with an effort to incorporate a notion of a different type of space, based on the findings of Focault. The idea of “third space” is defined as a notion of space that combines spatiality with sociality and historically. This notion aim to represent the notion of spaces that fall out of the current dynamics of space, i.e. a space within space. Soja represents this notion as a place that has fallen out of the current dynamics of its surroundings, becoming an encapsulated space that is separated from any other place and serves as part of the collective memory. Often times this applies to marginalized territories or places that fall between established boundaries. This idea of the third space relates to my site in the sense that Xochimilco has become a place within a place. Moreover, it has become a place that is far removed from the expansive trends of the city and functions as its own. The people of the site identify themselves as belonging to the place and not the larger scope of the city, functioning autonomously but still dependent of the engulfing city.

Space and Memory


1.03

PROPOSED PROJECT NATURE

T he scope of this project involves a methodological approach toward the exploration edge. Trying to understand ways in which to limit the expansion of the city in order to preserve the agricultural area of Xochimilco. The project focuses on the incorporation of principles of urbanism, landscape urbanism and architecture to further develop a performative edge that is able to mediate between both realms.

THE PROJECT PROPOSES THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS: INCENTIVIZE AGRICULTURE AS A PROFITABLE ACTIVITY CREATE A DIRECT CONNECTION BETWEEN THE FARMER AND THE CONSUMER REDEFINE THE ADJACENCY OF THE CANAL AND LAND PRESENT AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE CURRENT DYNAMICS OF EXPANSION AND CONSTRUCTION ON THE SITE USING GREEN STRATEGIES DESIGN A PLACE THAT CELEBRATES THE LACUSTRINE HISTORY OF THE SITE AND EDUCATES ITS VISITORS ABOUT THIS ANCIENT AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM DESIGN A LINEAR SYSTEM OF CONTROLLING THE URBAN EXPANSION THROUGH THE INCORPORATION OF NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS AND PUBLIC SPACES RE-INTRODUCE THE IDEA OF CHINAMPA AGRICULTURE TO CREATE COMMUNITY FARMING AND GARDENS.


Urban expansion

Tourism

Endemic species

PLACE Definition of edge

Water supply

Urban agriculture

4 5

Culture

+

PROPOSED PROJECT NATURE

Identity


1.03

CASE STUDIES

GREEN RIVER BRATEEVO / OKRA LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS

T

he idea of the project is to change Brateevo, a Soviet high-rise block district along Moscow river, into a vibrant and green part of the city by linking green and blue structures to the urban tissue and meanwhile activate public realm. Meanwhile these areas should get a stronger identity, and an active waterfront should be created. Connections to adjacent areas by water tram and ferries should be encouraged. Creating attractive connections will be the initial step towards an upgraded network of public realm. Metro access plus installing footpath and cyclist connections will change the balance between slow traffic and fast traffic.

Furuto , Alison . â&#x20AC;&#x153;Green River Brateevo / OKRA Landscape Architectsâ&#x20AC;? 04 Nov 2011. ArchDaily. Accessed 02 May 2012. <http://www.archdaily.com/180699>


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CASE STUDIES

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CASE STUDIES

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STREAMLINES MRDC | STOSS LANDSCAPE URBANISM

S

TREAMLINES is about the sheer unfiltered experience of direct contact with the river and river life, in many ways, at multiple moments. And it’s about weaving these experiences back into the everyday city. STREAMLINES is also a project about working ecologies, ecological systems and dynamics put to work to clean, to re-constitute this working riverfront, and to guide a longer-term transformation of the city fabric.

“MRDC | Stoss Landscape Urbanism: STREAMLINES « World Landscape Architecture – Landscape Architecture Webzine.” MRDC. Web. 02 May 2012. <http://worldlandscapearchitect.com/mrdc-stoss-landscape-urbanism-streamlines/>.


CASE STUDIES

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SYSTEMIC AGRO-TOURISM MRDC | STOSS LANDSCAPE URBANISM

W

herever we go for vacations, we are looking for comfortable hotels and resorts to make our stay an unforgettable experience. Many of them are established in natural contexts such as forests and exotic paradises promoting a sustainable tourism. On the contrary, some other irresponsible architecture designs have alienated and changed the cultural, economical and social conditions, establishing all-in-one concrete monuments with irreparable consequences for local habitats. Under these circumstances, the NEW MASTERPLAN for the Chili River Borders has been elaborated under the systemic approach and proposes a new alternative for touristic facilities in post-colonial Latin-American cities. The project promotes the idea of merging the urban and rural touristic attractions in a city where the urban sprawl has gradually suffocated the river basin and the countryside.

“MRDC | Stoss Landscape Urbanism: STREAMLINES « World Landscape Architecture – Landscape Architecture Webzine.” MRDC. Web. 02 May 2012. <http://worldlandscapearchitect.com/mrdc-stoss-landscape-urbanism-streamlines/>.


CASE STUDIES

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SAN ANTONIO RIVERWALK

T

he famed San Antonio Riverwalk, or Paseo Del Rio, is a 2 1/2 mile stretch of beautifully landscaped waterfront that features many of San Antonio’s most spectacular hotels, restaurants, night clubs, bars, shopping centers and businesses. It is one of the most dynamic tourist attractions in the entire state of Texas, pouring nearly $800 million a year into the local economy. Archtct Robert H. H. Hugman’s vision for the San Antonio River resulted in an astonishing linear park. Hugman knew that if a floodgate was constructed at the north end of the Great Bend and an adjustable weir at the south end, it could be completely isolated from flooding and commercial development could proceed at River level. In 1929, at the age of 27, he offered an imaginative plan for development he called “Shops of Aragon and Romula”. It was patterned after old cities in Spain, where narrow winding streets that were barred to vehicular traffic contained the best shops and restaurants.

http://www.thesanantonioriverwalk.com/ http://www.sanantonio.gov/dtops/riverwalk/masterplan.aspx


CASE STUDIES

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2.04

XOCHIMILCO MASTER PLAN TEN ARQUITECTOS

L

ocated in the natural preserve of Xochimilco, in the southern part of Mexico City, the preserve is originally developed in unplanned, disconnected phases, its scattered elements are hard to reach and threatened by severe environmental issues. The proposed master plan reorganizes these elements in a single vertical strip of developed land. Our proposed additions to the program consist of a research and education center for Xochimilcoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water (CIEAX), the ajolotario, the relocation of the flowersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; market, additional parking and public


CASE STUDIES

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2.0


PLACE LUGAR ALTEPETL


2.01

CITY IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

A

s we begin to understand the regional and local complexities of a city, it is important to investigate its connection to the global context. This chapter seeks to investigate the possible relationships of Mexico City to other major cities around the world and create a comparative analysis of the local realm.

Berlin

Shanghai

London

New York

Mexico City


T

he density of the different cities can be explored through the use of a figure ground exploration where issues such as adjacency, solid and void, and unique morphological characteristics become evident. Through this exploration it becomes evident the issue of city block size and communal space. This analysis begins to inform the conditions of the city and its patterns of growth.

Berlin

Shanghai

New York

20 21

London

CITY IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

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Mexico City


D

ensity is explored in a volumetric expression to see the patterns of urban expansion as the cities radiate away from the city centers and the sudden decrease in denazification, actions that begin to blur the boundary between the city and the adjacent suburbs creating the MEGA CITY.

LONDON Central Area 7,805 people/km2

Peak 17,200 people/km2

BERLIN Central Area 7,124 people/km2

Peak 21,700 people/km2

MEXICO CITY Central Area 12,541 people/km2

Peak 48,300 people/km2

SHANGHAI Central Area 2,279 people/km2 Burdett, Ricky. The Endless City. London: Phaidon, 2007. Print.

Peak 38,500 people/km2

NEW YORK Central Area 15,361 people/km2

Peak 53,000 people/km2


MEXICO CITY

BERLIN

NEW YORK

Burdett, Ricky. The Endless City. London: Phaidon, 2007. Print.

HOUSING

INCOME

ENERGY

WATER

Population

Ave. Density pop./km2

Ave. rent per month in US $

GDP per capita in US $

KWh per capita per year

Liters per capita per day

18,900,000

3,700

7,540,000

4,800

3,400,000

16,610,000

7,960,000

810

2,390

750

2,590

9,610

16,400

38,400

28,300

360

6,900

2,500

58,700

1,800

360

20,500

160

21,600

160

5,600

1860

63,000

500

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SHANGHAI

DENSITY

CITY IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

LONDON

SIZE


D

istribution of wealth becomes of primary importance in order to understand the zoning of the city and the morphological qualities that encourage a certain tendency of growth.

PRIVILEGED AVERAGE DISADVANTAGED SEVERELY DISADVANTAGED

Burdett, Ricky. The Endless City. London: Phaidon, 2007. Print.


F

inding job opportunities proves to be of crucial importance in relationship to the geographical condition of the city. Is there a relationship between the work place and the distribution of wealth. UNEMPLOYMENT RATES 0 - 4% 4 - 8% 8 - 12%

CITY IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

12 - 25%

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Burdett, Ricky. The Endless City. London: Phaidon, 2007. Print.


2.02

THE CITY AS A LOCAL ENTITY

M

exico City is one of the most important financial centers in North America. The city was originally built on an island in Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325. Tenochtitlan, which was almost completely destroyed in the 1521 during the siege by the armies of Cortez, was subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, and as of 1585 it was officially known as La Ciudad de México (Mexico City). Mexico City served as the political, administrative and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the Federal District was created in 1824.


HISTORICAL EXPANSION OF THE CITY

G

rowth within the city has been exponential since prehistoric times. Analyzing the patterns of growth of the city helps with the understanding of the relationship between urbanity and the site. The resulting exploration enables one to prepare for the continuous growth process of the city.

THE CITY AS A LOCAL ENTITY

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1950

1930 0

20

20

1990 0

20

20

20

0

Central City

Central City

Federal District

Federal District

Area of exploration

Federal District

Second expansion period

Second expansion period

Area of exploration

Third expansion period

Central City

Area of exploration

20


TRANSPORTATION

A

s the population grows, so does the need for transportation. The following diagrams respond to the different modes of transportation that access the city.

Public highway Toll highway

Entry point into the city


THE CITY AS A LOCAL ENTITY

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Major rail lines

Metro lines

Major inner city roadways


ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS

N

atural resources are key for the development of the city. Proximity to major bodies of water and open space prove to be of crucial importance for the continuity of the city and ensuring the longevity of the population.

Rivers that intersect the city

Year- round agricultural land

Tree areas

Seasonal agricultural land

Grass areas


THE CITY AS A LOCAL ENTITY

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Trash production

WATER TREATMENT PLANTS


2.03 T

THE PROCESS OF WATER

he Federal District and State of Mexico combined had 1,089 registered wells at depths of 70 to 200 meters in 1994. This does not include wells operated by the National Water Commission, which are deeper. There are also a large number of non-registered wells, many of which are located in the State of Mexico. Wells are generally located in four different well fields. These are labeled as South (or Xochimilco), Metropolitan, East (or Texcoco region) and North well fields. Besides these well fields, the bulk water supply infrastructure of Greater Mexico city consists of two systems: Lerma and Cutzamala. The Lerma system, built in the 1940’s, transfers 4.8 m3/s of water (6% of total water supply to Greater Mexico City) from well fields in the upper basin of the Lerma River in the West to Mexico City. The Cutzamala System built in stages from the late 1970’s to the late 1990’s to transfer 14.9 m3/s (19% of total supply) of water from the Cutzamala River in the Balsas basin in the Southwest to Greater Mexico City for use as drinking water, lifting it over more than 1000 meters. It utilizes 7 reservoirs, a 127 Km long aqueduct with 21 Km of tunnels, 7.5 Km open canal, and a water treatment plant. Its cost was US$ 1.3 billion.[3] While providing Mexico City with over 20% of its water, the Cutzamala system currently operates at only 47% of its total capacity. Both systems are operated by the National Water Commission. The water distribution system in the Federal District included nearly 11,000 kilometers of distribution lines and 243 storage tanks with a capacity of 1.5 million cubic meters in 1994. Water from all the separate sources is added to the common distribution system. The Federal District also operates a water transmission line (the Acueducto Periférico) that transports water from the Cutzamala System - entering the distribution system from the west - to the southern and eastern part of the


Tepozotlan Mountain Range

Lake Zumpango

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Gordo Hill

THE PROCESS OF WATER

Lake Xaltocan

Patlachique Mountain Range

Lake texcoco

32 33

district. The State of Mexico system has nearly 800 kilometers of distribution lines and 32 storage tanks with a capacity of 440,000 cubic meters. As of 2000, there were 2.5 million water connections with 67% of these being domestic and this only accounts for legal connections. It is estimated that there could be another 900,000 illegal connections.[5] The State of Mexico operates the 49 kilometer water transmission line (the Macrocircuito) to transport water entering from the west side of the service area (including the imported water from the Cutzamala-Lerma System) to the east side. This transmission line is being upgraded to increase the volume of water taken from the Cutzamala-Lerma system to 7.3 cms, and to provide service to the eastern service area. The Macrocircuito is operated by the State Water Commission. It is expected that the dependency of Mexico City on external sources of water will increase. Additionally, the absence of economic compensation mechanisms for those communities from which water is extracted has created conflicts among users and sometimes limits water transferred to the city.[6] One example of this is Mexico Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s high use of bottled water. Those that do not have access to water from pipes, pay private vendors from 6 to 25 % of their daily salaries. General distrust of tap water quality has led to much of the population purchasing drinking water; Mexico was ranked the third largest consumer of bottled water in 2009. Greater Mexico City is served by a singled combined sewer system, collecting municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater and storm water. It includes 7,400- mile (11,900 km) of pipes, 68 pumping stations, numerous dams, lagoons, and regulatory tanks for flow control, 111 kilometers of open canals, 42 kilometers of rivers (rio) used primarily for drainage, and 118 kilometers of underground collectors (interceptor and emisor) and tunnels. The three interceptors are: The Western Interceptor (Interceptor del Poniente), draining into the Nochistongo Channel, which ultimately joins the Emisor Central; The Central Interceptor (Interceptor Central), draining into the Emisor Central (Drenaje Profundo) and then into the Salto River in Hidalgo state near the Requena

Nevada Mountain Range

Lake Xochimilco

Salt water lake Lake Chalco

Sweet water lake Lake islands Chinampa regions

Ajusco Mountain Range

Swampland Rivers feeding the system Dike of Nezahualcoytl Aquaducts


dam, from where it flows to the Mezquital valley; and The Eastern Interceptor (Interceptor del Oriente), draining into the Grand Canal, then into the old and new tunnels of Tequixquiac and ultimately to the Salado River. The total dry weather flow for Greater Mexico City, which consists mainly of untreated municipal wastewater, was estimated at 44 m3/s in 1993. During the rainy season, the region experiences many storms of high intensity and short duration. A single storm can produce up to 70 millimeters (about 3 inches) of rainfall, representing 10 percent of the total annual precipitation. Because of this rainfall pattern, the general drainage system was designed to carry 200 m3/s over a 45 hour period. Until 1910 the Grand Canal functioned purely by gravity, with an inclination of 19 Cm per Km. Over the next five decades its inclination declined to 10 Cm per Km due to land subsidence of 7 meters. Several large pumps were installed in an attempt to maintain its capacity.[8][9] After heavy floods in 1950 and 1951 it became clear that the Grand Canal could not protect the city any more from flooding and a deep drainage system (Drenaje profundo) was proposed for the first time. Studies on the system began in 1959; its construction began in 1967 and it was completed in 1975. It consists of a deep tunnel, the Emisor Central with a length of 68 km and a depth of up to 250m. It today constitutes by far the most important element of the Mexico City drainage system. It was designed for a flow of 170 m3/s. However, due to further land settlement the inclination in the Grand Canal became zero by 1990 and negative by 2000. Despite the installation of further pumps, the capacity of the Grand Canal thus declined from 80 m3/s in 1975 to 15 m3/s in 2008. This in turn affected the Emis贸r Central, which had been designed to be closed during the dry season for maintenance. Because of the settlement of the grand canal the Emis贸r Central was continuously filled with water, making it impossible to inspect it for problems or to maintain it, making maintenance impossible between 1995 and 2008. The tunnel has been damaged by overwork and corrosion of its 20 ft.. (6 m) diameter walls and its capacity has been reduced to 120 m3/s. In 2008 it was maintained for the first time in more than 12 years.

CURRENT WATER SYSTEM


DECREASE IN WATER LEVELS OVER THE PAST CENTURY 20 Overall, the combined discharge capacity of the system has declined from 280 m3/s in 1975 to 165 m3/s in 2008. The Nochistongo Channel is the only element of the system whose capacity remains undiminished at 30m3/s.

18

Only about 15% of the wastewater collected in Greater Mexico City was treated in 2008, mostly in wastewater treatment plants in Mexico state. Currently, the metropolitan area generates 40 m3/s of wastewater; however capacity is only built to handle 10 m3/s. The treated wastewater is for local reuse projects such as ground water recharge and agricultural and urban-landscape irrigation. There were 13 wastewater treatment plants in the Federal District and 14 in the State of Mexico service area in 1994, treating a total flow of 2.62 and 1.69 m3/s respectively. The untreated portion of the wastewater is discharged to the drainage system, from where it is discharged to the North where it is being reused in irrigated agriculture.

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12 10 8 6

34 35

In millions of cubic meters of water

THE PROCESS OF WATER

16

4 2 1900

1920

1940

1960

1980

2000


1) 2)

1)

Mexico City - Tenochtitlan is established

1325

1382 The city floods

The aqueduct of chapultepec is contructed

Tepeyac causeway is built

1432

Iztapalapa causeway is built

1) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c5/Fundacion_de_la_Ciudad_de_Mexico-Extracto_del_codice_Duran_.jpg/1024px-Fundacion_de_la_Ciudad_de_Mexico-Extracto_del_codice_Duran_.jpg 2) http://www.mexicomaxico.org/Tenoch/TenochEstrella.htm http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/1796919.jpg http://imageshack.us/f/695/tenochtitlan44.jpg/ http://www.arqueomex.com/images/FOTOSNUM68/03F2.jpg http://www.stereoviews.com/nochist.jpg http://www.conagua.gob.mx/sustentabilidadhidricadelValledeMexico/proyectodrenajes.aspx http://blog.bobschalkwijkphotography.com/images/20100325100532_b0174-03*.jpg http://media.photobucket.com/image/acueducto%20xochimilco/eleonai/AcueductoXochimilcoOax.jpg http://fotos.eluniversal.com.mx/web_img/fotogaleria/vivero02.jpg` http://imageshack.us/f/152/fgthfhkq8.jpg/ https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/-minKLUaCdVc/TXZyU9nASvI/AAAAAAAADTU/A-jTdV1QmUw/sist+cutz+y+loc.JPG

Mexico City Floods

1466

1429

1449

The city floods and the dyke of Nezahualcoyotl is built separating the salty waters of lake texcoco from the rest of other lakes

XVII and XVIII Centuries

Colonial Era

Prehispanic Era

TIME LINE OF WATER SYSTEM

1555

1499

dyke of ahuitzotl is built to prevent flooding of the city.

1536

construction of the Santa Fe aqueduct

1580

Mexico City floods

Mexico City floods Nochistongo, the1st artificial water drainage system is implemented Arcos de Belem aque- City suffers its flood up to tha duct is constructed to drain the lakes

1607

1615

Mexico City Floods

1620

1623

1625

Mexico City Floods Work is halted by the king on Nochistongo


1877

First underground water supply system is placed

1879

XX Century

XIX Century

Work on Nochistongo is completed

Construbtion begins on an acueduct from Xochimilco to the city

Lerma Water system is inagurated

water is supplied by 350 deep wells

1906

Work begins on the Cutzamala System

1930

1930

THE PROCESS OF WATER

s worst at time

+

1976

36 37

1878

Work begins on the Gran Canal del Desague

1900

Tequixquiac tunnel is inagurated

1927

Wells are dig on San Luis Tlaxialtemalco

1927

an additional tunnel is added to tequixquiac

1967

Work begins on the deep drain of Mexico City


THE PROCESS OF WATER

T

hrough this analysis one can observe the sudden decrease of water levels in the lakes of Mexico city.

Lake during 1824

Lake during 1929

Lake during 1959


THE PROCESS OF WATER

+

38 39

Lake during 1980

Lake during 2000

Lake during 2007


VIGA CANAL

Until 1920, the Viga road was a canal that extended to current day Fray Servando

Street, around 10 blocks away from the Zocalo, to the lakes of Xochimilco and Calco, thus unifying the towns of Xochimilco, Tlahuac and Chalco. Since prehispanic times, these towns had produced fresh fruits and vegetables for the urban population. Even during the colonial period there was a sentry box that served as a controlling entity to collect the produce that entered the city as the viga canal intersected with the Piedad river (current day Viaducto). At the sentry box, the

DOWNTOWN MEXICO CITY

VIGA L

CANA

LAKE XOCHIMILCO

XOCHIMILCO

1 1) http://www.mexicomaxico.org/Viga/images/VigaInvitA.jpg 2) http://media.photobucket.com/image/canal%20de%20la%20viga/yoatecutli/canal_viga1910.jpg 3) http://www.mexicomaxico.org/Viga/images/VigaBarcoB.jpg 4) http://www.mexicomaxico.org/Viga/LaVigaGaleria.htm

3

LAKE CHALCO

2


4

40 41

With the closing of this canal, the only waterway link between Xochimilco and the city disappeared. This disconnect between the city and Xochimilco forced the creation of major roads and other means of transportation to bring good form this end of the city to the downtown area.

+

THE PROCESS OF WATER

Overlay of Viga (Nacional ) Canal to the current urban grid

canal widened and divided in two. Toward the southern part of the city, the Viga canal was wide enough to allow for steam boats to navigate the system and allow for the rapid transportation of products and people. The pier created for the Viga canal was for small boats (trajineras), and it was located on the current Estacion Central de Bomberos, a few blocks away from the Plaza de Toros. From this point the canal continued as the Canal of Roldan, which is located nowadays on the street that bears the same name, and ending close to the modern day Mercado de la Merced. This tour ended on a roundabout that facilitated the turning of carriages. The ambiance of the canal was one similar to current day Chapultepec, one of relaxation and family time. The steam boat was inaugurated in 1859. The first steam boat had a capacity of 30 passengers and had a trajectory of 30 Km. Along the viga canal. In 1921 the government decided to eliminate the Viga canal with the project of the Gran Canal del Desague, to avoid the constant flooding of the city.


2.04

XOCHIMILCO â&#x20AC;&#x201C; THE BOROUGH WITHIN THE CITY

X

ochimilco is one of the thirteen boroughs of the Mexico City. Located in the southern end of the city, the area of Xochimilco is the only remnant of the prehispanic agricultural systems. The area is encapsulated by a series of canals that define agricultural plots of land named Chinampas. This innovative system of agriculture procures the continuous growth of fruits and vegetables due to the fertility of the soil. Nowadays Xochimilco is in a state of dilapidation. The change in agricultural practices, people moving to the city for better work opportunities and the exploitation of the site as a tourist attraction, had place this area of the city in a state of emergency.


T

The life of the city can be defined as being characteristic of a life on water. This is a direct response to the geographical characteristics imposed by the complex environ in which the city was created. This adaptation to the conditions forced the innovation of certain technologies to force the interaction between communities and create a network of resources linked by water. This was partially done through the use of chinampa technology, serving as both means food production and available land for human settlements.

42 43

During the XIX and XX centuries, Mexico city and the water basin where subject to a sudden and unexpected series of changes that lead to a modernization process, in which the the urban morphology and bodies of water were subject to a series of plans visions and programs that changed its ancestral condition forcing it to adapt to the demands of a growing city. During this process of expansion the city has not been able to mediate between its historical past and ever-expanding future. The drying up of the lakes and canals , as well as the tubbing of rivers was considered public policy, a certain inevitability needed for the success of the city.

+

XOCHIMILCO: THE BOROUGH WITH THE CITY

he urbanization of Xochimilco reached a turning point in the destruction of geographic conditions of this area of the valley of Mexico in the 20th century. The urban incorporation and conurbation are critical events whose causes a erratic event in the development of the spatial characteristics of Xochimilco. The territorial integrated was a late process that induced a chaotic urbanization. It is with this understanding of a chaotic organization that one can see the fragmented and chaotic system of developing the area. This sudden encounter of the two realms creates a endorheic contrast between the urban and the lacustrine system, resulting on an antinomy that allows both to exists but not to coincide.


Since the beginning of the XX century the basin of Xochimilco suffered a drastic change, as a result of the sudden integration to the larger scope of the city. This sudden encounter with the larger city forced the destruction of the natural habitat to make way for a city that was thirsty with the need of expansion and growth. This sudden exchange resulted in Xochimilco to become part of the collective memory as a place linked to the water but, paradoxically, unable to be evoked as the future of the city. Xochimilco has been trapped in an uncertain future. Many programs seek

to remediate the dramatic collision between realms, but these programs fall short to understand and execute the necessary tasks to regularize the urban form and control the urban expansion. It is during the XX and XXI when we find a series of conflicting processes. One key issue presented is the gentrification of the site. Since the modification to the agrarian law allowing landowners to privatize land-trusts, many farmers decided to sell their lands and opt to move into the city with the hopes of finding better opportunities. As a result of this exchange and rapid urbanization, canals disappear to make way for new

avenues and streets, creating a series of conflicting interests between the locals who aimed to preserve their lacustrine lifestyle and the gentrified society that seek the commodities of the city at a lower price. One can argue that this process of urbanization comes delayed since the process did not go into full effect until 1960. Before this time, Xochimilco served as a major provider of potable water to the city. Its relationship to the city was symbiotic but distant. The presence of the water in the area ironically guaranteed its separation from the city forcing an implied preservation of the area


During 1900 the city’s thirst for water resources forced the construction of an aqueduct that brought water to the city expanding a length of 26 kilometers. This aqueduct was in function until 1930’s when the system

began to fail and lead to an accelerated process of sinking of the city. One can see the process of drying up the canals with the first major infrastructural work of eliminating the Viga canal. This ancient route connected Xochimilco to Downtown Mexico city, providing means of transporting goods and people from one location to another. Yet in 1940 it was determined that the canal was obsolete and was replaced by one of the major connectivity routes of the city.

During 1970’s one can see a rapid integration to Xochimilco to the city. The Olympic games of 1968 forced this chaotic urbanization by the incorporation of the rowing canal of Cuemanco. The creation of this olympic place forced the creation of infrastructure in order to connect the olympic site to the rest of the city. This was achieved by the creation of the Periferico, the beltway created around Mexico city that systematically engulfed the city and made it possible to loop the city on a peripheral basis. In essence we can summarize the spatial development of Xochimilco in three stages:

+

XOCHIMILCO: THE BOROUGH WITH THE CITY

for the convenience of the city. Once the water was completely drained from the aquifers the area suffered a period of sudden urbanization. It is important to mention that despite the sudden gentrification and urbanization process, the locals still aimed to maintain their own social identity.

44 45


1930 to 1970 represents a period of slow growth due to political and social problems in which farmers and politicians shared conflicting views of the development of the area. This period forced a reconciliation between local governments and the government of the city. The second period expands from 1970 to 1980. This period recognizes the importance of the olympic games as the catalysts for the creation of new communication routes linking Xochimilco to the larger context of the city. This new connectivity encouraged growth along

the Periferico Sur, Viaduct Tlalpan and Division del Norte. The third period expands between 1980 until today, where we see an explosion of urbanization. This urbanization happened primarily along historic routes like Nuevo Leon avenue and expanding in either direction, systematically overtaking chinampa land for the construction of residential properties. This last expansion forced the sudden encounter between local groups and new social groups migrating from other parts of the city.


HISTORICAL IMAGERY

T

he following are samples of historic imagery of Xochimilco. These historical maps and section represent attempt to portray a picture of the historical evolution of area.

XOCHIMILCO: THE BOROUGH WITH THE CITY

+

Historic Chinampa plots

46 47

Section through the site

map of Xochimilco 1800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s


2.05

GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES

P

ZU

"

TEPEPAN

A

XOCHIMILCO

SAN LUIS TLAXIALTEMALCO

"

"

P

!

ZU

SANTA CRUZ ACALPIXCA

"

"

SANTA MARÍA NATIVITAS "

B

TULYEHUALCO "

ZU

A

P

ZU

SAN GREGORIO ATLAPULCO

P

A

A

A

A P

B B

B

Kilometers SAN FRANCISCO TLALNEPANTLA

1.0

2.1

3.2

4.2

"

B

Urban area

Designated agricultural land

Highway

Grassland

Primary Road

Forest

Light rail train

Urban area


GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES

+

48 49


PRESERVATION AGRICULTURAL AREA

T

he preservation area contains the UNESCO world heritage site. In which the agricultural techniques implemented had been in use for several thousand years. Xochimilco is one of the thirteen boroughs of the Mexico City. Located in the south

Xochimilco: the suburb within the city


GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES

+

50 51

Chinampa Region Major Bodies of Water Natural Reserve Rivers and Canals

Major Bodies of Water Rivers and Canals


Ecological Park Xochimilco Major Bodies of Water Rivers and Canals

Protected Natural Area Major Bodies of Water Rivers and Canals


AREA OF EXPLORATION

T

he area of exploration for this thesis is the area divided by Nuevo Leon avenue and Francisco Goyta Street. This area represents the most threatened area to the system due to the fact that it falls outside the limits of the preservation area and therefore it could be easily urbanized.

GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES

+

52 53

Protected Natural Area Chinampa Region Ecological Park Xochimilco Major Bodies of Water Natural Reserve Rivers and Canals


2.06 O

XOCHIMILCO – SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROCESS

ften referred to as “floating gardens,” chinampas were artificial islands that usually measured roughly 30 × 2.5 m (98 × 8.2 ft.), although they were sometimes longer. They were used by the ancient Aztec Indians. They were created by staking out the shallow lake bed and then fencing in the rectangle with wattle. The fenced-off area was then layered with mud, lake sediment, and decaying vegetation, eventually bringing it above the level of the lake. Often trees such as āhuexōtl (Salix bonplandiana) and āhuēhuētl (Taxodium mucronatum) were planted at the corners to secure the chinampa. Chinampas were separated by channels wide enough for a canoe to pass. These “islands” had very high crop yields with up to seven crops a year.

The earliest fields that have been securely dated are from the Middle Postclassic period, 1150 – 1350 CE. Chinampas were used primarily in Lakes Xochimilco and Chalco near the springs that lined the south shore of those lakes. The Aztecs not only conducted military campaigns to obtain control over these regions but, according to some researchers, undertook significant stateled efforts to increase their extent. Chinampa farms also ringed Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital, which was considerably enlarged over time due to the use of chinampas. Smaller-scale farms have also been identified near the island-city of Xaltocan and on the east side of Lake Texcoco. With the destruction of the dams and sluice gates during the Spanish conquest of Mexico, many

chinampas fields were abandoned, although remnants are still in use today in what remains of Lake Xochimilco. Among the crops grown on chinampas were maize, beans, squash, amaranth, tomatoes, chili peppers, and flowers. It is estimated that food provided by chinampas made up one-half to two-thirds of the food consumed by the city of Tenochtitlán. Chinampas were fertilized using lake sediments as well as human excrement. The word chinampa comes from the Nahuatl word chināmitl, meaning “square made of canes”.


MAIN ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AREA

# OF WORKERS

PERCENTAGE

Manufacturing

10,805

23.5

Construction

415

0.9

Business ( Including agriculture)

18,309

39.7

Transportation

1,213

2.6

Services

15,327

33.3

23% 33% 1%

PERCENTAGE

Housing

2,145.68

17%

Equipment

234.4

2%

Green areas and public spaces

58.54

0.5%

Industry

66.38

1%

Urban

7%2% 19%

Conservation Protected nature reserve

2,657.08

21%

Ecological preservation

2,631.33

21%

Rural communities

980.82

8%

Equipment

180.18

1%

Industrial agriculture

2,337.83

19%

Irregular settlements

914.94

7%

Archeological areas

310.94

2%

Total

12,518.12

100%

1% 8%

17% 1% 21%

21%

http://www.inegi.org.mx/Sistemas/temasV2/Default.aspx?s=est&c=17484

0.5%

2%

Housing Green areas and public spaces  Protected nature reserve Rural communities Industrial Agriculture  arquelogical areas  Equipment  Industry  Ecological preservation  equipment  Irregular settlements 

54 55

AREA IN HECTARES

+

XOCHIMILCO: SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROCESS

40%

LAND USE TYPE OF USE

Manufacturing Business ( including agriculture) Services Construction  Transportation 

3%


POPULATION GROWTH

T

he following series of diagrams represent the accelerated growth of Xochimilco. The result of this analysis is the understanding of periods of accelerated growth and the urbanization of the agricultural land.

1950

1900

1960

47,082 inhabitants

17,980 inhabitants

70,381 inhabitants

= 1,000 People

1900

Instituto Nacional de Geografia e Informatica. http://www.inegi.org.mx/Sistemas/temasV2/Default.aspx?s=est&c=17484

162%

1950

49%

1960

66


1980

1970

2010

2000

217,481 inhabitants

116,493 inhabitants

XOCHIMILCO: SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROCESS

415,007 inhabitants

360,716 inhabitants

56 57

6%

+

1970

87%

1980

66%

2000

15%

2010


2.07 O

THE CHINAMPA: AN AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM

ften referred to as “floating gardens,” chinampas were artificial islands that usually measured roughly 30 × 2.5 m (98 × 8.2 ft..), although they were sometimes longer. They were used by the ancient Aztec Indians. They were created by staking out the shallow lake bed and then fencing in the rectangle with wattle. The fenced-off area was then layered with mud, lake sediment, and decaying vegetation, eventually bringing it above the level of the lake. Often trees such as āhuexōtl (Salix bonplandiana) and āhuēhuētl (Taxodium mucronatum) were planted at the corners to secure the chinampa. Chinampas were separated by channels wide enough for a canoe to pass. These “islands” had very high crop yields with up to seven crops a year.

“Aztec Society.” Aztec Society. Web. 06 May 2012. <http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/aztec-society.htm>.

The earliest fields that have been securely dated are from the Middle Post classic period, 1150 – 1350 CE. Chinampas were used primarily in Lakes Xochimilco and Chalco near the springs that lined the south shore of those lakes. The Aztecs not only conducted military campaigns to obtain control over these regions but, according to some researchers, undertook significant stateled efforts to increase their extent.[4] Chinampa farms also ringed Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital, which was considerably enlarged over time due to the use of chinampas. Smaller-scale farms have also been identified near the island-city of Xaltocan and on the east side of Lake Texcoco. With the destruction of the dams and sluice gates during the Spanish conquest of Mexico, many

chinampas fields were abandoned, although remnants are still in use today in what remains of Lake Xochimilco. Among the crops grown on chinampas were maize, beans, squash, amaranth, tomatoes, chili peppers, and flowers. [5] It is estimated that food provided by chinampas made up one-half to two-thirds of the food consumed by the city of Tenochtitlán. Chinampas were fertilized using lake sediments as well as human excrement. The word chinampa comes from the Nahuatl word chināmitl, meaning “square made of canes”.


CHINAMPA PROCESS 6 5 4 3

+

2

1

CHINAMPA TONS PER HECTARE (10,000 SQ. MTS)

U.S. FARM

THE CHINAMPA: AN AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM

Chinampa agriculture has existed and continues to exist in different parts of the world. This type of agriculture yields excellent results, since it uses the characteristics provided by the site which include access to water and fertile soil. This environment makes this type of agriculture independent of rainfall. Nonetheless their exploitation depends on the development of a adequate and sustainable agro-hydraulic regime. The system requires a great understanding of the local environment and the implementation of a series of techniques and specialized agricultural care. Chinampa agriculture is an excellent example of a sustainable practice since it uses its environment in its totality. Until recent years Chinamperos ( farmers who tend the chinampas) used animals from the canals such as fish, frogs and small crustaceans fro substance and supplemental income. At the same time, farm animals were fed with the left over products of the chinampa; at the same time the the manure produced by the animals was used as fertilizer, thus forcing a cyclical symbiosis to the system.

58 59

Mud Dirt Mud Organic fertilizer


CHINAMPA PROCESS

MUD IS COLLECTED FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE CANALS

MUD IS POURED OVER THE SURFACE OF AN EXISTING CHINAMPA

THE POURED MUD IS MIXED WITH OTHER TYPES OF SOIL AND MANURE


+ THE CHINAMPA: AN AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM 60 61

WHEN THE LAYER OF MUD AND MANURE DRIES UP, THE RESULTING DIRT IS DIVIDED ON 5 CENTIMETER STRIPS ON EITHER DIRECTION FORMING A GRID

ONCE THE GRID IS FORMED, ONE OR TWO SEEDS ARE PLACED ON EACH SQUARE OR CHAPIN

PLANTS GROW ON EACH SQUARE, FACILITATING ITS HARVESTING OR REPOTTING


LOCATION OF PRE-HISPANIC CHINAMPAS

T

he interconnected system of lakes allowed for the free transportation of goods across the ancient city. The production of food was primarily done on the periphery of the city and adjacent towns such as Xochimilco. The Xochimilcas were conquered by the Aztecs, therefore they were forced to pay tribute. The availability of food and easiness to transport products rapidly and efficiently encouraged the rapid growth of the empire.

Lake Texcoco

Lake Xochimilco

Chinampa areas


C

hinamperos navigate the entanglement of canals to a certain location (usually and alley) where the canal meets the street.

T

he agricultural plot of land or â&#x20AC;&#x153;Chinampaâ&#x20AC;? is nested deep within the canal system. The only way to access the chinampas is through the canal system on canoes or flat-bottomed boats called trajineras. The farmer is required to collect the harvest and carry the produce through the canal system.

+

THE CHINAMPA: AN AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM

he produce is transferred to ground transportation and taken to the local market. This step incurs an extra expense on the farmer, thus diminishing the profitability of the system.

CHINAMPA

T

CANAL

armers are required to rent a space in the market or sell their products to store owners in the market adding yet another expense to the gross cost of the product.

STREET

MARKET

F

62 63


2.08

TRAJIENRA AS A TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

T

rajineras served as the primary means of transportation during pre-hispanic times. These flat bottomed boats called “acallis” in Nahuatl resulted as a response to the shallow lakes and canals that surrounded the empire. These boats transported goods and people from one end to the empire to the other. These boats were carved from a singe piece of wood. The largest acallis had a capacity of up to 70 people. The boats are still employed today and form a great part of the cultural landscape of the lacustrine region of Mexico. Nonetheless their use has been modified for touristic reasons. It is during the era known as Porfiriato, when the introduction of the Trajinera decorated with flowers came to existence as a way to impress French royalty and visitors about the grandeur of Xochimilco. This tradition of the tour through the “floating gardens” is still pretty much present in the context of Xochimilco. Yet the trajinera has suffered many changes since its humble beginnings. Today the Trajinera is made with 2x4 and 4x4 pieces of wood. A metal roof is incorporated and a colorful plaster ornament is incorporated to the front of the boat in representation of flowers. The construction and capacity of the boats depended on the use for which they were destined

Flores Farfan, Sebastian. “Trajineras.- Delegacion Xochimilco.” Trajineras.- Delegación Xochimilco. Delegacion Xochimilco. Web. 02 May 2012. <http://www.xochimilco.df.gob.mx/turismo/trajineras.html>.


T

he morphology of the boat can be explained by the following diagram:

Arms

Bottom

+ TRAJINERA AS A TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM 64 65

Heads


2.09

DEFINING THE EDGE

THE EDGE CONDITION

E

merging from the previous studies, the idea of an edge becomes the primary organization strategy to approach the site. The way we treat the edge in a global, local and implicit context dictates de relationship to its surroundings.

Political divisions

EDGE

Natural elements Social Issues

DEFINED BY:

Built Environment

Ideological differences Imaginary lines

Intersection of elements

DEFINITION OF PLACE


EDGE DEFINED BY INTERSECTION

T

hrough the exploration of the site, it became evident that a series edges were created by the intersection of major roads and canals.

This systematic divide opened the possibility for the development of an area that is becoming increasingly removed from the realm of the agricultural system. The lower portion of the system is becoming increasingly dependant on tourism for its subsistence. Yet ironically the cannals had suffered the most damage to their integrity, thus compromising their longevity and future.

TOURISITIC CANALS

DIVIIDING STREET

STREET NETWORK

FIGURE GROUND

+

66 67

The lower canal system developed into the more touristic destination. This portion of the system houses 7 of the 9 touristic piers established as points of access to the canals.

AGRICULTURAL CANALS

THE EDGE CONDITION

This holds particularly true to the condition created by the intersection of Nuevo Leon Street and the canals. This historic route (which used to be a canal) serves as one of the primary connectivity roads, connecting several towns and small localities. This intersection systematically divided the canal system in two portions, creating a northern portion that falls within the lines prescribed as preservation area. The lower portion falls outside the protected area leaving this area vulnerable to expansion and urbanization.


EDGE DEFINED BY BRIDGING

A

different type of edge is created by the intersection of a bridge and the canals. The shallow bridges that procures the continuity of the road, has a counter effect on the canal system. Based on the proportions of the bridge, this condition serves as a harsh edge limiting the patterns of movement through water, and further fragmenting the system. It is important to note that despite the fact that the canals become unnavigable at this points of intersection, the water of the systems are still connected. This interesting phenomenon yields unique spatial conditions under those bridges, where the water forces a continuity, yet its not completely accessible.


THE EDGE CONDITION

+

68 69


EDGE DEFINED BY IMAGINARY LINES

D

ifferent imaginary lines begin to create a series of edges that need to be addressed. The first line is created by the delineation of the preservation area. This imaginary line attempts to define the preservation area, yet the line is not define by any physical or geographical characteristics. The second line is defined by the edge of the canals as they begin to define a periphery to the system. While this line has the canal as a defined edge, the line is considered imaginary due to the fact that the canals are in a continuous draining process. The third line is defined by historic routes that still manifest themselves in the way of major connectivity roads. EDGE OF PRESERVATION AREA

EDGE OF THE CANALS

MAJOR ROADS


T

Open space along the canals Combination of conditions

70 71

MATRIX OF COMBINATORY EDGE CONDITIONS

+

THE EDGE CONDITION

Chinampa agricultural area

he elements that define the spatial form begin to delineate certain conditions that result in different moments of adjacency. If one begins to understand the canal as an organizing spline through the site, a series of combinatory results begin to emerge. The result is the definition of moments of discontinuity, built VS.. un-built, special zones and definitions of areas.

Moments of discontinuity

EDGE DEFINED BY ADJACENCY


EDGE DEFINED BY OPEN SPACE

A

careful study was conducted of the open space adjacent to the canals. This process serves as means of understanding the possible moments of continuity and discontinuity on the system, and also to explore unique conditions such as moments

where there is an urban void connecting to a major street. This moments open the possibility to explore different scenarios for the continuity of the system.


=1,300 Sq. ft.

72 73

SCALAR ANALYSIS OF OPEN SPACES ALONG THE CANALS

+


2.10

SYSTEM OF NODES

T

he spatial morphology of Xochimilco can be defined by a series of nodes. these nodes are derived from points of intersection, interest, or special features on the site.

NODES AS A SYSTEM OF WAY-FINDING

The following series of diagrams begin to explain the major attractors to the site as well as moments of discontinuity, and spatial adjacencies.

NODES AND CONNECTIONS


MOMENTS OF INFILTRATION

SYSTEM OF NODES

+

74 75

ACCESS TO THE CANALS


OVERLAPPING OF IMPORTANT NODES

DEAD END ROAD ADJACENT TO WATER ACCESS FROM PRIMARY ROAD EXISTING PIER BRIDGE CONDITION ADJACENT TO LARGE BODY OF WATER


PROPOSED CONTINUOUS EDGE SYSTEM

SYSTEM OF NODES

+

76 77


3.0


DESIGN PROCESS PROCESO DE DISEテ前


3.01

DESIGN PROCESS

T

his section focuses on the exploration and investigation of edge morphologies. It aims to understand the different ways in which to treat the edge condition, and adjacent built environment. The rationale behind the exploration of edge allows the cultivation of performative morphologies, capable of adapting to the surrounding contexts while providing continuity and definition to the edge. It is with this understanding of the edge condition and through the exploration of morphologies that one can begin determining certain standards and patters to develop and apply in a systematic way. While the edge needs to be established as a harsh boundary, the edge itself can be dynamic and playful. This dynamic transition allows for the incorporation of vernacular elements and contextual for the conception of the edge.


DEFORMATION OF EDGE

PULLING

TEARING

PINCHING

STRECHING

TWISTING

80 81

PUSHING

EDGE MORPHOLOGIES

+


TRANSFORMATION OF HYPERBOLIC MORPHOLOGY

T

his element begins to play the idea of incorporating dynamic spacs into the performative edge. Some of these could be accomplished through the use of hyperbolic surfaces.

HYPERBOLIC SURFACE


EXPLORATION THROUGH MODELS

EDGE MORPHOLOGIES

+

82 83


3.02

EDGE STANDARDS

2’-4’

8’-15’

3’-6’

3’-10’

Furniture zone is incorporated adjacent to the built environment encouraging the use of the edge as a place of gathering and use for outdoor dinning and informal gatherings.

A buffer zone is incorporated to separate the furniture zone from the continuous sidewalk of the system, creating opportunities for green spaces and benches.

A continuous sidewalk becomes the organizing spine of the system creating continuity and definition to the system.

The bicycle lane becos a different system of exploring the site and provide a different mans of exploring the edge.

The bicycle lane provides a different way of exploring the site and provide a different mans of interacting with the edge.

CANAL EDGE

GREEN EDGE

BICYCLE LANE

WATER TREATMENT

BUFFER ZONE

FURNITURE ZONE

15’-20’

A new retaining wall system is incorporated allowing for fluxuations on the water levels as well as preventing erosion of the edge


IMPLEMENTATION OF ELEMENTS BASED ON OPEN SPACE ALONG THE CANAL

EDGE STANDARDS

+

0’- 10’ 10’-20’ 30’- 40’ 40’- 50’ 50’ and beyond

84 85

20’- 30’


3.03

SCHEMATIC DESIGN


EXPLORATION THROUGH MODELS

SCHEMATIC DESIGN

+

86 87


4.0 V


DESIGN SYNTHESIS SINTESIS DEL DISEテ前


DIRECTIONALITY

4.01

DESIGN APPROACH

CHINAMPA PLOTS

CONTEXTUAL MORPHOLOGIES

CHINAMPA REGION

FORCED PERSPECTIVE AND ENCLOSURE CREATED BY ADJACENT ELEMENTS

RESULTING THIRD SPACE FROM THE EXPERIENTIAL RIDE ALONG THE CANALS

BOROUGH OF XOCHIMILCO

VISUAL PERCEPTION ALONG THE CANALS


LOCATION OF PRE-HISPANIC CHINAMPAS

DESIGN APPROACH

+

90 91


OPEN SPACE ALONG THE CANAL


INCORPORATION OF WATER REMEDIATION SYSTEM

DESIGN APPROACH

+

92 93


MARSHLAND

LINEAR DEFRAGMENTATION

LINEAR PARK

WATER MARKET

4.02 MASTER PLAN


WATER REMEDIATION SYSTEM

LINEAR CONTINUITY

parks, new piers, and communal spaces. The design is based on the idea of creating a delineated boundary that is both performative and rigid in nature. By providing this continuous edge the agricultural system will not only be preserved, but also, the new created front will

incentivize economic development along the edge as well as restoring the natural processes of the system.

+

MASTER PLAN

PIER

he masterplan for the area of Xochimilco presents a series of standards and methods to be used and replicated throughout the periphery of the canal system. The edge consists of a series of continuous walkways, linear

BRIDGE

T

94 95


BUILT ENVIRONMENT

is to be directly linked to the agricultural Chinampas. creating a symbiotic relationship, where the farmers can directly distribute their products to the businesses on the “edge”, and for this products to be consumed by locals and tourist to the area. The system also provides public spaces for the development of unprogrammed occurrences much like they currently happen in the city. The cultivation of these dynamic relationships force a unique interdependence within the system imposing a self-regulating condition. Demand and supply are the forces that regulate the system.

EXTENSION OF CANAL

URBAN FARMING USING CHINAMPAS

“AHUEJOTE TREE”

Water travels from the canal into a macrophyte lagoon water purification system. This filtration process helps the system become self-cleaning. Drip canals rainwater from the adjacent rooftops into the macrophyte lagoon helping recharge the aquifer of the system and becoming less dependent on gray waters. A continuous solid band of circulation engulfs the built environment, delineating a boundary of expansion, and providing opportunities for commercial properties that use the new destination as a form of income generation. The aim of these new commercial spaces

TRANSIIONAL WALKWAY

STREET FURNITURE

adapting to the changing dynamics of the edge condition. The aim of the integration of a “new front” is to release the burden from the canals, that are currently overwhelmed with touristic and local users. This process has endangered the fragile flora and fauna of the canals. The system is composed of four elements. The marshland serves as the first system of water cleansing and filtration, providing a green continuos edge adjacent to the canal. The marshland is followed by a continuos walkway that provides a unique opportunity to experience the canal and the marshland.

MACROPHYTE LAGGOON WATER SYSTEM

CONTINUOUS WALKWAY

MARSHLAND

EXISTING CANAL

The purpose of the performative edge is to engage generative ecologies forcing the system to be both performative and dynamic. The underlying principle forces the cultivation of dynamic relationships between the built environment and the ecological characteristics of the site, thus creating a threshold between the morphology of the city and local contexts. The system aims to unleash sustainable clusters of space that become an homage to the vernacular methods of construction and ecologies, while at the same time morphing into malleable performative sites capable of

RAINWATER COLLECTOR

4.03

LINEAR DEFRAGMENTATION


LINEAR DEFRAGMENTATION

+

96 97


4.04

PIER DESIGN

STREETS DEADENING INTO CANALS

PIER LOCATIONS

Based on my site analysis, it became evident that lack of infrastructure was a key issue for the site. Many roads intersected the canals causing dead ends that corrupted the continuity of the system. The trajineras and canoes are the vernacular mode of transportation through the canals, but nowadays these modes of transportation are used primarily for touristic purposes. The touristic boats have no programmed route, rather, the length of the ride is determined by the amount of money one is willing to spend. Commonly these touristic rides last between two and four hours, meandering through the canals with the intention of “showing the site”. While the reality of the site is much more different from the bucolic idea of the place, the boat ride becomes more of a symbolic expression of the site without understanding its underlaying purpose, transportation. With this in mind, the masterplan proposes a new way of exploring the site. The idea of water transportation is re-established as a series of nodes that interact with the continuity of the edge system. The system was achieved by analyzing the nodes in which the road intersected the canal. If a road directly dead-ended into a canal, the moment becomes a pier. Every pier becomes a system similar to a bus stop in which the “trajinero” charges for the destination instead of an hourly rate. This allows for people to explore both, the vernacular presence of the site and the proposed edge condition. This new mode of exploring the site has both, a direction and purpose, resulting in a systematization of the transportation process. The design of the pier relates directly to the sense of the enclosure created by the trees and the canals. This becomes representative of the experience of the site. The proportions of the structure relate to the sizes of the boats, creating opportunities for loading and unloading people and products. This solution encourages new possible interactions between tourist and locals. Creating an implicit system interrelated system, in which the exchange of services, products and ideas give a new idea of life and experience of the site.


FOLDED GEOMETRY USING THE PROPORTIONS OF TRAJINERAS AS ORGANIZING METHOD

SECONDARY STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

INTERSECTION OF WALKWAY AND STREET ALSO INDICATE CHANGE IN MATERIALITY

PIER DESIGN

+

FRONT ELEVATION

98 99


VIEW OF PIER FROM THE CANAL


INTERIOR VIEW OF PIER

PIER DESIGN

+

100 101


4.05

LINEAR CONTINUITY

LOCATION ON MASTERPLAN


Through a careful study of the morphology of the site, several instances where found where voids in the built environment provided unique transitory moments to the canals. These moments where considered as “transitory” since they serve as a direct link between the of the city, the canals and the proposed continuos edge. These linear systems provide moments of release from the congested urban agglomeration and provide a system of infiltration, procession and transition to the “new edge”. These moments are treated with the incorporation of flexible open spaces, with the aim to cultivate dynamic

relationships between locals and tourist. In essence, the space serves as a threshold, or a third space, where qualities of vernacular methods of construction and cultivation meet the rigidity of the built environment. This precipitated adjacencies provide unique morphological spaces, where the clash and contrasts of these elements are celebrated and exposed. These conditions appear in a rhizomatic matter, scattered throughout the system, varying in width and length depending on the scalar applications mandated by the existing conditions.

The canal is extended into the site; a metaphorical reflection of the resilience of nature to the built environment. These expansion of the canal ties to the edge system of water filtration and infiltration to the subsoil, elements that are quintessential for the longevity of the site. The idea of community gardens and community micro-farms is incorporated in this transitory schema. This allows locals and tourist to experience first hand the importance of the Chinampa culture and the many benefits offered by this system, as well as providing ornamental and comestible plants.

LINEAR CONTINUITY

+

102 103

EXISTING CONDITION

EXTENSION OF CANAL

EXISTING ROAD PROPOSED WALKWAYS

INTEGRATION OF CHINAMPAS USING THEIR HISTORIC PROPORTIONS


VIEW OF PAVILION FROM THE PROPOSED EDGE


INTERIOR VIEW OF PAVILION

LINEAR CONTINUITY

+

104 105


5.0 V


FINDINGS AND SUMMARY CONCLUSIONES Y RESUMEN


5.01

FINDINGS AND SUMMARY

Throughout the exploratory process of this thesis, many

surprising findings were made and documented. First and foremost the process of investigation revealed the intricate process of urbanization of the Mexico City and more specifically, the area of Xochimilco. One can see that a series of events such as the destruction of canals, Olympic events and periods of expansion have forged the current dynamics of the city. The dynamics of expansion had lead to an accelerated integrative process, bringing to Xochimilco new ways of life and threatening the ancient way of living that has survived until today. It is important to note that the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s conflicting, yet symbiotic

relationship to water has been the catalysts for change. This complex relationship with water has had a deep impact on the morphology of the city. The resultant of this process is current day Xochimilco. An area of the city that is woven into the fabric of the city, yet it is resilient to be overtaken or let go of its historical past. This condition leads Xochimilco to be part of the collective memory of the city and a constant reminder of its lacustrine past. But under the current dynamics of expansion of the city, Xochimilcoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s glorious past as agricultural land on water will become part of the history of the city.

It is with this understanding that this thesis attempts to create awareness of the importance of Xochimilco, its historical past and threats to the future. This thesis proposes a systematic of way of dealing with the urban sprawl by redefining the edge of expansion and proposing a performative edge that becomes a threshold between the agricultural land and urbanized territory. By proposing a series of standards and systems, this thesis attempts to create a place where old Xochimilco meets the new. Creating within itself a third space, understanding the past, present, and future of the site.


Findings and summary 108 109

` Yet it is important to note that the adaptation and implementation of this proposal depends heavily on the involvement of local authorities, residents, private investors and the Mexican federal government to create awareness about the importance of the site and need for preservation. While I understand that the implementation of such system and coming together of diverse groups is far fetched, the purpose lays on creating interest and instill in people the need to preserve Xochimilco. Creating awareness of the problems faced by Xochimilco is of extreme importance to procure its conservation and give Xochimilco a brighter future.

+


REFERENCES

“Bosquejo Histórico Del Desagüe De La Ciudad De México.” Www.archivohistoricodelagua.info/mx. Archivo Nacional Del Agua, 4 Nov. 2011. Web. 10 Feb. 2012. <http://archivohistoricodelagua.info/mx>. “Agua Y Diversidad Cultural En Mexico.” Unesco.org. Ed. Israel Sandre Osorio and Daniel Murillo. Programa Hidrológico Internacional (PHI) De La Oficina Regional De Ciencia Para América Latina Y El Caribe De La Organización De Las Naciones Unidas Para La Educación, La Ciencia Y La Cultura (UNESCO)., 2008. Web. <http://www.unesco.org.uy/phi>. Delgadillo Planco, Victor M. “PATRIMONIO URBANO Y TURISMO CULTURAL EN LA CIUDAD DE MÉXICO: LAS CHINAMPAS DE XOCHIMILCO Y EL CENTRO HISTÓRICO.” Andamios 6.12 (2009): 69+. Print. Prontuario De Información Geográfica Delegacional De Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos Xochimilco, Distrito Federal. Mexico City: INEGI. PDF. Protección Y Ordenación Ecologica En La Delegación Xochimilco. Mexico City: Secretaria De Planeación, 1965. PDF. Berman, Ila, and Khafif Mona. El. URBANbuild: Local Global. Richmond, CA: Distribution, William Stout Pub., 2008. Print. Gang, Jeanne, Reuben P. Keller, and Kari Lydersen. Reverse Effect: Renewing Chicago’s Waterways. Chicago, IL: Studio Gang Architects, 2011. Print. Mayne, Thom, Stan Allen, and Thom Mayne. Combinatory Urbanism: The Complex Behavior of Collective Form. Culver City, CA: Stray Dog Café, 2011. Print. Mostafavi, Mohsen, and Gareth Doherty. Ecological Urbanism. Baden, Switzerland: Lars Müller, 2010. Print. Hölzer, Christoph, and Annette Wiethüchter. Riverscapes: Designing Urban Embankments. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2008. Print. Burdett, Ricky. The Endless City: [the Urban Age Project by the London School of Economics and Deutsche Bank’s Alfred Herrhausen Society; 10% Lived in Cities in 1900; 50% Is Living in Cities in 2007; 75% Will Be Living in Cities in 2050]. London: Phaidon, 2007. Print. Lang, Robert. Edgeless Cities: Exploring the Elusive Metropolis. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 2003. Print. Leach, Neil. Rethinking Architecture: A Reader in Cultural Theory. New York: Routledge, 1997. Print. González, Pozo Alberto. Las Chinampas De Xochimilco Al Despuntar El Siglo XXI: Inicio De Su Catalogación. México, D.F.: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, 2010. Print. Ayala, Alonso Enrique. Habitar La Casa: Historia, Actualidad Y Prospectiva. México, D.F.: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, 2010. Print. Barreiro-Guemes, María Teresa. Ecología Del Humedal De San Pedro Tláhuac: : Un Sistema Lacustre Del Valle De México. México, 1997. Print. Molina Restrepo, Ricardo. Estudio De Pre-inversion Mediante El Aprovechamiento Agro-turistico De Bajo Impacto Del Ex-ejido De Xochimilco. Thesis. Universidad Nacional Aútonoma De Mexico, 2009. Print. Leach, Neil. Rethinking Architecture: A Reader in Cultural Theory. New York: Routledge, 1997. Print. Soja, Edward. Thirdspace: Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real and Imagined Spaces. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1996. Bandlow, R. J. “Theories of Learning, 4th Edition. By Ernest R. Hilgard and Gordon H. Bower. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975.” NASSP Bulletin 60.400 (1976): 134. Print. Furuto , Alison . “Green River Brateevo / OKRA Landscape Architects” 04 Nov 2011. ArchDaily. Accessed 02 May 2012. <http://www.archdaily.com/180699> “MRDC | Stoss Landscape Urbanism: STREAMLINES « World Landscape Architecture â€ì Landscape Architecture Webzine.” MRDC. Web. 02 May 2012. <http://worldlandscapearchitect.com/mrdc-stoss-landscape-urbanism-streamlines/>.


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http://www.mexicomaxico.org/Viga/images/VigaInvitA.jpg http://media.photobucket.com/image/canal%20de%20la%20viga/yoatecutli/canal_viga1910.jpg Instituto Nacional de Geografia e Informatica. http://www.inegi.org.mx/Sistemas/temasV2/Default.aspx?s=est&c=17484 “Aztec Society.” Aztec Society. Web. 06 May 2012. <http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/aztec-society.htm>. Flores Farfan, Sebastian. “Trajineras.- Delegación Xochimilco.” Trajineras.- Delegación Xochimilco. Delegación Xochimilco. Web. 02 May 2012. <http://www.xochimilco.df.gob.mx/turismo/ trajineras.html>. “MEXICO MAXICO, Con M De México, Tenochtitlan, Chichén Itzá, Arbol Del Tule, Teotihuacan, Puebla, Monterrey, Córdoba, Dádivas Al Mundo.” MEXICO MAXICO, Con M De México, Tenochtitlan, Chichén Itzá, Arbol Del Tule, Teotihuacan, Puebla, Monterrey, Córdoba, Dádivas Al Mundo. Web. 06 May 2012. <http://www.mexicomaxico.org/>.

Xochimilco: Redefining the edge between urbanized territory and agricultural land  

This thesis addresses the combined urban renewal and protection of the agricultural land in the borough of Xochimilco in Mexico City. It foc...

Xochimilco: Redefining the edge between urbanized territory and agricultural land  

This thesis addresses the combined urban renewal and protection of the agricultural land in the borough of Xochimilco in Mexico City. It foc...

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