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DGETI CENTRO DE BACHILLERATO TECNOLÓGICO industrial y de servicios N° 84

FOLLETO DE: INGLÉS IV

LA PIEDAD, MICHOACÁN.

FEBRERO 2013


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DGETI CENTRO DE BACHILLERATO TECNOLÓGICO industrial y de servicios N° 84

FOLLETO DE: INGLÉS IV REALIZADO DE ACUERDO CON EL PROGRAMA DE ESTUDIOS DE LA REFORMA CURRICULAR DEL BACHILLERATO TECNOLÓGICO ELABORADO POR: M.A. RICARDO CHÁVEZ MELÉNDEZ

LA PIEDAD, MICHOACÁN.

FEBRERO 2013


INDICE INTRODUCCIÓN......................................................................................................................... i FUNDAMENTO .......................................................................................................................... ii OBJETIVOS .............................................................................................................................. iii UNIDAD I ................................................................................................................................. 1 Todas las estructuras gramaticales vistas en los semestres anteriores (*). ................................ 2 Objetivo 1.1 Presente del verbo “To be” (present of “To be”)* ............................................... 2 Objetivo 1.2 Tiempo presente simple (simple present tense)* ................................................ 4 Objetivo 1.3 Tiempo presente continuo (present continuous tense)* ...................................... 6 Objetivo 1.4 Pasado del verbo “To be” (past of “To be”)* ...................................................... 7 Objetivo 1.5 Tiempo pasado simple (simple past tense)* ....................................................... 8 Objetivo 1.6 Tiempo pasado continuo (past continuous tense)*............................................ 10 Vocabulario y Ejercicios ........................................................................................................ 11 Sitios web recomendados ..................................................................................................... 12 UNIDAD II .............................................................................................................................. 13 Objetivo 2.1 Futuro “Will” (future with “Will”)* .................................................................... 14 Objetivo 2.2 Futuro idiomatico “going to” (future with “going to”)* ....................................... 16 Objetivo 2.3 “Be able to” (el pospretérito de “can”)*............................................................ 17 Objetivo 2.4 Primer condicional (First conditional)* .............................................................. 18 Objetivo 2.5 Tiempo presente perfecto (present perfect tense)* ........................................... 19 Objetivo 2.6 Tiempo pasado perfecto (past perfect tense) .................................................... 20 READING: THE PAST PERFECT TENSE. ................................................................................. 22 Vocabulario y Ejercicios ........................................................................................................ 23 Sitios web recomendados ..................................................................................................... 24 UNIDAD III ............................................................................................................................. 25 Objetivo 3.1 Voz pasiva en presente (passive voice in present) ............................................. 26 Objetivo 3.2 Voz pasiva en pasado (passive voice in past) .................................................... 29 Objetivo 3.3 Tag questions (short questions)....................................................................... 33 Objetivo 3.4 Segundo Condicional (present unreal conditional: would, could, might). ............. 37 Objetivo 3.5 Tercer condicional (past unreal conditional) ...................................................... 40 Objetivo 3.6 Cláusulas o proposiciones relativas, definidas y no definidas (who, whom, whose, what, which, that) ............................................................................................................... 42 Vocabulario y Ejercicios ........................................................................................................ 48 Sitios web recomendados ..................................................................................................... 49 CONCLUSIONES ...................................................................................................................... 50 GLOSARIO .............................................................................................................................. 51 BIBLIOGRAFIA ........................................................................................................................ 53 ANEXOS ................................................................................................................................. 54 1 LISTA DE VERBOS REGULARES ....................................................................................... 54 2 LISTA DE VERBOS IRREGULARES ................................................................................... 60


INTRODUCCIÓN

El psicólogo Odgen y el pedagogo Richards, ambos británicos, publicaron “Inglés Básico” al final de la década de 1920, siendo esta publicación una simplificación del inglés. Este se utiliza principalmente en la enseñanza del idioma inglés como una segunda lengua, para que de esta manera el inglés se convirtiera en la lengua internacional. La internacionalización del idioma Inglés es un hecho que no se puede negar y mucho menos ignorar, esto no tiene ni un año ni una década que ha empezado. Gracias a la ayuda de los medios masivos de comunicación como la radio y la TV, este idioma ha penetrado en cada rincón de la tierra, pero principalmente el cine (Hollywood) con toda su magia ha impactado a niños y adultos, a hombres y mujeres, donde el idioma Inglés es el que prevalece. Ahora con la TV satelital o por cable, se tienen un sin fin de canales, donde la mayor parte de los programas también están en idioma Inglés. Esto enfatiza que se debe conocer y dominar este idioma. La sociedad mexicana esta sufriendo una transformación, la globalización esta aquí, el TLC con Estados Unidos de Norteamérica y Canadá nos exige el dominio del idioma Inglés, y así estar en iguales condiciones al competir en los mercados laborales. En el 2006 se abrirán las fronteras con estos dos países para el libre transito de trabajadores, así que si algún mexicano, canadiense y estadounidense compiten por el mismo empleo, el que sea bilingüe de los tres tiene mayores oportunidades conseguir el empleo. Para obtener información actualizada, se recurre a los libros, donde la mayor parte de la bibliografía esta en inglés, o a la Internet donde también las paginas Web y los documentos electrónicos están en inglés. La Internet es otra historia, por ella se ofrecen cursos a distancia para aprender el idioma Inglés, traductores, software con corrección de pronunciación, etc., un sin fin de herramientas para llegar al dominio del idioma Inglés. La Internet es una prueba que la globalización esta aquí, y que nos ratifica que el idioma Ingles es indispensable, ya que es el idioma universal. La necesidad de preparar a los estudiantes de bachillerato en el dominio del idioma Inglés se ve ratifica con LA REFORMA CURRICULAR DEL BACHILLERATO TECNOLÓGICO, donde se ampliaron los semestres de dos a cinco. Dando la oportunidad al estudiante de dominar el idioma Inglés es sus cuatro formas (hablar, escuchar, escribir y leer) al terminar su bachillerato; y así poder competir en un mercado laboral cada vez más competitivo.

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FUNDAMENTO

La necesidad de tener una base gramatical para la enseñanza del idioma ingles y el contar con una guía actualizada de acuerdo al PROGRAMA DE ESTUDIOS DE LA REFORMA CURRICULAR DEL BACHILLERATO TECNOLÓGICO DE INGLÉS IV en el C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84 de la Piedad Michoacán, ha motivado a la creación de este folleto. Asimismo, el contar con un estándar para los profesores de la academia de inglés como una base para el aprendizaje significativo, coadyuva a la unificación de criterios, formas de evaluación y objetivos de la misma academia. También el tener un folleto con el cual el alumno aprenda la gramática incluida en EL PROGRAMA DE ESTUDIOS DE INGLÉS IV, además del vocabulario y algunas estrategias de lectura para facilitar la comprensión de textos en el idioma Inglés, representa una herramienta fundamental para reforzar el conocimiento factico en el alumno.

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OBJETIVOS

El objetivo general de este folleto es el de contar con una guía practica de acuerdo al PROGRAMA DE ESTUDIOS DE LA REFORMA CURRICULAR DEL BACHILLERATO TECNOLÓGICO DE INGLÉS IV.

El presente folleto tiene como objetivos específicos: 1.

Contar con una guía estándar del contenido del PROGRAMA DE ESTUDIOS DE INGLÉS IV para los profesores de la academia de ingles del CBTIS Nº 84.

2.

Proporcionar el conocimiento básico gramatical de los conceptos fundamentales del PROGRAMAS DE ESTUDIO DE LA REFORMA CURRICULAR DEL BACHILLERATO TECNOLÓGICO al alumno.

3.

Facilitar al alumno el programa desarrollado así como las fuentes de información donde se encuentran los conceptos incluidos en los temas fundamentales: APROVECHAMIENTO Y PRESERVACION DE RECURSOS, y SOCIEDAD DEL CONOCIMIENTO.

4.

Ayudar al profesor en la labor de facilitador, para que de esta forma el alumno construya su propio conocimiento.

5.

Establecer un estrecho y fuerte vínculo entre maestro – estudiante, y eliminar cualquier barrera existente para una optima comunicación entre ambos, y de esta manera asegurar que el aprendizaje significativo sea efectivo.

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M.A. RICARDO CHÁVEZ MELÉNDEZ

INGLÉS IV

UNIDAD I

OBJETIVO: En la presente unidad el alumno repasará las nociones gramaticales del Presente del verbo “To be”, “Tiempo presente simple”, “Tiempo presente continuo”, “Pasado del verbo” “To be”, “Tiempo pasado simple” y “Tiempo pasado continuo”, en sus 3 formas (afirmativo, negativo e interrogativo).

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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INGLÉS IV

Todas las estructuras gramaticales vistas en los semestres anteriores (*). Objetivo 1.1

Presente del verbo “To be” (“To be” in present)*

“To be” in present have 3 forms: Am, Is, Are. (Long form) I YOU HE SHE IT WE THEY

AM ARE IS IS IS ARE ARE

(YO SOY, YO ESTOY) (TU ERES, TU ESTAS; USTEDES SON, USTEDES ESTAN) (EL ES, EL ESTA) (ELLA ES, ELLA ESTA) (ES, ESTA; COSA O ANIMAL) (NOSOTROS SOMOS, NOSOTROS ESTAMOS) (ELLOSAS SON, ELLOSAS ESTAN)

(Contracted form)

(Negative contracted form of “To Be”)

I’M YOU’RE HE’S SHE’S IT’S WE’RE THEY’RE

I’M NOT YOU AREN’T HE ISN’T SHE ISN’T IT ISN’T WE AREN’T THEY AREN’T

Statements: Affirmative, negative and interrogative forms. Affirmative: Negative: Interrogative:

(Subject / Noun) + (To Be) + (complement). (Subject / Noun) + (To Be) + (not) + (complement). (To Be) + (subject / Noun) + (complement)?

EXAMPLES:

Affirmative: Negative: Interrogative:

The teacher is over there. The teacher is not over there. Is the teacher over there?

Affirmative: Negative: Interrogative: Affirmative: Negative: Interrogative:

I am a high school student. I am not a high school student. Am I a high school student? You are my best classmate. You are not my best classmate. Are you my best classmate?

Yes/no questions ask for information that can be answered by yes or no. In a yes/no question, the verb comes before the subject. C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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M.A. RICARDO CHÁVEZ MELÉNDEZ

Affirmative Questions Questions Am I early? Is he Japanese? Is she a scientist? Is it late? Are you students? Are those boys twins?

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

INGLÉS IV

Am I late? Are you from Japan? Is it cold?

affirmative answers Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes,

you are. he is. she is. it is. we are. they are.

Affirmative

Negative

negative answers

or

Yes, you are. Yes, I am. Yes, it is. No, No, No, No, No, No,

you're not. he's not. she's not. it's not. we're not. they're not.

No, you aren't. No, I'm not. No, it isn't. No, No, No, No, No, No,

you aren't. he isn't. she isn't. it isn't. we aren't. they aren't.

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Objetivo 1.2

INGLÉS IV

Tiempo presente simple (Simple present tense)*

Simple Present Tense (Affirmative, negative and interrogative forms, short answer yes/no).

Statements: Affirmative, negative and interrogative forms. Affirmative: Negative: Interrogative:

(Subject / Noun) + (Verb) + (complement). (Subject / Noun) + (Do / Does) + (not) + (Verb) + (complement). (Do / Does) + (subject / Noun) + (Verb) + (complement)?

Affirmative and Negative Statements. The simple present tense is used to describe everyday activities. It is also used to express opinions and to make general statements of fact. With some verbs, the simple present shows an existing condition (something that is happening now). The chart below gives some examples.

Everyday Activities Opinions

examples She wears jeans to class. Betty and Ellen often study together. I don't like the instructor. He doesn't teach math very well.

Statements Lu speaks three languages. of Fact Mr. Michaels teaches math and advises students.

notes An object often follows the verb. In negative statements, do or does comes before not. The main verb has no -s ending. In third-person singular subjects, the verb ends in -s. (See Spelling Rules and Pronunciation Note.)

Existing I hear music. Some other verbs that describe an Conditions He doesn't understand your question. existing condition: like, want, seem, We need a break.

know, and believe.

Spelling Rules for –s Ending For the third-person singular verb form, follow these spelling rules: 1. If the simple form of a verb ends in –y after a consonant, change the y to i and add –es. examples: carry / carries try / tries 2. If the simple form of a verb ends in –s, -z, -sh, -ch, -x, or –o (after a consonant), add -es. examples: teach / teaches pass / passes go / goes 3. There are two irregular verb forms. be / is have / has C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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INGLÉS IV

4. In all other cases, add -s to the simple form. examples: wear / wears work / works pay / pays Pronunciation Note The -s ending is pronounced three ways, according to the ending of the verb: 1. /iz/ after -ch, -sh, -s, -x, and -z endings

examples: teaches, washes, kisses, boxes, buzzes 2. /s/ after voiceless endings: p, t, k, or f

examples: stops, hits, looks, laughs 3. /z/ after voiced consonant endings

examples: calls, listens, plays, sounds, runs Yes / No Questions and Short Answers In simple present yes/no questions, a form of the verb do comes before the subject with verbs other than be. Use does with he, she, it, and do with I, you, we, they. The main verb has no -s ending. A form of do appears in short answers. examples possible answers Affirmative Negative Do I turn here? Yes, you do. No, you don't. Does he do good work?* Yes, he does. No, he doesn't. Affirmative Does she study a lot? Yes, she does. No, she doesn't. Questions Does it work? Yes, it does. No, it doesn't. Do we need our umbrellas? Yes, you do. No, you don't. Do you have change for a dollar? Yes, I do. No, I don't. Do they know the address? Yes, they do. No, they don't. *When do is the main verb, a form of do appears twice.

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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Objetivo 1.3

INGLÉS IV

Tiempo presente continuo (Present continuous tense)* THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Statements: Affirmative, negative and interrogative forms. Affirmative: Negative: Interrogative:

(Subject / Noun) + (To Be) + (verb --► ing) + (complement). (Subject / Noun) + (To Be) + (not) + (Verb --► ing) + (complement). (To Be) + (subject / Noun) + (Verb --► ing) + (complement)?

“To be” in present have 3 forms (AM, IS, ARE). I YOU HE SHE IT WE THEY

AM ARE IS IS IS ARE ARE

(YO SOY, YO ESTOY) (TU ERES, TU ESTAS; USTEDES SON, USTEDES ESTAN) (EL ES, EL ESTA) (ELLA ES, ELLA ESTA) (ES, ESTA; COSA O ANIMAL) (NOSOTROS SOMOS, NOSOTROS ESTAMOS) (ELLOSAS SON, ELLOSAS ESTAN) Spelling Rules for –ing Verbs

1. If the simple form ends in silent -e after a consonant, drop the -e and add -ing. Examples: have / having sneeze / sneezing 2. If the simple form ends in -ie, change the -ie to y and add -ing. Examples: die / dying untie / untying 3. If the simple form has one syllable and ends in one consonant after one vowel, double the last consonant (except x) and add –ing. Examples: get / getting run / running

Note: The letters w and y at the end of a word are considered vowels, not consonants. Examples: row / rowing play / playing 4. If the simple form ends in an accented (stressed) syllable, follow the rule above for one final consonant after one vowel. Example: begin / beginning

Note: If the last syllable is not accented, just add -ing. Example: happen / happening 5. For all other verbs add -ing to the simple form. Examples: walk / walking eat / eating C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

carry / carrying 6


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Objetivo 1.4

INGLÉS IV

Pasado del verbo “To be” (“To be” in past)* TO BE

Present (“Ser o Estar”) Is, Am, Are

Past (“Era o Estaba”) was, were Was not = wasn’t Were not = weren’t

Affirmative, negative and interrogative statements.

AFF. (Subject / Noun) + (Was/Were) + (complement). NEG. (Subject / Noun) + (Was/Were) + (not) + (complement). INT. (Was/Were) + (Subject / Noun) + (complement)? Examples:

AFF. NEG. INT.

Children were intelligent in the elementary school. Children were not intelligent in the elementary school. Were children intelligent in the elementary school?

AFF. NEG. INT.

Cat was under the table last night. Cat was not under the table last night. Was cat under the table last night?

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

I WAS YOU WERE HE WAS SHE WAS IT WAS WE WERE THEY WERE

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Objetivo 1.5

INGLÉS IV

Tiempo pasado simple (Simple past tense)* Present Do Do not = Don’t

(Auxiliary)

Past Did Did not = Didn’t

Affirmative, negative and interrogative statements.

AFF. (Subject / Noun) + (Verb in past) + (complement). NEG. (Subject / Noun) + (Did) + (not) + (Verb in present) + (complement). INT. (Did) + (Subject / Noun) + (Verb in present) + (complement)? REGULAR VERBS: To write a verb in past , only add at the end “ed”. (WORK – WORKED) IRREGULAR VERBS: When these verbs are written in past tense, they change all their grammatical structure. (GO – WENT) Statements with Regular Verbs Use the simple past tense to talk about completed past events and activities. The chart below gives some examples.

Affirmative

Negative

I usually helped in the kitchen. My mother knitted and sewed. We listened to music and discussed current events. The children played games. My father decided we didn't need television. We didn't order pizza from a restaurant. Your family didn't own a computer. My parents didn't talk much.

For negative past tense verbs, use didn’t before the simple form of the main verb.

Spelling Rules for -ed Endings 1. If the simple form of a verb ends in –y after a consonant, change the -y to i and add -ed. examples: try / tried carry / carried knit / knitted 2. If the simple form of a verb of one syllable ends in one consonant after a vowel, double the last consonant (except x) and add -ed. examples: plan / planned stop / stopped Note: The letters w and y at the end of words are vowels, not consonants. examples: row / rowed play / played 3. If the simple form of a verb ends in an accented (stressed) syllable, follow the rule above for C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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INGLÉS IV

one final consonant after one vowel.

examples: permit / permitted

prefer / preferred

4. If the simple form of a verb ends in -e, add only -d. examples: tie / tied change / changed 5. Add -ed to the simple form of all other regular verbs. examples: want / wanted ask / asked belong / belonged Pronunciation Note The -ed ending is pronounced three ways, according to the end of the verb: .  /ed/ after d, and t endings examples: existed, knitted, needed, wanted .  /t/ after voiceless endings examples: cooked, helped, talked, washed, watched  /d/ after voiced endings examples: argued, danced, listened, lived, played, sewed

Coffee: It's Not Just for Breakfast Anymore...

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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Objetivo 1.6

INGLÉS IV

Tiempo pasado continuo (Past continuous tense)* THE PAST CONTINOUS TENSE

AFFIRMATIVE, NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE FORMS:

AFF. (Subject / Noun) + (Was / Were) + (Verb → ing) + (Complement). NEG. (Subject / Noun) + (Was / Were) + (not) + (Verb → ing) + (Complement). INT. (Was / Were) + (Subject / Noun) + (Verb → ing) + (Complement)? The past continuous tense describes activities in progress (happening) at a specific time or during a period of time in the past. It consists of a past form of the verb be before the -ing form of a verb. I was standing in line. Use contractions with forms of be + The guard was sitting in a chair. not. Statements He wasn't paying attention. The tellers weren't screaming. Yes/No Was the child crying? In a question, was or were comes Questions Were the witnesses talking? before the subject (except a question-word subject). Who was carrying weapons? With who or what as the subject, use Information What were the suspects wearing? a singular verb. Questions What was the guard doing? There were two men holding guns. there is/are Was there anyone helping the guard? Coming Soon to a Hospital Near You...

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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INGLÉS IV

And Here You Thought They Used Nuclear Power...

Vocabulario y Ejercicios VOCABULARIO DE LA UNIDAD I  Pasado participio de verbos regulares e irregulares.  Preposiciones: of, by.  Materiales: Wood, plastic, iron, leather, etc. Ejercicios: 1. Write the verbs into the simple past: a) Last year I (go) _______________ to England on holiday. b) It (be) _______________ fantastic. c) I (visit) ____________ lots of interesting places. I (be) __________ with two friends of mine. d) In the mornings we (walk) _______________ in the streets of London. e) In the evenings we (go) _______________ to pubs. f) The weather (be) _______________ strangely fine. C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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g) It (not / rain) _______________ a lot. h) But we (see) _______________ some beautiful rainbows. i) Where (spend / you) _______________ your last holiday? 2. Write the sentences into simple past. i. We move to a new house. → _____________________________ ii. They bring a sandwich. → _____________________________ iii. He doesn't do the homework. → _____________________________ iv. They sell cars. → _____________________________ v. Does he visit his friends? → _____________________________ 3. Write sentences in simple past. A. Janet / miss / the bus → _____________________________ B. She / tidy / her room → _____________________________ C. Nancy / watch / not / television→ _____________________________ D. She / read / a book → _____________________________

Sitios web recomendados Verbo “to be” en presente Presente simple Presente continuo Verbo “to be” en pasado Pasado simple Pasado continúo

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

http://www.mansioningles.com/gram37.htm http://www.slideshare.net/patosaruf/presente-simple-verb-to-be http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/tests/simple-present-1 http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=1052 http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/presentcontinuous.html http://englishteststore.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1 0427&Itemid=434 http://esl.about.com/library/beginner/blwas.htm http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-exercise-simplepast-be.php http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/simplepast.html http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-exercise-simplepast.php http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jJjvidajTVA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K5B9J2y7nd8&playnext=1&list=PL517E764 8776E74E8&feature=results_main

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INGLÉS IV

UNIDAD II

OBJETIVO: En esta unidad el alumno aprenderá las nociones gramaticales del “tiempo pasado perfecto”, además de repasar las ya vistas como futuro “will”, futuro idiomático “going to”, “be able to”, primer condicional, tiempo presente perfecto, como requisito para facilitar la comprensión de las subsecuentes estructuras gramaticales.

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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Objetivo 2.1

INGLÉS IV

Futuro “Will” (future with “Will”)* THE FUTURE TENSE (EL TIEMPO FUTURO)

AFFIRMATIVE I will You will He will She will It will We will You will They will

NEGATIVE Long form Contracted form I will not You will not He will not She will not It will not We will not You will not They will not

I won’t You won’t He won’t She won’t It won’t We won’t You won’t They won’t

Statements: Affirmative, negative and interrogative forms. Affirmative: Negative: Interrogative:

(Subject / Noun) + (Will) + (Verb) + (complement). (Subject / Noun) + (Will) + (not) + (Verb) + (complement). (Will) + (subject / Noun) + (Verb) + (complement)?

Se forma el tiempo futuro (future) con el auxiliar will, seguido del infinitivo sin la partícula to. El auxiliar will corresponde a las terminaciones é, ás, á, emos, án. Se forma la contracción en afirmativo juntando el pronombre y el auxiliar will.

Afirmativo sin contracción

I will work you will work he will work she will work it will work we will work you will work they will work

Negativo sin contracción

Negativo con C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

trabajaré trabajarás él trabajará ella trabajará trabajará trabajaremos Uds. trabajarán ellos trabajarán

Afirmativo con contracción

I'll work you'll work he'll work she'll work it'll work we'll work you'll work they'll work

trabajaré trabajarás él trabajará ella trabajará trabajará trabajaremos. Uds. trabajarán ellos trabajarán

La contracción negativa de will not es won't. I will not work no trabajaré you will not work no trabajarás he will not work él no trabajará she will not work ella no trabajará it will not work no trabajará we will not work no trabajaremos you will not work Uds. no trabajarán they will not work ellos no trabajarán I won't work no trabajaré you won't work no trabajarás 14


M.A. RICARDO CHÁVEZ MELÉNDEZ

contracción

Interrogativo Recuerde el orden de las palabras para el interrogativo: auxiliar, sustantivo o pronombre, verbo. meaning future plans predictions

Will requests

INGLÉS IV

he won't work she won't work it won't work we won't work you won't work they won't work Will I work? Will you work? Will he work? Will she work? Will it work? Will we work? Will you work? Will they work?

él no trabajará ella no trabajará no trabajará no trabajaremos Uds. no trabajarán ellos no trabajarán ¿trabajaré? ¿trabajarás? ¿trabajará él? ¿trabajará ella? ¿trabajará? ¿trabajaremos? ¿trabajarán Uds.? ¿trabajarán ellos?

examples I'll see you tomorrow. = (I plan to see you tomorrow.) The movie won't be crowded. = (I predict the movie won't be crowded.) Will we get there on time? Will the package get there by Monday? It will probably get there on Tuesday. What will happen next? Will he die? (No, he won't). Will you fill up the tank, please? Will you please be quiet? If One Look Could Kill...

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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Objetivo 2.2

INGLÉS IV

Futuro idiomatico “going to” (future with “going to”)* THE FUTURE: GOING TO

Statements: Affirmative, negative and interrogative forms. Affirmative:

(Subject / Noun) + (To Be) + (Going to) + (Verb) + (complement).

Negative:

(Subject / Noun) + (To Be) + (not) + (Going to) + (Verb) + (complement).

Interrogative:

(To Be) + (subject / Noun) + (Going to) + (Verb) + (complement)?

You can use a phrase with a form of be + going to + a simple form of a verb to talk about future plans. These charts give some examples. Statements

examples note So me friends are going to have a picnic. We're going to meet at the park. Affirmative There's going to be a barbecue on Saturday. In quick, informal speech, Ellen is going to help her parents. going to sounds like gonna. Do not use gonna in Hiroshi isn't going to cook. writing. There aren't going to be many people. Negative The friends aren't going to agree. I'm not going to go. Yes/No Questions

examples

Affirmative

Negative

Is Hiroshi going to cook? Is the barbecue going to be on Saturday? Are Ellen's friends going to go? Isn't Ellen going to come to the picnic? Isn't it going to rain on Saturday? Aren't they going to cook food?

Information Questions Affirmative Negative C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

possible answers

Affirmative Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes,

he is. it is. they are. she is. it is. they are.

examples What is Carlos going to make? Where are you going to meet? When is the barbecue going to start? Why aren't you going to come? Who isn't going to be there?

Negative

No, he isn't. No, it isn't. No, they aren't. No, she isn't. No, it isn't. No, they aren't.

possible answers Guacamole. In the park. At five o'clock. I have to work. Ellen. 16


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Objetivo 2.3

INGLÉS IV

“Be able to” (el pospretérito de “can”)* TO BE ABLE

No hay infinitivo para los auxiliares can o could. Cuando se quiere traducir el infinitivo poder al inglés, hay que emplear el infinitivo to be able.

Ejemplo:

I'm going to be able. Voy a poder. THE CONDITIONAL OF CAN EL POSPRETÉRITO DE CAN

Puesto que el auxiliar can existe solamente en el presente (can) y en el pasado (could), se forma el pospretérito (conditional) empleando el verbo be able. Es decir, se tiene que emplear el auxiliar would seguido por el infinitivo to be able sin la partícula to. Hay que usar el infinitivo con la partícula to después de las formas del verbo be able. Could también equivale al pospretérito de poder (podría), así es que existen dos maneras de traducir podría en inglés.

Ejemplos:

They could go. (or) They would be able to go. They couldn't go. (or) They wouldn't be able to go.

(Ellos{as} podrían ir) (Ellos{as} no podrían ir)

And We Wonder Why Aliens Don't Visit Us...

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Objetivo 2.4

INGLÉS IV

Primer condicional (First conditional)* FIRST CONDITIONAL PRIMER CONDICIONAL (If I…, will you…?) FORM:

WILL + INFINITIVE (WITHOUT TO) + IF + PRESENT TENSE

Example: Will you help me if you aren’t busy? FUNCTION: You use the first conditional:

examples to talk about the future possibility and its I’ll phone you if I have to work late. likely result. to ask about a future possibility and its Will you need a new suit if you get the job? likely result.

Remember!

You can change the order of the two parts of the sentence.

Example:

If I get the job, I’ll need a new suit.

Examples: * If you’re not to busy, will you help me? * I won’t do it if it’s difficult.

* If you say “yes”, I’ll buy you lunch. * If you ask me nicely, I’ll answer the question.

Write five (5) sentences: ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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Objetivo 2.5

INGLÉS IV

Tiempo presente perfecto (present perfect tense)* PRESENT PERFECT TENSE (AFFIRMATIVE, NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE FORMS).

Affirmative, negative and interrogative forms.

AFF. (Subject / Noun) + (have / has) + (Verb in past participle) + (Complement). NEG. (Subject / Noun) + (have / has) + (not) + (Verb in past participle) + (Complement). INT. (Have / Has) + (Subject / Noun) + (Verb in past participle) + (Complement)? The present perfect tense consists of have/has before the past participle form of a verb. examples notes Affirmative We've been here a year. Here are some past Statements She's worked a long time. participles: worked (work),

Negative I haven't seen them since last week. Statements

Yes/No Questions Tag Questions Information Questions there + be

been (be), seen (see).

Contractions, short answers, and tag questions with have/has are the same in the present perfect tense as in the present perfect continuous.

Have you lived here since January? We haven't gone out for a while, have we? Who have you met in the last few weeks? There haven't been any parties in weeks, have there? (No, there haven't.)

A time expression with in is common in negative sentences.

Write five (5) sentences: ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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Objetivo 2.6

INGLÉS IV

Tiempo pasado perfecto (past perfect tense) THE PAST PERFECT TENSE EL ANTECOPRETÉRITO

Affirmative, negative and interrogative forms AFF. (Subject / Noun) + (had) + (verb in past participle) + (complement). NEG. (Subject / Noun) + (had) + (not) + (Verb in past participle) + (complement). INT. (Had) + (Subject / Noun) + (Verb in past participle) + (complement)? Se forma el antecopréterito (past perfect) en inglés igual que en castellano. Se forma usando el pasado del verbo have (had, había) como auxiliar y el participio del verbo empleado. La contracción negativa de had not es hadn't. Se forma la contracción en afirmativo con la partícula d agregada al pronombre. Esta contracción no se emplea más que en la forma afirmativa, acompañada del participio. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos.

Afirmativo sin contracción I had worked You had worked He had worked She had worked It had worked We had worked You had worked They had worked

yo había trabajado Ud. había trabajado él había trabajado ella había trabajado había trabajado habíamos trabajado Uds. habían trabajado ellos habían trabajado

Afirmativo con contracción I'd worked You’d worked He’d worked She’d worked It’d worked We’d worked You’d worked They’d worked

yo había trabajado Ud. había trabajado él había trabajado ella había trabajado había trabajado habíamos trabajado Uds. habían trabajado ellos habían trabajado

Negativo I hadn't worked He hadn't worked They hadn't worked

yo no había trabajado él no había trabajado ellos no habían trabajado

Interrogativo. Recuerde el orden de las palabras para el interrogativo: auxiliar, sustantivo o pronombre, verbo. Had he worked? Had John worked? Had they worked? C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

¿había él trabajado? ¿había Juan trabajado? ¿habían ellos trabajado?

Interrogativo Negativo Hadn’t we worked? Hadn’t you worked? Hadn’t John worked?

¿no habíamos trabajado? ¿no habías trabajado? ¿no había Juan trabajado?

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INGLÉS IV

EXERCISE Verb Practice l. They'd forgotten to tell rum. 2. They hadn't forgotten to tell rum. 3. Had they forgotten to tell rum? 4. Hadn't they forgotten to tell rum? 5. Why had they forgotten to tell rum? THE PAST PERFECT OF CAN EL ANTECOPRETÉRITO DE CAN Puesto que el auxiliar can existe solamente en el presente (can) yen el pasado (could), se forma el antecopretérito (past perfect) de can empleando el verbo be able. Es decir, se tiene que emplear el pasado del verbo have (had) y el participio del verbo be able (been able). Hay que emplear el infinitivo con la partícula to después de las formas del verbo be able. Ejemplo:

He'd been able to go. El había podido ir.

EXERCISE A Verb Practice 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

They'd been able to pick up everything. They hadn't been able to pick up everything. Had they been able to pick up everything? Hadn't they been able to pick up everything? Why hadn't they been able to pick up everything?

EXERCISE Verb Practice Repeat exercise A, using forms of the verbs practice, sleep, hear, lose, meet, leave, lend, let in short sentences. Use o different noun or pronoun with each verb. Use the interrogative

words when it is possible. EXERCISE

Change the following sentences to the post, future, present perfect, post perfect. Translate each time. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

I can use that book. We can't start early. They can bring everything. Can they hear anything from here? Can't he teach English?

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

6. The boys can show you how to swim. 7. Can the children rest under that tree? 8. The girls can't sing that song. 9. John can invite Alice to the party. 10. Can't Mr. Clark see snow on the mountain? 21


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INGLÉS IV

READING: THE PAST PERFECT TENSE. READ AND TRANSLATE. THE FARMER AND HIS SONS. The old farmer had worked hard in his orchard all his life so that he could make a living for his wife and sons. Every spring the old man turned over the soil in the orchard so that the rain could go into the ground when it fell, and every summer he sold the fruit in the market. One day the old farmer called his sons to him and said to them, "I'm getting old, and I don't have much time left in this world. It'll soon be time for me to die. As you boys know, I've worked hard all my life; and everything I have to leave you is in the orchard." "He's left us a treasure in the orchard," thought the boys. We'll have to find it." So after the old man died, the boys began to work very hard in the orchard. They got up very early every morning to dig in the soil. They dug and dug around each tree, turning over the soil again and again. The rain fell in the spring, and the water ran into the soft ground, and the boys still dug in the orchard every day, looking for the treasure. The warm summer sun shone down on the fruit trees as the boys worked among them, until one day they saw that it was time to take the fruit to the market. After they'd dug in the soil for a year, they still hadn't found a treasure; but there was a lot of fruit, and after they'd sold it in the market, they had more money than they'd ever had before.

Don't Always Believe What You Read...

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INGLÉS IV

Vocabulario y Ejercicios VOCABULARIO DE LA UNIDAD II  Elementos de la naturaleza: river, ocean, mountain, hill, forrest, volcano, etc.  Pasado participio de verbos regulares e irregulares. Ejercicios: 1. Referring to the table of irregular verbs if necessary, fill in the blanks with the Present Perfect tense of the irregular verbs shown in brackets. For example: They _________ tall. (to grow) They have grown tall.

He __________ it. (to choose) He has chosen it.

1. We _____________ lunch. (to eat) 2. I ______________ the floor. (to sweep) 3. She ______________ in a choir. (to sing) 4. They ______________ to work. (to go) 5. You ______________ your way. (to lose) 6. He _____________ earlier than usual. (to rise) 7. We ______________ to everyone. (to speak) 8. I ______________ the kingfisher. (to see) 9. They _________ each other a long time. (to know) 10. She _______________ here from France. (to fly) 11. He ______________ very helpful. (to be) 12. I _______________ the blue cloth. (to cut) 13. We ______________ two letters. (to write) 14. They _______________ the competition. (to win) 15. She ________________ no one. (to tell) 16. It _______________ a long time. (to take) 17. You ________________ to do it. (to forget) 18. I ________________ it. (to hear) 19. They _______________ town. (to leave) 20. He ________________ the problem. (to understand) 2. Choose the correct words or phrases: 1. I (have seen / seeing / has seen) that movie twenty times. 2. I think I (meeted / has met / have met) him once before. 3. There (has been / being / have been) many earthquakes in California. 4. People (has traveled / have traveled / traveler) to the Moon.

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5. People (traveledn’t / has not traveled / have not traveled) to Mars. 6. (Had / Has / Have) you (read / readed / reading) the book yet? 7. Nobody (has / have / had) ever (climbing / climbed / climbeing) that mountain. 8. A: (Have / Had / Has) there ever (being / be / been) a war in the United States? B: Yes, there (has been / have been / had been) a war in the United States.

Sitios web recomendados Futuro “Will”

http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/willfuture/menu.php http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/simplefuture.html Futuro idiomático “going to” http://www.english-grammar-lessons.com/goingtofuture/menu.php http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=5640 Be Able To http://esl.about.com/library/quiz/blgrquiz_canbeable.htm http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exerciseenglish-5491.php Primer condicional http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/first-conditional-exercise1.html http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/firstconditional/menu.php Presente perfecto http://www.really-learn-english.com/present-perfect-exercises.html http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/present-perfect-simple Pasado perfecto http://www.really-learn-english.com/past-perfect-exercises.html http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-exercisepast-perfect.php

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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INGLÉS IV

UNIDAD III

OBJETIVO: El alumno aprenderá las nociones gramaticales de la “voz pasiva en presente”, “voz pasiva en pasado”, “tag questions”, “segundo condicional (present unreal conditional: would, could, might)”, “tercer condicional (past unreal conditional)” y cláusulas o proposiciones relativas, definidas y no definidas (who, whom, whose, what, which, that), como complemento a los tiempos gramaticales de presente, pasado y futuro antes vistos.

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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Objetivo 3.1

INGLÉS IV

Voz pasiva en presente (passive voice in present)

Passive Voice

The passive voice is less usual than the active voice. The active voice is the "normal" voice. But sometimes we need the passive voice. In this objective we look at how to construct the passive voice, when to use it and how to conjugate it. Construction of the Passive Voice: The structure of the passive voice is very simple:

Subject + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (past participle) The main verb is always in its past participle form. Look at these examples:

subject

auxiliary verb (to be)

main verb (past participle)

Water

is

drunk

by everyone.

100 people

are

employed

by this company.

I

am

paid

in euro.

We

are

not paid

in dollars.

Are

they

paid

in yen?

Use of the Passive Voice We use the passive when: We want to make the active object more important We do not know the active subject subject

verb

object

give importance to active object (President Kennedy)

President Kennedy

was killed

by Lee Harvey Oswald.

active subject unknown

My wallet

has been stolen.

?

*Note: that we always use by to introduce the passive object (Fish are eaten by cats). C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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INGLÉS IV

NOTE: Look at this sentence:  He was killed with a gun. Normally we use by to introduce the passive object. But the gun is not the active subject. The gun did not kill him. He was killed by somebody with a gun. In the active voice, it would be: Somebody killed him with a gun. The gun is the instrument. Somebody is the "agent" or "doer".

Conjugation for the Passive Voice

We can form the passive in any tense. In fact, conjugation of verbs in the passive tense is rather easy, as the main verb is always in past participle form and the auxiliary verb is always be. To form the required tense, we conjugate the auxiliary verb. So, for example:  present simple: It is made  present continuous: It is being made  present perfect: It has been made Here are some examples with most of the possible tenses: infinitive

simple

continuous

perfect simple

perfect continuous

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

to be washed present

It is washed.

past

It was washed.

future

It will be washed.

conditional

It would be washed.

present

It is being washed.

past

It was being washed.

future

It will be being washed.

conditional

It would be being washed.

present

It has been washed.

past

It had been washed.

future

It will have been washed.

conditional

It would have been washed.

present

It has been being washed.

past

It had been being washed.

future

It will have been being washed.

conditional

It would have been being washed.

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INGLÉS IV

Active or Passive Quiz 1

I ate a piece of chocolate cake. _____________

2

The librarian read the book to the students. ____________

3

The money was stolen. ________________

4

They are paid on Fridays. ________________

5

The movie is being made in Hollywood. _____________

6

I washed my car three weeks ago. _________________

7

His hair was cut by a professional. _______________

8

I will introduce you to my boss this week. ______________

9

It would have been fixed on the weekend. _____________

10 The national anthem is being sung by Jason this time. ______________

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Objetivo 3.2

INGLÉS IV

Voz pasiva en pasado (passive voice in past)

Passive voice in past Active and Passive Voice The voice of a verb tells whether the subject of the sentence performs or receives the action. In English there are two voices, active and passive. :: Active Voice In active voice, the subject performs the action expressed by the verb:  The student wrote a song. :: Passive Voice In passive voice, the subject receives the action expressed by the verb:  A song was written by the student. :: Forming Tenses of Passive Verbs The passive voice always consists of two parts: a form of the verb "to be" + past participle: Tense Present Past Future Present perfect Past perfect Future perfect

Passive voice form it is cleaned it was cleaned it will be cleaned it has been cleaned it had been cleaned it will have been cleaned

The passive voice can be expressed in all tenses and forms: The enemy IS DEFEATED. (present) The enemy WAS DEFEATED. (past) In 1936 Franklin Roosevelt WAS REELECTED. (past) The enemy WILL BE DEFEATED. (future) The enemy IS BEING DEFEATED. (present progressive) The enemy HAD BEEN DEFEATED. (past perfect) The enemy expects TO BE DEFEATED. (infinitive) The enemy hates BEING DEFEATED. (gerund)

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:: Uses of Passive Voice Use the passive voice to: - Call attention to receiver of the action rather than the performer:  The professor was hit by three snowballs. - Point out the receiver of the action when performer is unknown or unimportant:  A love letter was slipped under the door.  The signs will be posted. - Avoid calling attention to the performer of the action (known as the "institutional passive"):  The fines will be collected on Monday. :: Active and Passive Voice in Writing The choice between using the active or passive voice in writing is a matter of style, not correctness. However, most recommend using active voice, which they describe as more natural, direct, lively, and succinct. The passive voice is considered wordy and weak (except when used in cases above). Examine the following examples. weak, passive: The skater was slammed into the wall by Maria. strong, active: Maria slammed the skater into the wall. weak, passive: The book was enjoyed by me because the events of her childhood were described so well by the author. strong, active: I enjoyed the book because the author described the events of her childhood so well.  Examples: (Passive voice in past) SIMPLE PAST The active object becomes the passive subject. was/were + past participle Examples:

Examples:

Active: Simple Past The movie bored me. The movie fascinated Jack. The movie surprised them.

Passive: Simple Past I was bored by the movie. Jack was fascinated by the movie. They were surprisedby the movie.

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PAST CONTINUOUS (PROGRESSIVE) Passive form: was/were + being + past participle Examples:

Examples:

Active: Past Continuous I was cleaning the bathroom. They were cleaning the bedroom. Susan was cleaning the kitchen and patio.

Passive: Past Continuous The bathroom was being cleaned by me. The bedroom was being cleaned by them. The kitchen and patio were being cleaned by Susan.

PAST PERFECT Passive form: had been + past participle Examples:

Examples:

Active: Past Perfect Steven Spielberg had directed the movie. Penny Marshall had directed those movies.

Passive: Past Perfect The movie had been directed by Steven Spielberg. The movies had been directed by Penny Marshall.

Active: HAD BETTER / HAD BETTER NOT Students had better practice English every day. Children had better not drink whiskey.

Passive: HAD BETTER / HAD BETTER NOT English had better be practiced every day by students. Whiskey had better not be drunk by children.

Active: BE SUPPOSED TO (past time) I was supposed to type the composition. I wasn't supposed to copy the story in the book. Janet was supposed to clean the living room. She wasn't supposed to eat candy and gum. Frank and Jane were supposed to make dinner. They weren't supposed to make dessert.

Passive: BE SUPPOSED TO (past time) The composition was supposed to be typed by me. The story in the book wasn't supposed to be copied. The living room was supposed to be cleaned by Janet. Candy and gum weren't supposed to be eaten by her. Dinner was supposed to be made by them. Dessert wasn't supposed to be made by them.

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C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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Objetivo 3.3

INGLÉS IV

Tag questions (short questions)

Tag Questions A tag question is a statement with a short question attached to the end. The tag has the same subject as the statement, or a corresponding pronoun. It has the same verb as, or the auxiliary that corresponds to, the verb of the statement. People usually use tag questions to ask for clarification or to confirm information they think is true. This chart gives some examples. expected examples answer notes You're healthy, aren't you? Yes, I am. *Affirmative statements usually have negative He's exercising, isn't he? Yes, he is. tags. *For a simple present or I have a fever, don't I? past sentence (except Yes, you do. Affirmative with the verb be), the tag She lifts weights, doesn't she? uses a form of do. Yes, she does. *With affirmative You saw a doctor, didn't you? statements and negative Yes, I did. tags, the speaker expects You'll take medicine, won't you? Yes, l will. an affirmative answer.

Negative

You're not getting sick, are you?

No, I'm not.

She doesn't smoke, does she?

No, she doesn't

They can't lift weights, can they?

No, they can't.

Negative statements have affirmative tags. With negative statements and affirmative tags, the speaker expects a negative answer.

Tag Questions

A tag question is a special construction in English. It is a statement followed by a mini-question. The whole sentence is a "tag question", and the mini-question at the end is called a "question tag". NOTE: A "tag" is something small that we add to something larger. For example, the little piece of cloth added to a shirt showing size or washing instructions is a tag. We use tag questions at the end of statements to ask for confirmation. They mean something like: "Am I right?" or "Do you agree?" They are very common in English.

The basic structure is:

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

+ Positive statement,

negative tag?

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INGLÉS IV

Look at these examples with positive statements: positive statement [+]

negative tag [-]

notes:

subject auxiliary

main verb

auxiliary

not

personal pronoun (same as subject)

You

are

coming,

are

n't

you?

We

have

finished,

have

n't

we?

You

do

like

coffee,

do

n't

you?

like

coffee,

do

n't

you?

You (do) like... won't = will not

You They

will

help,

wo

n't

they?

I

can

come,

can

't

I?

We

must

go,

must

n't

we?

He

should

try

harder,

should

n't

he?

You

are

English,

are

n't

you?

John

was

there,

was

n't

he?

no auxiliary for main verb be present & past

Some special cases: I am right, aren't I?

aren't I (not amn't I)

You have to go, don't you?

you (do) have to go...

I have been answering, haven't I?

use first auxiliary

Nothing came in the post, did it?

treat statements with nothing, nobody etc like negative statements

Let's go, shall we?

let's = let us

He'd better do it, hadn't he?

he had better (no auxiliary)

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Look at these examples with negative statements: negative statement [-]

positive tag [+]

main verb

auxiliary

personal pronoun (same as subject)

raining,

is

it?

that,

have

we?

coffee,

do

you?

will

they?

us,

will

they?

never do

it right,

can

I?

must

n't

tell

her,

must

we?

should

n't

drive

so fast,

should

he?

subject

auxiliary

It

is

n't

We

have

never seen

You

do

n't

like

They

will

not

help,

They

wo

n't

report

I

can

We He You

are

n't

English, are

you?

John

was

not

there,

he?

was

Tag Questions Quiz 1 He's still sleeping, _______________ 2 You do go to school, ______________ 3 Let's go for a walk, _______________ 4 We won't be late, ________________ 5 Nobody called, _________________ 6 They will wash the car, ______________ 7 We must lock the doors, _______________ 8 I'm correct, _______________ 9 So you bought a car, ______________ Congratulations! 10 You wouldn't want to invite my Dad, ________________ C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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Objetivo 3.4

INGLÉS IV

Segundo Condicional (present unreal conditional: would, could, might). Present Unreal Conditional

FORM: [If ... SIMPLE PAST ..., ... would + VERB ...] or [... would + VERB ... if ... SIMPLE PAST ...] USE: The Present Unreal Conditional is used to talk about what you would do in imaginary situations in general. EXAMPLES:  If I had a car, I would drive to work. But I don't have a car.  She would travel around the world if she had more money. But she doesn't have much money.  I would read more if I didn't have a TV.  Mary would move to Japan if she spoke Japanese.  If they worked harder, they would earn more money.  What would you do if you won the lottery?  I would travel.  Where would you live if you moved to the U.S.?  I would live in Seattle.

EXCEPTION (If I were ...) In the Present Unreal Conditional, the form "was" is not considered grammatically correct. In written English or in testing situations, you should always use "were." However, in everyday conversation, "was" is often used. EXAMPLES:  If he were French, he would live in Paris.  If she were rich, she would buy a yacht.  I would play basketball if I were taller.  I would buy that computer if it were cheaper.  I would buy that computer if it was cheaper. NOT CORRECT (But often said in conversation.) C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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EXCEPTION: Conditional with Modal Verbs There are some special Conditional forms for modal verbs in English: would + can = could would + shall = should would + may = might The words "can," "shall" and "may" must be used in these special forms; they cannot be used with "would." EXAMPLES:  If I went to Egypt, I would can learn Arabic. NOT CORRECT  If I went to Egypt, I could learn Arabic. CORRECT  If she had time, she would may go to the party. NOT CORRECT  If she had time, she might go to the party. CORRECT

The words "could," should," "might" and "ought to" include conditional, so you cannot combine them with "would." EXAMPLES:  If I had more time, I would could exercise after work. NOT CORRECT  If I had more time, I could exercise after work. CORRECT  If he invited you, you really would should go. NOT CORRECT  If he invited you, you really should go. CORRECT

IMPORTANT: Only use "If" Only the word "if" is used with the Present Unreal Conditional because you are discussing imaginary situations. "When" cannot be used. EXAMPLES: I would buy that computer when it was cheaper. NOT CORRECT I would buy that computer if it was cheaper. CORRECT

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Practice: Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate conditional form. Did you hear about that guy who won 180 million dollars in the lottery? If I (win) __________ that much money, I (quit) ___________ my job the next day. I (travel) __________ around the world and (stay) __________ in the most luxurious hotels. If I (want) __________ anything, I (buy) __________ it. If I (see) __________ a beautiful Mercedes that I wanted, I (buy) __________ it. If I wanted to stay in a beautiful hotel and the hotel (be) __________ full, I (buy) __________ the hotel and make them give me a room. I (can) __________ do anything in the world if I had 180 million dollars ... Oh, I am starting to sound a little materialistic... Well... I (do) __________ good things with the money as well. If anybody (need) _________ help, I (give) _________ them some money to help them out. I (donate) __________ money to charities. I (give) _________ money to help support the arts. If I (win) __________ that much money, I wouldn't keep it all for myself. I (help) __________ as many people as possible.

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Objetivo 3.5

INGLÉS IV

Tercer condicional (past unreal conditional) Past Unreal Conditional

FORM [If ... PAST PERFECT ..., ... would have + PAST PARTICIPLE ... ] or [... would have + PAST PARTICIPLE ... if ... PAST PERFECT ...] USE: The Past Unreal Conditional is used to talk about imaginary situations in the past. You can describe what you would have done differently or how something could have happened differently if circumstances had been different. EXAMPLES:  If I had had a car, I would have driven to work. But I didn't have one, so I took the bus.  She would have traveled around the world if she had had more money. But she didn't have much money, so she never traveled.  I would have read more as a child if I hadn't had a TV. Unfortunately, I did have a TV, so I never read for entertainment.  Mary would have gotten the job and moved to Japan if she had studied Japanese in school instead of French.  If they had worked harder, they would have earned more money. Unfortunately, they were lazy and they didn't earn much.  What would you have done if you had won the lottery last week? I would have traveled.  What city would you have chosen if you had decided to move to the United States? I would have chosen Seattle. EXCEPTION: Conditional with Modal Verbs There are some special Conditional forms for modal verbs in English: would have + can = could have would have + shall = should have would have + may = might have The words "can," "shall" and "may" must be used in these special forms; they cannot be used with "would have." EXAMPLES: If I had gone to Egypt, I could have learned Arabic. CORRECT If she had had time, she might have gone to the party. CORRECT C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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The words "could," should," "might" and "ought to" include Conditional, so you cannot combine them with "would." EXAMPLES: If If If If

I had had more time, I would have could exercise after work. NOT CORRECT I had had more time, I could have exercised after work. CORRECT he had invited you, you would have might go. NOT CORRECT he had invited you, you might have gone. CORRECT

IMPORTANT: Only use "If" Only the word "if" is used with the Past Unreal Conditional because you are discussing imaginary situations. "When" cannot be used. EXAMPLES: I would have bought that computer when it had been cheaper. NOT CORRECT I would have bought that computer if it had been cheaper. CORRECT Practice: Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate conditional form After I graduated from university, I applied for a marketing position with a prominent bank with branches all over the world. I didn't get the job because they wanted someone who spoke Spanish fluently. I (could, take) ___________ Spanish in high school, but I didn't. I took an acting class instead. If I (take) __________ Spanish, I (get) ____________ the job. Just imagine, if I had actually gotten the job, I (move) ____________ to Spain. My entire life (could, go) ___________ in a totally different direction. If I had accepted the job and moved to Spain, I (might, meet) __________ a Spanish woman and (get) ___________ married. If that had actually happened, I probably (stay) ____________ in Spain. We (might, have) ____________ children. Unfortunately, I didn't get the job and I didn't go to Spain. I got a boring job and I live alone. If I had just taken Spanish, my life (be) ___________ much more interesting.

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Objetivo 3.6

INGLÉS IV

Cláusulas o proposiciones relativas, definidas y no definidas (who, whom, whose, what, which, that) Defining and non-defining relative clauses

Relative clauses Sentences can be divided into parts called clauses. A relative clause is a part of a sentence that describes the person or thing we are talking about and is connected to other clauses in the sentence via a ‘relative pronoun’, who, which or that. Relative pronouns replace the subject or object of the verb:  Where is the new boy? He was in class yesterday.  Where is the new boy that was in class yesterday?  Can I borrow the CD? You bought the CD.  Can I borrow the CD that you bought? identifying relative clauses  The girl that I sit next to in class, gave me her phone number.

that I sit next to in class (the relative clause) identifies ‘which’ girl (there could be many girls in the class).

non-identifying relative clauses  This is my friend, Thomas, who came on holiday with me last year.

who came on holiday with me last year does not identify ‘which’ friend (we know ‘which’ friend the friend is Thomas).n-identifying relative clauses are separated by commas, and in speech, by pauses. Keeping who, which and that You cannot leave out who, which, that when: it is the subject of the verb in the relative clause  Where is the new boy that was in class yesterday? It is part of a non-identifying relative clause  The trees that at one time lined this road have all been cut down. leaving out who, which and that You can leave out who, which, that when: it replaces the object of the verb in the relative clause  Can I borrow the CD (that) you bought? Note! In identifying relative clauses, where which thing or person talked about is clear without the relative clause, it is very common in spoken English to leave out who, which, that. C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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What is a relative clause?

Definition A relative clause is a clause which describes the referent of a head noun or pronoun. It often restricts the reference of the head noun or pronoun. Discussion A relative clause is not necessarily a constituent of the noun phrase containing the head noun it modifies. Example The plumber arrived who we had called earlier. (Who we had called earlier has been extraposed from its normal position after plumber and is not a member of the noun phrase containing

plumber.)

Examples (English)  The man who went  Passengers leaving on Flight 738

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

As the name suggests, these clauses give essential information to define or identify the person or thing we are talking about. Obviously, this is only necessary if there is more than one person or thing involved. Example:  Elephants who marry mice are very unusual. In this sentence we understand that there are many elephants, but it is clear that we are only talking the ones who marry mice. Punctuation Commas are not used in defining relative clauses. Relative pronouns The following relative pronouns are used in defining relative clauses:

Person who/that who/whom/that/ø

Subject Object Possessive whose

Thing which/that which/that/ø

Place

Time Reason

where

when why

whose

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1. The relative pronoun stands in place of a noun. This noun usually appears earlier in the sentence: The woman who/that spoke at the meeting Noun, subject of relative pronoun verb + rest of relative main clause referring to 'the clause woman', subject of 'spoke'

was very knowledgeable. verb + rest of main clause

2. Who, whom and which can be replaced by that. This is very common in spoken English. 3. The relative pronoun can be omitted (ø) when it is the object of the clause:

The mouse that the elephant loved was very beautiful. OR The mouse the elephant loved was very beautiful. Both of these sentences are correct, though the second one is more common in spoken English. The mouse that/ø the elephant loved was very beautiful. Noun, subject of main clause

relative pronoun, referring to 'the mouse, object of 'loved'

verb + rest of relative verb + rest of main clause clause.

(You can usually decide whether a relative pronoun is an object because it is normally followed by another subject + verb.) 4. Whose is used for things as well as for people. Examples:  The man whose car was stolen.  A tree whose leaves have fallen. 5. Whom is very formal and is only used in written English. You can use who/that, or omit the pronoun completely:  The doctor whom/who/that/ø I was hoping to see wasn't on duty. 6. That normally follows words like something, anything, everything, nothing, all, and superlatives. Examples:  There's something that you should know.  It was the best film that I've ever seen. More examples:  A clown is someone who makes you laugh.  An elephant is an animal that lives in hot countries.  The plums that were in the fridge were delicious. I have eaten them. C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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    

INGLÉS IV

Where are the plums (that) I put in the fridge? Has anyone seen the book I was reading? Nothing that anyone does can replace my lost bag. Let's go to a country where the sun always shines. They live in the house whose roof is full of holes.

NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

The information in these clauses is not essential. It tells us more about someone or something, but it does not help us to identify them or it. Compare: 1. Elephants that love mice are very unusual. (This tells us which elephants we are talking about). 2. Elephants, which are large and grey, can sometimes be found in zoos. (This gives us some extra information about elephants - we are talking about all elephants, not just one type or group). 3. John's mother, who lives in Scotland, has 6 grandchildren. (We know who John's mother is, and he only has one. The important information is the number of grandchildren, but the fact that she lives in Scotland might be followed with the words "by the way" - it is additional information). Punctuation Non-defining relative clauses are always separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. The commas have a similar function to brackets:

My friend John has just written a best-selling novel. (He went to the same school as me) > My friend John, who went to the same school as me, has just written a best-selling novel. Relative pronouns in non-defining clauses Person

Thing

Subject

who

which

Object

who/whom

which

Possessive

whose

Place where

Notes: 1. In non-defining clauses, you cannot use ‘that’ instead of who, whom or which. 2. You cannot leave out the relative pronoun, even when it is the object of the verb in the relative clause:  He gave me the letter, which was in a blue envelope.  He gave me the letter, which I read immediately

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3. The preposition in these clauses can go at the end of the clause, e.g. This is Stratford-on-Avon,

which you have all heard about.

This pattern is often used in spoken English, but in written or formal English you can also put the preposition before the pronoun: e.g. Stratford-on-Avon, about which many people have written is

Shakespeare’s birthplace.

4. Non-defining clauses can be introduced by expressions like all of, many of + relative pronoun:

all of any of (a) few of both of each of either of half of many of most of much of none of one of two of etc…

Person

Thing

+ whom + whom + whom + whom + whom + whom + whom + whom + whom + whom + whom + whom + whom

+ which + which + which + which + which + which + which + which + which + which + which + which + which

Examples:  There were a lot of people at the party, many of whom I had known for years.  He was carrying his belongings, many of which were broken. 5. The relative pronoun which at the beginning of a non-defining relative clause, can refer to all the information contained in the previous part of the sentence, rather than to just one word. a. Chris did really well in his exams, which was a big surprise. (= the fact that he did well in his exams was a big surprise). b. An elephant and a mouse fell in love, which is most unusual. (= the fact that they fell in love is unusual). Examples:  My grandmother, who is dead now, came from the North of England.  I spoke to Fred, who explained the problem.  The elephant looked at the tree, under which she had often sat.  We stopped at the museum, which we’d never been into.  She’s studying maths, which many people hate.  I’ve just met Susan, whose husband works in London.  He had thousands of books, most of which he had read. C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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Try to Explain This One to an Insurance Company...

New Photos from the First U.S. Trip to the Moon...

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Vocabulario y Ejercicios VOCABULARIO DE LA UNIDAD III  Expresiones de tiempo acorde a las estructuras gramaticales propuestas.  Beneficios derivados del trabajo, educación, política, investigación, economía, etc. Ejercicios: I. Rewrite the sentences in passive voice. a) She sang a song. - _______________________________________ b) Somebody hit me. - _______________________________________ c) We stopped the bus. - _______________________________________ d) A thief stole my car. - _______________________________________ e) They didn't let him go. - _______________________________________ f) She didn't win the prize. - _______________________________________ g) They didn't make their beds. - _______________________________________ h) I did not tell them. -_______________________________________ i) Did you tell them? - _______________________________________ j) Did he send the letter? - _______________________________________ II. Write the whole sentences in the passive voice. 1. Paul and Peter watched the football match. ____________________________________ 2. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. ____________________________________ 3. Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492. ____________________________________ 4. Anna painted the Wilsons' house. ____________________________________ 5. The American team won the cup. ____________________________________ 6. Philip took a picture of the sea. ____________________________________ 7. My mother saw Mike. ____________________________________ 8. Freddy Mercury sang 'We Will Rock You'. ____________________________________

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9. My parents read 'Da Vinci Code'. ____________________________________ 10. My brother found a purse. ____________________________________ 11. A dog bit my sister. ____________________________________ 12. Alan broke a vase. ____________________________________ 13. Mary and Alice brought a cake. ____________________________________ 14. My uncle drew a beautiful landscape. ____________________________________ 15. My father ate a big pizza. ____________________________________ 16. The children heard a terrible noise last night. ____________________________________

Sitios web recomendados Voz pasiva en presente

http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/passive http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/passive-exercise-1.html Voz pasiva en pasado http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=4947 http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exerciseenglish-59106.php Tag questions http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/questionstags/menu.php http://www.better-english.com/grammar/questiontags.htm Segundo condicional http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=3227 http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/secondconditional/menu.php Tercer condicional http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/thirdconditional/menu.php http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=3233 Cláusulas o proposiciones relativas, definidas y no definidas http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=4219 http://www.e-grammar.org/relative-clauses/

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CONCLUSIONES

Al finalizar la elaboración del Folleto de Inglés IV, se llegó a las siguientes conclusiones:

a) Aun que la mayor parte de la información contenida en este folleto ya se contaba con ella, EL PROGRAMA DE ESTUDIOS DE LA REFORMA CURRICULAR DEL BACHILLERATO TECNOLÓGICO es una excelente guía para organizar el conocimiento, y conseguir el aprendizaje significativo y dominio por parte del alumno del idioma inglés. b) La función de facilitador para el profesor del CBTIS Nº 84 será más fácil, ya que al aplicar las secuencias didácticas, tiene como apoyo este folleto que se realizo acorde a las mismas. c) La bibliografía de inglés existente en la biblioteca del CBTIS Nº 84, es insuficiente en número y contenidos, y no esta actualizada.

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GLOSARIO Ability. Habilidad. Accented (Stressed). Acentuado (enfatizado). Active. Activo. Adjective. (Adjetivo). Parte variable de la oración que acompaña opcionalmente al sustantivo en el sintagma nominal, para calificarlo (adjetivo calificativo) o determinarlo (adjetivo determinativo), concordando con él en género, número y en algunas lenguas también en caso. Advice. Consejo. Auxiliary. Auxiliar (para cada tiempo del idioma ingles se utiliza un auxiliar) aquellos que han perdido su significado primitivo y sirven para formar otros tiempos de otros verbos o perífrasis verbales. Below. Debajo de. Chart. Recuadro. Common. Común. Consonant. Consonante (todas aquellas letras del alfabeto que no son vocales: B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y, Z). Contracted form. Forma cortada. Contraction. Contracción (is not = isn’t, I will = I’ll, You have = You’ve, He was not = He wasn’t, They had = they’d, etc.) Discussion. Discusión. Fact. Hecho (acontecido). Infinitive. Infinitivo, forma no personal del verbo que tiene un carácter nominal. Algunos gramáticos utilizan el término verboide como sinónimo de forma no personal. Informal speech. Discurso informal. Irregular verbs. Los verbos irregulares son aquellos que no siguen los modelos clásicos de la conjugación, ya que presentan alteraciones en la raíz o en el lexema. Long form. Forma completa o forma larga. Match. Par. Pareja. Meaning. Significado. Noun. Nombre (que se les da a las personas, animales o cosas) categoría de palabras en la que tradicionalmente se incluye el nombre sustantivo y el nombre adjetivo, porque ambos comparten ciertas características comunes, como los morfemas. Offers. Ofrecerse (a hacer algo). Passive. Pasivo. Past participle. Forma del pasado que emplea el participio been como auxiliar antes del participio del verbo que se conjuga. Permission. Permiso. Predict. Predecir. Pronoun. Pronombre, parte de la oración que puede ocupar el lugar de un nombre o hacer alusión a él. Procede del latín pronomen, que significa ‘en lugar del nombre’; sustituye en ocasiones, aunque no siempre, a un sustantivo, al que se denomina antecedente. Punctuation. Puntuación. Quick. Rápido. Quiz. Examen. C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

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Regular verbs. Los verbos regulares son los verbos que en las distintas formas que pueden adoptar en su conjugación se ajustan siempre a las formas del verbo que se toma como modelo en la conjugación a la que pertenece. Requests. Demandas. Sentence. Oración. Several. Varios. Spelling. Deletreando. Strong. Fuerte, poderoso, duro, fornido, marcado, pronunciado, firme, cragado. Subject. Sujeto. Summarizes. Resume. Syllable. Sílaba, grupo fónico constituido por una sola vocal o por la combinación de una vocal y una o varias consonantes que le preceden o siguen y que se pronuncian en un solo golpe de voz. Tag question. Pregunta de reforzamiento. Third person. Tercera persona (del singular: He, She, It); la tercera persona, en muchos casos no es ni persona, sino un elemento de referencia. Vowel. Vocal (a,e,i,o,u) Weak. Débil, flojo, flaco, enclenque, delicado, frágil, impotente.

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BIBLIOGRAFIA 1.

APUNTES DE INGLES I, II, III, Y IV. RICARDO CHÁVEZ MELÉNDEZ 1998-1999.

2.

HTTP://WWW.ENGLISHPAGE.COM

3.

INTERACTIVE ENGLISH: STUDENT BOOK 2 ALAN BATTERSBY, CAROL LETHABY MACMILLAN – HEINEMANN FIRST EDICION

4.

INTERACTIONS ONE, A COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR. JACK KIRN MCGRAW-HILL THIRD EDITION

5.

PRACTICE YOUR ENGLISH. AUDREY L. WRIGHT AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY SECOND EDITION.

6.

TRUE COLORS (1), AN EFL COURSE FOR REAL COMMUNICATION. JAY MAURER, IRENE E. SCHOENBERG LONGMAN FIRST EDICION

7.

INGLES IDIOMATICO 2 EUGENE E. LONG, WILLIAM BUCKWALD TRILLAS OCTAVA EDICION

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ANEXOS

1

LISTA DE VERBOS REGULARES REGULAR VERBS

N° 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

SPANISH Contestar Permitir Arrestar Preguntar Ladrar Quemar Cepillar Pedir prestado Abuchear Llamar Acampar Aclamar Limpiar Escalar Coleccionar Colorear Peinar Cocinar Contar Tapar Chocar Arrastrarse Cruzar Diseñar Descender Marcar Desaparecer Descubrir Discutir Vestir Derivar Ganar dinero Acabar Entrar Explicar Llenar Filmar Terminar Flotar Seguir Asustar

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BASE FORMA ANSWER ALLOW ARREST ASK BARK BURN BRUSH BORROW BOO CALL CAMP CHEER CLEAN CLIMB COLLECT COLOR COMB COOK COUNT COVER CRASH CRAWL CROSS DESIGN DESCEND DIAL DISAPPEAR DISCOVER DISCUSS DRESS DRIFT EARN END ENTER EXPLAIN FILL FILM FINISH FLOAT FOLLOW FRIGHTEN

RD

PRESENT-3 PERSON SING. ANSWERS ALLOWS ARRESTS ASKS BARKS BURNS BRUSHES BORROWS BOOS CALLS CAMPS CHEERS CLEANS CLIMBS COLLECTS COLORS COMBS COOKS COUNTS COVERS CRASHES CRAWLS CROSSES DESIGNS DESCENDS DIALS DISAPPEARS DISCOVERS DISCUSSES DRESSES DRIFTS EARNS ENDS ENTERS EXPLAINS FILLS FILMS FINISHES FLOATS FOLLOWS FRIGHTENS

PRESENT PARTICIPLE ANSWERING ALLOWING ARRESTING ASKING BARKING BURNING BRUSHING BORROWING BOOING CALLING CAMPING CHEERING CLEANING CLIMBING COLLECTING COLORING COMBING COOKING COUNTING COVERING CRASHING CRAWLING CROSSING DESIGNING DESCENDING DIALING DISAPPEARING DISCOVERING DISCUSSING DRESSING DRIFTING EARNING ENDING ENTERING EXPLAINING FILLING FILMING FINISHING FLOATING FOLLOWING FRIGHTENING

PAST TENSE ANSWERED ALLOWED ARRESTED ASKED BARKED BURNED BRUSHED BORROWED BOOED CALLED CAMPED CHEERED CLEANED CLIMBED COLLECTED COLORED COMBED COOKED COUNTED COVERED CRASHED CRAWLED CROSSED DESIGNED DESCENDED DIALED DISAPPEARED DISCOVERED DISCUSSED DRESSED DRIFTED EARNED ENDED ENTERED EXPLAINED FILLED FILMED FINISHED FLOATED FOLLOWED FRIGHTENED

PAST PARTICIPLE ANSWERED ALLOWED ARRESTED ASKED BARKED BURNED BRUSHED BORROWED BOOED CALLED CAMPED CHEERED CLEANED CLIMBED COLLECTED COLORED COMBED COOKED COUNTED COVERED CRASHED CRAWLED CROSSED DESIGNED DESCENDED DIALED DISAPPEARED DISCOVERED DISCUSSED DRESSED DRIFTED EARNED ENDED ENTERED EXPLAINED FILLED FILMED FINISHED FLOATED FOLLOWED FRIGHTENED

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M.A. RICARDO CHÁVEZ MELÉNDEZ BASE PRESENT -3RD N° SPANISH FORMA PERSON SING. 42 Fruncir FROWN FROWNS 43 Adivinar GUESS GUESSES 44 Suceder HAPPEN HAPPENS 45 Dañar HARM HARMS 46 Ayudar HELP HELPS

PRESENT PARTICIPLE FROWNING GUESSING HAPPENING HARMING HELPING

PAST TENSE FROWNED GUESSED HAPPENED HARMED HELPED HIJACKED

INGLÉS IV PAST PARTICIPLE FROWNED GUESSED HAPPENED HARMED HELPED HIJACKED

HUNTED INHERITED INSERTED INTERVIEWED INVENTED IRONED JOINED

HUNTED INHERITED INSERTED INTERVIEWED INVENTED IRONED JOINED

47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

Robar Cazar Heredar Insertar Entrevista Inventar Planchar Juntar

HIJACK HUNT INHERIT INSERT INTERVIEW INVENT IRON JOIN

HIJACKS HUNTS INHERITS INSERTS INTERVIEWS INVENTS IRONS JOINS

HIJACKING HUNTING INHERITING INSERTING INTERVIEWING INVENTING IRONING JOINING

55 56 57 58 59 60

Brincar Patear Matar Besar Golpear Aterrizar

JUMP KICK KILL KISS KNOCK LAND

JUMPS KICKS KILLS KISSES KNOCKS LANDS

JUMPING KICKING KILLING KISSING KNOCKING LANDING

JUMPED KICKED KILLED KISSED KNOCKED LANDED

JUMPED KICKED KILLED KISSED KNOCKED LANDED

61 62 63 64 65 66

Reír Aprender Escuchar Cargar Encerrar Mirar

LAUGH LEARN LISTEN LOAD LOCK LOOK

LAUGHS LEARNS LISTENS LOADS LOCKS LOOKS

LAUGHING LEARNING LISTENING LOADING LOCKING LOOKING

LAUGHED LEARNED LISTENED LOADED LOCKED LOOKED

LAUGHED LEARNED LISTENED LOADED LOCKED LOOKED

67 68 69 70 71 72

Examinar Buscar Mandar Fallar Mezclar Necesitar

LOOK AT LOOK FOR MAIL MISS MIX NEED

LOOKS AT LOOKS FOR MAILS MISSES MIXES NEEDS

LOOKING AT LOOKING FOR MAILING MISSINIG MIXING NEEDING

LOOKED AT LOOKED FOR MAILED MISSED MIXED NEEDED

LOOKED AT LOOKED FOR MAILED MISSED MIXED NEEDED

73 74 75 76 77 78

Abrir Ordenar Sobrecarga Empacar Pintar Estacionar

OPEN ORDER OVERLOAD PACK PAINT PARK.

OPENS ORDERS OVERLOADS PACKS PAINTS PARKS

OPENING ORDERING OVERLOADING PACKING PAINTING PARKING

OPENED ORDERED OVERLOADED PACKED PAINTED PARKED

OPENED ORDERED OVERLOADED PACKED PAINTED PARKED

79 80 81 82 83 84

Ejecutar Fotografía Escoger Derramar Fingir Imprimir

PERFORM PHOTOGRAPH PICK POUR PRETEND PRINT

PERFORMS PHOTOGRAPHS PICKS POURS PRETENDS PRINTS

PERFORMING PHOTOGRAPHING PICKING POURING PRETENDING PRINTING

PERFORMED PHOTOGRAPHED PICKED POURED PRETENDED PRINTED

PERFORMED PHOTOGRAPHED PICKED POURED PRETENDED PRINTED

PULL PUSH

PULLS PUSHES

PULLING PUSHING

PULLED PUSHED

PULLED PUSHED

85 Jalar 86 Empujar

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

55


M.A. RICARDO CHÁVEZ MELÉNDEZ RD BASE PRESENT -3 PRESENT N° SPANISH FORMA PERSON SING. PARTICIPLE 87 Llover RAIN RAINS RAINING 88 Alcanzar REACH REACHES REACHING 99 90 91 92 93 94

INGLÉS IV PAST PARTICIPLE RAINED REACHED

RELAX REMEMBER REPORT REST ROLL RUSH

RELAXES REMEMBERS REPORTS RESTS ROLLS RUSHES

RELAXING REMEMBERING REPORTIG RESTING ROLLING RUSHING

RELAXED REMEMBERED REPORTED RESTED ROLLED RUSHED

RELAXED REMEMBERED REPORTED RESTED ROLLED RUSHED

95 Atravesar

SAIL

SAILS

SAILING

SAILED

SAILED

96 Registrar

SEARCH

SEARCHES

SEARCHING

SEARCHED

SEARCHED

97 Elegir 98 Gritar

SELEC SHOUT

SELECTS SHOUTS

SELECTING SHOUTING

SELECTED SHOUTED

SELECTED SHOUTED

99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125

Firmar Esquiar Oler Arrebatar Nevar Sonar Deletrear Comenzar

SIGN SKI SMELL SNATCH SNOW SOUND SPELL START

SIGNS SKI SMELLS SNATCHES SNOWS SOUNDS SPELLS STARTS

SIGNING SKIING SMELLING SNATCHING SNOWING SOUNDING SPELLING STARTING

SIGNED SKIED SMELLED SNATCHED SNOWED SOUNED SPELLED STARTED

SIGNED SKIED SMELLED SNATCHED SNOWED SOUNDED SPELLED STARTED

Quedarse Hablar Amenazar Recorrer Tocar Remolcar Entrenar

STAY TALK THREATEN TOUR TOUCH TOW TRAIN

STAYS TALKS THREATENS TOURS TOUCHES TOWS TRAINS

STAYING TALKING THREATENING TOURING TOUCHING TOWING TRAINING

STAYED TALKED THREATENED TOURED TOUCHED TOWED TRAINED

STAYED TALKED THREATENED TOURED TOUCHED TOWED TRAINED

Viajar Girar Descubrir Visitar

TRAVEL TURN UNCOVER VISIT

TRAVELS TURNS UNCOVERS VISITS

TRAVELING TURNING UNCOVERING VISITING

TRAVELED TURNED UNCOVERED VISITED

TRAVELED TURNED UNCOVERED VISITED

Esperar Caminar

WAIT WALK

WAITS WALKS

WAITING WALKING

WAITED WALKED

WAITED WALKED

126 127 128 129 130 131

Relajar Recordar Relatar Reposar Rodar Precipitar

PAST TENSE RAINED REACHED

Querer Advertir Lavar Observar Murmurar Trabajar

WANT WANTS WANTING WANTED WARN WARNS WARNING WARNED WASH WASHS WASHING WASHED WATCH WATCHS WATCHING WATCHED WHISPER WHISPERS WHISPERING WHISPERED WORK WORKS WORKING WORKED *THESE VERBS DROP A FINAL -E BEFORE ADDING THE -ED FORM: LOS VERBOS QUE TERMINAN EN "E", SOLO SE AGREGA LA "D" Aconsejar ADVISE ADVISES ADVISING ADVISED Acordar AGREE AGREES AGREEING AGREED Arreglar ARRANGE ARRANGES ARRANGING ARRANGED Llegar ARRIVE ARRIVES ARRIVING ARRIVED Hornear BAKE BAKES BAKING BAKED Creer BELIEVE DELIEVES DELIEVING DELIEVED

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

WANTED WARNED WASHED WATCHED WHISPERED WORKED

ADVISED AGREED ARRANGED ARRIVED BAKED DELIEVED

56


M.A. RICARDO CHÁVEZ MELÉNDEZ

INGLÉS IV

REGULAR VERBS N° 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180

SPANISH Culpar Hervir Respirar Causar Cambiar Perseguir Cerrar Dañar Bailar Decidir Describir Morir Animar Examinar Explorar Incendiar Enfocar Forzar Apostar Rallar Odiar Autoparar Aumentar Esperar Ignorar Imaginar Mejorar Incrementar Invitar Bromear Mentir Gustar Vivir Amar Dirigir Medir Mover Detenerse Practicar Presentar Prometer Levantar Rescatar Reservar Retirarse Salvar Asustar Apuntar Servir

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

BASE FORMA BLAME BOIL BREATHE CAUSE CHANGE CHASE CLOSE DAMAGE DANCE DECIDE DESCRIBE DIE ENCOURAGE EXAMINE EXPLORE FIRE FOCUS FORCE GAMBLE GRATE HATE HITCHHIKE HIKE HOPE INGNORE IMAGINE IMPROVE INCREASE INVITE JOKE LIE LIKE LIVE LOVE MANAGE MEASURE MOVE PAUSE PRACTICE PRODUCE PROMISE RAISE RESCUE RESERVE RETIRE SAVE SCARE SCORE SERVE

RD

PRESENT -3 PERSON SING. BLAMES BOILS BREATHES CAUSES CHANGES CHASES CLOSES DAMAGES DANCES DECIDES DESCRIBES DIES ENCOURAGES EXAMINES EXPLORES FIRES FOCUSES FORCES GAMBLES GRATES HATES HITCHHIKES HIKES HOPES IGNORES IMAGINES IMPROVES INCREASES INVITES JOKES LIES LIKES LIVES LOVES MANAGES MEASURES MOVES PAUSES PRACTICES PRODUCES PROMISES RAISES RESCUES RESERVES RETIRES SAVES SCARES SCORES SERVES

PRESENT PARTICIPLE BLAMING BOILING BREATHING CAUSING CHANGING CHASING CLOSING DAMAGING DANCING DECIDING DESCRIBING DYING ENCOURAGING EXAMINING EXPLORING FIRING FOCUSING FORCING GAMBLING GRATING HATING HITCHHIKING HIKING HOPING IGNORING IMAGINING IMPROVING INCREASING INVITING JOKING LYING LIKING LIVING LOVING MANAGING MEASURING MOVING PAUSING PRACTICING PRODUCING PROMISING RAISING RESCUING RESERVING RETIRING SAVING SCARING SCORING SERVING

PAST TENSE BLAMED BOILED BREATHED CAUSED CHANGED CHASED CLOSED DAMAGED DANCED DECIDED DESCRIBED DIED ENCOURAGED EXAMINED EXPLORED FIRED FOCUSED FORCED GAMBLED GRATED HATED HITCHHIKED HIKED HOPED IGNORED IMAGINED IMPROVED INCREASED INVITED JOKED LIED LIKED LIVED LOVED MANAGED MEASURED MOVED PAUSED PRACTICED PRODUCED PROMISED RAISED RESCUED RESERVED RETIRED SAVED SCARED SCORED SERVED

PAST PARTICIPLE BLAMED BOILED BREATHED CAUSED CHANGED CHASED CLOSED DAMAGED DANCED DECIDED DESCRIBED DIED ENCOURAGED EXAMINED EXPLORED FIRED FOCUSED FORCED GAMBLED GRATED HATED HITCHHIKED HIKED HOPED IGNORED IMAGINED IMPROVED INCREASED INVITED JOKED LIED LIKED LIVED LOVED MANAGED MEASURED MOVED PAUSED PRACTICE PRODUCED PROMISED RAISED RESCUED RESERVED RETIRED SAVED SCARED SCORED SERVED

57


M.A. RICARDO CHÁVEZ MELÉNDEZ

INGLÉS IV

REGULAR VERBS N° 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194

BASE SPANISH FORMA Afeitar SHAVE Sonreír SMILE Mirar fijo STARE Almacenar STORE Sorprender SURPRISE Pegar cinta TAPE Probar TASTE Telefonear TELEPHONE Atar TIE Comerciar TRADE Mecanografía TYPE Desatar UNTIE Usar USE Agitar WAVE

 

RD

PRESENT -3 PERSON SING. SHAVES SMILES STARES STORES SURPRISES TAPES TASTES TELEPHONES TIES TRADES TYPES UNTIES USES WAVES

PRESENT PARTICIPLE SHAVING SMILING STARING STORING SURPRISING TAPING TASTING TELEPHONING TYING TRADING TYPING UNTYING USING WAVING

PAST TENSE SHAVED SMILED STARED STORED SURPRISED TAPED TASTED TELEPHONED TIED TRADED TYPED UNTIED USED WAVED

PAST PARTICIPLE SHAVED SMILED STARED STORED SURPRISED TAPED TASTED TELEPHONED TIED TRADED TYPED UNTIED USED WAVED

THESE VERBS CHANGE A FINAL -Y TO -I BEFORE ADDING THE -ED ENDING: LOS VERBOS QUE TERMINAN EN CONSONANTE MAS "Y", SE CAMBIA LA "Y" POR "I" Y SE AGREGA "ED".

195 Aplicar

APPLY

APPLIES

APPLYING

APPLIED

APPLIED

196 Llevar

CARRY

CARRIES

CARRYING

CARRIED

CARRIED

197 Llorar

CRY

CRIES

CRYING

CRIED

CRIED

198 Secar

DRY

DRIES

DRYING

DRIED

DRIED

199 Apresurar

HURRY

HURRIES

HURRYING

HURRIED

HURRIED

200 Casar

MARRY

MARRIES

MARRYING

MARRIED

MARRIED

201 Fotocopiar

PHOTOCOPY

PHOTOCOPIES

PHOTOCOPYING

PHOTOCOPIED

PHOTOCOPIED

202 Responder

REPLY

REPLIES

REPL YING

REPLIED

REPLIED

203 Estudiar

STUDY

STUOIES

STUDYING

STUDIED

STUDIED

204 Intentar

TRY

TRIES

TRYING

TRIED

TRIED

205 Preocupar

WORRY

WORRIES

WORRYING

WORRIED

WORRIED

 

THESE VERBS KEEP THE-Y ADDING THE -ED ENDING: LOS VERBOS QUE TERMINAN EN VOCAL MAS "Y", SE AGREGA "ED".

206 Destruir

DESTROY

DESTROYS

DESTROYING

DESTROYED

DESTROYED

207 Disfrutar

ENJOY

ENJOYS

ENJOYING

ENJOYED

ENJOYED

208 Obedecer

OBEY

OBEYS

OBEYING

OBEYED

OBEYED

209 Jugar

PLAY

PLAYS

PLAYING

PLAYED

PLAYED

 

THESE VERBS DOUBLE THE FINAL CONSONANT BEFORE ADDING THE -ED ENDING: ESTOS VERBOS SE LES PONE DOBLE CONSONANTE Y SE AGREGA "ED".

210 Aplaudir

CLAP

CLAPS

CLAPPING

CLAPPED

CLAPPED

211 Caer

DROP

DROPS

DROPPING

DROPPED

DROPPED

212 *

DROP BY

DROPS BY

DROPPING BY

DROPPED BY

DROPPED BY

213 Ajustar

FIT

FITS

FITTING

FITTED

FITTED

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

58


M.A. RICARDO CHÁVEZ MELÉNDEZ

INGLÉS IV

REGULAR VERBS N°

BASE FORMA

SPANISH

RD

PRESENT -3 PERSON SING.

PRESENT PARTICIPLE

PAST TENSE

PAST PARTICIPLE

214 Saltar

HOP

HOPS

HOPPING

HOPPED

HOPPED

215 Forzar

JAM

JAMS

JAMMING

JAMMED

JAMMED

216 Asaltar

MUG

MUGS

MUGGING

MUGGED

MUGGED

217 Inclinar

NOD

NODS

NODDING

NODDED

NODDED

218 Planear

PLAN

PLANS

PLANNING

PLANNED

PLANNED

219 Abandonar

QUIT

QUITS

QUITTING

QUITTED

QUITTED

220 Robar

ROB

ROBS

ROBBING

ROBBED

ROBBED

221 Delatar

SHOP

SHOPS

SHOPPING

SHOPPED

SHOPPED

222 Abofetear

SLAP

SLAPS

SLAPPING

SLAPPED

SLAPPED

223 Pasar

SLIP

SLIPS

SLIPING

SLIPPED

SLIPPED

224 Agitar

STIR

STIRS

STIRRING

STIRRED

STIRRED

225 Detener

STOP

STOPS

STOPPING

STOPPED

STOPPED

226 Rodear

TRAP

TRAPS

TRAPPING

TRAPPED

TRAPPED

227 Envolver

WRAP

WRAPS

WRAPPING

WRAPPED

WRAPPED

TIEMPO PRESENTE SIMPLE El tiempo presente simple expresa hábitos o actividades, repetitivas. SHE DRINKS ORANGE JUICE EVERY MORNING WE GO TO CHURCH EVERY SUNDAY. Es importante observar que para los pronombres es I, YOU, WE and THEY, los verbos conservan su forma original. YOU EAT CHINESE FOOD THREE TIMES A MONTH. Cuando el sujeto es la tercera persona del singular (HE, SHE, IT), la forma del verbo presenta cambios y se rige por las siguientes reglas: 1.- A LA MAYORÍA DE LOS VERBOS SE LES AGREGA "S" AL FINAL. eat = eats read = reads see = sees walk =walks 2.- SI EL VERBO TERMINA EN "CH", "SH", "SS", "X", O "ZZ", SE LES AGREGA "ES" AL FINAL. catch = catches pass = passes buzz = buzzes brush = brushes fix = fixes 3.- SI EL VERBO TERMINA EN UNA CONSONANTE MAS "Y", SE CAMBIA LA "Y" POR LA "I" Y SE AGREGA "ES" AL FINAL. study= studies try=tries hurry=hurries carry=carries 4.- AUNQUE NO SEA CONSIDERADA COMO REGLA, PERO LOS VERBOS QUE TERMINAN EN "O" SE LE AGREGA "ES" AL FINAL. go = goes do = does C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

59


M.A. RICARDO CHÁVEZ MELÉNDEZ

2

INGLÉS IV

LISTA DE VERBOS IRREGULARES IRREGULAR VERBS RD

BE BEAT BECOME BEGIN BET BITE BLOW BREAK BRING BUILD BUY CATCH CHOOSE COME COST CUT DIG DO

PRESENT-3 PERSON SING. AM/IS/ARE BEATS BECOMES BEGINS BETS BITS BLOWS BREAKS BRINGS BUILDS BUYS CATCHES CHOOSES COMES COSTS CUTS DIGS DOES

PRESENT PARTICIPLE BEING BEATING BECOMING BEGENNING BETTING BETTING BLOWING BREAKING BRINGING BUILDING BUYING CATCHING CHOOSING COMING COSTING COSTING DIGGING DOING

PAST TENSE WAS / WERE BEAT BECAME BEGAN BET BIT BLEW BROKE BROUGHT BUILT BOUGHT CAUGHT CHOSE CAME COST CUT DUG DID

PAST PARTICIPLE BEEN BEATEN BECOME BEGUN BET BITTEN BLOWN BROKEN BROUGHT BUILT BOUGHT CAUGHT CHOSEN COME COST CUT DUG DONE

19 Dibujar 20 Beber

DRAW DRINK

DRAWS DRINKS

DRAWING DRINKING

DREW DRANK

DRAWN DRUNK

21 22 23 24 25

DRIVE EAT FALL FEED FEEL

DRIVES EATS FALLS FEEDS FEELS

DRIVING EATING FALLING FEEDING FEELING

DROVE ATE FELL FED FELT

DRIVEN EATEN FALLEN FED FELT

26 Pelear 27 Buscar

FIGHT FIND

FIGHTS FINDS

FIGHTING FINDING

FOUGHT FOUND

FOUGHT FOUND

28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

FIT FLY FORGET GET GIVE GIVE UP GO GROW HAVE HEAR HIDE HIT HOLD HURT KEEP KNOW LEAVE LET LIE

FITS FLIES FORGETS GETS GIVES GIVES UP GOES GROWS HAS HEARS HIDES HITS HOLDS HURTS KEEPS KNOWS LEAVES LETS LIES

FITTING FLYING FORGETTIN GETTING GIVING GIVING UP GOING GROWING HAVING HEARING HIDING HITTING HOLDING HURTING KEEPING KNOWING LEAVING LETTING LYING

FIT FLEW FORGOT GOT GAVE GAVE UP WENT GREW HAD HEARD HID HIT HELD HURT KEPT KNEW LEFT LET LAY

FIT FLOWN FORGOTTEN GOTTEN GIVEN GIVEN UP GONE GROWN HAD HEARD HIDDEN HIT HELD HURT KEPT KNOWN LEFT LET LAIN

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

SPANISH Ser o estar Pegar Volverse Empezar Apostar Morder Soplar Quebrar Traer Construir Comprar Atrapar Elegir Venir Costar Cortar Cavar Hacer

Manejar Comer Caer Alimentar Sentir

Ajustar Volar Olvidar Obtener Dar Rendirse Ir Cultivar Tener Oír Esconder Golpear Retener Herir Guardar Saber Dejar Permitir Mentir

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

BASE FORMA

60


M.A. RICARDO CHÁVEZ MELÉNDEZ RD BASE PRESENT -3 N° SPANISH FORMA PERSON SING 47 Encender LIGHT LIGHTS 48 Perder LOSE LOSES 49 Hacer MAKE MAKES 50 Dar a entend. MEAN MEANS 51 Reunirse MEET MEETS 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91

Pagar Poner Leer Reconstruir Montar Tocar Crecer Correr Decir Ver Vender Mandar Colocar Coser Sacudir Brillar Mostrar Disparar Encoger Cantar Sentarse Dormir Hablar Gastar Extender Clavar Robar Barrer Nadar Tomar Quitar Enseñar Desgarrar Decir Pensar Lanzar Entender Usar Ganar Escribir

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

PAY PUT READ REBUILD RIDE RING RISE RUN SAY SEE SELL SEND SET SEW SHAKE SHINE SHOW SHOOT SHRINK SING SIT SLEEP SPEAK SPEND SPREAD STICK STEAL SWEEP SWIM TAKE TAKE OFF TEACH TEAR TELL THINK THROW UNDERSTAND WEAR WIN WRITE

PAYS PUTS READS REBUILDS RIDES RIDES RISES RUNS SAYS SEES SELLS SENDS SETS SEWS SHAKES SHINES SHOWS SHOOTS SHRINKS SINGS SITS SLEEPS SPEAKS SPENDS SPREADS STICKS STEALS SWEEPS SWIMS TAKES TAKES OFF TEACHES TEARS TELLS THINKS THROWS UNDERSTANDS WEARS WINS WRITES

PAST TENSE

INGLÉS IV PAST PARTICIPLE

PRESENT PARTICIPLE LIGHTING LOSING MAKING MEANING

LIT LOST MADE MEANT

LIT LOST MADE MEANT

MEETING PAYING PUTTING READING REBUILDING RIDING RINGS RISING RUNNING SAYING SEEING SELLING SENDING SETTING SEWING SHAKING SHINING SHOWING SHOOTING SHRINKING SINGING SITTING SLEEPING SPEAKING SPENDING SPREADING STICKING STEALING SWEEPING SWIMMING TAKING TAKING OFF TEACHING TEARING TELLING THINKING THROWING UNDERSTANDING WEARING WINNING WRITING

MET PAID PUT READ REBUILT RODE RANG ROSE RAN SAID SAW SOLD SENT SET SEWED SHOOK SHONE SHOWED SHOT SHRANK SANG SAT SLEPT SPOKE SPENT SPREAD STUCK STOLE SWEPT SWAM TOOK TOOK OFF TAUGHT TORE TOLD THOUGHT THREW UNDERSTOOD WORE WON WROTE

MET PAID PUT READ REBUILT RIDDEN RUNG RISEN RUN SAID SEEN SOLD SENT SET SEWM SHAKEN SHONE SHOWN SHOT SHRUNK SUNG SAT SLEPT SPOKEN SPENT SPREAD STUCK STOLEN SWEPT SWUM TAKEN TOOK OFF TAUGHT TORN TOLD THOUGHT THROWN UNDERSTOOD WORN WON WRITTEN

61


M.A. RICARDO CHÁVEZ MELÉNDEZ

INGLÉS IV

PRONUNCIACIÓN DE VERBOS REGULARES EN TIEMPO PASADO El sonido final de verbos regulares en tiempo pasado se rige por tres reglas: 1.- LA "ED" FINAL SE PRONUNCIA "ID" PARA VERBOS CUYO SONIDO FINAL ES "D" O "T". waited

visited

invited

needed

decided

2.- LA "ED" FINAL SE PRONUNCIA "T" PARA VERBOS CUYO SONIDO TERMINA EN "F", "K", "P", "S", "CH", "SH" O "X". laughed

helped

watched

fixed

worked

dressed

washed

3.- LA "ED" FINAL ES PRONUNCIADA "D" PARA LOS VERBOS CUYOS SONIDOS DIFIEREN DE LAS DOS REGLAS ANTERIORES. rained

lived

C.B.T.I.S. Nº 84

played

smiled

62


Folleto de Inglés IV 2013