Models of the future: The Self Sufficient city (IE advanced seminar)

Page 1

u S

f o s l e : d e o r M futu f l e e h t he S y t t cit n e i c ffi rt o p e ar r sin n i sem Brato d e anc Iancu v d IE a xandra u R . f pro

Index Student list p.5 Executive summary p.7 Case studies p.9 Living Walls and Vertical Gardens p.12 Las Vegas’ Contribution to Circular Economy p.13 Amazon Robotics Kiva System: Human exclusion zones p.14 BedZED community, Sutton London p.15 Vancouver SkyTrain p.16 The Environmental Energy Innovation (EEI) Building p.17 The Isle of Eigg p.18 Petit Place by RoosRos Architecten p.19 Changi Airport, Singapore p.20 Samso Island, Denmark p.21 La Pointe Verte Community Garden p.22 Ile Seguin, Boulogne Billancourt p.23 Earthship Brighton p.24 Findhorn Ecovillage p.25 The BIQ-House p.26 The sponge city p.27 PowerWindows p.28 SeeClickFix & Songdo p.29 Greenbelts p.30 Curitiba, Brazil p.31 Home Garden Drip Irrigation p.32 Sources p.34 Buenavista,Carabanchel p.37 Breaking the food supply chain p.42 Water management p.44 Child Centered Sustainability p.46 Renewable Energy Infrastructure p.50 An energy self-sufficient neighborhood p.52 An Integrated Neighborhood p.54 The Solution to All the Problems p.58 A self-sufficient Carabanchel p.62 A self-sufficient community center p.66 A self-sufficient park p.68 The Yard p.70 Urban Rooftop Farming p.74 Electronic Cadavre Exquis p.76 Circular economy in the food system p.80 Leading by example p.86

Course: IE advanced seminar Models of the future: The Self Sufficient City Course Professor: Ruxandra Iancu Bratosin Students: De La Cruz,Sophia Joy 2nd Year Bachelor in Design Deichler,Miles Jacob 1st year Bachelor in Politics, Law and Economics Davina Francesca Priscilla Drummond 1st Bachelor in Business Administration Frantsuzov Mikhail 5th Year Bachelor in Architecture Fréreux- Sanchez,Tom, Juan, Claude 1º Dual PLEDBA González Rodríguez De Biedma,María 3rd Year Bachelor in Architecture Goveas,Kristina Jessie 1st year Bachelor in Politics, Law and Economics Hempel,Emanuel Theodor 2nd Bachelor in Business Administration Lampis Temmink,Lauro Amadeo 1st year Bachelor in Politics, Law and Economics Laraqui Houssaini,Ghali 3º BBABIR Lassen,Anna Bundgaard 2nd Year Bachelor in Design Monga,Sophie, Dany 1º Dual PLEDBA Marie-thé Pathe Pastor,Alejandra Victorine 1st year Bachelor in Behavioral Science Verbrugge,Capucine, Marie 1st year Bachelor in Communication and Digital Media

Executive Summary With the growth expectations of global urban population in the coming years and taking into account that cities contribute 70% of the world’s CO2 emissions, rethinking the city for a better environmental performance is now a priority in the global agenda. World society has grown in cities, urban life is supposed to represent amplitude of opportunities for its inhabitants yet most have not evolved to respond to the demands of life in community. As cities continue to grow, new questions arise: how can the city of the XXI century become sustainable? What are the conditions that will enable the development of cities for the future? what models of business, behaviour and community interactions are going to emerge in the future? Throughout history, cities have been put under the scope; its conditions and components have undergone an excessive study. However, nowadays the availability of information and methods of obtaining data have enabled all types of agents from the most diverse backgrounds to study cities, with a level of detail and resolution never attained before. This seminar was dedicated to exploring the metabolism of the urban life and numbers that comprise it. The scope is to better understand the city as a living organism and researching the functions that keep it alive. After the course the students were able to understand and identify opportunities of growth, improvement and change at an urban level. Students tackled the topics of sustainability, circular economy, up-cycling and self-sufficiency. This course, like many others, was disrupted by the COVID-19 outbreak. The focus of the syllabus swiftly shifted from looking at utopian future cities, at understand the situation now, as it is happening,

looking at the existing city fabric as a place for new opportunity, rather than creating new urban spaces. The course consisted of a series of lectures that introduced the students to the following: - history of the growth of cities, centralised vs distributed models and future predictions for the urban environment - food and its production, focusing on its environmental impact, as well as waste generated from it - water and its connection to agriculture, as well as systems of recycling and collecting water - mobility and its history, focusing on its connection with the growth of cities and alternatives for the future - energy, comprised of heat and electricity, understanding its consumption and sources, with a focus on the implementation of renewable energy sources - waste, its origin and its potential to be converted into energy, repurposed and reduced - circular economy and its take on reducing waste and changing the linear economy model Two main assignments were given. One of investigation, creating a catalogue of sustainable existing solutions and examples at all scales, from small household systems to city and administrative decisions. The second was to look at a selected block from the Neighbourhood of Carabanchel, Madrid, recognising its issues and its opportunities, proposing systems to improve the environmental impact of the block, raise quality of life and create social cohesion and alignment towards a more sustainable future. The document finishes with a proposal that tries to combine the most feasible and impactful proposals into one.

s e i d

u t s se

a c



ds r o yw

lity a u air q ation m auto el e u biof ing scal d buil cale s city gy o ecol y g nity u ener m om food inable c a sust e t was r e wat ology n tech




+ +++++ ++

+ +

+ + + +

+ +++ +


Davina Francesca Priscilla Drummond Study:

Living Walls and Vertical Gardens Keywords:

air quality, water filtration, ecology Living walls are quickly evolving into a functional and appealing part of a self-sufficient system. They efficiently use available space and can be used in conjunction with other systems necessary for a city. Firstly, they improve air quality as polluting particles stick to the leaves until they are washed away by rain (Team London Bridge, 2019). They also perform photosynthesis which as a byproduct produces oxygen. This will also serve to improve air quality. Secondly, these living walls can also function as a drainage system for cities as water takes longer to filter through the soil and so would help prevent flooding as well as being used as an advanced water filtration system to remove containments. This could be adjusted to specific areas by changing the PH of the soil. For example, in areas that are prone to acid rain a alkaline soil could be used to ensure that the water is filtered and clean. This frees up resources and ensures maximum efficiency of the system. Thirdly, they can be used to produce microgreens, which grow in 8 days. They increase biodiversity and insect populations. This system is easy to enact and can be easily added to or taken down. It can transform poorer areas of cities into the most vibrant with these vertical walls improving the vistas. Difficulties of this system including accessing different parts of the system and a rotational system may become necessary in the future.

page 12

However, existing examples in cities such as London have not yet shown a need for a rotational system and this is likely to only be necessary if these are used in food production systems. Vertical Walls can be easily adapted to different climates and tastes by changing the plants used and can take advantage of research and innovations in aquaponics and hydroponics as it becomes available. There have been multiple temporary vertical wall structures around the world and these should be expanded to maintain the rise in air quality that we have seen since world travel halted due to Covid19.

Student: Miles Deichler Study:

Las Vegas’ Contribution to Circular Economy (Using Biofuel to Positively Impact the Environment) Keywords:

biofuel, city-scale The Las Vegas Strip is one of the world’s premier tourist destinations, with roughly 40 million people visiting the adult playground each year. In Las Vegas’ entertainment and tourism industry, the casinos do not leave an ideal environmental footprint. Each year, casinos produce 500,000 tons of waste, most of which goes straight to landfills.

The result of this process is a less expensive, renewable, cleaner fuel source. In fact, it is the only fuel source to meet the Environmental Protection Agency’s definition of a safe biofuel for usage. Along with being a benefactor to the ecosystem, prices are also more reliable and independent of fluctuating markets.

Aside from the already adverse effects landfills have on the ecosystem, vegetable oils & animal fats produced in the restaurants sector in particular prove deadly to animal species and pose a threat to the overall surrounding environment.

This biodegradable fuel happens to be an example of a circular economy, starting in the form of a completely unrelated good and ultimately being “fueled” back into the economy, figuratively and literally.

Maintaining a good image in the public eye is key to remaining profitable, and as a result a wave of corporate green responsibility washing over every industry. Due to this incentivization, the large casino corporations have begun adhering to Sustainable Development Standards. Found an innovative way to contribute towards reducing waste and lowering their carbon footprint is by supplying the world with an alternative to petroleum based diesel fuel: biodiesel. The conversion of cooking oil used to fuel the cooking sector into biofuel to fuel transportation sector is possible by means of relatively simple processes and a decent budget for purchasing production materials at a local hardware store.

page 13

It is especially significant since most of the country’s industrial vehicles use diesel fuel, contributing to 44% of the carbon monoxide levels. This, combined with the notion that it’s C02 emissions are 86% less than petroleum diesel, equals a cleaner future using sustainable methods.

Student: Mikhail Frantsuzov Study:

Amazon Robotics Kiva System: Human exclusion zones. Keywords:

automation, technology In this case study, I am going to look at the warehouse architecture of Amazon. More precisely, I am interested in the operations that take place at the Amazon fulfillment center and who performs them. In the previous case study I have discussed the successful implementation of ICT on a local scale. However, in a broader framework, the Smart City reliance on all-digital technology brings up certain issues. One of them concerns our environment: ​“Is digital technology as “green” as its stalwart supporters claim? Is it worth reminding ourselves that the smart city is not merely an ethereal presence but exists materially. The smart city’s servers, cables, and aerials - not to mention its millions of chips and sensors -exert a heavy impact on the environment​.” What if there is no environment left and a sealed space is everything we have? Machine landscapes become the dominant operation of interest. At the ​Amazon fulfillment center​in Manchester, small orange robotic drive units navigate the warehouse space. These RDUs substitute all human personnel needed to maintain an enormous amount of goods that flow through the space. These robots were developed in 2010s by Mick Mountz and Kiva Systems and the most interesting thing about them is how they operate. ​ “The RDUs go where they are needed and then return to the most convenient location. [..] More typical

page 14

approaches, by contrast, rely on fixed conveyors to move goods through a distribution center.” T ​ he units have a camera and sensors to monitor the surroundings and the warehouse management system passes their signals from one to another making them aware of each other’s paths. This, in turn, provides the most efficient way to locate and deliver goods in a warehouse space and creates an unpredictable machine landscape: “​ Once the items have been picked, the RDU brings the shelf not to its original position, but to the closest open slot. Through this process, the warehouse is continuously reconfiguring itself.” ​​ This system behavior creates a human exclusion zone but it can also be seen as a self-sufficient system possessing a certain kind of intelligence that operates according to a constantly evolving set of rules and parameters. Such a system could be applied to many other spheres of life and start merging the dense human activity with automation, creating a hybrid model of self-sufficient space use and operations, whether it is a city or a warehouse.

Student: Tom Juan Claude Fréreux- Sanchez Study:

BedZED community, Sutton London : an example of clean energy living Keywords:

sustainable community, energy, food, waste, water BedZed is a sustainable neighborhood created in 1997 in the Sutton. Designed by the architect Bill Dunster, the 1,7 hectare are composed of 100 homes known as the “Beddington 0 energy development goal”. Geographically, social objectives patronized by the NGO “Peabody Foundation” gave birth to 2,500 square meters of community services promoting health, happiness, and fair-trade. At the very beginning, the concept envisioned a neighborhood with zero carbon footprint encouraging people to live a one-planet lifestyle, mainly via a clean energy use. Eventually, this first UK project uses no energy apart from the energy it generates itself from renewal sources on site: 777 square meters of solar panels corresponding to only 11% of electricity consumption, and the rest, being yet alimented by a co-generation plant based on wood residues. Still, from an energetic self-sufficient approach, the architecture of the buildings have also been explored. For instance, ground floor bedrooms provide more light to living areas upstairs and reduce the need for electricity; each house is facing the south and includes a sun place in the facade, while workplaces are facing north to regulate the temperature the most naturally; the wood of the constructions is developed from demolished buildings, recycling a total of 54 km of transformed material; glass ceilings give access to a continuous entrance of natural light; double glassing in the part

page 15

facing the sun, triple in the rest and a great length of wall insulation (medieval times size of 300 millimeters) keep a stable temperature. Furthermore, recycling being on the core of the project, rainwater is used for garden which increases distributed local production of food and reduces waste. Nonetheless, a few shadows remain to be seen. For instance, the centralized approach of the hot water system could be criticized as one single breakdown would jeopardize the entire community. Moreover, many un-tested technologies have been implemented which has caused many issues in the community (cogeneration plant using wood residues is off). Lastly, even if this first step was on the overall very positive with a 50% decrease of ecologic footprint compare to the previous 3 planets lifestyle and resulted in a resilient neighborhood, some could consider BedZed as a failed utopia initiative as both the objective of a one-planet energy consuming lifestyle (1.6) and the adaptability to change haven’t been reached.

Student: Tom Juan Claude Fréreux- Sanchez Study:

Vancouver SkyTrain :An example of efficient transportation Keywords:

mobility, city-scale, automation The Vancouver SkyTrain is defined as a light and fast mobility service created in 1985 in the Metro of Vancouver. This automated metro network is deployed on three, mainly overhead, lines for the surrounding municipalities, hence its name, and provides a gorgeous panoramic view of the downtown Vancouver. The starting point of the project, back at the time, was to envision an efficient transportation means to answer the exponential growth of traffic jams in the city (a cultural change that many cities have faced). Since that time, the network kept on growing and includes today 53 stations, carrying an average of 390,600 passengers per day. With 79.6 km of rail road, the project became in 2016 the longest automatic metro network in the world, ahead of the Dubai’s metro. Moreover the former crosses the longest exclusively metro bridge in the world, the Skybridge over the Fraser River. For all those reasons one may claim that Vancouver SkyTrain achieved the sustainable transit ideal as it enables citizens to live far from the center and yet access efficient automatized transportation. Nonetheless, in the last years, some claim rose dealing

page 16

with the unjustified cost of the construction. Indeed the SkyTrain had cost an average of 500 million$ per km while classical tram transportation cost about 1 million per station. Therefore some claim that this means is no longer efficient as it no longer fulfills the “most amount of transportation for the least amount of money” requirement. Lastly, some analysis as shown that that development around SkyTrain stations did not benefit all groups of society equally but mainly wealthier and more educated population.

Student: Kristina Jessie Goveas Study:

The Environmental Energy Innovation (EEI) Building Keywords:

building-scale, energy The Environmental Energy Innovation (EEI) Building is the first purpose-built facility on the Ookayama campus, Japan. This building incorporates the latest environmental energy technology and also has a designed energy system that is nearly self-sufficient at producing the energy it consumes.

The rooftop of the building is the command center from which power generation, storage and distribution is managed. This helps to control the solar energy used by the solar panels. It also uses geothermal heat pumps and a ‘cool tube’ system to maximize the cooler air generated below the basement floor.

Overall, this building has managed to reduce its CO2 emissions by 60%. It reduces its CO2 emissions and generates power to cover the building’s own consumption. The building can conserve energy through high efficiency equipment. The power is also generated through solar panels placed on the rooftop as well as on the south and west side of the building which are angled for maximum sunlight.

Wasted high temperature heat is reused by an absorption refrigerator which provides energy to an outside air conditioning system. Low temperature wasted heat is used to control humidity and heats the water used in the building’s restrooms. The utilization of waste heat improves the system’s efficiency. The EEI building is also designed to have a high seismic capacity to withstand strong earthquakes which often occur in Japan.

In order to maximize the number of solar panels to be used on building, a detached frame of panels, the solar-panel envelope, was created. Unlike conventional buildings which utilize solar panels on their walls and roof, this building has solar panels covering a surface area larger than that of the actual walls. About 4570 solar panels cover the building’s south, west and top surfaces. In this way the building was able to fulfill its goal of becoming a nearly energy self-sufficient building.

page 17

This is achieved by forming a ‘basket frame’ around the sides of the building which absorbs the energy from small- scale earthquakes. Additionally, it avoids damage to beams, columns and the building’s exterior in the event of a large-scale earthquake which ensures the long-term use of the building.


above: Components of the off-grid system: PV arrays, wind turbines, battery bank, diesel generator, inverters system, 6 kW hydro turbine.

María González Rodríguez De Biedma Study:

The Isle of Eigg : A unique off-grid system Keywords:

energy, sustainable community The island of Eigg is part of the Small Isles Archipelago in the Scottish Inner Hebrides, 12 miles away from the Scottish west coast. It only counts with 83 inhabitants which form a strongly linked community, that decided to make the first community buyout of an island in 1997. This new independence from certain government restraints allowed the community to propose an off-grid electric system to generate self-sufficient energy that would be respectful with the environment and would take advantage of the isle’ harsh weather conditions. As an exception to other off-grid systems proposed , this one is the first to rely on three renewable energy sources coming from the water, the air and the sun. The system has been proved to have outstanding results as it generates energy and carefully distributes it to the population, generating a 24/7 electricity supply. The key in this system relies on understanding the natural conditions of the island, if there is a drier winter the system will take energy from the wind, if there isn’t enough sun, it will rely on rain and vice versa. The system counts with an installed total capacity of 357kW, the battery bank system allows the energy storage and the inverter system controls the frequency and voltage of the grid depending on the energy loads and the demand. It is interesting to highlight that in order to avoid a saturation of the system all islanders have a limit use of 5kW each per day when normally the limit for commercial properties is of 10kW, however studies have proved that inhabitants consume just page 18

20% of the total load allowed. The whole system is interconnected along the island through an 11km under-ground high voltage distribution system. This successfully implemented self-sufficient energy example makes this island as well more eco friendly as its CO2 emission per household in the island is 20% lower than the rest of the UK . Inhabitants remark that living in the island isn’t easy but it is understood as a lifestyle that is sustainable and in touch with nature. Not only their energy system is sustainable but also their economical activity which mainly relies on eco tourism, production of beautiful crafts and textiles or even a small local beer brewing. Moreover, key to the functioning of this self-sufficient system is the strong sense of community that all inhabitants have. It is that spirit that allowed the island to bring big changes that have improved the live standards of the population, all islanders have a say in the island management decisions and that involves them in the cause, making it easier for everyone to respect the rules, understand the system and peacefully cohabit with their neighbors. Nevertheless, as a matter of critique, the mobility of this island is poorly developed as it completely relies on the use of cars, not a very sustainable source.This matter could also be tackled in the future if the isle keeps evolving and increasing its population, in order to keep the island as a sustainable example for future self-sufficient projects.

Student: Lauro Amadeo Lampis Temmink Study:

Petit Place by RoosRos Architecten : The sustainable Dutch tiny house Keywords: building-scale Petit Place is a Dutch initiative from RoosRos Architecten which aims to make fully self- sufficient houses a livable concept. Apart from the notion of the environment, the houses are also supposed to be a solution to the growing problem of busier cities, increasingly expensive real estate, and the fact that many young people do not mind to live ‘small.’ Their concept house (left) was built in 2018 at the request of the municipality, and houses in its modest 40 m2: a bedroom, bathroom, kitchen, lounge area, and a terrace. The most evident feature is the exterior of the house, which is plated with solar panels that can generate up to three times the energy usage of its inhabitants, thereby actually supplying energy to the grid. There is hence no necessity for gas, and owners have the option of using a septic tank instead of water pipes, meaning the house can be erected anywhere and run completely independently of the city’s utility provisions. In addition to these features, the house is actually built from sustainable sources of materials, using glass from renowned manufacturer Velux and incorporating the world famous Iroko wood for its skeleton. Insulation is provided by ISO flax, a technology that uses old linen to give the house an incredibly high Rc value of above 7,0 m2K/W.

The picture bellow is the house that a friend of mine bought when she went to study in Rotterdam after boarding school. She bought a small plot of land in Wateringseveld, reachable from Rotterdam by bike, and bought the tiny house from RoosRos for about € 15 000 (it’s a smaller and less ‘luxurious’ one, although it has two floors). She calculated that costs of living in Rotterdam for a 3-year Bachelor would actually be more than this, and since the solar panels on her house generate too much power for her alone, she actually gets paid by the energy company for supplying electricity. But her design goes even further than the concept of Petit Place: she added a garden/greenhouse where she grows her own vegetables and fruits, and she has a few chickens for eggs. Therefore, all in all, she is extremely self-sufficient regarding the house’s necessities, as well as financially – and it is all good for the environment.

The agency offers people the option to design their own house, within a range of 25 to 1000 square feet, which they can then choose to build themselves or have it built by RoosRos – all at an average cost of only € 50 000, about a tenth of the average house price in Amsterdam!

page 19

Student: Anna Bundgaard Lassen Study:

Changi Airport, Singapore : Waste management Keywords:

waste, building scale The Changi Airport located in Singapore is a central traveling hub, connecting various countries around the world, and while known for their extravagance they also have a big commitment and focus on sustainability. The Changi Airport Group (CAG) release sustainability reports that highlight their impact and also their contributions. Utilizing their own Changi Airport Sustainability Approach they focus on each level of their organizational hierarchy and how every individual can make contributions. One particular area of improvement is their waste management, in 2015 “Water Resources Institute (WRI) ranked Singapore as one of the most waterstressed countries in the world.” (PUB), additionally, they were predicted to face water supply issues by 2040, therefore CAG made it part of their mission to create water through proper waste management systems. How they do this is by converting food waste into water, the creation of innovative recycling machine and initiatives that utilize microbes to break down the food waste into clean usable water (Changi Airport Group), known as their Water Optimization Strategy. With millions of passengers passing through Changi every year, there is a lot of food waste to be utilized, and the CAG has capitalized on this factor to produce water. It functions with microbes which consume the

page 20

food waste and, as a by-product, produce water. These “digester” machines can consume up to 20kg of food per hour, and the larger ones can eat the double. The testing period of this initiative was a 10 month period in which they were able to successfully convert 54,000kg of food waste into water. Currently, these digesters are available across Terminal 1 and 4 where 1,100kg of food is processed daily. While having this strategy in-use, they also invest in the implementation of water-efficient components, the effective use of air condition and general water recycling. Between 2017 and 2018 the airport diverted 290 tons of food waste away from incineration. The CAG also engage with students and schools in order to teach about the importance of organizing trash and the potential harm it does. Changi aims to bring a general awareness of waste to its visitors and therefore have a multitude of recycling bins and signs promoting the proper organization of trash and food waste.

Student: Anna Bundgaard Lassen Study:

Samso Island, Denmark : Energy self-sufficient Keywords:

sustainable community, energy Samsø is a small island in Denmark with approximately 4,000 inhabitants and each individual produces 12 ton less C02 when compared to the average Dane. In 1997 Samsø won a national wide competition due to their 10-year masterplan to become completely energy self sufficient. By 2007 the island succeeded ran on 100% renewable energy and was officially declared to one of the first islands to be energy self sufficient (Visit Samsø). A majority of the progress made was due to the involvement of the entire population to achieve this goal, and simultaneously strives for the further development of sustainability and the improvement of their existing methods. Their electrical energy comes from a total of 21 turbines, 11 being onshore and the rest offshore, producing a total of 34 megawatts, whereas for their heating they utilize “ three straw-based district heating systems and one district heating plant” (Energiakademiet). Uniquely, 11 of the turbines being owned by local farmers and citizens, this came from the islands decision to approach their goal with a bottomup approach, looking for support from the entire population (EcoWatch) in order to give a voice to each individual and create an inclusive project. When they achieved energy self-sufficiency rather than simply accepting their achievement, the Energy Academy was created to invest in their sustainable

page 21

future. The Energy Academy is an organization that sets out goals and aids in the development of sustainability on Samsø. With the future goal of becoming fossil-fuel free by 2030, they launched their second phase known as Samsø 2.0 and so far, since 2014, the ferry that connects the island to mainland Denmark runs entirely on biogas, produced by their own biogas plant. This plant simultaneously also contributes to the management of waste produced by its citizens. The island has a main focus on the use of sustainable energy, and while having renewable sources implemented they also utilize low-energy architectural components, such as the insulation of their buildings and the optimal use of natural lighting. The success of the island is entirely due to the community and local involvement, there were various local stakeholders such as the energy agency, development office and various other offices. They consider local ownership to be a fundamental success factor and strategy as, for example, 90% of the windmills are owned by local citizens (Energiakademiet).

Student: Sophie Dany Marie-thĂŠ Monga Study:

La Pointe Verte Community Garden, Montreal : The path to food autonomy Keywords:

sustainable community, food Montreal, in Canada, is involved since 1977 in the vegetablization of the city; they decided to dedicate 10% of the city to green spaces. Meanwhile, they realized a system of community gardens. In 2006, more than 1.5 % of the Montreal population were gardening in the municipal communal garden of Montreal, where there are 97 comminatory gardens with a total of 8200 parcels. The communal gardens system of Montreal is considered as the most accessible and best organized of Canada. However, due to the Montreal climate, only one harvest is possible each year. La Pointe Verte garden: La Pointe Verte community garden in Pointe-Saint-Charles in Montreal has been operating since the 1980s and includes 52 garden plots and communal woodland. The overall budget is around 1000$ per year, collected with the 20$ member fees. Different studies estimate that nine squares meters could enable to feed one person during the year if the climate and the vegetables are appropriate. However, the global production of the garden cannot be accurately predicted because it depends on the vegetables cultivated, the gardening method, the nutrition needs, and preferences of everyone. Besides, in the La Pointe Verte garden, each gardener is responsible for caring for his or her plot. Advantages of a communal garden in cities: Having a

page 22

local garden enables cities to be more autonomous. The alimentation becomes less and less dependent on other countries and no longer needs transportation, which pollutes a lot. Moreover, it provides control over the food: you can produce high-quality vegetables with non-polluting techniques. As a result, the low-income population can have access to affordable healthy food. Besides the alimentation aspect, public gardens have positive social results. The population develops new technical skills, and the garden is a space for cultural and social exchange between residents. Limits of a communal garden: Some hurdles need to be face before reaching the food autonomy of a city. According to the climate, you cannot garden every vegetable, and you might face some dry period during the year. Moreover, answering to the whole city food needs requires a considerable area which must be well located; if those areas are nearby polluting places, the soil might be contaminated, and it would impact the production.

Student: Sophie Dany Marie-thé Monga Study:

Ile Seguin, Boulogne Billancourt, France : Gaining autonomy in hot and cold water Keywords:

water, city-scale The Ile Seguin is a 74 hectares places located in the Ouest of Paris, within the city of Boulogne Billancourt. This place has been for decades vested with the Renault industry, but since the beginning of the 21st century, this place is being totally transformed into a new living place, with many innovations aiming to respect the environment and be as autonomous as possible. Within this case study, we are going to focus on one innovation: the hot and cold-water autonomy through renewable energies. The goal of this installation is to be as autonomous as possible in providing hot and cold water. In order to do so, the city implemented three systems, which, once associated, answered to 100% of both hot water and cold water needs of the city: • Two geothermal heat pumps within the city. This pump answers to 80% of the city cold water needs and 35% of the hot water needs. • They are cooling water by stocking ice and water from the Seine river. This system provides 20% of the cold water.

page 23

• They are working with an incineration center, with the steam creating through the burn of wastes water can be heated. As a result, 65% of the hot water is ensured by this system. To sum up, this whole system, by combining different tools, answer the needs of the city. As a result, the city is self- sufficient in this area.

Student: Capucine Marie Verbrugge Study:

Earthship Brighton : a self-sufficient building Keywords:

building-scale, energy, water An Earthship is a concept that was introduced in the 1970’s that promote homes built into the ground out of earth and recycled materials. Such materials vary from wood, rocks, waste tires, glass bottles and cans. The goal is to, by building such a structure, reduce the impact of these wastes on the environment. Earthships are self-sufficient homes, meaning that they function throughout renewable energy and nonpolluting sources to meet heating, cooling and power requirements. There are considered as “off-the-gridready” homes constructed to use resources such as sunlight and rainwater. A case study of an Earthship construction is the Earthship Brighton owned by a non-profit organization called Low Carbon Trust. It was established and designed by Mike Reynolds in 2005 in Stanmer Park, Brighton and was the first construction of this type built in England. The intentions behind this project were to provide a self-sufficient community center to meet local need, change constructions attitudes and spread environmental awareness. Earthship Brighton is a passive solar earth shelter. Indeed, a passive solar shelter on the contrary of a solar heating building, does no require the use of mechanical and electrical devices. It is a way of placing windows, walls and floors to collect, store, reflect or distribute solar energy to either heat or cool of a building. The

page 24

house uses four renewable technologies to meet the electricity and heating needs; photo-voltaic panels and a wind turbine for electricity, and solar thermal panels and a wood pellet stove for water heating. The structure contains a system or rain harvesting. Rain harvesting is the recuperation of water from the sky for the site. Earthship Brighton is located in a region where it rains excessively, therefore, the structure can harvest around 50 000 Liters of water per year. This amount of water is equivalent to the annual consumption of water by one person. The rainwater accumulated flows for the roof through two filters to four underground tanks. The capacity of the tanks is enough to supply Earthship Brighton for around two to three months. Finally, there is a system of plant treat waste that was put in order to filter “grey water”, water from sinks and showers. In Earthship Brighton are plants of two botanical treatments cells to clean the water. They are placed next to south facing windows to maximize their natural filter process. The filtered water is then used for toilet purposes. Any remain of that water, commonly called “black water” is discharged from the home and placed in a settling tank before it is treated to go back in the nature.

Student: Capucine Marie Verbrugge Study:

Findhorn Ecovillage : Environmental-friendly and self-sufficient Keywords:

sustainable community, water, energy The Findhorn Ecovillage is a project initiated in the 1980’s and is maybe one of the best example of a self-sufficient community. It is located at The Park in Moray in the North-East of Scotland. The aim of the village was to develop a community that lived in a sustainable environment. The entirety of the village is self-sufficient, from the houses’ architecture to the treatment of the water and renewable energies. Regarding architecture, the Findhorn Ecovillage has extensive building rules required as they are trying to be environmentally responsible and construct zero carbon homes. Indeed, households necessitate insulation made out of recycle paper and cardboard alongside organic and harmless paints, glues and resins and natural tiles for the roof. Also, to limit waste of energy, inhabitants of the ecovillage are equipped of low-energy light bulbs, “breathing walls” allowing exchange of air and are sharing facilities such as laundry, kitchen, etc. A lot of building in this community are possessing photovoltaic panels supplying enough electricity and heating energy but they are also designed in favor of passive solar radiation. Passive solar radiation is the smart way of placing windows, walls and floors to optimize the reflection, the storage and the distribution of solar energy to either cool or heat the building. Additionally, to provide energy to all households, the

page 25

Findhorn Ecovillage has its own wind park containing four wind turbines that provides a capacity of 750kW and supply more than 100% of the community. On the other hand, the village has an ecological waste water treatment thanks to 1995 Jonathon Porritt’s invention: the first Living Machine or known as Eco-Restorers. The machine is designed to treat sewage from a population up to 500 people who are living in the Findhorn Ecovillage. The whole process of the water filtration is done by a community or bacteria, algae, micro-organisms and many more. One of the Findhorn Ecovillage greatest accomplishment is that they have the lowest ecological footprint of any community in the industrialized world. This is due to all the sustainable inventions and way of living but also due to their food consumption. Indeed, they have built a village that support organic farmers in the area and permaculture.

Student: Emanuel Hempel Study:

The BIQ-House: an analysis of its feasibility for future large scale implementation Keywords:

energy, building-scale In the following case study I will take a closer look at the „BIQ-House“ which can be found on a plot of land belonging to the “international Bauausstellung” in Hamburg, Germany. This unique project, lead by the Biotech company SSC, has an estimated cost of 5 million euros and was awarded with several prizes ranging from the ‘Land of Ideas’ to the ‘Deutsche Fassadenpreis 2013’ and the Zumtobel Group Award 2014 in the category of “Applied Innovations”. The design takes advantage of the process of photosynthesis, to generate energy. Structurally the system is made up of 129 sun-tracking reactor models also referred to as photobioreactors (PRBs) which are 270cm high and 70cm wide. The origin of the questionable green color stems from the microalgae found inside of the tanks, acting as a bioreactor, while simultaneously creating the facade of the building. CO2 is added to the culture, serving as a nutrient, for which a flue gas stemming from a biogas-fueled micro-combined-heat-and-power-unit is utilized. The CO2 allows for the growing algae to be converted into biomass. Additionally oxygen is filtered into the tanks, which causes the algae to get circulated, allowing all algae to get exposed to sunlight. The growing microalgae, resulting from the constant turbulence and exposure to sunlight, produces heat (at a efficiency of

page 26

38%, twice as low as conventional solar thermal) and biomass (at 10% efficiency compared to 15% with conventional PVs). This system generates energy both through the excess of sunlight, not converted by the microalgae, exactly like the process found in solar thermal units and through harvesting the algae biomass energy. The energy is used either directly for hot water and heating, or stored in the ground through bore-hole heat exchangers. Although the project seems promising boasting a energy conversion efficiency of 48%, perceived to be an excellent rating, while providing other considerable advantages including; insulation form sound, heat and cold and the provision of shade from sunlight it does have flaws. First of all, the turbulence caused by the water circulating within the tanks, causes noise pollution. Furthermore the system was not self-sufficient at a constant level, requiring excessive maintenance and monitoring. Lastly the project is capital intensive, lacking the economies of scale to makes this an economically feasible solution in the present time.

Student: Emanuel Hempel Study:

The sponge city : An analysis of the positive externalities resulting from such city projects Keywords:

city-scale, water Due to impressive annual economic growth, transforming china in the last 3 decades, the government has been able to put increased focus on transforming cities, or even building new ones that focus on the future and make up for mistakes made in the past. A prime example of such urban development is the city of Wuhan, which due to urbanization has lost 97 of its lakes since the 1980s. The city is built around the merging rivers of Yangtze and Han, which had made it prone to floods, that are especially apparent in during the monsoon season. A pivotal point of this city’s future came, when in 2016, after a week of heavy rainfall metro stations and roads where completely flooded. The economic damages of 263 million dollars also came with a humanitarian disaster costing 14 lives. Belonging to one of Chinas 16 sponge cities, efforts to deal with the reoccurring issue with accelerated after the flooding of 2016. A total of 228 pilot projects in the districts of Qingshan and Sixin alone, saw changes being made to public spaces, schools and residential areas in the shape and form of sponge features. Roughly 38.5 km2 have been subject to landscaping costing 1.5 billion dollars. A prime example of such a project is the Nanganqu

page 27

park, which in 2018, was transformed into a sponge site. New additions include rain gardens, permeable pavements, grass swales, artificial ponds and wetlands. These features absorb excessive amounts of water through the process of soil infiltration, retaining in in under ground storage tanks and tunnels, until it can be discharged into the river. Wen Mei Dubbelaar, director of a water management firm, summarizes this concept beautifully stating that the aim is to ““give space back to the river ... [instead of] fighting the water“. Aside from minimizing damages caused by excessive flooding, sponge cities and sites have a variety of additional benefits. First of all the successfully combat the urban heat island effect, reducing temperatures in Wuhan by 2-3 degrees in such areas as the Nanganqu park. Additionally they create better air quality, mimic natural water cycles, sediment control, reduced water treatment and equipment maintenance costs and water purification. On the other hand these projects require extensive urban remodeling, are very expensive and don’t generate immediate economic benefit making them hard for undeveloped communities to implement.

Student: Ghali Laraqui Study:

PowerWindows: The case of glass solar panels Keywords:

energy, building-scale Physee offers great opportunity for clean and sustainable energy production and consumption. With solar panel’s manufacturing cost process becoming rapidly cheaper and more efficient, large corporations and households should take into account building their own self-sustaining environment energetically. Tall skyscraper offers a lot of surface space to build solar panels that can convert solar energy into electricity that would charge your smartphone and support light and electrical systems. The technology is indeed very tricky to develop, yet Physee has been able to create a feasible way to implement such innovation. The great advantage of Physee’s product, PowerWindow, is that such windows would be transparent, looking like a more traditional glass window, and produce energy. Such design places small solar panels on each window’s edge. This equipment would allow to produce small amount of power continuously, hence having, in the long term, strong impact, both as expense saving and as a model for clean energy production and efficiency. Yet, even if this amount might appear irrelevant, storage space in buildings are very important and so this technology can be implemented with strong return to scale. Nevertheless, this technology cannot supply power to an entire building yet. The product offers a range of other interesting, energy optimizing options, as

page 28

they come equipped with sensors that detect exterior environment conditions and adapt the current energy consumption of the building’s light and air conditioning systems automatically. The latest advancements on the installment of this technology shows that few companies have taken the leap so far. Notably, the Dutch bank Rabobank has installed PowerWindows over their300 square feet building. In the Netherlands too, Physee has signed a myriad of contracts to install their PowerWindows over the next few years. There has already been an attempt by a building designed by Ron Bakker, “The Edge”, in Amsterdam, which includes several sensors that decreased energy consumption by environmental automatic adjustments. As well, it has solar panels on its roof and on solar windows on the South facing side of the building. It also uses heat energy stored deep in the Earth, and as a result the building uses 70% less electricity than comparable buildings. Where a lot of sky scrapers are built, if such technology were to be implemented at such large scale along with a high available capacity to store energy, it would have definitely made the city more self- sufficient by cutting its overall energy consumption and reduce its greenhouse emission footprint.

Student: Mikhail Frantsuzov Study:

SeeClickFix & Songdo : Local Efficient Communication vs Smart City Master-Planning. Keywords:

automation, city-scale Our society is fully dependent on technology and information. From management to communication, from a national to an individual scale, we are all hooked on it. And sometimes the potential of the technology can be exploited for various goals aimed at profit or other gains with many people if not cities left confused and irritated as a result. SeeClickFix (SCF) enabled citizens to communicated efficiently with local authorities and contrast it with an example of a promised Smart City development in South Korea -Songdo. Information and communication technologies created another layer in a web of city infrastructures, a vital and yet an invisible one. On paper, various ICT initiatives look promising and offer multiple benefits. Such is an example of a Smart City concept where the city systems and infrastructures are interconnected through ICT and thus deliver a more responsive environment, more optimized resource usage and else. However, when implemented at once and globally, the smart city concept and its ICT technologies can be disappointing: ​“Smart city project tend to be utopian in nature and deal with urban problems in a techno-scientific manner. The premise of most of these corporate plans is based solely on smart technologies and data optimization, and they often neglect the role of spatial form or citizen agency in finding urban solutions.”​. Such is the case with Songdo - “ecofriendly master-planned utopia” city built entirely on reclaimed land next to the highly congested capital page 29

Seoul and promising a future built on self-sufficient living. “​ L​iving here should be paradise. Technology is ubiquitous. There are no trash trucks; rubbish is pneumatically “sucked out” of houses, recycled to generate electricity.” T​he reality though is a ghost town where people experience​​a “Chernobyl-like emptiness”​ . In a quest for the ultimate techno-utopia and selfsufficiency, the builders of Songdo forgot about those factors that make residents happy. Roughly at the same time but in the other part of the world, a smaller initiative was taken to be implemented quickly and solve a specific problem. “​ To reduce administrative workloads, improve response time for 311 requests, and promote efficiency in triaging available resources, the City of New Haven sought an innovative, front-end solution to connect with residents and improve communities.” ​SeeClickFix used I​ CT to solve administrative communication issues related to environment and infrastructure, allowing anyone to submit a claim regarding these spheres. Essentially, the web-based (and now an app) service created a system where individuals act as nodes and input their data pieces to solve a specific larger problem - from a broken pavement to fluctuations in a state electricity grid. The data and agents get centralized and the problem is solved in the fastest possible time and with minimal resources.

Student: Alejandra Pathé-Pastor Study:

Greenbelts: Controlling Urban Sprawl Keywords:

ecology, city-scale A greenbelt is a policy to prevent urban sprawl and protect the environment and natural resources by keeping land permanently open. Urban green belts provide both lungs for urban centers, and they also act as sponges of carbon dioxide. They are especially useful in coastal cities where they can help reduce erosion and the risks of flooding by stabilizing soil and slowing runoff. Not only this but they protect biodiversity and act as protection for wildlife. The effectiveness of greenbelts is evaluated by making a calculation of social costs, and social benefits, and comparing these two. If the benefits outweigh the costs, the greenbelt’s effectiveness can be proven. The most famous greenbelt is Seoul’s, implemented in 1971. The greenbelt’s social costs come from higher prices of land and housing, and an increase in commuting expenses and infrastructure spending. In Seoul, high benefits were estimated as the ‘comfort’ value of the greenbelt land was significant and people were willing to protect land for future generations. However due to the ever-increasing population growth of the city, these benefits were not enough to outweigh social costs. However they also have their downsides. It contributes

page 30

to the scarcity and cost of decent homes and encourages bizarre and wasteful patterns of commuting. It also often fails in its original aim of providing accessible recreational space for city dwellers. Even though I believe the idea of the green belt is very attractive I would argue that a compromise seems like the best solution. The creation of green belts often leads to an increase in house pricing which is less than ideal for increasing urban populations. On the other hand, nobody wants to live in a purely concrete city. And lastly, despite the green belt having it’s negative side, the conceptual original idea of green belt thinking is also evolving. For example, the grassroots treeplanting program in Kenya to address deforestation, soil erosion and the lack of water.

Student: Alejandra Pathé-Pastor Study:

Curitiba, Brazil: Bus Rapid Transit Initiative Keywords:

mobility, city-scale Curitiba is one of the most population-dense cities of Brazil with almost 2million inhabitants occupying 432km of land. In 2010 it had approximately 400 cars for every 1000 people, resulting in a very contaminated atmosphere. The mayor, a renown urban planner, Jaime Lerner, decided to implement the Bus Rapid Transit. This was a reaction to both the levels of contamination of the city, but it was also implemented as a practical way for the city to create faster mass transit. Originally, the city was given federal money to build a subway, but the mayor discovered that “heavy rail” like a subway costs ten times the amount for “light rail”. Therefore in 1974, a system that gave buses as many of the functional advantages of urban train systems as possible was devised. Bus lanes were created along the city’s main arteries, which allowed buses to run at speeds comparable to light rail, while dramatically reducing the cost. As always, for sustainability projects to function effectively, there has to be a general agreement which the municipality and operators. In Curitiba, we can see an incredible example of how the result of this consensus between both parties led to the lanes of the Bus Rapid Transit costing 50 times less than it would

page 31

have done without. In terms of how easily the project can be replicated, as of March 2018, a total of 166 cities in six continents have implemented BRT systems with 32.2 million passengers every day. The city today continues to be a transit innovator, having recently launched a program to implement hybrid and electric buses.

Student: Sophia Joy De La Cruz Study:

Home Garden Drip Irrigation - Recycling Water from Sump Pumps Keywords:

building-scale, water Sump pumps have been discovered to be a great opportunity for home owners to recycle water into their home gardens. Reported to be in 60% of American homes, a sump pump is a relatively common fixture (Anderson). A sump pump is a mechanical device implanted into the basement or lowest point of a home in order to protect the home from flooding and mold related issues. The water is collected in a basin and then redirected outside of the home, usually into a dry well, local creek or pond, or a neighborhood basin (Woodward). The place in which the water is drained can be affected by the regulations of the city or a homeowners association (Anderson). However, some homeowners have found a more rewarding use for the water collected by sump pumps. For those who are interested in cultivating their own produce, sump pump water can be redirected into a home drip irrigation system. Drip irrigation is one of the more efficient and easiest ways to water plants. This system can function with low pressure and low volume for drier months and is capable of targeting very specific areas to water. Unlike overhead sprinkler systems, there is no water loss in evaporation and

page 32

weeds are not able to soak up excess water (“Drip Irrigation with PVC Pipe”). The relevance of this system lies in its ability to take advantage of readily available resources and re-purpose them in a way that is both easily understandable and beneficial to the public. The sump pumps are capable of collecting perfectly clean and reusable water that would otherwise cause damage and health hazards in a home giving it dual functionality. By re-purposing the water in a home or community garden there is added value in the fresh produce it nourishes. The price of the pump (models ranging from $100-500 USD) is the biggest investment to take into account as the drip irrigation can be constructed with recycled pvc pipes or garden hose, a sharp pocket knife, a punch and a flathead screwdriver(“Drip Irrigation with PVC Pipe”). It also important to note that this system was not designed by a group of architects or engineers but by a group of people who the system directly benefits. Born from a basic need and a bit of creativity.


Living Walls and Vertical Gardens Gro-Wall. (2020). Vertical gardens. Retrieved from Gro-Wall : Team London Bridge. (2019, June). Vertical Gardens. Retrieved from Team London Bridge: The Guardian. (2019, Febuary 9). Can ‘aritecture’ make cities self-sufficient?- in pictures. Retrieved from The guardian: sufficient-in-pictures Las Vegas’ Contribution to the Circular Economy: Using Biofuel to Positively Impact the Environment Amazon Robotics Kiva System: Human exclusion zones. Picon, Antoine. “The Limits of Intelligence.” N ​ ew Geographies​, 2015. LeCavalier, Jesse. ”Human Exclusion Zones”. M ​ achine Landscapes: Architectures of the Post-Anthropocene​. , 2019. BedZED community, Sutton London:An example of clean energy living Loescher Editor Video. (2019). English Environment. [YouTube video]. Retrieved from: https:// BNFhyg7eQ Chris Twinn. (2016). BedZed. [online academic writing]. Retrieved from: https:// publication/281980973_BedZED/links/ 56d95fc508aee73df6cf5096/BedZED.pdf Wikipedia. BedZed. [online article]. Retrieved from: The Guardian, Terry Slavin. (2006). Living a dream. [Online newspaper article]. Retrieved from: environment/2006/may/17/energy.communities Vancouver SkyTrain :An example of efficient transportation Story Hero Media. (2018). Light Rail Transit - Smart For Vancouver. [YouTube video]. Retrieved from: watch?v=b-Av_5gJxu8 Nicole M. Foth. (2010). Long-Term Change Around SkyTrain Stations in Vancouver, Canada. [online academic writing]. Retrieved from: bulletin/2010s/volume51-1/article3.pdf Wikipedia. SkyTrain (Vancouver). [online article]. Retrieved from: SkyTrain_(Vancouver) The Environmental Energy Innovation (EEI) Building Australian Design Review. 2020. Energy And Environment Innovation Building. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 20 April 2020]. Tokyo Institute of Technology. 2020. Environmental Energy Innovation Building. [online] Available at: <https://www.titech. english/about/campus_maps/campus_highlights/environmental.html> [Accessed 20 April 2020]. The Isle of Eigg: A unique off-grid system About Eigg. (n.d.). Retrieved from Analysis of off-grid electricity system at Isle of Eigg (Scotland): Lessons for developing countries. (2015). Zbigniew Chmiel, Subhes C. Bhat- tacharyya. Renewable Energy 81 (2015) 578e588. De Montfort University, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK Isle of eigg a model of energy self-sufficiency. (2008). The Christian Science Monitor, 13, 13-13 Island, E.- O. (2020, April 18). Retrieved April 19, 2020, from Petit Place by RoosRos Architecten The sustainable Dutch tiny house Lankreijer-Kos, M. (2018, April 15). Zwijndrecht heeft zijn eerste ‘tiny house’ al opgebouwd. Retrieved April 19, 2020, from https:// heeft-zijn-eerste-tiny-house-al-opgebouwd~a197eb9e/ RoosRos Architecten. (2017, December 14). Home. Retrieved April 19, 2020, from Solanki, M. (2020, January 7). Average house prices in Amsterdam break the 500.000- euro mark. Retrieved April 19, 2020, from news/average-house-prices-amsterdam-break-500000-euro-mark Wang, L. (2018, July 3). This self-sufficient tiny house is designed to pop up anywhere. Retrieved April 19, 2020, from https:// designed-to-pop-up-anywhere/ Changi Airport, Singapore Waste management PUB. “OurWaterOurFuture.”, Singapores National Water Agency, PUBOurWaterOurFuture. pdf. Samso Island, Denmark Energy self-sufficient Spear, Stefanie. “Samso: World’s First 100% Renewable Energy-Powered Island Is a Beacon for Sustainable Communities.” EcoWatch, EcoWatch, 1 Apr. 2019, island-is-a-beaconfor-1881905310.html. Energiakademiet. “DK-Samso.”, Samso.pdf. La Pointe Verte Community Garden in Montreal: The path to food autonomy 91-95 Ile Seguin, Boulogne Billancourt, France: Gaining autonomy in hot and cold water!/fr/espace-infos/etudes-de-cas/ile-seguin-rives-de-seine-16/ fr/urbanisme-et-developpement-durable Earthship Brighton: A self-sufficient building. About Earthship Brighton. (n.d.). Retrieved from Findhorn Ecovillage: Environmental-friendly and self-sufficient Ecovillage Findhorn (n.d.). Retrieved from Findhorn Ecovillage. (2019, December 31). Retrieved from Top 5 self-sufficient places in the world. (n.d.). Retrieved from energy/top-selfsufficient-places/ The BIQ-House: An analysis of its feasibility for future large scale implementation Grotelüschen, V. F. (2017, March 14). Ökohaus mit Algenproduktion - Die Technik funktioniert, der Härtetest steht noch aus. Retrieved 2020, from oekohaus-mit-algenproduktion-die-technik-funktioniert-der.676. de.html?dram:article_id=381229 Fytrou-Moschopoulou, A. (2015, June 1). The BIQ House: first algae-powered building in the world. Retrieved 2020, from https:// powered-building-world The sponge city : an analysis of the positive externalities resulting from such city projects (n.d.). Sponge cities promise a wide range of benefits. Retrieved 2020, from content_36779434.htm Wuhan, L. J. in. (2019, January 23). Inside China’s leading ‘sponge city’: Wuhan’s war with water. Retrieved 2020, from https://www. leading-sponge-city-wuhans-war-with-water PowerWindows: The case of windows solar panels Bloomberg Digital Originals (2015, September 23), “See the World’s Greenest Office Building: The Edge”, Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from: office-building-the-edge Thompson, A. (2017, November 14). “The Windows That Are Also Solar Panels”. Retrieved from: https://www.popularmechanics. com/science/green-tech/news/a27229/solar- windows-physee/ SeeClickFix & Songdo: Local Efficient Communication vs Smart City Master-Planning. Fard, Ali, and Taraneh Meshkani. “Geographies of Information.” New Geographies, 2015. ​Poon, Linda, and CityLab. “Songdo, South Korea’s Smartest City, Is Lonely.” C ​ ityLab​, 9 July 2019, sleepy-in-songdo-koreas-smartest-city/561374/. ​“South Korea’s ‘Smart City’: Not Quite Smart Enough?” South China Morning Post, 25 Mar. 2018, business/article/2137838/south-koreas-smart-city-songdo-not-quite-smart-enough. Home Garden Drip Irrigation - Recycling Water from Sump Pumps Anderson, Murray. “How Sump Pumps Work.” HowStuffWorks, HowStuffWorks, 30 Dec. 2008, “Drip Irrigation with PVC Pipe.” Drip Irrigation with PVC Pipe., 1 Jan. 1970, Woodard, John. “What Is a Sump Pump?” Fresh Water Systems, 15 Apr. 2020,

a t s i v a n l e e u B anch b a r a C 40.3


7, 8 4 3



79 4 5 .7

Buenavista is the 116th neighbourhood of Madrid, one of the 7 that comprise the Carabanchel districted, located in the southernmost point of the district. It has a population of almost 40.000 residents. It grew in population by 40% after the new urban developments that occured in 2007. It counts with 3 health centers, more than 20 large sport facilities, one public library, 2 cultural centers, 2 large parks and a cycling path that connects to the ring cycling path of Madrid. Because of its history as a village, it maintained the low density built environment, leaving physical space for a lot of urban development. And because of Madrid’s projected growth, there is interest to expand and invest in Carabanchel as a possible strong urban core in balance with Madrid city center. The selected plot for the student proposal benefits from being neighbours with the “De las Cruces” park on one side, and the “Carabanchel Alto” metro station, connecting it to the extensive Madrid Metro System. More than that, it presents three empty (or under development) plots and a three-story high maximum built residential units, with a peculiar disposition and patios that can inspire innovative proposals.


Breaking the food supply chain An example of decentralized selfsufficient food production by FrĂŠreux- Sanchez,Tom, Juan, Claude

rooftop gardening

local market

rooftop gardening

waste management local farm

rooftop gardening

waste management

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 42

collective market

food produced

(rooftop garden based on individual food participation, making production seed and rainwater use of rainwater)

product bought


recovery system


waste management

food consumption (users are active members of the community and donate usable waste to the waste local farm)

(local farm to provide meet, eggs and natural fertilizer)

In today’s world, the way humans produce and access food is far from satisfying the ideal of self- sufficiency. In fact, it is generally acknowledged that the mass consumption lifestyle of our globalized environment results in both huge amounts of waste (30% of the total produced) and misuse of scarce resources (water used on wasted corp would meet daily needs of 9 M people). The above schema embodies what could be seen as an way to deal with the matter. In the project, the members of this South-Madrid community would individually take care of their personal roof-top gardens to grow their own food. This historical self-sufficient usage of food has left our habits for decades, nevertheless, this behavior enables a responsible and distributed design of producing food, removing mass transportations, and mutual dependence. Those roof gardens would be, of course, alimented by a rainwater recovery system providing a solution to water scarcity. Moreover, each household would bring its peculiar production to the pair of collective markets present in the area. Those would be meant to gather the whole neighborhood’s products and generate a sense of community between the inhabitants. Nonetheless, the waste concern of any food production would not be solved due to cultural habits. However,

page 43

in order to tackle the issue, collectivization of waste would be implemented to feed chickens in a small community farm. The former would bring, on the one hand, eggs and meat to the market and on the other, resilience to the community via natural fertilizers for the soil not to lose its capacity to produce. Finally, to answer the same sense of community creation, parks and bridges throughout roof gardens would be installed to built a whole walkable tour around the neighborhood. The feasibility of the plan remains to be analyzed. Indeed, the cost of the whole project might be considered too high even though one may claim that the environmental consequences and the impact felt for many future generations could compensate it. Another doubt transpires regarding the ability of such a small neighborhood to be fully food sufficient. To that concern, it is share that there is no way the neighborhood would be fully food self-sufficient yet, the infrastructure implemented would allow it to reduce greatly its dependence on the outside world. Lastly, the time required for the maintenance of the infrastructures by common citizens working all day long is highly questionable.

Buenavista area: Water management by Monga Sophie Dany

small scale water treatment units

small scale water treatment units

small scale water treatment units

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 44

rooftop system of recuperation of stormwater cleaning and recycling of gray water

conversion to potable water

redirection of gray water to small scale rooftop water treatment unit

consumption of water by the building users

On average, an adult uses 150 m3 of water per day. Meanwhile, each year, more than 27 436 billion m3 of water rain in Madrid. Why cannot we use this water to answer part of the population water needs? Thus, my proposition of a circular economy aims to answer to the water needs of the Buenavista neighborhood. In order to do so, four steps must be fulfilled: The installation of a system of stormwater recuperation. This system can be implemented in each roof of the buildings. Within this system, the water can be filtered and transformed into potable water. Then, the water can be distributed in the building and be used for anything: drink, shower, toilettes, etc. Once the water has been used, it needs to be cleaned and recycled. In order to recycle the water, the micro water treatment plant is a solution. With approximately 9 m2, a micro water treatment plant can clean the water of 20 persons. Once the water has been clean, it can be re-used by the building habitants. As a result, in order to establish this circular autonomy, only the building roofs would be used; to install both the stormwater tun and the micro water treatment plant. This project enables us to answer the water needs of the population while doing it on a local scale. Moreover,

page 45

distribution of potable water in the building

with time, the population will save the money they used to spend on the water. However, this project has limits. First, installing the required structures means a considerable change in the whole water system of the neighborhood; it might be costly and take time before being cost-effective. Moreover, this project has social barriers, establish such a structure means that everyone must agree to pay for its installation. Then, the population must agree on the way to split the water: Does two same apartments, one with five people and one with only one, take the same amount of water from the collected water? Finally, this system cannot fully answer the population water needs, it depends a lot of the climate, on summer the stormwater is close from 0, so the neighborhood will still be dependent of the Madrid water system.

Child Centered Sustainability in Buenavista, Madrid Circular economy applied to Public Spaces by De La Cruz Sophia Joy

toybox playful pathways

play valley


take back the streets

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 46

( a group dedicated to managing public space and initiating community projects)

non profit organization members of the community choose to be involved in the NPO’s efforts after the pilot project is a success

(committee dedicated to tackling necessary policy change in support of sustainable infrastructures) ( “Playful pathways” : using alleys as an opportunity for interaction and play for children. “Take back the streets”: a monthly event where vendors and artists garner support from the community)

active public spaces community bonds

(brings people together in public spaces. A connection to these spaces motivates the public to advocate for their own community)

(“Toy box”: a toy sharing program for families in the community. “Play Valley”: a new design for the local playground providing opportunity to engage with nature)

Buenavista, a neighborhood in Carabanchel Madrid, is full of opportunities for sustainable development. Exploring the surrounding area I discovered six schools, two daycares, and numerous parks. This indicates a high population of children in the surrounding areas leading me to the question, how do sustainable cities act to nurture and educate the next generation of citizens? Architect and researcher Natalia Kysiak explores this notion in her report, Designing Child-Friendly High Density Neighbourhoods. It is a collection of methods being used world-wide such as an intergenerational playground in Singapore and a car free neighborhood in Belgium. While most of the cases could only be integrated if thought of during the initial city plans, some proved suitable for this area and demographic. In search of further support, design collective Assemble provided documented research into the benefits of free play and the engagement of young people in their environment. Their videos from The Voice of Children, showcase the influence of the environment over the way children behave. Spaces with movable and adaptable pieces allowed creativity and problem solving to flourish while also deepening the children’s connection to the natural world. These traits are important in the development of young minds and are essential in shaping the next generation.

page 47

Sustainability always looks ahead and if we are looking to build a circular economy, the involvement and education of children is vital. Of course when we speak of children we are also invoking the family, the school, the rest of the community because as the proverb says, “it takes a village”. The first and most necessary piece of this proposal is the assembly of a neighborhood committee or NPO dedicated to the management of projects and policy changes. The presence of a dedicated management, whether it be an NPO, co-op or group of dedicated parents, was necessary to the creation of thriving networks in places like Tokyo, Vancouver, and Antwerp. This group would be tasked with managing existing projects, proposing new projects, and fighting for necessary policy updates. Neighborhood and state policy is often what halts a good idea in its tracks. Having a group of citizens/concerned parents informed about these policies could be the key to unlocking the future of Buenavista. The community spaces that this group would be overseeing will begin with four different areas. One being a communal toy box ideally placed near a park or other open space(indicated by blue boxes). The communal toy box is something that was implemented in the City of Rotterdam to increase numbers at the local parks. Toys are stored in a shipping container and

overseen by parents/grandparents in the community. Any child can qualify for a membership at this facility in order to gain access to the toys and become a part of the share economy. The system also instills a sense of responsibility by implementing a reward system where children get stamps for helping upkeep the surrounding areas in the park. These stamps are the currency that they can use to rent out the toys in the box. Another way to improve the area would be to convert the existing conventional playgrounds with more engaging and nature inspired ones(indicated in pink). The colorful plastic parks in existence do little to challenge the children and allow little room for interaction. They also harshly stand out against the trees and grass, taking up valuable space that could allow city kids to interact with the natural world. The play valley in Belgium was able to accomplish this with a few logs and twisted branches. Play can also be integrated into walkways and alleys to elicit interaction from children (and others) on their way to and from school. The path highlighted in yellow above is already lined with bushes in trees but to install a hammock, a tipi made of branches, and some rocks to climb on would increase the chances of pedestrians stopping to look around and appreciate the environment they are in. This slow thinking and disconnect from daily routine is important to a

sustainable mindset. The last proposal comes from the observation of Buenavista’s crowded street parking(indicated in green). In cities, mobility by car is by far the least sustainable option. In an initiative to take back the streets, citizens in Antwerp, Belgium had the opportunity to shut down their streets to cars in the summer months and set up gardens and communal spaces instead. Not only are they replacing cars with greenery but they also manage to bring the community together and create more space for free play. This is ambitious but even monthly community events such as farmers markets could affect the way families see the purpose of the streets. The core of these ideas is a strengthening of community bonds and a call for involvement of the citizens in shaping their own environment. The goal would be for tenants to experience these areas and their benefits so that in the future they are more open minded to bigger projects, or better yet, motivated to join the organization and engage in the decision making process of what will come next. The obvious commitment to sustainability, ongoing developments, and strong community spirit are all helpful in attracting new tenants to this area. The value in attracting new tenants is not only financial but also social in that they are what will help power future initiatives.

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 48

page 49

Circular Economy: Third Industrial Revolution Renewable Energy Infrastructure by Deichler Miles Jacob biogas system

waste collection waste collection

biogas system plot A (energy generators)

waste collection

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 50

kitchen waste household Home Biogas System

food production




Reducing the usage of electricity and the waste of biomass in the common household kitchen is the ultimate aim of this proposed “circular economy” system. To capture an idea of how negatively impactful food waste is on the biosphere, “food wastage’s carbon footprint is estimated at 3.3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent of GHG released into the atmosphere per year.” This is the equivalent of three times all pollution generated from transportation in the United States in a year. In regards to electricity, Spain is the 7th most wasteful country in the world when it comes to household electricity usage. A solution exists to decrease wastefulness and ecological footprint on both of these fronts in the Madrid community. In order to reduce the natural kitchen waste impact of this community, I propose to put a space-efficient HomeBioGas system outside of the apartment buildings or by utilizing rooftops (although, they look to be clay and slanted). What this system does is convert organic waste into biogas and liquid fertilizer through a process called anaerobic digestion. This is all done by growing a “healthy colony of bacteria”2 on the inside of the tent-like structure to allow for bacterial breakdown of organics while trapping the gas emitted from the process. The tent’s would be placed outside of apartment complexes for the purpose of being exposed

page 51

to sunlight, as the bacteria thrive in warmer conditions. Traditionally, the gas produced from this system goes straight towards kitchen-usage. In this system however, our intention is to turn this biogas into a form of sustainable electricity creation. The electricity could then be used to power household utilities. Small-scale household methods exist for using portable generators to convert biogas, and this would allow each apartment complex to operate off of the electricity grid. An alternative would be to construct an electricity utility facility on Plot A with powerful engines such as the CAT 3250 Gas Generator. For this to work though, a large underground infrastructure system would have to be devised to transfer the gas from the HomeBioGas units to the facility by pipeline or storage containers.

Buenavista takes care of our planet An energy self-sufficient neighborhood by González Rodríguez De Biedma María

pedestrian streets

improved playground

localy sourced energy for street lighting electrical car-park

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 52

community awareness improve infrastructure

understanding renewable energy

sharing energy profits heat & electricity Buenavista is a neighborhood situated in Carabanchel Madrid, it is composed of around 46 building blocks, and more less 552 houses, most of them occupied by small families. My self-sufficient system relies on two key elements, the production of self-sufficient energy sources and the cooperation and strengthening of the neighborhood community. The Energetic system will be off-grid and it will take advantage of the sunny weather of Madrid (around 2740 sun hours per year) relying in two main renewable energy sources, the sun (solar energy) and the heat inside the earth (geothermal energy). This centralised system will supply energy to all the building blocks and it will count with a storage installation to cover all energy consumption during nights and when it is cloudy. To be more concise about the system functioning, I have calculated that up to 5670 solar panels can be placed in the roof- tops of these houses, which count with a total surface of 11340 square meters. Given that an average electric energy consu- me for an small household in Madrid will be of 3487kWh per year1, and that 3 solar panels of 320W(average power) cover 2000 kw of energy per year4, each household could have all their electric energy needs covered with 5 solar panels3. The- refore 5670 solar panels could cover 24/7 electric energy needs of these houses and even make extra energy production. Nevertheless, we have to consider that 3487kWh is the electric energy used in every household, this means lighting, tech- nologies and appliances like fridges etc., In terms of the heating, most of the houses in Spain get the heating from gas sources. Here it is where the second energy source is needed. Geothermic power will supply energy to an under-floor heating system that will cover all the heating needs of the community. page 53

clean energy implementation An installation which will count with lithium batteries will be placed in the empty plot located right next to the building blocks to ensure the storage and proper distribution of the energy to all the houses. Moreover, the excavations needed to extract the geothermal energy, plus all the machinery and the transformation center will also be placed in this installation in the empty plot. So this installation will become the “heart” of the community. The spare space in the plot will be used for a parking for the members of the community that will allow space for walking in the inner streets of the neighborhood. Moreover, the proposal emphasizes the importance of creating a connected and strong community that could directly improve public space and that is concerned of the importance of renewable sources and the benefits that self-sustainability can bring. Therefore it is essential that all neighbors are involved in the understanding and management of the project. Neighbors will gather at the beginning of the project to stablish some rules, they will design a plan to see where and how they will use the income gained form the extra production of solar energy. This plan could consider investments in a better lighting of the public space (using the excesses of the solar energy production), elevators for the building blocks, painting and fixing the façades to improve the esthetics of the site, improving the installations of the community park etc. It is quite obvious that the main issue this project may present is the big initial money investment. Nevertheless, we could find financial aid from big energy companies such as Naturgy, Repsol, Iberdrola etc. that may be more than interested in being involved in this first prototype of an off-grid self-sustainable neighborhood to associate their enterprise image with this type of “green” initiatives.

An Integrated Neighbourhood : Welcome to the Future Circular Economy applied to Urban Planning by Laraqui Houssaini Ghali

plot B

plot C

plot A1

plot A2

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 54

sustainable sky farms

food-waste to compost & honeybee farms

solar panels & wind turbine (energy production) clean energy for households& markets

colected and recycled water

pedestrianized green areas (car free zones)

underground parking

The model presented in the following lines aims to tackle several issues at once, namely energy production and consumption, food production and management, as well as improved lifestyle through a set of changes applicable to the current urban centre located in Carabanchel, Madrid. This framework of improved urban management does not take into account the financial aspect of the implementation of any of the designs that will be discussed and should only serve as a reference for better use of available space in terms of sustainability and quality of life. The area of interest in Carabanchel, delimited by the green encircling line, presents several advantages. The first is the presence of three important empty land fields – in red, A, B, & C –accounting for a surface area approximating 12,700 square meters, measured through distance data retrieved with Google Maps tools. The second is the proximity of habitable residences to these unused areas. This paper will proceed as follows. In the first section, I will discuss on the potential infrastructures that should be built in area A. Then, I will move on to those of area B to finish with those of area C. In the second section, I will develop the circular economy concept underlying the specific design of the aforementioned areas. The last section will deal with the potential impacts such design plans will have on the neighbourhood and its inhabitants. As seen in the bird-eye image of the area of interest in the Carabanchel neighbourhood, the area A is divided page 55

into 2 parts, one of 4,375 square meters, sub-area A-1 (down), and another of 3,450 square meters, sub-area A-2 (up). This divide should not be taken in absolute terms, as it is relative to what, in the present moment, is envisioned to be built in such defined area-portion. Sub-area A-1 is visualized to accommodate a next generation technology of agriculture, namely vertical agriculture. The choice of this recently developed agricultural technique seems evident. Indeed, it combines two great perks: 1) Not merely being an extremely efficient user of space... in essence, this technique creates space as high as its structure goes; 2) A responsible, sustainable use of collected water recycled for the harvest of bio- organic, fresh products. If we assume the base structure of the adjoined image to be a rectangle of, let’s say, 5 meters in width and 10 meters in length, extended to 6 and 11 for passage of hypothetical workers. The surface area of this delimited structure, which can nest as many batches of water where seeds grow as one may desire – why not a green, agricultural tower? – is 66 square meters. Assuming that the entire sub-area A-1 is covered by these represents approximately 66 potential structures able to be constructed. Numbers on the seeds per batch capacity varies, but such structure is highly efficient, with 30-days crops available for harvests daily. The following model also shows another structure to implementing such sky-

farming design, as efficient as the aforementioned one. The water is collected in water tanks placed at the top, from rains notably...but not only, as I will be discussing in the following paragraphs. Sub-area A-1 is hence dedicated to sky-farming, with potential employee number ranging from 5 to 25, depending on the number of structures and their height. Sub-area A-2, on the other, would take this concept even further: it represents a location for a green supermarket open not only to the resident of the area of interest, but to whoever wants to shop there. Fruits and vegetables of all seasons can be grown, which will be discussed in the designing of area B, as some vegetables, like bananas and others, require a different ‘home-design’ – greenhouse homes. The grown vegetables would present the unique attribute of being green and sustainable in their harvest, changing the entire culture of the region when thinking about farming and grocery shopping for the better. Opportunities are extremely varied, as this marketplace can offer a location of exchange between farmers in the outer suburbs zones to bring them more incentives to adopt this technology and increase dramatically their output per square meter. The only downside of this technology is the use of electricity which, in the absence of wind-turbines and solar panels, would mean the consumption of unsustainable electricity as a source of light for the plants. Yet, it still offers a tremendous opportunity to improve overall the quality and status of this neighbourhood.

As well, sub-area A-2 will leave space for composting zone, in which all the food waste from the local community will be collected and allocated in specific tanks for their later use as fertilizers for the crops in the sky farms. This allow to grow fresh, organic products without the use of chemical fertilizers. Additionally, one may think of building a specific area – not very big – for the development of honeybees harvesting. This would reinforce the sustainability of this entire projects, as bees could fertilize the entire sky farms and bring back to such depleted population its natural habitat.1 On the other hand, Area B, as mentioned, will accommodate complementary vegetables and fruits to area A, and will also be a sky farm along with a greenhouse for specific products. The opportunities are wide, and the farmers will be the ones to choose which commodity to grow, which can be decided by knowing the preferences of the local community through a survey or information exchange session. Underpinning the entire area A, I thought of constructing an underground parking lot only for the residents of the area of interest and employees of the supermarket and sky farms. This underground parking lot wouldn’t only welcome cars, it would also embed the technology used by artificial grass football pitches to collect water from rain, and redistribute it to the sky farms after cleaning. This would also allow the entire area of interest to be car-free, with the design of road networks exclusive to bicycles. By design, I mean the reallocation of the current roads into bicycles and running areas. It would drastically improve the life of the inhabitants of the zone of interest.

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 56

The planning of the underground parking lots joins the envisioned plans for area C. Indeed, area C currently has a very big football pitch, which is essentially a loss of space. Instead, the sport area of 2,884 square meter can welcome three useful infrastructures that would promote a healthier and more responsible lifestyle by the local community: 1) A Basketball court of high-school size, being 290 square meters. 2) A 5-side football pitch, totalling 1003.75 square meters approximately. 3) A gardening area for kids, who can develop an interest in botanic while their parents are at work. This area is extendable to 1550 square meters, as we also have to take into account space for benches, bathrooms, supporters who watch football/basketball games, etc. The disposition of all areas A, B, and C has to be added to the interesting idea of installing solar panels on top of the roofs of each residence, as well as providing the zone with mini wind-turbines, as the region of Madrid has on average a 7.9 mile per hour of wind yearly. The area of each of the houses marked by a little red line is 245 square meters. Counting 25 rooftops, we can imagine an area of 6,125 square meters potentially available for solar panels. An average solar panel being 9.6 square meters, producing 1.3kW, there is space for 640 solar panels approximately, all producing 830kW of energy per day. Per year, this figure would grow to 302,740kW of energy production. The average Spaniard household consumes around 3,500kWh

page 57

per year, hence installing this many solar panels would provide electricity for 86 households.3 Other estimations say that a typical home of approximately 1,500 square feet, with electrical costs of about $100 per month generally need 16 panels to cover completely electrical needs, of average surface area 5 square meters. Each roof, as shown, can cover 245 square meters, in other words...49 solar panels. The mini wind turbines are not as efficient, as they have maximum energy conversion efficiency of 59% of wind force, but they can still help in providing green electrical energy. Now that the discussion on the new urban designing done, here is my version of the conceptual ‘circular’ economy diagram that arises from such plans: The impact of such models are various, and effect every side of the economy: - Improved quality of human life: healthy alimentation, habits (sports, socializing with kids gardening and playing sport games together); - Sustainability with sky farms, organic market-place, clean energy production and consumption; - Creation of jobs with the sky farms, the market place, the tutors for the kids gardening; - Change of the local culture towards more sustainable and self-sustaining habits; - A drive for innovation.

The Solution to All the Problems: a Self-Sufficient Economy : How a local currency can make Buenavista’s people happier by Lampis Temmink Lauro Amadeo

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 58

basic income (part in euros, part in local currency)

local residents extra income

local market

local worker

local services

local leisure facilities

local facilities

The Current Situation Imagine an average starter family living in Buenavista, Madrid. A working parent, and a stay-at- home parent (not sex-bound), with a recently-born baby. The family does everything to maximise their quality of living given a net income of € 18 000 - roughly € 100 less than the average Spanish income, but € 500 more than the minimum income. After some calculations based on an educated estimate of what this family buys (Appendix), their annual expenses can be broken down as follows: a) rent = € 8688; b) utilities = € 1620; c) food = € 1200; d) commuting = € 660. They do not have extra expenses on the baby, as one parent stays at home and baby food are included with food costs. Also, they use reusable cloth diapers. Their healthcare comes from the public system. The subtraction of the annual expenses from the net income = € 5832. However, considering 10% of the income is saved for emergencies, only € 4032 is left for extra expenses (cigarettes, clothing, baby toys, hygiene product, OTC medication, and so forth). To compare, a family in The Netherlands will have roughly € 30 000 to spend per year - a substantial difference. The point? The starter family in Buenavista is relatively stretched for resources, and needs to constantly think about their money. Money Problems = More Problems Jane Costello of Duke University researched the mental page 59

health of teenagers from different socioeconomic levels in 1993, concluding that those with relatively less means were more prone to behavioural problems.3 Once the same group of underprivileged youths then saw their parents’ spending power rise by approximately $ 4000 per year, the number of cases of behavioural problems declined 40% - as well as crime, substance abuse, and their school results rose.4 Most importantly, however, parents finally had a little leeway: they had more energy to spend being a good parent, instead of having to work to earn money.5 In a video essay, Casey Neistat - a once poor man with a child living in New York, now a famous YouTuber distinguished between “money problems” (housing, food, health) and “life problems” (pursuit of happiness, love, and a purpose). His conclusion: money can’t solve all your problems, but it can solve the money problems. It seems only logical. The Ideal Situation Ideally, then, nobody would have to worry about those basic needs. Not a family, not a student - nobody. This does not mean everyone should be rich because, following Casey’s philosophy, money can only solve problems to a certain extent. This is because money has a marginal relationship to social problems, demonstrated by the fact that America has a GDP/ capita of about $ 35 000 and Portugal one of about half that, but they have the same index of social problems.7 Exchange GDP/capita for inequality, and the picture materialises: countries with more equality have less social problems.8 The goal is therefore not to overload

everyone with cash, but raise those below the line to the average - to increase equality. The Proposition Everyone in Buenavista should then receive a basic income. No strings attached. Suppose both of the starter parents receive half of the Spanish minimum income for free, this would total the family’s spending power to € 30 600 per year, an overall increase of the total minimum income - and for them, 70%. After expenses, and saving 10% of this amount, this means they have 311% more to spend on other things than just their basic needs. Overall, this would lift them out of their strained position and into one where both parents can focus on their wellbeing, as well as that of the child. But, this is only one step toward the self-sufficient economy of Buenavista. What would keep them from spending all this money on luxuries, or the exact opposite - just hoarding it in the bank? The money somehow needs to contribute toward a more efficient monetary system, circulating in the local economy of the neighbourhood to increase productivity. What is needed, is for at least part of the money to travel hands rapidly between the inhabitants of Buenavista. That way, the economic value of every unit of that money - following the concept of the velocity of money is maximised and the economy can expand.9 Why does it expand? Because if the money circulates readily in

the economy, meaning the value of every unit rises, the total value of the economy rises.10 To give an example: if everyone pays the local bakery with local currency, he wants to expand the business, and can pay the local builder in the currency to help him - and the local builder, in turn, can spend the currency on a babysitter from the neighbourhood so he has more time to be productive. Conclusion Buenavista needs a universal basic income, part of which is paid in a local currency that can only be used within the neighbourhood. The “real” money allows the starter family to cover basic needs that must be paid in that way, such as the city’s utilities and the rent, leaving them more time to parent and focus on wellbeing. The local currency then allows them to be more economically active within the neighbourhood, and it provides incentives for others to offer value for the currency - such as the baker or the builder - through which the Buenavista economy can expand. The best thing? The local currency largely circulates by itself, meaning minimal intervention and bureaucratic costs for the government. And the minimum income overall, despite costing money, will probably pay for itself through increased productivity and education. “Basic income is not a utopia. It’s a practical business plan for the next step of the human journey.” - Jeremy Rifkin, US economist

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 60

page 61

A self-sufficient Carabanchel Circular-economy in urban neighborhoods by Hempel Emanuel Theodor

productive roof garden

productive roof garden

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 62

(anaerobic organic substrat reactor, waste to energy for local households)

(all organic will be stored and separated to fit the needs of the next step)

organic material

energy soil & fertilizer (organic waste turned into soil and fertilizer for the roof gardens)

(managed by the local residents in collaboration with the authorities) productive roof garden (organic waste material from the roof gardens will be stored and processed) compost

compost (local authorities collect the compost from each building composting unit )


local market (majority of the produce will be distributed directly to the local residents)

The focus of this project was to implement a circular economy concept in the urban neighbourhood of Carabanchel. The issues that are trying to be tackled with this proposal are food production and energy. While the aim of these implementations is to reduce environmental impact, contribute to a greater quality of life and create space for micro-economies. This highly ambitious case of urban remodelling would generate 6.453 hectares or 64,530 m2 of agricultural land, by converting the flat roofs into ones which can support plant life. This process of green roofing would cost around 472,937 â‚Ź and could, hypothetically, provide food for 30-44 people all year around. Besides the requirement of gathering the necessary investment needed, administrative issues would also have to be solved. For this, a plan is proposed that splits the responsibility for this urban agricultural land between the local authorities of Carabanchel, and the residence of households. Under this plan there would be one governing body of the garden per household, who besides fixing personal issues is also responsible for the maintenance of the garden, and the selling of proceeds, more on that later. In case of this individual not being able to resolve issues, including maintenance or household disputes, local authorities will be handed the responsibility of resolving it. In terms of the distribution of the produce, 80% will be shared among the household, while 20% will be

page 63

(80% distributed among residents equally. 20% goes to the market)

provided to the governing body of the roof garden. This individual can sell the produce on the last Sunday of every month in the local plaza, surrounded by Calle Cortada and Calle de Azcoitia. Permitting the foundations for a micro-economy to arise out of Carabanchel. Undoubtedly the roof gardens and households will create organic waste, which will be mandatory to separate, as a new compost system across the neighbourhood will permit such actions to be undertaken. The empty plot of land, bottom left of the area in focus, and bordering Camino de la Cruces, will be repurposed to make way for several projects. Primarily a new compost station will be provided, where organic waste of the neighbourhood, can be converted into energy or soil. Converting organic material into soil, requires land, but besides that is not very capital intensive. A mix of food waste in symbiosis with, for example, grass clippings sourced from local sidewalks and manure, which will have to be purchased from surrounding farmers, overtime can serve as nutritious soil for the roof gardens. Alternatively a sections of the organic waste generated will be fed into a bio gas reactor, here a 100m3 plant will require an initial capital investment of 33,509 â‚Ź alongside maintenance cost over its 15 year life span.

Another project, which is apart from the circular system, is the installation of 4kW solar panels on every roof. The small community is made up of an estimate of 75 houses, thus the initial capital requirements for the total operation will be approximately 513,150 â‚Ź, if one panel costs 6,842â‚Ź. Underneath the solar panel, shade seeking flora such as rucola, Brussel sprouts or lettuce can be grown and harvested, thus productive land will not be diminished. In conclusion this project will require, according to rough estimations, an initial investments of 1,019,596â‚Ź, which fails to considered maintenance cost and wages for employees who will manage the system. Furthermore policy changes will need to be implemented to provide the means and convey the population to recycle their organic waste. Roof gardens, the most essential stage of the system, will contribute to food production, standard of living, reduce environmental impact related to food miles and allow the foundations for micro-economies to develop. Furthermore the produce generated and compost/ organic waste will contribute to food production and micro-economies. The energy generated by the bioreactor, provided that there are local demand shortages, can be sold to neighbouring communities and will have to be integrated into the electricity grid. The same concept applies to the soil, whose primary purpose is to

contribute to the roof gardens. Lastly the solar panels will allow for higher energy self-sufficiency and will reduce the environmental impact of the area. The project proposed is highly ambitious, has much potential, but fails to recognize and consider several issues and deeply run analysis. These include its financing, a cost-benefit analysis, community support and so much more. Nevertheless it would provide a step in the right direction and the concepts which have been proposed have shown large success, elsewhere, around the globe.

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 64

page 65

A self-sufficient community center by Davina Francesca Priscilla Drummond

electric bike point

productive roof garden productive garden

productive roof garden

electric bike point

productive roof garden

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 66

(awareness and social cohesion unit to build a sustainable neighborhood)

community center

productive roof gardens with compost (compost is used to create heat and energy in order to power up the building and alternative mobility units, as well as raw fertilizer)

alternative shared mobility (i.e. electrical bikes powered by excess energy created by organic waste by and solar energy)

I propose to build a self-sufficient community centre to increase community awareness, improve quality of life, increase the use of public space and encourage energyneutral mobility through the use of solar-powered electric bikes. A Self- Sufficient community centre is built out of compacted soil with a rooftop garden. Compost will be created using organic waste from the building and from the community. Households will be encouraged to leave organic waste in an orangecoloured trash bag which will then be collected by a volunteer of the community centre and used in the compost. The compost will be used to power the building if large enough by using the thermal energy generated to power the building (battery source). In addition, Rainwater will be collected, filtered and heated inside the compost for the building’s use. Furthermore, outside the community centre, there would be an electric bike rack powered by solar energy which people could access with an app similar to the Santander bikes in London. This would encourage people to use bikes for shorter trips in the neighbourhood which would increase the health of the community and decrease their pollution. This community centre would be used to teach the community about self-sufficiency and encourage them to implement some parts of the self-sufficient systems in their homes. The community is encouraged

page 67

to take responsibility for the community centre and the upkeep of the rooftop garden. This will hopefully increase the quality of life and community awareness as they learn about self-sufficiency and become a closerknit community. Members of the community will be encouraged to teach classes at the community centre about their interests and to brainstorm ways to make the community more self-sufficient. Over time it should function as the social centre of the community such as organizing friendly football matches on the available football field. It will be designed to have activities for all age groups within the community from arts and crafts and gardening for children to lectures and dance classes for adults. I believe that constructing a self-sufficient building and teaching the members about self-sufficiency will encourage them to find a myriad of different methods they can implement themselves. To be successful in attracting and retaining community involvement it will be important to work alongside the community and to appoint leaders of the community to organize events that will be of interest and maximize involvement.

A self-sufficient park Circular economy applied to Buenavista, Madrid by Verbrugge Capucine Marie water storage tanks

water storage tanks

permaculture park water storage tanks

water storage tanks

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 68

(green spaces fitted with greenhouses efficiently placed so that they have maximum solar radiation) greenhouses

(harvesting rainwater and storing it in tanks to be later used for irrigation) rainwater collection system

(productive landscape using the principles of permaculture for sustainable farming) permaculture

composting system (food waste converted to compost to be used as organic fertilizer)

(production of local, organic and sustainable vegetables) food production

The Buenavista neighborhood is located in the south of Madrid city. It is a small neighborhood principally constituted of apartments buildings and in the middle of it is a small park. Therefore, my circular economy proposal is based around free sustainable and organic food production for the inhabitants to cultivate. The park would be rehabilitated into a kitchen garden. Indeed, it would be constituted of multiple greenhouses and everybody is welcomed to cultivate or consume the fruits and vegetables. The park would be equipped of a system of rainwater harvesting. This system is working to collect rain water and then store it in big tanks. The water will then be used for multiple things but mostly for watering the plants. Therefore, there will be an endless supply of water for the kitchen garden. In order to maximize the harvest of the water, every greenhouse will be equipped with drainpipes who will directly drain the water into the tanks. The tanks are located underground to limit visual pollution. The inhabitants will have access to the water through a pipe system at every corner of the park. Moreover, all the greenhouses will be located in strategic positions all over the park in order to get the more sunlight all over the day. To make this kitchen garden thrive, all the people who wish to cultivate need to be familiar with the concept of permaculture. Permaculture is the development of

page 69

bee hives (honeybee hives encouraged to increase pollination)

agricultural ecosystems intended to be sustainable and self- sufficient. Indeed, it is the science of making plants grow next to other plants that can be beneficial for them. An example of permaculture would be the Regenerative Kitchen Garden and Food Forest, they successfully managed to make burnt trees alive again. However, in order to make the plants thrive, you need bees. So, the park will host multiple bee hives, notably for the pollination which is essential to a plant but also to produce honey. Different kind of flowers will be planted all across the park going from acacias to orange blossoms, etc. Thus, this Kitchen Garden will provide enough fruits and vegetables for the neighbourhood. All the food will be organic due a composting process where all the inhabitants throw their food waste into a big compartment. The compost will then be used as a fertilizer to make the plants grow again.All the food will grow according to the seasons and is free for anyone who wants them.

The Yard: The implementation of water management, subsequent food production and quality of life by Lassen Anna Bundgaard

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 70

water collection (cycle begins with the collection of water and its filtration of grey water and rainwater. This system will be applied to each microcommunity)

micro farming plots (the water is used to irrigate the courtyard landscape and garden plot. Each microcommunity cares for their own plot and eventually be able to grow their own food)

community (a stronger more resilient community can flourish with an increased quality of life and stronger social cohesion)

(production can be sold in order to create extra income for community spending)

In the Carabanchel neighbourhood in Buenavista, Madrid the community faces issues of being entirely reliant on external aid and resources. However, through the utilization of the existing structures and resources, it has the potential to become self-sufficient. With two types of buildings, one seen as a cross and small isolated groups, and the other as an extending building with minimal space, the areas have courtyard spaces that have yet to become resourceful. One interesting factor of Carabanchel is how the buildings were devised, with only of few having access to parks and green spaces, the majority instead has untouched space. When considering these two factors; the courtyards and lack of greenery, an opportunity arises where such spaces can be revitalized and generate value. A courtyard has various positive impacts on the surrounding neighbourhood and residents when looking at a country like Denmark, where courtyards are common within the larger cities, they aid in the development of social relations and the maintaining of environmental quality (Nelson, Alyse, et al.). Yet, despite the presence of such spaces, and their ability to create a positive environmental impact, they do not support the residents. Via Caranchancel, The Yard will redefine the importance of courtyard spaces and their

page 71

contributions to the neighbourhood. The project is devised to allow the resident buildings to become self-sufficient in their water management and food production. As shown in Figure 2, these areas will be the main points of interest as they lack a direct engagement with the environment and have access to unused courtyard spaces. The first stage involves the integration of sediment filtration. This form of filtration will be connected to the greywater produced by the residents and natural rainwater, thereby it is stored in containments within each building. The collected water will then be controlled independently according to the residents, and due to this, the filter will likely be a sediment filter as they are easy to manage and low cost, therefore the quality of water collected will be dependent on the courtyard residents. The tanks will be made from steel as it lasts for many years and can also be recycled when it no longer functions (Neconnected). As the seasons change the amount of rainwater will vary, as such the tanks will also require filtered greywater from the residents. The courtyard is transformed into a garden landscape, capable of growing small plants and crops. Large planting beds will be installed, and while the preparation will be simple, the results are reliant on

the dedication of the residents. As they will be using water from the filtration system, it is more economically beneficial and does not interfere with their existing lives (​Ferguson, Donna.​). As the courtyards grow and cultivate the plants, there will be an eventual stream of food production, allowing for partial self-sufficiency. Each courtyard, while considered to be the property of each resident surrounding it, can be viewed as a communal private space; in the open yet simultaneously isolated from the public. The courtyard allows for the development of social relations and a positive mentality, not being affected nor controlled by the public. Additionally, while the resources produced are intended to be consumed by the residents, dependent on their needs it can also be profitable and sold to local stores, creating micro-economic benefits. The project creates a cycle, relying on each main stage in order to function correctly and produce desirable outcomes. While this project has the main goal of creating efficient water management, food production and subsequent well being, by creating a well-balanced courtyard it is capable of generating value within the neighbourhood, giving Carabanchal a higher standard of housing.

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 72

page 73

Urban Rooftop Farming Circular economy applied to Buenavista, Madrid by Marie-thĂŠ Pathe Pastor Alejandra Victorine

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 74

precipitation surface runoff condensation evaporation closed greenhouse system

A concern which is becoming prevalent is how urban sprawl is causing soil and water pollution, mainly due to people’s need for the transport of food and water supply. Urban governments around the world are constantly facing an increasing demand by those who live in cities for small plots of land to grow vegetables or have a garden. However, these unoccupied patches are usually polluted by industrial activity which once took place on them. This is why a potential solution for authorities would be investing in rooftop gardens. In the area of Madrid called Buenavista, this could work especially well because of all the vacant rooftops of apartment buildings. Additionally, due to the neighborhood being so densely populated with little space on the ground, it would be even more advantageous to incorporate rooftop gardening. Rooftop gardens/ farming can help contribute to a reduction in the urban heat island effect as we incorporate more green spaces in an area, and they can also lead to less, and more effective use of energy by providing insulation and regulating temperatures in the winter and summer. Perhaps the aspect most important for energy efficiency the rooftops would provide us with, would be its use of rainwater harvesting to supply the water demand of the gardens. Not only would the plants on roofs use the rainwater immediately, but the excess can be stored for later use. This is the part in

page 75

which we see how rooftop farming can play a vital role in the circular economy. The crops and integration of re-used parts in cultivation could increase the sustainability of the gardens by using less resources in the consumption system. Urban rooftop farming is a feasible way of reducing energy consumption and reducing the loss of water in the urban hydrological cycle in areas of cities like in Buenavista - a densely populated area with little space for gardens or farming on the ground.

Electronic Cadavre Exquis; Circular economy applied to E-waste by Frantsuzov Mikhail

platform for change: e-waste re-purposing workshop.

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 76

(new users will explore the potential of these refurbished items e-waste and fresh models of treating what would be e-waste. a collective consciousness is building up) new residents

obsolete technology

aquired value (value can be monitized and the local workshops can act forprofit, managing and maintaining the park)

re-wiring & repair (new items gain new value, as well as added knowledge)

The dual goal of this project is to tackle the issue of E-waste and simultaneously, to create and promote an active public park in the neighborhood of Buenavista in Madrid. As technology advances, it brings about a better and more efficient communication, resource management and optimization among other benefits. However, the exponential growth in the advancement of technology also means more and more items grow obsolete at an equally increasing pace. In Spain, the problem of E-waste management and recycling has been around for some time. The article in El Pais dated from 2015 states that according to CWIT report on WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment), Spain was at the bottom of the recycling effort in Europe “ahead of only Romania and Cyprus.� Initiatives were sought on a large-scale level, through establishment of Integral Management Systems (SIGs) non-profits. However, these could not cope with the amount of E-waste in the country, handling only 67k out of the staggering 750k tons of waste. Another issue is that usually, E-waste is not treated locally at all, most of it is transported from developed countries to the developing ones. Hence, to address these issues, the project proposes to deal with E-waste locally. And instead of tackling the problem of insufficient recycling, the project aims at maximizing re-use and fostering a circular economy

page 77

(the workshop processes, fixes, repairs and repurposes pieces. It is seen as a public market rather than a business. Group workshops are held to engage the community and educate about rethinking waste)

prototype model which would be implemented on a small scale of a neighborhood and could be expanded horizontally to add other nods in the system across the district. Carabanchel has experienced changes in its demographic, from a working class neighborhood it has shifted towards a new hotspot for young professionals and creative entrepreneurs who seek cheap rents in the vicinity to the city center. This means that even more types of E-waste will be accumulating in the district: in addition to the irreplaceable domestic devices and appliances, increasing dependence on cloud technologies equals constantly updating hardware plus new interface gadgets; even more electronic stuff. The second vital part of the proposal is its community aspect. While the tendency of migration of the younger generation could bring about gentrification and raise the real estate prices, the more positive impact is the diversification of the community both in cultural and socio-economic terms. Hence, the physical location of the project plays an important role as a booster of interaction. The area of intervention is the underused interior courtyard in the heart of the Buenavista residential quarter. This void is re-imagined as a platform for exchange and acquiring knowledge. Formally a park, the courtyard is envisioned to become a center of the

community interaction based on exchange and reuse of obsolete technology – a 21st century localized marketplace. Here, the traditionally seen ‘natural’ habitat of the park coexists with the synthetic, instead of propagating banning the artificial dimension to our daily lives, the project promotes a more sensible and responsible use of technology by exposing its physical domain. On the cultural level, the project introduces a slow shift in mentality, where people are encouraged to reuse and rethink rather than throw away. The circular economy model is designed to help sustain the project and reinforce its values. 1)First, any piece of obsolete technology is collected individually by the neighbors: mobile phones, dishwashers, keyboards, wiring, toys (even sex toys, yes, they have a battery), tv screens, radios etc. 2)These would usually be considered E-waste and be thrown away or put in line for recycling. However, the next step is have them repaired, fixed, alternated or simply donated to the workshop established in the courtyard. This preliminary E-waste is classified and weighted. In accordance with this procedure, the owner collects a compensation in the form of a voucher for a different device that has been previously repaired. This is how a reuse cycle happens. But apart from this, schools, universities community centers, fablabs and galleries are encouraged to take part in the processing and re-thinking of these collected electronics.

value can be in the shape of a physical functionality of the new tool, technical knowledge gained by the participants of the process, consciousness regarding environmental issues and waste management etc. The value can also be monetized (items sold to exterior actors) and the workshop will generate income4 to sustain the environment of the park and other infrastructural elements in the neighborhood. Hence, the communal effort of the residents will bring a real positive change in their environment. 4) The last piece to lock and kick start the mechanism are the new users. These users will be the ones appreciating the cycle that an otherwise useless piece of electronic equipment has gone through to end up in their hands. The last act of the cycle happens when their refurbished technology becomes obsolete and can be brought back to the exchanging platform-park for the community and the workshop to make use of. Electronic Cadavre Exquis sees the discarded objects of mass consumption as an opportunity rather than disposable waste. To conclude, the project aims to tackle the issue of the E-waste management on a local scale, designing a conscious way to deal with obsolete technology in the setting of a courtyard park and, therefore, providing a lively platform for the neighborhood engagement and encouraging a slow mentality shift through gradual appreciation of the crafted nature and added layers to the items of the obsolete.

3)Through a process of manipulations, these products gain an acquired value, a sort of cadavre-exquis reworked by multiple unknown hands and having a new functionality resisting a simple act of tossing away. This

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 78

page 79

Circular economy in the food system by Goveas Kristina Jessie

rooftop gardens rooftop gardens

urban farming

rooftop gardens

urban farming

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 80

consumption (the main goal is that all food production is consumed entirely by locals, but surplus can be sold in the local market to create extra income for the community(

production (conversion of free public space and empty plots into a productive landscape/ community garden, as well as implementing rooftop gardens for lighter crops)

The industrial food system has helped meet the demands of the growing global population. However, it is not seen as sustainable towards our environment and endangers a great part of the biodiversity and human health. Following a new circular model in the food industry could help ease these repercussions. The transition to a regenerative food system follows the circular economy principle, where the environment is less impacted and humans get nutritious food. The three key points of this model are the production, consumption and management of food done in a more sustainable way. The source of the food should be grown regeneratively and locally in order to make the best out of the food and for it to have a higher nutritional content for the consumer. The model also shows that when there is a food surplus or waste, there is a recycling of the nutrients by re-using the matter. For example, it can be used as a natural fertilizer or even as feed for livestock. This type of model can already be seen on smaller scales in farmer’s markets, where the farmers grown their own food with minimal use of pesticides and sell it directly to consumers. This ensure the food remains fresh and contains more nutrients then it would if it was mass produced. It is more sustainable for the environment as the food is produced locally, reducing the global carbon footprint.

page 81

waste (organic waste is composted in small units with which each apartment will be fitted with.)

There is great potential to make the neighborhood of Buenavista in Madrid more sustainable and bring a greater sense of community through this circular economy of food. Many buildings in the neighborhood have a flat rooftop, as seen in the picture below. These flat surfaces could have the potential to become rooftop gardens for the people living in the building. There are many advantages to having rooftop gardens in the community. Firstly, the there are no major structural changes that have to be done to the building. Simple pots are enough to make vegetables grow if a person wants to produce just for themselves. A rooftop garden would also make the neighborhood greener and livelier. In the case that soil is put on the rooftop, the soil acts as a barrier against UV rays and outside temperatures allowing the building to retain its internal temperature. It has the potential to increase the biodiversity by attracting more insects such as bees which are vital to our ecosystem. In addition, Madrid is known for its sunny weather giving the plants enough sunshine to grow. Rooftop gardens promote other benefits such as the reduction of traffic noise coming from the main roads brings greater biodiversity. They also provide a greater resource security for the people. However, there are potential problems to having rooftop gardens in this neighborhood. Summer in

Madrid is extremely dry, meaning that the crops would have to be watered a lot which in order for them to survive the heat. Rooftop gardens also become quite expensive to install and maintain when soil and plants are planted to cover the surface of the rooftop. This could be a problem if not everyone in the buildings want to participate as it increases the costs. There are also several regulations that would have to followed for health and safety if the people decide to sell their crops.

makes them a bit more self-sufficient for food. Regarding the vacant space located in the center of the community, I recommend it to be transformed into a greener areas for the community to come together. It could perhaps turn into a small weekly market where local farmers can sell their goods and people from the neighborhood can sell the excess or unwanted crops they have grown on their rooftop.

Furthermore, the vacant space located in the middle of the neighborhood could also have the potential to become a community garden but there are risks that people will steal other people’s food and wastes a lot of space. I believe that this space should be an area where neighbors can gather together and can perhaps sell the extra crops they have grown on their rooftop gardens. In conclusion, rooftop gardens in this community are a great way to make neighborhood greener, increase local biodiversity, increase a sense of community as well as increasing food security. However, only certain buildings with flat rooftops will be able to participate in this project. Furthermore, it is perhaps not feasible to make the rooftops actual gardens with the ground covered in soil due to the expensive costs and maintenance. Therefore, I recommend that people use their rooftops to grow small amounts of crops for their own families in various pots as it is cheaper but still

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 82

page 83

Leading by example: Carabanchel, a community towards change by prof. Ruxandra Iancu Bratosin pedestrian roads

vertical axis wind turbine green playground

solar panels pedestrian roads water basin

community forum

permaculture pedestrian roads

Models of the Future: Self Sufficient City - page 86

produce (mushrooms and root vegetables)

permaculture park and water basin

district administration COMMUNITY FORUM

green playground & exchange platform

decisions about urban development and investment

pedestrianized roads 40% energy sourced from renewable sources

investment fund reduced energy bills and environmental impact

Any sustainable development should consider all social, economy and environmental subtle balances and that is why a holistic approach is needed: one in which all systems are considered. Furthermore, sustainability is not a matter of fact, a stable scheme, but a dynamic and always changing set of relationships between different agents, interests and developments. Sustainability is a forum, a collective parliament. That is why this last project, a kind of summary collage of students’ ideas, places an hypothetical community forum at its center. A community forum able to take and lead decisions out of a close dialogue with district administration on the following array of parameters: Energy. The promotion of the active use of rooftops through the installation of solar panels and ventilation turbines would decrease the dependency of external energy sources and improve the thermal behavior of Buenavista’s built environment. Food. Green spaces can be productive. The implementation of permaculture activities in all green spaces would not only provide for the production of local food and local economy (local produce being sold at local markets), but it would improve also the ecological awareness and the sense of belonging. Water. A distributed network of water basins for rain collection at each block and an artificial lake for the

page 87

60% cooling controlled by air flow from vertical axis turbine

permaculture park would not only feed the food cycle but also improve Buenavista’s microclimate (reducing the heat island effect) and increase biodiversity. Matter. Local upcycling and repurpusing, rather than waste disposal, would reinforce community links. Public space equipped with furniture made out of repurposed materials would promote these set of strategies and could act as a local urban brand. Mobility. Transforming the inner spaces into gardened and pedestrianized roads, combined with a parking ring border and with the promotion of electric bikes and public transportation networks (Carabanchel Alto metro and bus lines) would help to reactivate the relation between housing and public spaces. Safe-space for children, all-age playgrounds and gymnasiums could be installed promoting a healthy life. Community. An exchange platform for goods and services, the management of a collective fund for slow but steady block improvements, the collectivization of permaculture activities and its relation with local markets, all these activities reinforce and promote the creation of new jobs for maintenance and management. But they also improve the sense of community, affect the way we relate with each other and with the environment we inhabit and, at last, improve the sense of place and the quality of life.