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The Train and The City

Ricardo Oliveira


Presentation

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reetings, this mini atlas was conceived during the Spring semester of 2014 as a inal project for the Cartography and Computer Mapping class at the University of Colorado – Denver taught by Dr. Peter Anthamatten. The main goal, and my personal desire, is that this little atlas may educate the reader about the history of the transit over rails in the city of São Paulo. So, please relax and let’s take this ride together.

Created by: Ricardo Oliveira


Sumary he City - 4 he Network - 6 Section I - METRĂ” Blue - 8 Red- 9 Green - 10 Lilac - 11 Yellow - 12 Section II - CPTM Ruby- 14 Coral - 15 Turquoise - 16 Emerald - 17 Sapphire - 18 Diamond - 19 Conclusion - 20


he city

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達o Paulo is the third largest city in Latin America, it is a city of sound, people, culture and also a city of transportation. It will never be an easy task to move eleven millions of people and cargo in a city that carries an urbanization history truly remarkable, that might be one of the reasons of why this city carries such a big fame of being one of the worst cities in terms of urban mobility in Brazil, even though the specialized literature will point cities with even worse mobility. People move for different reasons, for leisure or for work. The act of move from point A to point B may well become an arduous journey when other millions of people are also trying to move along. S達o Paulo has one the biggest vehicle leet in the country with more than 7 million vehicles on the street which 5 million are automobiles. Every day during morning peak hours the major city arterials get into a trafic lock only because people are trying to get to work, miles and miles of trafic jam become a regular sight in the city, but the question is: Is there any alternative? In the urban daily life of S達o Paulo public transportation plays a vital role. With extensive lines of bus, light rail and subway the whole network constantly seeks ways to keep the city moving. The intent of this atlas is to show part of this picture, focusing on the light rail and subway systems the reader will travel though these lines as it reads about the history and present state of these magniicent feats of engineering, human labor, and ambition.

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he network

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he public transportation over rails in the city of São Paulo is characterized primarily by two companies, irst the Metrô which is responsible by the subway system, and second the CPTM or Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos in charge of the surface trains. Each of these companies has a speciic role in the larger set of responsibilities, for instance the CPTM lines are much more extensive than the Metro lines going beyond the city’s boundaries. Something that has to be said about this atlas is that the main focus point here is the city of São Paulo, therefore even though the CPTM lines are also present in other cities of the metropolitan region of São Paulo such extensions were clipped out in order to make the maps more concise, it is indeed possible though that in a near future the themes explored here will in fact be expanded and other cities will be add into the equation.

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Section I

HISTORY

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Blue line

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he Blue line was the irst line to be constructed not only in the city of São Paulo but also in Brazil. The construction began in 1968 with the irst stretch from Jabaquara to Vila Mariana, the rationale behind this path was to serve a central corridor in the city where public transportation over rails was absent, though some rail lines from the previous century were being used as passenger lines but more on this on the CPTM’s section, also trafic in the central core became another main reason of why a modern transit system was so required at that point. The irst stretch was inaugurated in September 14 of 1974, and in the next year the line inally reached the downtown when the second stretch from Vila Mariana to Liberdade and the third stretch from Liberdade to Santana were completed. During the 1980’s an extension were planned to take the line from Santana e expand its reach farther north until the district of Jaçanã where and electric bus would take passengers the São Paulo International Airport in the nearby city of Guarulhos. Even though the expansion never happened on its full extension in 1998 three more stations and 3,5 kilometers of line were added into the line’s north end. Currently the Blue line presents 20,2 kilometers of rails and 23 stations. Connecting one of the most important corridors in the city.

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Red line

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he Red Line began its construction in 1975, and at that time the line would be called East – West. The original idea was to have a path where most of the line would be at the surface, this approach allowed to decrease the project costs and therefore to extend the whole line. The Red Line connects with the Blue Line at the Sé station, the rationale behind the this was to connect the growing demand at the east region of the city. The city experienced in the following year the impact of this line on its landscape, more than 1,3 thousand buildings were expropriated and destroyed which fuel the re-urbanization in the city of São Paulo. In 1979 the Red Lines starts to operate between the stations Sé and Brás. Bresser Mooca Station opened in

1980 and the next couple stations, Belém and Tatuapé, were inaugurated on the next year. Between 1982 and 1983 three new stations were opened at the western portion of the line. Stations Carrão and Penha opened in 1986 at the eastern side, at this time the overall length of the line was 11,6 km. In 1986 all other 7 seven stations were completed and started to operate, now the Red Line can operate on its full length and capacity. On its irst year of operation the lux of passengers on the peak hours are one the highest in the world, surpassing 6,5 thousand people per hour on each direction. This contributed to the new record for the system in 1988, 2 million of passengers were using the system daily and the whole sum of passengers rose to the mark of 4 billion.

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Green line

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n 1987 the construction of what would be the future Green Line began. This specific line had some unique challenges as is would pass underneath some of the major city’s arterials, therefore most of the stations in this line are underground stations in order to minimize the impact at surface. In 1991 the stretch between Paraíso and Consolação were delivered. On the next year the northern section between Consolação and Clínicas and the southerm station Ana Rosa began to operate. In 2004 began the construction of the southeast expansion, two years later station Chácara Kablin and Imigrantes started to operate, this new stretch offers service to more than 30 thousand new daily passengers. The station Alto do Ipiranga started to operate in 2007, a historical year for the Metrô where a record amount of money was given to the company in order to expand the network and to renew its fleet. In the year of 2010 the last three stations, Sacomã, Tamanduateí e Vila Prudente were concluded and started to operate. The complete extension of the Green Line now is 14,7 kilometers.

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Lilac line

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n 1998 the construction of the Lilac Line was initiated by CPTM – Companhia Paulista de Trems Metropolitano, the goal was to bring mass transit to a poor region but densely populated. In 2002 Metrô signs an agreement that put the company in charge of the line, later in the same year the line starts to operate its 8,4 km for tests. In 2003 the line opened and initiated its operations between 5 AM and 11 PM, also at the line’s irst station Capão Redondo six new bus lines were inaugurated extending the line’s reach. The future project for the line will extend it to the Green Line and Blue Line, connecting this way important regions of the city.

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Yellow line

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he plan for the Yellow Line began in the 1940s and was present in all studies for deployment of the Metrô since then. The layout was consolidated in 1968 when the modern plan for the subway system was created. The original plan would take the Yellow Line from the far west, cross São Paulo’s central core and inally reach the Red Line. This idea was discarded based on other transportation decisions being played at different moments. The latest layout would make the Yellow Line a vertex of the network at the southwest part of São Paulo. In the 2002 the Metrô signs a loam from the World Bank

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in the amount of 209 million of dollars for the construction of the Yellow Line, two years later the construction began. The irst stations to be delivered are Paulsita and Faria Lima in 2010. The Pinheiros station, built in 1957 and rebuilt in 1981 by the CPTM, was expanded and delivered in 2011 by the Metrô in order to integrate the Emerald Line with the Yellow Line. Even though the line’s construction is under the Metrô responsibility, the line will be administered by the ViaQuatro company under a public-private contract that will allow the company to maintain and operate it for a period of thirty years, this administrative structure is completely new in Brazil.


Section II

HISTORY

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Ruby line

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he Ruby Line is the bisggest line in the CPTM network, the line was built by the extinct São Paulo Railway company, which became Estrada de Ferro Santos-Jundiaí, the line was inaugurated in 1867 and is consider to be one the main milestones in the development of São Paulo. On the early twentieth century given the many station along the line, São Paulo Railway started to operate suburban trains up to Pirituba station. Even though the line would be electriied during the 1940s, wooden cars being pulled by locomotives continued as the main vehicle until 1957 when the Estrada de Ferro Santos - Jundiaí acquired the irst set of electric trains. In 1975 the line would be taken under the administration of the RFFSA - Rede Ferreoviária Federal, a state owned and controlled company that was in charge of several rail lines across Brazil, but in 1987 another change and the line went under the control of the CBTU – Companhia Brasileira de Trens Urbanos. Both of the last companies were controlled by the federal government but in 1994 the modern CPTM – Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos was founded under the control of the state of São Paulo.

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Coral line

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he Coral Line had its beginning in 1869 by the hands of Estrada de Ferro São Paulo – Rio but eleven years later the railroad was incorporated by the Estrada de Ferro Central do Brasil. This line followed the same changes as the Ruby Line, being transferred to RFFSA then to the CBTU and finally in 1994 going under the control of the CPTM. In 2000 the CPTM deactivated all the station between Brás and Tatuapé and between Tatuabé and Guaianases. The Guaianases station was rebuilt and along this section of line, now with three new tunnels, also Itaquera, Don Bosco and José Bonifácio were built . Given the wide distance between the Tatuapé station and the Itaquera station this section of the line is called East Express.

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Turquoise line

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he Tuquoise Line history is very similar to the other lines, being constructed by the extinct São Paulo Railway and changing hands several times over the years until finally, in 1994, going to the CPTM. With the creation of the Tamanduateí station the Turquoise Line became an important connection point for those passengers using the Green Line coming from the southeast region of São Paulo and going to the central core region. This line also made possible to passengers to reach the Metrô’s Red Line and CPTM’s Coral and Sapphire Lines.

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Emerald line

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his line was built by company Estrada de Ferro Sorocabana in 1957 and in 1971 the line was incorporated by the FEPASA – Ferrovia Paulista S.A. Between the end of the 1970s and 1981 the service was interrupted for improvement construction. The CPTM took the line also in 1994 and in 1998 started a process of restructuring building seven new stations. The Pinheiros station that connects with the Emerald Line with the Yellow Line was built by the Estrada de Ferro Sorocabana in 1957, and under the FEPASA administration the station was reconstructed and modernized in 1981, and in 2011 another expansion was built in order to integrate the new Metrô’s Yellow Line.

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Sapphire line

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n 1934 the company Central do Brasil inaugurated the Sapphire Line, even though it was called as Variante Póa at that time. Even on its beginning the line offered suburban service to regions far from São Paulo’s central core. In 1975 the line went under the RFFSA’s control, after the change from the RFFSA to the CBTU the line went finally to the hands of the CPTM. The main objective now for the CPTM is to restore the overall line and to build new stations. In 2008 the USP Leste was inaugurated, this station serves the new campus of the University of São Paulo in the region.

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Diamond line

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s many of other CPTM’s lines the Diamond Line was inherited from a railway company, in this case the line was irst built and operated by the Estrada de Ferro Sorocabana in 1857, the duty of this line was to connect the city of Sorocaba on the interior of the state to the city of São Paulo. The Julio Prestes station served as hub where coffee was brought from the interior and transfer to the Luz station, since both are quite close, and them from the Luz station the coffee was taken to the port of Santos. This connection was very

important to São Paulo’s urban and economic development during the coffee period. Also, cities along of this line started to appear and grown caused mainly because of the coffee commerce, this urban expansion helped to create the irst suburban services in 1934. During the 1940s and 1950s the line was electriied, after the decline of the coffee based economy in the second half of the twentieth century the line lost its importance as a commodity pipeline but the importance as a transit line never stopped growing.

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Conclusion

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he irst train in the Blue Line began to operate in 1974, exact 40 years ago, since then the network never stopped to follow São Paulo’s growth. And the most recent numbers show how important the system became to the system. The Red Line alone transports more than 10% of the entire city’s population. This is nearly 25% percent of the entire Colorado’s Front Range being transported every business day. The lines with most ridership are the Blue, Red and Coral Lines which show us how the important the central core of the city is. What we see in São Paulo is a constant struggle between forces, between the central core and its periphery. As we could see in the past some of the lines goes way back to the golden times of coffee based economy, but now those tracks transport people, linking the third biggest city in Latin America in an attempt to defy the odds and help São Paulo to achieve its goals.

2012 Daily Passengers

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The Train and the City  

A mini atlas about the history of the transit over rails in the city of São Paulo.

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