EV VITAND DO ERROS DUR RANTE E A FOR RMAÇÃ ÃO DO TIME: ENCO ONTRAN NDO AS A PESSO OAS CE ERTAS P PARA CA ADA FU UNÇÃO USAND DO O M MBTI® (D DISPON NIBILIZA ADO AP PENAS EM ING GLÊS)
Ric cardo Viana a Vargas, MSc, M IPMA A-B, PMP Professor – Getulio G Vargas Foundation (F FGV) – Brasil Professor P – Fun ndação Institutto de Administtração (FIA – U USP) - Brasil Partnerr – Macrosolutiions – Brasil ricardo.varrgas@macrosolu utions.com.br © Ric cardo Viana Vargas. Todos os Direito os Reservados.
Pub blicações PM MI Global Cong gress EMEA Ediinburgh - Scottland - 2005
ABSTRAC CT This article e presents a vision of the modells of preferences pressented by the Myers Briggs Typ pe Indicatorr© (MBTI) and a its appllication for the Staff Acquisition. A U Using the comprehen nsion of the relation between b th he 16 MBT TI Types wiith the maiin project Manageme ent function ns, is posssible to attribute a functions insside the p project in , increasing the motiva concordance with the individual preferences p ation of the team and p in the project.. reducing potentials conflicts and problems
TEAM AC CQUISITION N IN THE PROJECT P The projec ct human resources r area a is one e of the PMBOK P Gu uide 3rd (PMI 2004) knowledge e areas that the manage er and project team havve requested d more atten ntion. As reporte ed in the G Guide, the Project P Hum man Resources Manag gement includes the processes required to make the most m effectivve use of hu uman resourrces involved d with the project. It includes all project stakkeholders: sponsors, s cu ustomers, in ndividual co ontributors bed below a and Exhibit 1 provides the mind and otherss. The main processes are describ map of the e processes.. → Hum man Resou urces Planning – Ide entifying an nd docume enting proje ect roles, resp ponsibilities, and repo orting relatio onships, ass well as creating c the e staffing management plan. p → Acq quire Projec ct Team – Obtaining O the e human ressources nee eded to com mplete the pro oject. → Devvelop Project Team– Improving I t the competencies and interaction n of team members to en nhance proje ect performance. → Manage Proje ect Team - Tracking g team me ember perfformance, providing feed dback, resolving issues, and coordinating changes to enhance e project perrformance.
Exhib bit 1 – Human Ressources Management Processes.
These proc cesses interract with ea ach other an nd with the process in the other knowledge areas. Eac ch processs may invo olve effort from f one or o more in ndividuals o or groups depending on the need ds of the project. The staff acquisition a a approached in this paper involves the increase of the capability to find the mo ost adequate e profession nal to each project p func ction (VARGA AS, 2004).
MYERS-B BRIGGS TY YPE INDICA ATOR® (M MBTI®) The purpose of the M Myers-Briggss Type Indicator® (MB BTI®) perso onality inven ntory is to make the theory t of pssychologica al types desscribed by C C. G. Jung understand dable and useful in people’s p live es. The esssence of th he theory iss that much h seeminglyy random variation in n the behavvior is actua ally quite orderly o and consistent, being due e to basic difference in the way in ndividual pre efer to use their t perception and jud dgment. or® was de eveloped byy Isabel Brriggs Myerss and her The Myerss-Briggs Type Indicato mother, Ka atharine Co ook Briggs, to make C.G. Jung's theory of psycholog gical type practical an nd useful in people's livves. With MBTI® people le earn to identify their characteristic c cs, their po oints of stre ength and ent and the kinds of work w more adequate a to o their type, special ab bilities and developme expectation ns. MBTI® a also indicate es how relattionships an nd aptness can c be deve eloped for personal ass well as forr organizatio onal successs. MBTI® furtther indicate es: → How w to improvve interperso onal relationships → How w to improvve the abilityy to lead with h efficiency → How w to deepen n self-knowlledge → How w to create more produ uctive and participating p work teamss → How w to endo ow your organization o with high her patternss of efficie ency and pro oductivity. The MBTI ® test is applied a by CPP (Centter for Appllications of Psychologiical Type) through a questionna aire with 93 multiple ch hoice questtions, tabula ated throug gh a data bank with millions m of people p who have alread dy used MBT TI®. The ressult is prese ented with 4 letters that picture th he exercise of the indivvidual preferrences regarding perce eption and a follows: judgment, as → E or o I – Whe ere the persson preferss to focus his/her atte ention (Extrroverts or Intrroverts) → S or o N – How tthe person obtains o inforrmation abo out things (S Sensors or In ntuitives) → T or F – How th he person ta akes decisio ons (Thinking or Feeling g) → J or o P – How w the person guides him/herself regarding r th he world (Ju udging or Perrceiving) The Intern net has a series of tests avvailable to MBTI®, such as tthe sites http://www w.humanmettrics.com an nd http://blo oginality.love e-productions.com.
THE SIXTEEN TYPEES
By combining the indivvidual preferrences we have h the sixtteen psycho ological Typ pes. Isabel Briggs Mye ers has prep pared a bassic set of ch haracteristicss for each of o these type es, as will be presented below. SEN NSORS
J d i Judging P i i Perceiving
J d i Judging
INTUITIV VES Witth Feeling
With Thinking g
Exhibit 1 – Sixteen Psycholog gical Types (©Consulting Psychologiists Press Inc.).
uite, seriouss, earn suc ccess by th horoughnesss and dep pendability. Practical, ISTJ - Qu matter-of-fa act, realistic c, and respo onsible. Dec cide logicallyy what shou uld be done and work toward it steadily, rega ardless of distractions. d Take pleassure in making everythin ng orderly work, their home, h their life. Value trraditions and d loyalty. and organizzed – their w ISFJ - Quie et, friendly, rresponsible, and consc cientious. Co ommitted and steady in n meeting their obliga ations. Thorrough, painsstaking, and d accurate. Loyal, con nsiderate, notice and remember specifics about a people who are e important to them, concerned c with how others feel. Strive to create an orderly and d harmoniou us environm ment at worrk and at home. INFJ - See ek meaning and connec ction in idea as, relationsships, and material m posssessions. Want to understand d what motivates pe eople and are insightful about others. Conscientio ous and com mmitted to their t firm va alues. Develo op a clear vision v about how best to serve the e common good. g Organized and decisive d in im mplementing g their vision n. INTJ - Havve original minds m and great g drive for impleme enting their ideas and achieving their goals.. Quickly se ee patterns in external events e and develop lon ng-range exxplanatory perspective es. When c committed, organize a job and carry c it thro ough. Skep ptical and
Excerpted fro om Introduction tto Type by Isabe el Briggs Myers published by CP PP. Inc.
independen nt, have hig gh standard ds of comp petence and d performan nce – for th hemselves and others. ISTP - Tole erant and fle exible, quiet observers until a problem appears, then act quickly to find workab ble solutions. Analyze what w makess things wo ork and read dily get thro ough large amounts off data to iso olate the corre of practic cal problemss. Interested d in cause a and effect, organize fa acts using lo ogical princip ples, value efficiency. e ISFP - Quiet, friendly, sensitive, and a kind. Enjoy the pre esent mome ent, what’s going on around the em. Like to have their own space e and to wo ork within th heir own tim me frame. Loyal and committed to their valu ues and to people who o are imporrtant to them m. Dislike disagreeme ents and co onflicts; do not n force the eir opinions or values on n others. INFP - Idea alistic, loyal to their valu ues and to people p who are importa ant to them. Want an external life e that is con ngruent with h their valuess. Curious, q quick to see e possibilitie es, can be catalysts fo or implemen nting ideas. Seek to und derstand pe eople and to o help them fulfill their potential. Adaptable, A fllexible, and accepting unless u a valu ue is threate ened. INTP - Se eek to devvelop logic cal explanattions for everything e that t interessts them. Theoreticall and abstrract, interessted more in ideas th han in socia al interactio on. Quiet, contained, flexible, an nd adaptab ble. Have unusual u abillity to focus in depth to solve problems in n their area of interest. Skeptical, sometimes s c critical, alwa ays analytica al. ESTP - Flexxible and to olerant, they take a prag gmatic appro oach focuse ed immediatte results. Theories and a concepttual explana ations bore e them – th hey want to o act energe etically to solve the problem. p Foc cus o n the here-and-n now, sponta aneous, enjo oy each moment that they can be b active with others. Enjoy E materrial comfortss and style. Learn besst through doing. ndly, and ac ccepting. $E Exuberant lo overs of life, people, and d material ESFP - Outgoing, frien E workin ng with othe ers to make things happ pen. Bring common c sen nse and a comforts. Enjoy realistic ap pproach to their t work, and make work w fun. Flexible F and spontaneous, adapt readily to new n people e and enviro onments. Learn L best by b trying a new skill w with other people. ENFP - Warmly W enth husiastic an nd imaginative. See liffe as full of o possibilitie es. Make connection ns between events an nd informatiion very qu uickly, and confidentlyy proceed based on the t patternss they see. Want a lot of affirmatio on from oth hers, and re eadily give appreciatio on and sup pport. Spon ntaneous and a flexible,, often relyy on their ability to improvise and a their verrbal fluency. ENTP - Qu uick, ingenio ous, stimula ating, alert, and a outspo oken. Resou urceful in so olving new and challe enging prob blems. Ade ept at generating con nceptual po ossibilities a and then analyzing th hem strateg gically. Good d at reading g other peop ple. Bored by b routine, w will seldom do the sam me thing the same way, apt to turn to one new interest afte er another.
ESTJ - Pra actical, realisstic, matter-of-fact. Dec cisive, quickkly move to implement d decisions. Organize projects p and d people to get things done, focus on getting g results in the most efficient wa ay possible. Take care of o routine details. Have e a clear set of logical sstandards, systematica ally follow th hem and wa ant others to o also. Force eful in imple ementing the eir plans. ESFJ - Warmhearte W ed, conscie entious, an nd coopera ative. Wantt harmony in their environmen nt; work w with determination to establish it. Like to work w with others to complete tasks t accurrately and on o time. Lo oyal, follow through evven in small matters. Notice wha at others need n in their day-by-da ay lives and d try to pro ovide it. Wa ant to be appreciated d for who th hey are and for what the ey contributte. Highly attuned to the e ENFJ - Wa arm, empath hetic, respon nsive, and responsible. r emotions, needs, and d motivation ns of otherss. Find pote ential in everyone, wantt to help otthers fulfill their potential. May act as catalysts for individ dual and gro oup growth.. Loyal, resp ponsive to praise and d criticism. Sociable, facilitate others o in a group, an nd provide inspiring leadership. ENTJ - Fra ank, decisivve, assume leadership readily. Qu uickly see illogical and inefficient proceduress and polic cies, develo op and imp plement comprehensivve systems to solve organizatio onal problem ms. Enjoy long-term planning a and goal setting. s Usu ually well informed, well w read, enjoy expa anding their knowledge e and passsing it on tto others. Forceful in presenting ttheir ideas.
PROJECTT MANAGEEMENT FUN NCTIONS RELATED R W WITH PSYCHOLLOGICAL TY YPES Based in th he psycholo ogical typess presented by the MBT TI ® it can be proven that in an environmen nt of projectts, each one e of the types has dete ermined inhe erent easine esses and difficulties to t the work in projects. Based in the t work off KROEGER R, THUESE EN, J. M. & RUTLEGE E, H. (2002)), can be consolidate ed the follow wing aspec cts of each type: Workkplace Conttribution, Pa athway to the Professsional Growtth, Leadersh hip Qualitiess, Team Spirit and sugg gested PM. Jobs. ISTJ → Wo orkplace Co ontribution - Establishe es order du utifully and steadily an nd works with hin the syste em to mana age and com mplete taskss on time an nd under bud dget. → Patthway to Prrofessional Growth - Must M learn that t both organizationa o al change and d people isssues - idea as that mayy violate tra adition - can play pow werful and possitive roles in n organizatio onal life. → Lea adership Qu ualities - Brings tasks to completiion efficienttly and dutiffully while maintaining resspect and order through hout the gro oup or organ nization.
→ Tea am Spirit - T Teams, if well w manage ed, are a go ood way to distribute ttasks and com mplete projects, but the t importa ant work th hat is done e is carried d out by indiividuals whe en the team meetings are a over. → Sug ggested PM M Job - fin nancial work, controlliing, technic cal problem m solving, indiividual and isolated taskks. ISFJ → Wo orkplace Con ntribution - Offers quiett support, a sense of orrder, and atttention to detail from beh hind the scenes. → Patthway to Pro ofessional Growth G - Mu ust learn to be open to new possib bilities and cha anging situa ations—-thiss flexibility can c often be b the sup pport someo one most nee eds. → Lea adership Qu ualities - Produces ressults through one-on-o one relationsships and detail control and a tends to o perform tassks oneself rather than delegate. → Tea am Spirit - Teams are worthwhile e work unitss, vital and important sstructures thatt are yet an nother arena a in which to o provide quiet, unassu uming supp port to the organization an nd its people e. → Sug ggested PM M Job – on ne to one re elationship, tasks with no delega ation, idea gen neration. INFJ → Wo orkplace Co ontribution - Turns wo ork into a cause and injects—w with quiet, seriious focus - inspiration and devotio on througho out the organ nization. → Patthway to Pro ofessional Growth G - Mu ust learn thatt his or her excitement e about the futu ure and the possibilitiess it holds fo or people is often overlo ooked, burie ed as it is ben neath a serio ous exterior. → Lea adership Qu ualities - Provides P insspirational and visiona ary direction with a moralistic or values-relatted spin, working w with focus toward t cha ange and devvelopment. → Tea am Spirit - T Teams are complex c human system ms that need understan nding and care and that, if well mana aged, can prroduce insp pirational, va aluable workk. → Sug ggested PM M Job - idea a inspiration n, visionary ttasks and project p man nagement, worrk well with complex sittuations. INTJ → Wo orkplace Co ontribution - Provides organizatio ons and grroups with objective clarrity, vision, and stra ategic thinkking white driving to oward cha ange and imp provement. → Patthway to Pro ofessional Growth G - Mu ust learn tha at each idea a for visionarry change brin ngs with it u untold details to which h someone will need to o tend - the e stresses bro ought on by visionary ch hange are re eal and painful.
→ Lea adership Qu ualities - Dra aws energyy from the complexity c of future po ossibilities and d shepherds individualls and grou ups through h uncertainty and cha ange with dec cisiveness and fairness. → Tea am Spirit - T Teams are powerful p and d complicate ed systems that, if well designed and d managed, can play a pivotal role e in bringing a group orr organizatio on’s vision to fruition. f → Sug ggested PM M Job - stra ategic prob blem-solving, able to work w with de etails and with h uncertaintty, group org ganization. ISTP orkplace Co ontribution - Solves pro oblems pra actically and d immediate ely with a → Wo calm m, clear-thin nking resolvve. → Patthway to Professional Growth G - Must learn that the comp plexity of pe eople and rela ationships de eserves con nsideration and a offers no quick fix. → Lea adership Qu ualities - Sets an examp ple to act ind dependentlyy and to atte end to the nee eds of the sh hort term, unencumber u red by tradittion, proced dure, or the demands of others. o → Tea am Spirit - T Teams are often o an irrita ation and a d diversion fro om effective, practical worrk, work tha at is best do one alone. → Sug ggested PM M Job - confflict resolutio on with calm m and control, immedia ate action task ks, work we ell alone, pra actical and direct d projec ct tasks. ISFP orkplace Con ntribution - Support pe eople and th heir efforts with w a gentle e – almost → Wo ano onymous – a attention to details and action in the e moment. → Patthway to Professional Growth - Must learn to focus on o the pattterns and pro oblems beyo ond immedia ate concern n - to look ffor and confront the syystemic or roo ot issues and not to ge et lost in the e foregroun nd, solving only o the pro oblems of today. → Lea adership Qu ualities - Lea ads by exam mple-by tend ding to task details and providing gen ntle; unassuming suppo ort. → Tea am Spirit - T Teams are fine and can be fun, thro ough they arre personally draining and d intrusive; quiet q support and dilige ent works are what makke teams efffective. → Sug ggested PM M Job - hid dden projec ct tasks, tassks that mu ust be done without rew ward, quiet support. s INFP → Wo orkplace Con ntribution - Holds and protects the e values witthin which a are rooted indiividual, grou up, and orga anizational id dentities —o often serving as moral ballast for organizations and a teams. → Patthway to Prrofessional Growth G - Must M learn to o face conflict and con nfront it in the moment.
→ Lea adership Qualities - Appeals A to values thrrough perssonal relatio onships con ntrolling taskks and people in such a way that those conc cerned do n not notice theyy are being controlled at a all. → Tea am Spirit - Though te eamwork iss difficult a and draining g, collabora ating and worrking togeth her to pool resources an nd ideas is vvaluable and d motivating g. → Sug ggested PM M Job – team m support, in ntuitive jobss, team mora al ballast. INTP → Wo orkplace Con ntribution - Uses cleverrness and in ndependent thinking to problemsolvve and re einvent, an nd in an easygoing g unassum ming manne er prods organizational change c and d improveme ent. → Patthway to Professional Growth - Must learn tha at connectting and com mmunicating g with other people is important – great solu utions and ideas are ado opted and enacted e thro ough person nal relationsh hips. → Lea adership Qu ualities - Cre eates and works w towarrd a vision and a a bette er solution and d allows others to follow w at their ow wn pace and d ability. → Tea am Spirit - A team is okkay if it allow ws memberss to enter on n their own tterms and to contribute c in their own n way – butt the best visioning v and problem solving is don ne in isolatio on. → Sug ggested PM M Job – va alorize each contributio on in a team m, isolated problemsolvving, technic cal project jo ob, financial control. ESTP orkplace Contribution - Goes with the flow, ad dapts to the e unexpecte ed, allows → Wo variiables, and delivers d wha at needs to be delivered d. → Patthway to Professional Growth G - Must learn to o be patient with routine es and to be aware that others mayy find comfo ort in structure, rules, and a contem mplation of futu ure possibilitties. → Lea adership Qu ualities - Kee eps oneself and others on their toe es by being open and resp ponsive to the t unexpec cted and ab bandoning rules r of hiera archy and trradition in the name of exxpediency. → Tea am Spirit - Teams T can be b fun; how wever, without constant action and variation, or in dull meetings, they ca an run agrou und. → Sug ggested PM M Job – wo ork well with h unpredicttable job, without w hiera archy and trad dition. ESFP → Wo orkplace Contribution - Provides high-spirited h d energy tha at keeps a variety of peo ople and acttions moving g in positive e ways. → Patthway to Prrofessional Growth - Must M learn to t stretch to t face the negative, stre essful, and even e hostile moments of o work life iss not alwayss a barrel off fun.
→ Lea adership Qu ualities - Hass a personall and often p playful go-w with-the-mom ment style thatt can be hig ghly motivatiing to otherss. → Tea am Spirit - Teamwork T is the best way to app proach any endeavor; the entire worrld’s a team m, and only good g can co ome from su uch joined efforts. e → Sug ggested PM M Job – divverse culturral team manager, gro oup problem m-solving, glob bal project m managemen nt. ENFP → Wo orkplace Co ontribution - Motivattes and in nvigorates thought in nspiration, enthusiasm, an nd unyielding attention to t personal relationship ps. → Patthway to Professiona al Growth - Must learn l to follow proje ects and com mmitments through to completion n and to be e aware tha at one’s wiide mood swings can frusstrate and confuse c thosse with who om he or she e works. → Lea adership Qu ualities - Motivates, M inspires, and d cajoles pe eople to ac ccomplish task ks and to de evelop both h personally and professsionally. → Tea am Spirit - Teams T are fu un and energizing – especially whe en conflict, hierarchy, and d tight time lines l can be e avoided. → Sug ggested PM M Job – tea am motivato or, group p problem-solvving, optimistic team lead der that believe that wo ork together is the best work. ENTP → Wo orkplace Co ontribution - Regards the t workpla ace as a syystem to be e moved, cha allenged, an nd reconfigu ured so thatt learning iss constant and a worthw while tasks are accomplish hed. → Patthway to Pro ofessional Growth G - Mu ust learn to focus enerrgy on follow w-through and d completion n - even wh hen one dee ems them bo oring and to o remember that wide mood swings c can send mixed signalss. → Lea adership Qu ualities - Empowers one eself and oth hers by cha allenging, co onfronting, and d even takking an opposing point of view to enhanc ce each in ndividual’s con ntribution to the end ressult. → Tea am Spirit - Teams T are one more important ve ehicle for ea arning - an arena for testting ideas, discussing d d differences, and collabo orating on re esults. → Sug ggested PM M Job – change mana agement, ch hange leade er, conflict resolution from m opposing points of view. ESTJ → Wo orkplace Con ntribution - Drives to ta ake charge, to see the practical p fac cilitation of a ta ask, and to complete c it with dispatc ch and skill. → Patthway to Professional P Growth - Must learn n to be lesss hard-cha arging by liste ening to and d allowing allternative vie ewpoints. → Lea adership Qualities - Takes T cha arge, demands 1oyaltty, pushes hard to acc complish a task, and tellls it like it is.
→ Tea am Spirit - T Teams are an a effective tool t for acco omplishing tasks t as lon ng as they are well manag ged and peo ople’s roles and goals a are defined. → Sug ggested PM M Job – pra actical team m manager, quick answ wer problem m-solving, role e manageme ent, execution manager. ESFJ → Wo orkplace Co ontribution - Builds a harmonio ous environment that supports perrsonal achievvement and d task accom mplishment.. → Patthway to Prrofessional Growth G - Must learn to o accept diffferences, alllow them to be b expresse ed, and reco ognize that conflict c is no ot always de estructive. → Lea adership Qu ualities - Pro ojects inspiration and graciousness g s with a con nstant yet gen ntle nudge to oward task completion. → Tea am Spirit - T Teams are good g and can be productive; how wever, argum ments and disa agreementss should not be tolerated. → Sug ggested PM M Job – ha armonious team t manager, good supporting individual task ks, do not a accept intole erances from m the team members. ENFJ → Wo orkplace Co ontribution - Persona ally inspiress and motivates all to work harrmoniously for the comm mon good. → Patthway to Pro ofessional Growth G - Mu ust learn that not all sittuations nee ed rescue and d that disagrreements arre not perso onal attacks. → Lea adership Qu ualities - Em mpowers oth hers to acco omplish what needs to o be done by nurturing n relationships and a making personal ap ppeals. → Tea am Spirit - Teams are good, peop ple are goo od, and worrk is good when the theme of togettherness drivves the taskk. → Sug ggested PM M Job – po ositive team m leader, optimistic po oint of view w, nurture rela ationships, conflict c resolution from team t memb bers. ENTJ → Wo orkplace Co ontribution - Through h hard-cha arging argu uments and d action, inte ellectually insspires and challenges c e everyone to experience a vision and d to move tow ward its fulfillment with dispatch. d → Patthway to Pro ofessional Growth G - Mu ust learn to allow time for f others to o develop at their own pa ace and leve el of committment. → Lea adership Qu ualities - Is ta ask-driven and a demand ding, with a motivationa al spin for eve eryone to ge et on board and move to oward achie eving the go oal. → Tea am Spirit - Teams ca an be good d and do provide opportunities for more invo olvement - as a long as the t task is completed c a and the gro oup’s processs do not slow w or water d down the vission. → Sug ggested PM M Job – in ntuitive tea am leader, intellectual leader, tassk driven manager.
CONCLUS SIONS The aim of this article iis to associa ate the theo ory proposed d by C. G. Jung J and th he need to accomplish h a judiciouss and well-ssucceeded human resources sele ection for the project. With the alllocation of the psycho ological type es that are a aligned to th he functionss they will represent, the probab bility of turn n-over is red duced, thuss increasing g the motiva ation and facilitating the t develop pment of the e team. Fina ally, it is imp portant to sttress that th here is not a better orr worse typ pe. All typess have strong and we eak featuress, and, in a project’s human ressources se election, se everal other factors, dynamics and proce esses will complemen nt MBTI® in n the adequa ate selection and alloca ation of the project’s ressources.
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