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DEFINING OPEN SPACES

TAMAKI BUSINESS PRECINCT CORA LAWTON

Outdoor spaces in high intensity areas need improving, they generally lack in providing linkages to the surrounding community and ecology. They also fail to provide for the resident’s needs and desires. Because of this people are reluctant to buy into high intensity developments and if they do the turn over in property ownership is very high. To get more people to buy and stay in high intensity developments they need to be more inviting and provide appropriate outdoor spaces. So how do you define what kind of open spaces should be provided in new mixed use high intensity developments? In this study I have chosen an area ripe for redevelopment and selected three different Open Space sites. I will apply different designs to each and compare and contrast each Open Space to help define what technique is better suited to defining Open Spaces.

Scale 1:50,000


Site Selection

The Study Area was identified through a GIS analysis of Tamaki region. Existing Open Spaces and cadastral boundaries were identified along with main roads and the proposed AMETI line. The roads were then buffered 400-800m to identify a site easily accessible for a Mixed Use Development focused on a walking community. The final site location was decided as it is close to public transport, Open Spaces and had large land parcels making the area easier to develop.


Site Existing

The Auckland City Council released a business precinct plan called the Tamaki Innovation Precinct 2040 in July 2010. According to the plan the Tamaki Innovation Precinct 2040 provides a vision for the Tamaki Innovation Precinct that seeks to: • • •

create an environment that will attract high value- added research and technology-based businesses, supportive technology and business services, and research oriented organisations. encourage quality built form outcomes that facilitate transition. provide more employment opportunities.

The vision for Tamaki Innovation Precinct is: to be ”... recognised internationally as New Zealand’s sustainable centre of technological innovation and a hub of the knowledge economy.” The council will work with its partners and other stakeholders to achieve this vision. To enable the

vision, the following three goals have been identified:

• • •

economic revitalisation - ensure that the Tamaki Innovation Precinct acts as a catalyst for revitalising New Zealand’s economy. building strong partnerships - work toward delivering the vision by taking an effective leadership role and building strong relationships with key partners. sustainable and integrated development - ensure that planning and development of the precinct is aligned and consistent with the vision.

The Tamaki Precinct today: • • • • • •

has a land area of 155.5ha of which 7.5ha is vacant. employs 3330 people in 512 businesses. is primarily a manufacturing and distribution centre. accounts for 56% of the total employment in Tamaki. 165,744 people reside within a 5km radius of the precinct. it draws 93% of it’s employment from this 5km radius.

According to the 2006 census the Tamaki region had: •

more residents with a Maori or Polynesian background (13% Maori and 23%

• • • •

Polynesian). 23% of residents under the age of 15. 54% residents over the age of 15 whose highest qualification was secondary school. 67% of people who drove to work in a private or company car. 8% of residents using public transport.

This plan relates to my study as not only does it want to be at the forefront of research and technology based activities, but it seeks to design adaptable buildings that allow the continual reinvention of space that encourages new businesses into the area. From my analysis of this plan I came to the realisation that Open Spaces in this area need to provide for the adaptable nature that is proposed by the plan, they also need to provide walking/cycling connections for not only the residents living in the area but also for the employees and people from the surrounding communities who would frequent the site for work or recreation. It is also important for the success of the development to provide spaces that would entice people to invest in the area.


Existing Tamaki Precinct Concept

This plan shows the proposed areas for the Tamaki Precinct. From my analysis of this plan I was able to identify flaws. It is unsuccessful in providing Open Spaces that links the overall plan together. This has caused distinct divisions between different zones. It also provides only a small amount residential development within a mixed use zone that may struggle to support the newly proposed zones. In order to intensify Auckland it is important to expand on the residential development within this area.

Although this plan proposes a Mixed Used Development I feel the area is still divided and connections need to be enhanced. This could be achieved by linking different zones together through Open Spaces that in turn would improve the ecology in area.


Analysis Maps

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• Existing Industrial area • High coverage of impervious surfaces • High amount of existing buildings • Minimal amount of native vegetation except near Mt Wellington • Lack of vegetation minimises ecological connections • No predominant aspect on the site

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• Surrounded by existing Open Spaces • Generally flat area with a few minor areas with slopes greater than 15 degrees • Lack of planting around flood plains and rivers • Three catchments within area • Lack of connections to surrounding areas


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As the study area is an existing industrial site I felt it was important to retain as much of the existing buildings as possible to reduce the impact demolition would have on the environment. I propose recycling the existing buildings and retrofitting them for their proposed uses. The zones were defined through the analysis of the site (previous page) and Tamaki Precinct Concept. I felt it was important to retain as much of the proposed concept as possible, but as I found flaws with this plan I used my site analysis to rectify these issues. Though my analysis I came up with five zones:

Education: Auckland University has a strong presence in this area. It contributes positively to the economics and work force of not only the study site but also the surrounding communities. Because of this I felt it was imperative that this zone be maintained.

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Education Support:

It was proposed in the Tamaki Innovation Precinct 2040 plan to focus the area on a research and technology based business to strengthen the existing Auckland University Research facility. By maintaining the Education Support buildings close to the University would allow this to be achieved, but would also provide close connections.

Light Industry: It was important to maintain a Light Industry zone on this site as it would maintain employment for the study area and surrounding communities. This zone was located within areas of poorer aspect. Unfortunately it was also located close to a flooding zone, but buildings within this area were removed to allow for a Open Space that would ecologically enhance the area and create amenity for the Light Industrial. It would also provide linkages to other zones within the area.

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For the success of my proposed Mixed Urban Development I believed it was important to blur the boundaries between this zone and Residential, making it easily accessible to the residents within the zone. These sites were determined by retaining existing buildings with poorer aspects. New buildings were also located on land not suitable for parks or residential development.

Residential:

These zones were determined by proximity to transport nodes and buildings that existed within good aspects that with the right retrofitting could provide an overall suitable living space in all seasons. As Auckland continues to expand it was essential to provide an array of high density residential developments within this site to accommodate for this growth.


Industrial Retrofit Case Study

Rag Flats Designed by Onion Flats and located on E. Berks Street, Old Town, Philadelphia this development transformed an old rag factory into a residential garden community. The buildings are topped with green roofs that collect 2,271 litres of water under the development and solar panels that power 80-100% of the development and it is close to public transport. Green spaces also weave between buildings, providing Open Spaces for residents. It provides modern residential units that explores the relationships between density, intimacy and privacy in an urban environment. This development proves it is possible for industrial areas to be transformed or upcycled into residential developments successfully with careful design.


Exploration Map

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Proposed AM ETI

Red: These lines represent the walking/cycling connections within the proposed mixed urban development. By exploring walking connections I was able to identify areas that would have a high foot/cycle rate. The success of this Mixed Urban Development relies on the different areas being easily accessible by foot without to much interference from motorised transport. Green: With these lines I was able to identify possible ecological connections that are almost non existing in the study area. Yellow:

These represent the connections to the education facilities within the area (excluding Auckland University). The schools within the area include: Ruapotaka School 450m from study area Point England Kindergarten 1km from study area Tamaki Intermediate 1km from study area Panmure Bridge School 2km from study area (outside of map area). Sacred Heart College 2.5km from study area (outside of map area).

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Hydrological connections. These show the existing streams along with the proposed hydrological connections within the site.

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Black Dots: These dots represent the proposed train station and

bus stops within the site. These are important as the foot traffic will be distributed from these points.

This map helped to identify areas that are suitable for Open Spaces that not only contribute to the communities needs, but also to provide ecological, hydrological and pedestrian connections. Once the connections were identified I discovered areas ripe for Open Spaces within the Residential and Commercial/Retail zones that would a provide a wide range of linkages throughout the study area and surrounding communities.


Proposed Open Spaces Railway

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Proposed AM ETI

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This map uses the same key as the previous map but the scale focuses on the proposed Open Spaces within my study area and the connections they will provide for the development. This map helped to identify what kind of Open Spaces should be provided in these areas.

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Residential Open Space Rationale

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As this site would be surrounded by highly populated, large residential developments it became evident that the space would be highly utilised by the residents, so I proposed the space as the Residential Open Space. The main purpose of this park is to provide for the surrounding residential buildings whilst also allowing pubic access through the site (as represented by the red arrows). The main focus of this park was to provide for the residents but as the space would be a popular thoroughfare for access to and from different zones within and out of the study area it was important to create easy access through the site. This would provide connections to the schools (yellow arrows), train station, bus stops (red arrows). It was also just as important that this park provided ecologically for the study area and the surrounding environment to create more ecological connections throughout the entire area.

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Residential Design Rationale

This design was created by extending radial lines across the site from existing buildings. These were formed to provide a remembrance of what the site was in the past. The N, NW and NE aspect was also used in the design rationale to identify sunnier areas that people are drawn to for relaxation. It also showed areas suitable for fruit trees and raised gardens that will be utilised by residents from the surrounding buildings as vegetable gardens. The site was then divided up according to the aspect and design lines to provide different areas that meet the requirements of the surrounding environment, development and residential community. Three metre wide asphalt paths will provide walking/cycling linkages to and from the Residential Open Space whilst the material used to create the path denotes the impermeable surfaces that once dominated the site. Concrete block raised gardens will also be created to provide vegetable garden spaces for residents to utilise. The material used to create these also represents what once existed on this site. Large timber deck spaces will also be provided for areas of entertainment and relaxation for both residents of the surrounding buildings and also employees and residents from the surrounding communities. A pergola will also be created to supply shade for hot summer days and break up the height of the buildings that surround the park. Native plantings will be placed on sloping banks and areas with poorer aspects. Although these areas will not be significant in size they will still provide ecologically to the overall development by creating more biodiversity. As this area is predominantly flat a majority of it will be lawn. This is to provide an open spaces for recreation for both the surrounding residential buildings and community. Fruit trees have been placed in sunny positions to supply a small amount of fruit for the community, but the tall trees will also provide ecological connections for the area. This park mixes ecological with amenity to provide a park that connects with surrounding environment. Although it is more focused towards the buildings that surround the site (as they are a substantial size and residents will want to be close to an outdoor space) it still connects to the surrounding environment and community. To keep the overall Mixed Use Development completely open this park will have no boundaries and will be completely open for anyone who wants to utilise this space.


Residential Design Native plantings Fruit trees Asphalt path Lawn Deck/Pergola

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Scale: 1:500


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Ecological Open Space Rationale

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The location of this site provided the right ingredients for an ecological focused Open Space as it has been placed close to the existing Open Space on Auckland University grounds, the proposed AMETI line and Residential Open Space. The landform of this site and the surrounding area lead to a majority of the site becoming a collection pond for the proposed AMETI line. A proposed bus stop is also situated just out of the park so it is important to retain walking/cycling connections to reach other zones in and out of the study site. From the analysis of this site the main focus became ecological to provide a mechanism to clean water from AMETI before it enters the Tamaki Estuary. The size and location of the site would also provide an ecological corridor, enticing native wildlife into the area from other regions surrounding the study area.

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Ecological Design Rationale

This design was created by extending curves across the site that represent the original volcanic cones (Mt Wellington and Taylor Hill) whose views once and still do dominate the site. The curves were extended across the site within 10m increments. These curves in conjunction with the aspect (N, NW and NE) and landform helped to predict the collection pond and areas for walking and planting. Fourteen metre wide asphalt paths were placed within the curves on sunnier aspects to provide walking/cycling linkages to and from the park. As the paths are quite wide they can also be utilised for recreation and relaxation. The material of the path also denotes towards the impermeable surfaces that once dominated the site. A large 14m wide timber boardwalk that crosses the collection pond has been created to provide access across the pond but it also offers an area for recreation or relaxation for the surrounding community. This boardwalk engages with the pond and helps to educate the community on importance of collection ponds. It also creates an amenity for the Mixed Urban Development and entices native wildlife back into the area. The main purpose for this collection pond is to collect run off from the proposed AMETI and filter it before the water enters the Tamaki Estuary. Native plantings will dominate this site, providing an ecological corridor for native bird life. To enhance the ecology and biodiversity in this area it is important that more corridors be created to support our native wildlife. A small area of lawn was created in a sunny position to provide a area for recreation or a space for people to relax. This park mixes ecological with amenity to provide a park that connects people with ecology and the ecology with the surrounding environment.


Ecological Design

Native plantings Lawn

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Residential/Eco Open Space Rationale

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This site is situated within close proximity of the Tamaki railway station and because of this it would be a popular short cut for people to and from the station from outside the study area. The topography and location of the site on a flood zone (that leads out to the Tamaki estuary) lead it to becoming a rational selection for a collection pond for the Mixed Urban Development. The size of the park with the correct planting could also provide and ecological corridor enticing more native wildlife into the area. This site analysis and the location of the site between the residential developments guided it into becoming a Residential/Eco Open Space.

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Residential/Eco Design Rationale

The same design drivers from the Ecological and Residential Open Spaces were used to create this park. They were used in conjunction with each other driving the ecological and synthetic interventions across the site. Again these lines were used in combination with the aspect to define and divide the site for a range of uses. Once again connections to and from the Mixed Used Development and Tamaki railway station had a huge impact on the design. A 3m wide asphalt path (the material reflecting the history of the site) was driven through the sunnier area of the site to provide access to and from the area. As this path would have a high foot/cycle traffic rate I felt it was important not to surround it with high plantings, to keep the feeling of openness and safety for people who would utilise the site as an access way during night. Because of this the path is predominantly surrounded by lawn. The planting areas that surround the path will contain lower species of plants such as oioi and flaxes. A raised flat lawn platform was situated on a sunny aspect and will provide views across the site. This area will be primarily utilised by the residents from the surrounding residential buildings, but also by residents and employees from other regions of the Mixed Use Development. Another lawn area will also be located within the site on a sunny, flat location. This lawn will also contain fruit trees that could provide for the community but more importantly they will provide a connection for native wildlife. The areas within poorer aspects of the site become native plantings to provide an ecological corridor. These plants will surround the collection pond that will clean up water runoff before it enters the Tamaki estuary. These plantings and pond will provide an amenity and increase the biodiversity in the area. A boardwalk has been created on the northern side of the park and has been raised the native plantings. This will connect people with the environment, but also maintains a safe feeling for people who may access the park at night. The boardwalk provides linkages for foot traffic to and from the Mixed Used Development. This boardwalk also crosses the pond, allowing people to cross the site and it will also provide an area where views across the site can be attained. This park mixes ecological with amenity to provide a park that connects people with ecology and the ecology with the surrounding environment.


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Raised Boardwalk Lawn platform Native Planting Fruit trees Lawn Asphalt Path

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Case Studies

Twin Streams A large scale project to restore and improve the water quality of the Waitakere Streams. Although this site isn’t in a high intensity development the overall design provides ecological connections, social and transport connections, storm water management and it engages with the local community and has regional and ecological benefits. So far Project Twin Streams has: • • • • •

Purchase 78 houses within flood zones and relocated them reducing flooding hazards. Engaged with local schools, businesses and other community groups to adopt and restore areas of stream-banks to restore and maintain. Cleared stream-banks of rubbish and weeds. Created an extensive network of paths and cycleways that encourage sustainable transport and connects locals with their streams. Educated locals on the importance of stream care and stormwater management.


Case Studies

TOD New Lynn New Lynn was identified as a major growth node and Transit Orientated Development (TOD) within Waitakere. The strategy for this site is to provide an integrated approach to dealing with complex transport and land use issues. The future will provide a pedestrian focused community, private and public transport connectivity, sustainable and safe transit orientated town centre, mixed urban living, networks of public open spaces, and a sense of place.


Conclusion

As time was a limitation on this study I was only able to focus my studies on three designs. Because of this I chose Open Spaces within Residential and Commercial/Retail areas to entice people to buy and invest in these areas and maintain their ownership preventing high turnover rates of property ownership. By only focusing on these three Open Spaces prevented me from exploring the designs of spaces and roads in between my proposed Open Spaces (i.e. how do cars interact with people within the proposed development and what other structures need to be provided through out the Mixed Use Development etc). In order for these Open Spaces to be a success more comprehensive investigation needs to be completed throughout the whole study area. This will strengthen the community and ecological connections. I feel another component that would lead to the success of this Mixed Use Development would be a stormwater train. This would connect other water

collection devices (i.e. living roofs, swales, wetlands etc) with the proposed collection ponds. Not only would these devices prevent further pollution to the Tamaki estuary but they would also provide more habitats for native wildlife and amenities; and also increase the biodiversity in the study area. It is important that the overall design of the study area not only reflect the communities needs and desires, but it also needs to provide ecological services that improve the environment in and the around the area.

to one kind of park. I have discovered through this study that it is not the size of the Open Space that matters, but the opportunities that they provide for the community. I feel within this Mixed Used Developments smaller pocket parks with different uses throughout the region would better provide for their communities. In some instances it is important to provide larger Open Spaces, but the locality of this area and it’s proximity to larger existing Open Spaces allowed the size of my proposed Open Spaces to remain small.

The Open Spaces I have designed are just a stepping stone in the overall development. They are all within 500m of each other, making all three of them easily available across the site. This was an important factor in this Mixed Use Development as it allows people to access a variety parks that were designed based on their locality with the overall study area. This provides the community with options on what Open Space they chose to utilise and not just limit them

In conclusion this design would have benefited from more time, allowing further investigation into the overall connections of spaces through out the site, but from this study I have identified that it is not the size of the Open Spaces that matter it is the overall connections that smaller Open Spaces provide and that Mixed Urban Developments need an array of Open Spaces.


Planting

The planting in the Ecological park was based on the same design drivers used for the parks design. The site was divided into areas of mass native plantings and mixed native plantings. The mass native plantings were based around the paths and collection pond. This was done to create a formal feeling that provides a “cue to care� for users of the park. This aesthetic transforms into a natural one behind the mass plantings. The mass plantings around the pond and paths are species with a lower heights to retain views across the site that will maintain a feeling of safety for people who utilise the park as an access way during dark hours. Lines were also extended across the site from the existing buildings and these were utilised for specimen tree plantings of natives to provide canopy species for ecological connections. Selection of the plant species was made through analysis of the site location within the Tamaki Ecological District and this site fell within the warm lowlands ecosystem. It was important to select the right plants for the site to increase the biodiversity in the area.


Planting Plan Lb x 78 Ab x 128 Rs x 4 Ae x 9 Vl x 9 Lb x 126 Ab x 112 Pt x 17 Mixed Plantings Ab x 237 Cs x 133 Cs x 94 Vl x 4 Vl x 2 Pt x 41 Cp x 184 As x 88 Ae x 14 Mixed Plantings Lg x 122 Cs x 192 Rs x 12 Pt x 50 As x 204 Rs x 9 Vl x 4 Cf x 125 Vl x 1 Ab x 174 As x 128 Vl x 4 Cf x 47 Code Ae x 17 Ab Cf x 80 As Rs x 4 Cf Cp x 232 Pt x 50

PB size

Qty

Spacing

Astelia banksii

Botanical Name

wharawhara

Common Name

PB3

671

0.7m

Apodasmia similis

Oioi

PB3

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0.7m

Cortaderia fulvida

toetoe

PB3

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1m

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Cordyline pumilio

dwarf cabbage tree, ti koraha

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Carpodetus serratus

putaputawheta, marble leaf

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Phormium tenax

flax, harekeke

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Lophomyrtus bullata

ramarama

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1m

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Libertia grandiflora

NZ iris

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Stake if required

Maintain as 1m high clipped hedge

Specimen Trees PB size

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Alectryon excelsus

Botanical Name titoki

Common Name

PB95

40

4m

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Rhopalostylis sapida

nikau palm

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Vitex lucens

puriri

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Mixed Plantings Code

Scale: 1:500 @ A3

PB size

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Cordyline australis

Botanical Name

cabbage tree

Common Name

PB3

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Spacing 3m

5%

Mix

Corynocarpus laevigatus

karaka

PB3

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3m

5%

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Coprosma propinqua

mingimingi

PB3

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1.5m

10%

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Coprosma robusta

karamu

PB3

260

1.5m

20%

Mix

Dianella nigra

turutu

PB3

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0.6m

20%

Mix

Griselinia lucida

broadleaf

PB3

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1m

20%

Mix

Hebe stricta

koromiko

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384

1m

20%

Please note: All plants must be eco sourced

%

Notes


References

Auckland City Council. (2010). Tamaki Innovation Precinct 2040 Business Precinct Plan. Retrieved October 15, 2011 from: http://www.auckalndcouncil.govt.nz Auckalnd Transport. (2011). AMETI. Retrieved October 15, 2011 from: http://www.auckalndcouncil.govt.nz Bogdan, L. (2009). Philadelphia Rag Factory Converted to Eco-Innovative Residences. Retrieved October 15, 2011 from: http://inhabitat.com/philadelphia-rag-factory-converted-to-eco-innovative-residences/ Common Ground Urban Design and Architecture Limited. (2008). NEW LYNN, An Urban Regeneration Framework for New Lynn’s town centre. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from: http://www.waitakere.govt.nz/abtcit/cp/newlynn.asp Lindsay, H., Wild, C. and Byers, C. (2009). Auckland Protection Strategy. Retrieved November 12, 2011 from: http://www.doc.govt.nz Onion Flats. (2011). Rag Flats. Retrieved October 15, 2011 from: http://www.onionflats.com/ Opus International Consultants. (2011). AMETI Package 1, Panmure Corridor, Notice of Requirement, Phase 1A. Retrieved October 15, 2011 from: http://www.auckalndcouncil.govt.nz Project Twin Streams. (2011). Project Twin Streams. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from: http://www.projecttwinstreams.com/ Waitakere City Council. (2005). Native to the West. Retrieved November 12, 2011 from: http://www.waitakere.govt.nz


Mount Wellington

Medium Density Residential Development

The current distribution of the industrial area in relation to the residential near the Ellerslie Panmure Roundabout doesn’t allow for much development in the community sector. In order for community development the industrial area surrounding Mount Wellington Domain has to be moved. This will ensure there is better community integration with the residential areas, provide businesses or community facilities, it can be integrated into the existing transport system to decrease congestion, and if developed properly can even be a tourist attraction. This will help increase the population around the Tamaki estuary. Moving the industrial area will reduces the pollution and waste output and leaves room for a better eco system to be developed as major industrial waste is moved away from residential waste.

Medium Density Residential Development

This available space provides room for the expansion of community resources. This allows for population growth, potentially provides a tourist attraction, enhances community resources and as a result community bond. The most effective way to address this issue is to approach it at site levels. The make up of the surrounding area needs to be taken into account so that whatever is developed on this space adds to this community what the other areas do not provide.

Suzann Sasha Verghese

1319335

Scale 1:50,000


Mount Welling Commercial Area


1. The current view of the car park that is near the railway lines 2. The commercial buildings that are in the commercial area near the railway station and behind the main shops

3. The apartment blocks that are currently existent

5. View of the Commercial area from the Top of Mount Wellington

4. The main Road that leads to the Summit of Mount Wellington


Case Study Phillip Street, Redfern, NSW, 2016 Council: City of Sydney Area Density: 55 d/ha Development Density: 109 d/ha Building Height: 15m (3 - 4 storey apartment buildings & 1, 2 and 3 storey townhouses) Number of dwellings and dwelling mix: 106 dwellings. 44 x 1br apts, 14 x 2br apts, 8 x 2br accessible apts, 13 x 2br townhouses, 17 x 3br townhouses, 6 x 3br accessible townhouses, 4 x 4br accessible townhouses This is a city block bounded by Walker, Phillip, Morehead and Kettle streets in Redfern. The development is part of the Redfern Public Housing Project, to revitalise the inner-city neighbourhood of Redfern. It provides new public housing for young families, the elderly and those most in need. The site used to have 106 walk-up units, built in 1953. A master plan was prepared for the entire site which includes two adjoining blocks. The west block is not part of this development and will be sold to help fund the renewed social housing. The redevelopment of the eastern block involved demolition of 10 two and threestorey public housing buildings, and the construction of 106 new low-to-medium rise dwellings. The four corners of the site are anchored by the three-to-four-storey apartment buildings, which act as ‘bookends’ to the townhouses that directly front both Morehead and Walker streets. Strong design elements define each corner with the use of colour and form, seen in the white, cantilevered balconies that wrap around masonry elements. The townhouses are designed to ensure a robust and interesting array of façade treatments. An innovative arrangement and combination of materials and colours provides a lively streetscape. The project is only the second public housing development in Australia to achieve a Green Star rating. It was awarded a 5-Star Green Star rating under the Multiunit Residential PILOT tool in 2009.

The project fits well into the surrounding context of the high-rise towers of the McKell Building and Poets Corner to the east and the two-storey historic terraces, within a heritage conservation area, to the south. It offers a high-quality environment for a diverse range of demographic groups, which is close to a local park, transport and shops.


AMETI Proposal

This is the current AMETI Proposal that the city council is planning to develop in the Mount Wellington Area. In this area the council’s plan is to create a more pedestrian orientated complex. This helps promote more foot traffic, the main road that used to be has been removed and it has become the main pedestrian entrance into the complex. They have also added an taxi and bus lane so that it is convenient for the public after they get off the train . Their plan is to also remove the existing roundabout and create a four lane road on the main Panmure-Mout Welling Highway.


Residential Area Outline

Residential Area

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res area Value High : 134.5 Low : 6.67373

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This map basically outlines the area that I am planning to develop in a medium density area. The reason I have decided to develop this area into a medium density area is so that there is a better connection with the railway station. Also there would be a gradual transition from commercial area to medium density area (apartment living)to low density areas(single housing).


Existing Infrastructures

Residential Area

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Infrastructures Car Company

Apartment Block

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smallarea Value High : 134.5

Low : 6.67373

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This map shows the current infrastructures that are in the area, from this we can see that the land before the Mountain is mainly flat and there is a lot of impervious surfaces those impervious surface is mainly from the car park of the car company as well as in the apartment block area .


Existing Infrastructure and AMETI

Residential Area

J

Infrastructures and Ameti area_boundary railway clip roads clip buildingoutlines_Clip Car Company

impervioussurface_Clip3

Apartment Block

ameti area.jpg RGB Red:

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smallarea Value High : 134.5

Low : 6.67373 170

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Once I integrated the AMETI Proposal plan into the infrastructure map the area that is left to develop is towards the left side of the railway lines and closer towards the base of the mountain near the entrance.These areas are known as the car company area and the apartment block.


Slopes Greater 15 Degrees

Residential Area

J

Slope area_boundary Apartment Block Car Company

roads clip railway clip 0 1

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smallarea Value High : 134.5

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This map mainly outlines the Slopes that are greater than 15 degrees. Looking at this map we see that the main areas that there are slopes that are greater than 15 degrees are near the railway lines as well as towards the left of the apartment block and behind the car company area. Since these slopes are greater than 15 degrees the only thing that can be done here is to buffer up the slopes with vegetation. The railway line will also be buffered with vegetation.


North Facing Slopes and 15 Degrees Slopes

Residential Area

J Apartment Block

Car Company

Slopes roads clip buffer railway buildingoutlines_Clip

North slope North Northeast

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This map I have overlaid the North facing slopes with the slopes that are greater than 15 Degrees. The result I got was that the areas that have the greatest amount of north facing slopes in mainly towards the north east area of the apartment block and on the road side near the car company. My solution to these north facing slopes are that these north facing slopes won’t really effect my design of creating a medium density residential area so it is fine for me to add on more buildings in the apartment block area. In the car company are I have decided to replace that area with a square apartment.


AMETI Buildings

Residential Area

J

New Apartment Blocks council blocks road layout new roads clip railway clip medium block 1 apartment square area_boundary

smallarea Value High : 134.5

This map mainly shows the design of the council buildings that will be placed as well as my design of where I will be placing the medium density blocks. Low : 6.67373

I will be expanding the current apartment block from two blocks to seven blocks (light grey) and replacing the car company building with an apartment building ( dark grey) There are also the new road layouts that have been prepared by the city council.

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Plan Residential Area

J Plan apartment blocks apartment square VEGETATION BUFFER BEHIND main_pedestrain_bridge pedestrain bridge pedestrain links road layout new roads clip buffer railway council blocks buildingoutlines_Clip

This is the final plan of the area that I have designed.

impervious surface final

My idea is to expand the current apartment block from two buildings to seven buildings and behind these building I will buffer the area with vegetation so that the sound from the industrial building will be shilled and not disrupt residents. It will also restrict the little kids from entering the industrial area.

ameti area.jpg RGB Red:

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The car company building will be replaced with the apartment building. The apartment building that I am placing will be in a square formation and in the middle of it is open space so there is a pedestrian access into the building from all four sides. The back of the apartment building will also be buffered up with vegetation as the slope behind the building is more than 15 degrees so the maintain the landform the best plan would be to buffer the area. The railway line will also be buffered with vegetation to prevent erosion and to maintain the slope.


Section A-A

Cross- Section

The image below shows the contour of the land from the vegetation buffer behind the apartment building to the winz office.

Section B-B The image below shows us the land form behind the apartment block. Here we see the vegetation that will be planted to retain the slope from erosion and also to create a barrier between the residential builds and the industrial buildings.

B

B A Section C-C C C

A

In the image below we see how the planting is being used as a buffer to stop further erosion of the land.


Perspectives Perspective A- this perspective is showing how the car park will look among the apartment block . The species of tree that will be planted here are titoki trees

Perspective B- This Perspective shows how the front of the apartment building will look and what kind of planting it has. The plants that will be planted in front of the apartment building are nikau palms, flax bushed, small shrubs and kowhai trees

Perspective C- Here we see the pedestrian crossing. This is placed right in front of the apartment building. The pedestrian crossing is a sped bump but on it there are nikau palms, flax bushed and some small shrubs.


Planting Plan No. Botanical Name

Common Name

Quantity

1

Beilschmiedia tarairi Prumnopitys ferruginea

Tarairi Totara

5-10 5-10

2

Agnois flexuosa Knightia excelsa Leptospermum scoparium

Willow myrtle Rewarewa Manuka

8-12 10-14 8

3

Apodasmia similis

Oioi

4

Phormium’ Green dwarf’

Flax

4-6

5 6

Sophora microphylla Phormium ‘Grenn dwarf’ Rhopalostylis sapida

Kowhai Flax Nikau Palms

8-12 4-8 6

7

Alectryon excelsus

Titoki

12

This image shows the various planting that will be placed around the apartment building and the apartment blocks. This planting is mainly used as a vegetation buffer for the slopes that are greater than 15 degrees and to maintain erosion on the slope leading to the railway tracks. The vegetation buffer that is placed behind the apartment blocks is put as a barrier to stop the sound from the industrial area. The planting that is in the car park area among the apartment block is mainly for aesthetics.


E X P L O R I N G PA N M U R E Ryan Jam es Al d r i ch

PA N MU R E CONTEXT Panmure is situated adjacent to the eastern rail network and along the main connection across the Tamaki estuary into the East and South of Auckland. 1) Auckland is growing and needs to accommodated population increases. 2) Panmure and Mt Wellington are not connected to the water.

A M I T I I N T E RV E N T I O N The AMETI project places Panmure train station at the centre of a significant transport node.

O P P O RT U N I T Y AMETI opens room for transport orientated development to occur within and around Panmure.


Auckland, New Zealand

Panmure Basin


LOC ATING PANM URE

P anm ure i s a s outh eas ter n s ub ur b of Auck l and . P anm ure i s s i t u a t e d 11k m s outheas t of the ci ty centre and cl os e to the w es ter n b a n k s o f the Tam ak i Ri v er and the N or ther n s hore of the P anm ure Bas i n. N o r t h of P anm ure i s the s ub ur b of Tam ak i and to the Wes t i s M t Wel l in gt o n .

NORTH LAND

THE PACIFIC

AUCKLAND CBD

PANMURE BASIN


PANMU R E R E TA I L A R E A

PA N MU R E B A SIN

VIEW OVER PANMURE FROM MT WELLINGTON


SU B JEC TS OF IN VESTI G ATI O N PANMURE BASIN

U N D ER LYIN G ISSU E / IN VESTIGATION D R IVER 1)A uckl and i s grow i ng and needs to accommodated popul a ti on i nc reas es . GLEN INNES 2)P anmure and Mt Wel l i ngton are not connected to the w ater.

PANMURE BASIN

PANMURE BASIN


A M E T I E X P L A N AT I O N

Currently less than 4% of all journeys use public transport. The AMETI transport project aims at increasing public transport use by creating, upgrading and improving public transport infrastructure. Panmure Train station will become a major centre for public transport. It will feature the interchange of rail, bus and pedestrian commuting. “The Auckland Manukau Eastern Transport Initiative (AMETI) is a group of transport projects for the eastern suburbs. The aim is to give people living in the area transport choices by improving public transport, walking and cycling facilities


AMETI PLAN


A M E T I E X P L A N AT I O N

CROSS SE CTI O N A R E A C ON TEXT

Panmure is situated adjacent to the eastern rail network and along the main connection across the Tamaki estuary into the East and South of Auckland.

A MITI IN TERVEN TION The AMETI project places Panmure train station at the centre of a significant transport node.

OPPORTU N ITY AMETI opens room for transport orientated development to occur within and around Panmure.

A MET I PLA N FO R PA NM U R E

“Between Mountain Road and Ellerslie-Panmure Highway the new road will be covered. Another road will be built on top, for local buses and providing access to the station for drop off and taxis.”


S E CTION A : WE S TE R N A BU T M E N T

A M E T I E X P L A N AT I O N

“ AM ET I w i l l s ee a m aj or foc us on publ i c tr ans p o rt i mp ro v e m ents , i nc l udi ng a bus w ay w i th hi gh fr equenc y s e rv i c e s t h a t will eventually run between Botany, Pakuranga and Panmure.”

A METI PLA N FOR PA N MU R E S E CTION B : O V E R R A I L C ORR ID OR


IN VESTIGATI O N EXTENT Ri ng b uffer s w e re c re a t e d f ro m the P anm ure ro u n da bo u t l o c a t e d ad j acent to t h e t ra i n s t a t i o n a n d the m ai n reta i l s t re e t o f Pa n mu re . The r i ng b uff e rs a i m t o e s t a bl i s h the ex tent of pe de s t ri a n c o n n e cti v i ty. The AM ITI p ro j e c t w i l l c re a t e a p ub l i c tr ans p o r t n o de . T h e a re a s ur round i ng t h e e n h a n c e d A MI T I tr ai n s tati on a n d t ra n s po r t n o de has p otenti al f o r a n e w t ra n s po r t or i entated de v e l o pme n t (T O D ). The ex tend pe de s t ri a n s w o u l d w al k to us e t h i s n e w t ra n s po r t nod e for m s t h e i n v e s t i ga t i o n e xtend for the p ro j e c t . It i s es ti m a t e d t h a t pe de s t rian connecti v i t y t y pi c a l l y e n ds around 800 me t e rs .


R OA D IN G / C A D A STR AL BARRI ERS


TO PO G RAPHY ELEVATI O N R A S TE R

The l and for m of P anm ure and the s ur round in g a re a f e a t u re s t o p og r ap hy i nteres ti ng and v ar i ed . Al ter i ng i n e l e v a t i o n a n d s c a l e top og r ap hy i s a d efi ni ng char acter i s ti c of the a re a . F ro m Mt w e l l i ng ton the d om i nant v i s ual feature of the are a t h ru s t i n g u pw a rds i nto the s k y l i ne to the d ep ths of the Tam i k i e s t u a r y a n d t h e t i da l P anm ure b as i n.

A B STR A C T ELEVATION R A STER


TO PO G RAPHY SECTION 1

(MT WELLINGTON TO PANMURE BASIN)


PR ESERVIN G SI G HT LI NES

M t Wel l i ng ton i s a n o u t s t a n di n g n a tur al feature and l a n dma rk . I t re s i de s as a fam i l i ar s i g h t o n t h e A u c k l a n d s k y l i ne. The Au c k l a n d C o u n c i l h a s es tab l i s hed i m po r t a n t s i gh t l i n e s tow ard s the v ol c a n i c c o n e . To retai n s i g htl i nes pa r t i c u l a r h e i gh t re s tr i cti ons hav e b e e n e s t a bl i s h e d f o r b ui l d i ng s l ocate d w i t h i n s i gn i f i c a n t v i ew s hafts . C r i ti cal to d es i gn i n t e rv e n t i o n i s to recog ni s e the i mpo r t a n c e o f t h e m ountai n b oth hi s t o ri c a l l y i n re l a t i o n to the M aor i p eop l e a n d pre s e n t l y a s a p ub l i c res er v e, n a t u ra l f e a t u re a n d l and m ar k .


CATCHM ENTS The m ap p i n g o f h y dro l o gi c a l catchm ents f o r ms a c ri t i c a l a n d i nfl uenti al co mpo n e n t o f a n a l y s i s . H y d rol og y i s s i gn i f i c a n t t o the P anm ure a re a . T h e L a rge chang es i n e l e v a t i o n a n d h i gh p ercentag e o f i mpe rv i o u s s u r f a ces of w hi ch a l a rge a mo u n t i s o f i nd us tr i al nat u re i n a n e s t u a ri n e contex t req ui re s f u n c t i o n i n g a n d effecti v e s to r m w a t e r s y s t e ms . M ap p i ng the h y dro l o gi c a l c a t c hm ents i nfor ms t h e pl a c e me n t of g reen i nfra s t ru c t u re s u c h a s s w al es and r a i n ga rde n .


D EVELOPMENT SPREAD

The P anm ure are a i s h i gh l y de v e l op ed . Thi s ov er l a y di s pl a y s t h e bu i l t up areas of P anm u re a n d i t s s u rro u n d i ng i n contr as t to t h e o pe n pa rk l a n d, es tuar y and und e v e l o pe d l a n d. I t i s cl ear that the are a o f A u c k l a n d s u rround i ng P anm ure i s a l re a dy bu i l d u p w i th S tone fi el d s be i n g t h e o n l y a re a not b ui l t up al th o u gh i t i s c u rre n t l y und er d ev el op m e n t . T h i s e s t a bl i s h e s that any d ep l oy m e n t t o t a k e pl a c e that d oes not res ide o n pu bl i c re s e rv e w oul d b e a b row n f i l e d de v e l o pme n t .


B U ILD IN G FO O TPRI NTS

S i m i l ar to the m ap p i ng of the d ev el op ed areas of P anm ure and i t s s ur round i ng w as an i nv es ti g ati on to the b ui l d i ng foot p r i nts . The i ntenti on i s to i d enti fy areas w i thi n the b ui l d up env i ronm ent that ha v e l es s b ui l d i ng cov er ag e and therefore are p os s i b l y m ore s ui ted a n d accom m od ati ng to d ev el op m ent.


C A D ASTRAL SI ZES

M ap p i ng and i nv es t i ga t i o n i n t o c a da s tr al s i z es for m s a k e y c o mpo n e n t o f thi s p roj ect. Lar ge l a n d pa rc e l s t y pi cal l y are m ore s u i t e d a n d a c c o mmod ati ng to d ev el opme n t a s a c qu i s i t i o n of num erous s m all l o t s c a n be c o s t l y and hard i f not i m po s s i bl e t o a c h i e v e . To accom m od ate l a rge po pu l a t i o n i n creas es w hi l e rea rra n gi n g t h e a l i gn m ent of P anm ure a n d Mt We l l i n gt o n to connect w i th th e w a t e r i s a pro j e c t l i k el y s ui ted to l arge de v e l o pme n t re q ui r i ng ap p rop r i at e l a rge l a n d pa rc e l s to d o s o. M ap p i ng of l ar g er l a n d pa rc e l s t h o s e ov er 0.6 hectares w a s u n de r t a k e n i n the ai m to i d ent i f y a re a s po t e n t i a l l y m ore s ui ted to de v e l o pme n t . T h e l ar g er cad as tr al lo t s i de n t i f i e d i n t h e P anm ure and i ts s u rro u n di n g a re a com p r i s e m os tl y o f i n du s t ri a l l a n d and p ub l i c res erv e . W h e n v i e w i n g thi s m ap i t i s i m po r t a n t t o re me mbe r w al k i ng ex tents fro m t o be de v e l o pe d tr ans p or t i nfr as tru c t u re i n Pa n mu re . Thi s es tab l i s hes a c l e a r a re a o f l a rge r l and p arcel s b etwe e n Mt We l l i n gt o n and P anm ure b as i n .


C A D ASTRAL SI ZES

Bel ow a p er s p ecti v e d i s p l ay s C ad as tr al s i z es . The g reen areas are l and p a rc e l s of 2 or m ore hectares . The l eft i m ag e s how s d i s tance from P anm ure rounda bo u t and the ad j acent tr ai n s tati on. The ci rcl es are 500 m etre b uffer s .


D EVELOPM ENT AREA

The area i d enti f i e d t o be de v e l o pe d i s outl i ned i n y e l l o w. T h e s e l e c t i o n of thi s area w a s h e a v i l y ba s e d o n the i nv es ti g atio n s i n t o t h e c a da s tr al s i z es of t h e a re a . T h e a re a cons i s ts m os tly o f re l a t i v e l y l a rge l and p arcel s . T h e s i z e o f t h e l a n d to b e d ev el op e d i s 6 6 h e c t a re s .


C ON N EC TIN G TO THE WATER


STOR MWATER DRAI NS

MT WELLINGTON

A m ore de t a i l e d h y dro l o gi c a l i nv es ti g at i o n w a s c a rri e d o u t after i d en t i f y i n g t h e de v e l o p m ent area . T h i s i n v e s t i ga t i o n w as at a gra t e r re s o l u t i o n . U nd er g ro u n d storm water d r ai ns ha v e be e n ma ppe d ov er l ay i ng a n e l e v a t i o n ra s ter w i th t h e dra i n a ge c a t c h m ents ov e rl a i d a s re d l i n e s . Thi s g i v e s c l e a r i n di c a t i o n of the di re c t i o n w a t e r t ra vel s acros s t h e s i t e a s w e l l a s the cur ren t s t o r m w a t e r i n f ras tr ucture. I t i s i mpo r t a n t t o note that a l a rge ma j o ri t y o f the l and w i t h i n t h e de v e l o p m ent area i s t h a t o f i mpe rv i ous s ur fa c e s .


D AY LIGH TIN G STOR MWATER DRAI NS

D ay l i g hti ng of s tor m w ater d r ai ns and the creati on of r ai n g ard e n s w a s a d es i g n m ov e i nfor m ed and d i rected b y the m ap p i ng and i nv es ti ga t i o n i n t o the hy d rol og y of the s i te. The ex i s ti ng s tor m w ater p i p ed s tor m w a t e r i n f ra s tr ucture w i l l b e d el i g hted i nto p l anted s w al es or r ai n g ard ens . T h e s e ra i n g ard ens w i l l al s o r ap around and throug h the s i te to col l ect w ater a s i t f l o w s tow ard s P anm ure b as i n. D ay l i g hti ng of s tor m w ater d r ai ns i s the ex erci s e of tr ans for m i n g t ra diti onal p i p ed or concrete l i ned s tor m w ater d r ai ns i nto ab ov e g ro u n d f l o w p aths w hi ch are m ore natur al or or g ani c. D ay l i g hti ng has m any be n e f i c i a l outcom es . S uch outcom es are s l ow i ng d ow n the fl ow of w ate r re du c i n g eros i on, red ucti on and fi l ter i ng of w ater enter i ng r i p ar i an areas f ro m w a t e r p er m eati ng i nto the g round , ev ap or ati on and up tak e i nto p l ants . I mpo r t a n t l y p l ants ab s or b p ol l utants from the w ater. Rai n g ard ens are g reen s tor m w ater i nfr as tr ucture. They are p l an t e d s w a l e s or d ep res s i ons that col l ect and retr ai n w ater. S tor m w ater i s fi l tere d by pl a n t s

R A IN GA R D EN N ETW OR K


EXISTIN G GREEN SPACE

Green s p ace o r i mpe rv i o u s a re a s are i m p or tant t o a de v e l o pme n t . They are d esi re d a re a s t h a t f a c i li tate s p or t an d re c re a t i o n . F ro m a w ater m ana ge me n t pe rs pe c t i v e i m p er v i ous s u r f a c e s a re v i e w e d as ‘ g ood ’ s i n c e t h e y a l l o w w a t e r to d r ai n. Ty pi c a l l y gre e n s pa c e has an aes the t i c t h a t pe o pl e v a lue and d es i re . The g reen s p a c e a l re a dy e x i s t i n g i n the d ev el o pme n t a re a w i l l be retai ned . The gra ph i c be l o w i s a p l an of the g re e n s pa c e t o be retai ned .

EXISTING G REEN SPA C E


R OA D ING NETWO RK

M A J O R ROAD S Inv es ti g ati on i n the road netw or k throug h and s ur round i ng the d ev el op me n t a re a w a s und er tak en. There are a few m aj or road s or r ai l cor r i d or s that d i s s ect th e de v e l o pme n t area. D ue to thei r s i g ni fi cance i t w as d eci d ed that d es i g n and d ev el o pme n t s h o u l d w or k around thes e es tab l i s hed and fund am ental tr ans p or t ar ter i es . The g r ap hi c b el ow i s a p er s p ecti v e of the road s cutti ng b etw een the ex t ru de d bu i l di n g footp r i nts of the area s ur round i ng P anm ure. The g r ap hi c to the l eft i s a p l an of the m aj or road s d i s s ecti ng the d ev el o pme n t a re a .

MT W ELLIN GTON

PA N MU R E B A SIN


VI EWSHED The und erl i n g i s s u e o r dri v e r for thi s i n v e s t i ga t i o n a n d t h e res ul ti ng d e s i gn mo v e s i s t h a t of reconne c t i n g Pa n mu re a n d M t Wel l i n gt o n t o t h e w a t e r. Inv es ti g ati o n i n t o t h e v i s u a l connecti o n o f t h e a re a w a s und er tak e n i n t h e f o r m o f v i e w s hed s . The m ap t o t h e l e f t i l l u s t ra t e s the v as t v i e w s a v a i l a bl e f ro m near the s u mmi t o f Mt We l l i n gton.

VIEW FRO M : MT WELLI NG TO N


VI EWSHED In con t ra s t t o t h e v a s t v i ew s f ro m Mt w e l l i n gt o n an i nv e s t i ga t i o n i n t o t h e v i ew s h e ds f ro m t h e c e n t re P anm ure w a s u n de r t a k e n . Thi s i s t o i l l u s t ra t e h o w t h e cur rent c a da s t ra l s y s t e m or the a rra n ge me n t o f t h e road an d s t re e t n e t w o rk res tr i cts v i e w s . W i t h i n a bu i l d up area y o u a re re s t ri c t e d to the v i e w s a l o n g s t re e t s as b ui l di n gs a n d f e n c e s for m v is u a l ba rri e rs .

M T W E L L I N GTON

BU ILDING HE I G HTS

PA N

PA N MU R E B A SIN

MU

RE


MT W E L LIN GTON

ESTA B LISHI NG A G RI D

In res p ons e to i nv es ti g ati on i n t o t h e ro a d n e t w o rk and v i ew s hed s al ong w i th the u n de rl y i n g dri v e r o f connecti ng to the w ater a d i s to r t e d gri d h a s be e n i m p os ed ov er the s i te. The g r i d t a k e s i t s f o r m f ro m fanni ng road s or s treets from Pa n mu re B a s i n a n d from M t Wel l i ng ton. The i nter fere n c e o f t h e s e ro a ds or s treets fanni ng out from thes e l a n dma rk s c re a t e s a d i s tor ted g r i d . Thi s g r i d i s a re s po n s e t o t h e u n d er l y i ng d r i v er. The g r i d feature s v i e w s h a f t s t o Mt Wel l i ng ton or P anm ure b as i n i nt e rru pt e d o n l y by t o p og r ap hy from any s treet i n the de v e l o pme n t a re a . The g r i d s y s tem i nfor m s and l e a ds pe o pl e t o w a rds b oth natur al features .

PA N MU R E B A SIN


C OMB INI NG LAYERS

THE GRID

ESTA B LISH IN G A GR ID Throug h i nv es ti g ati on and a s er i es of GIS m ap s a r ang e of f e a t u re s o r cond i ti ons w ere d i s cov ered , hi g hl i g hted and d es i g ned to e s t a bl i s h a b as e or g r i d for the d ev el op m ent and fur ther d es i g n.

RAIN GARDENS

The b as e for m tak es i ts s hap e from a s er i es of factual l ay ers t h e s e a re ex i s ti ng g reen s p ace and m aj or road s . Ov er l ay er s w ere cre a t e d o r e s tab l i s hed from i nv es ti g ati on of ex i s ti ng or factual cond i ti ons o f t h e s i t e and thei r d es i g n to d i rectl y cor res p ond s to thes e i nv es ti g a t i o n s . T h e d ev el op m ent ex tent refl ects i nv es ti g ati on i nto cad as tr al s i z e s , bu i l di n g footp r i nts and the road netw or k . The Rai n g ard en ov er l ay w as c re a t e d i n res p ons e to i nv es ti g ati ons of s tor m w ater d r ai ns , top og r ap hy, dra i n a ge catchm ents , and m aj or road s . The Gr i d l ay er i s a res p ons e t o e x pl o ra ti ons i nto v i ew s hed s , the road netw or k , as w el l as the conne c t i v i t y a n d ci rcul ati on of the area.

GREEN SPACE

MAJOR ROADS

DEVELOPMENT EXTENT

=


TH E G RI D SYSTEM The g r i d s y s te m s e rv e s a s a ba s e for fur ther d e s i gn a n d de v e l o pm ent. It functi o n s a s a w a y o f pre s er v i ng and c re a t i n g v i e w s h a f t s to the s i g ni fi c a n t n a t u ra l f e a t u re s M t Wel l i ng ton a n d Pa n mu re B a s i n. It d i rects a n d l e a ds pe o pl e to thes e featu re s . G re e n s pa c e i s p res er v ed an d ra i n ga rde n s e s tab l i s hed for e c o l o gy, s t o r m w a ter m anag em e n t , re c re a t i o n , a n d v i s ual am eni t y. T h e gri d s y s t e m ai m s to b e a f a c i l i t a t o r a n d s y stem of effi cie n t c i rc u l a t i o n a n d g reen i nfr as tru c t u re .


TH E GRI D SYSTEM The aer i al p er s p ecti v e of the g r i d s y s tem d i s pl a y s t h e a l i gn me n t of i ts b oul ev ard s fanni ng from M t Wel l i ng ton a n d Pa n mu re B a s i n . The ex i s ti ng m aj or road s rem ai n i n p l ace al on g w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g g reen s p ace. The r ai n g ard en and d ay l i g hted dra i n s y s t e m i s e v id ent am ong s t the d ev el op m ent.


SITE A N A LYSIS: A SPEC T + HI LLSHADE A S P E CT The as p ect of the d ev el op m ent area w as i nve s t i ga t e d. As p ect or the hor i z ontal d i recti on to w hi ch s lo pe f a c e s has a s trong i nfl uence on cond i ti ons s uch as t e mpe ra ture and cl i m ate. Thi s effect on tem p er ature an d c l i ma t e can b e us ed to d eter m i ne l ocati on and z on i n g w i t h i n the d ev el op m ent. As p ect ov er the s i te i s v er y dy n a mi c , often chang i ng w i th no rel ati v el y l ar g e hom o ge n e o u s z ones ap p ear i ng .

HI LLS HA DE H i l l s had e of the s i te w as i nv es ti g ated . It w as d i s c o v e re d that H i l l s had e i s not s trong l y d y nam i c on s i te a pa r t f ro m s unk en areas of road , the l and that l ead s to P a mu re bas i n as w el l as the l and b el ong i ng to the res e rv e o f Mt Wel l i ng ton. Al thoug h there i s a l ar g e chang e i n e l e v a t i o n ov er the s i g ht g r ad i ents or s l op e i s rel ati v el y l o w.


SITE A N A LYSIS: C A D A STR AL + ZO NI NG

CAD AST R A L PA R CE LS The cad as tr al p arcel s m ak i ng up the d ev el op me n t a re a w ere i nv es ti g ated al ong w i th z oni ng . The d ev e l o pme n t area of 66 hectares i s com p r i s ed of a l ar g e num b e r o f l o t s cons i s ti ng of hom og enous z oni ng . The nature of t h e s i t e z oni ng i s m os tl y i nd us tr i al . The l and com p r i s i ng the d ev el op m ent area w a s i de n t i fi ed and s el ected b ecaus e i t cons i s ts of rel ati ve l y l a rge l and p arcel s . H ow ev er s treak s of s m al l er cad as t ra l l o t s are found p red om i nantl y ad j acent to the road for mi n g t h e m ai n ax es l ead i ng to P anm ure b as i n.

Z O NI NG


SITE A N A LYSIS: TOPOGR A PH Y + WATER CATCHM ENTS

WATER C ATCHM E NTS

The top og r ap hy of the d ev el op m ent area w as i nv e s t i ga t e d throug h a num b er of GIS l ay er s . S l op e contour l i nes , an d e l e v ati on w ere m ap p ed . Throug h m ap p i ng of the top og r ap hy a n o v e rl ay of d r ai nag e catchm ents acros s the s i te w as created . Acros s the s i te the top og r ap hy i s v er y d y nam i c. E l ev ati o n ra n ge s d r am ati cal l y from the p eak of M t Wel l i ng ton to the ti d al d e pt h s o f P anm ure Bas i n. H ow ev er i nv es ti g ati on i nto s l op e d i s p l a y s o n l y a few areas w i th und ue s l op e thi s p red om i nantl y b ei ng th e l a n d o f s unk en road s , l and of the ax es l ead i ng to P am ure b as i n a n d t h e l and b el ong i ng to the res er v e of M t Wel l i ng ton. The top og r ap hy of the s i te g reatl y com p l em ents the d esi gn mo v e of i m p os i ng a g r i d s y s tem of b oul ev ard s b as ed on v i ew s h a f t s . Fur ther d es i g n need s to recog ni s e the s i g ni fi cance of t h e t o po g r ap hi c chang e acros s the d ev el op m ent area.

S LO P E

C ON TOU R


SITE A N A LYSIS: ELEVATI O N


C IR C U LATION / N ETW OR K S / D IVID ING THE G RI D

After es tab l i s hi ng a g r i d s y s tem ov er the d ev el op m ent area fur ther i n v e s t i ga t i o n to a res ol uti on s p eci fi c to the s i te w as car r i ed out. The g r i d s y s t e m n e e ds t o b e fur ther d i v i d ed and d efi ned . From thi s refi nem ent l ocati on, ar r a n ge me n t a n d s cal e of el em ents s uch as b ui l d i ng footp r i nts , ci rcul ati on and p ar k n e t w o rk s c a n b e es tab l i s hed . By es tab l i s hi ng for m and ar r ang em ent at thi s d et a i l ma t e ri a l i t y s tar ts to b ecom e ev i d ent and tang i b l e.


C IR C U LATION / N ETW OR K S / D IVID ING THE G RI D

Thi s s tag e ex am i ned the ex tens i v e GIS anal y s i s of the s i te for s ol u t i o n a n d a res p ons e to the tas k outl i ned ab ov e. H ow ev er no cl ear, outs tand i n g o r e ff e cti v e ans w er s w ere found . A hand d r aw n anal y s i s and i nv es ti g ati on i n t o c i rc u l ati on, netw or k s and factor s l ead i ng to the d i v i s i on of the g r i d w as c a rri e d o u t . From thi s m ore creati v e ap p roach, a d es i g n them e of i nter s ecti ng a n d di v i di n g the s p ace around the l i near b oul ev ard s w i th s om ethi ng or g ani c and s e rpe n t i n e i m m er g ed .


EXPL O R I NG CO NN E C T ION S

S E R P EN TIN E PATH N ETW OR K

B U ILD IN G FOOT PRI NTS


SER PEN TIN E PATH S A N D B U ILD IN G FO O TPRI NTS

RE LAT I O N SH IP:

S E R P E N T IN E PATHS AND BUILDING FOOTPRINTS T h rou gh investigation an idea em er ged that an und ul ati ng or w av y for m w ou l d not detr act from the boulevards highlighti ng or from l ead i ng y ou to w ard s the significant features of M t Wellingto n and P anm ure Bas i n. H an d dr awn investigation lead to networ k of s er p enti ne p aths am ounts p arkl a nd divides the gr id. The rem aining space of the d ev el op m ent fo r ms the building footpr ints.


PLA N LAYER S / EXPLANATI O N

BUILDING FOOTPRINTS

D ESIGN TH R OU GH LAYER S P ar k l and thread ed w i th s er p enti ne p aths s tream i ng t h ro u gh t h e dev el op m ent area d i s s ects and connects the s i te w hi l e a ddi n g e c ol og i cal , recreati onal and v i s ual am eni ti es . From es t a bl i s h i n g s e rp enti ne p aths and p ar k l and am ong s t the p rev i ous l y de f i n e d gri d s y s tem b ui l d i ng footp r i nts w ere for m ed out of the re a mi n g c l e a r und efi ned s p ace. P rev i ous l y a g r i d s y s tem w as es t a bl i s h e d f ro m factual l ay er s . Other l ay er s w ere created from i nv e s t i ga t i o n o f e x i s ti ng or factual cond i ti ons of the s i te and thei r d es i gn di re c t l y c o rres p ond s to thes e i nv es ti g ati ons .

SERPENTINE PATHS

MAJOR ROADS

Lay er i ng al l factor s of i nv es ti g ati on and d es i g n to ge t h e r a c l e a r confi g ur ati on em er g es .

THE GRID

R ELATIN G TO B R IEF Thi s d es i g n res p ond s to, refl ects , and ans w er s th e i n i t i a l u n de rl y i ng i s s ues and d r i v er s of the i nv es ti g ati on. It p ro v i de s a c c o m m od ati on to cater for Auck l and ’s cer tai n and conti nu i n g po pu l a t i o n i ncreas e. Im p or tantl y i t red efi nes P anm ure and Mt We l l i n gt o n t o es tab l i s h connecti on to the w ater and each other.

RAIN GARDENS

GREEN SPACE

DEVELOPMENT EXTENT

=


PLAN


PERSPECTI VE


PERSPECTI VE


PERSPECTI VE


PERSPECTI VES


PERSPECTI VES


SECTI O N


SECTI O N


PLA N TING STRATEG Y

ZONI NG P LA NT DIV E RS IT Y B

A

B

N OD ES OF D IVER SITY

LOW DIVERSITY

A p l anti ng s tr ateg y w as i ns p i red b y the ex i s ti ng c o n di t i o n s o f t h e area and the p rop os ed d es i g n. Im p or tantl y i t w as mu s e d by t h e de s i g ns m ai n d r i v er the ax i s , connecti on and p rox i m i ty be t w e e n Mt We l l i ng ton and P anm ure Bas i n. P l anti ng i s d y nam i c al ong the ax i s b etw een thes e tw o n o de s . D i v e rs i ty i n p l ant s p eci es cor res p ond s accord i ng to the l o c a t i o n a l o n g thi s ax i s or the d i s tance from the nod es M t Wel l i ng t o n a n d Pa n mu re Bas i n. P l anti ng at the fr i ng es of the M t Wel l i ng ton and Pa n mu re B a s i n i s l i m i ted to a s m al l er p al l et of s p eci es . M ov i ng outw a rds f ro m t h e s e areas a l ar g er p al l et of p l ants i s us ed . Thi s p l aces th e h e i gh t o f v a riati on am ong s t the centre of the d ev el op m ent.

O HIGH DIVE RS ITY

O

LOW DIVERSITY

X

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V E GETAT I O N PA LLE T: T RE E S C A P E

C OR R ESPON D IN G TO SITE

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Thi s p l anti ng s tr ateg y refl ects the s i t e s u n i qu e c o nd i ti ons al ong w i th the d es i g n and u n de rl y i n g pro j ect d r i v er s . It i s a g ov er ni ng s y s tem di re c t i n g pl a n t i ng . H ow ev er i m p or tantl y w i thi n thi s s y s t e m i t a l l o w s p l ant s el ecti on and ar r ang em ent to c o rre s po n d w i t h s p eci fi c cond i ti ons of s i te s uch a s s u n e x po s u re , w ater tab l es , s l op , s oi l ty p e, and m o re .


PLA N TING STRATEG Y

DI V E R S I TY O F P L AN T IN G: R A IN GA R D E N S A N D TREE SCAPES

A MT PAN M U R E B A S IN

WELLIN GTON

12 M AXIM UM N U M BE R OF S P E C IE S W ITH IN 30m 2

Z 10

Rai n Gard en and Tree S cap e p al l ets are l ook ed at i nd ep end entl y for d i v er s i ty l i m i tati ons .

8 6

ED

GE 4 H E R I TA

FO

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2

RM

S ur round i ng the b as es of M t We l l i n gt o n a n d P anm ure Bas i n p l anti ng i s l ea s t di v e rs e . I t i s m ore control l ed and res tr i cted. T h i s re f l e c t s and i s k eep i ng w i th cur rent m a n a ge me n t a n d treatm ent of Auck l and ’s her i tag e s i t e s . T h e v o l cani c cones throug hout Auck l a n d a re c u rre n t l y m ai ntai ned as g r as s cov ered .

AL

0

CO

NT

Thi s hi g h v ar i ati on of p l anti n g c o n t ra s t s t h e nature of d ev el op m ent and urba n i s a t i o n . T h e centre hos ts the m os t ecol og i c a l a me n i t y. T h e d i v er s e p l anti ng has a s cattere d, o rga n i c n a ture. It acts as p hy s i cal p l us em o t i o n re l i e f a n d m ed i ati on to tang i b l e ci ty conn o t a t i o n s s u c h a s cong es ti on, noi s e, concrete and po l l u t i o n .

N

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B

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PANM URE TRAIN STATION / ROU N D ABOU T

V E GETAT I O N PA LLE T: RA I N G AR D E NS

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FOR MIN G PLA NTI NG PLANS

E X TE NT + Z ON IN G

B

A

C ON TEXT

B

O

O

X

Z

X


FOR MIN G PLA NTI NG PLANS

P L A N T IN G P L AN E X T E N T + D IVER SITY LIMITATION S

R A IN GA R D EN PALLET: 13

M AX IM U M S P IC E S W I T H I N 3 0 m 2

TR EE SC A PE PALLET: 13

M AX IM U M S P E C IE S W I T H I N 3 0 m 2


FOR MIN G PLA NTI NG PLANS

PLAN TI NG P LA N 1 :2 0 0

RAIN GARD E N Vi tex Lucens Kni g hti a ex cel s a S op hor a ful v i d a

RA I N G AR D E N Botanical name

Common name

Spacing (m)

Grouping

Area (%)

Number of units

Asplenium bulbiferum

Hen and chicken fern

0.3

1 to 4

5

43

Cordyline australis

Cabbage tree

0.5

1 to 5

20

104

Entela arborescen

Whau

1

1

10

26

TRE E S C AP E Botanical name

Common name

Spacing (m)

Grouping

Number of units

Leptocarpus (Apodasmia)

Oioi - Jointed wire rush

0.5

1 and above

40

13

Vitex lucens

Puriri

7

1

4

Pseudopanax crassifolius

Horoeka

0.3

1 to 3

15

130

Knightia excelsa

Rewarewa

6

1

4

Corokia buddleioides

Korokio

1

1 to 3

10

26

Sophora fulvida

Kowhai

4

1

13


E X P L O R I N G PA N M U R E Ryan Jam es Al d r i ch

“Parkland threaded with serpentine paths streaming through a development area dissects and connects the site while adding ecological, recreational and visual amenities. It provides ac commodation to cater for Auckland’s cer tain and continuing population increase. Impor tantly it redefines Panmure and Mt Wellington to establish connection to the water and each other.”

CONTEXT Panmure is situated adjacent to the eastern rail network and along the main connection across the Tamaki estuary into the East and South of Auckland.

AM ITI INTERVENTION The AMETI project places Panmure train station at the centre of a significant transport node.

OPPORTUNITY AMETI opens room for transport orientated development to occur within and around Panmure.


SOLAR ENERGY

Solar Towers - Point England and Tamaki Suburbs

Hailey Gill

I seek to address the issue of inefficient energy generation and self-sufficiency (in terms of energy). We are continually trying to obtain new sources of energy because non-renewable energy resources are diminishing. We must move away from using non-renewable resources, and begin relying on natural processes. Currently, the world generates 67% of its electricity from fossil fuels. Only 16% is generated from renewable energy sources such as solar, hydro and wind. Energy generation and usage is a global issue, with the energy demand rising by 2% each year. Energy shortages will impact and shape economies and lifestyles. In the Tamaki area I looked at the use of Solar Energy and more specifically Solar Towers – a solution for renewable energy production. My idea is a long-term investment, and looks to set an example for future utilization of public spaces. Solar energy is an under-utilised source of energy. Over a year, the average New Zealand house is exposed to 20-30 times more solar radiation than energy used. Auckland gets around 2000 hours of bright sunshine every year, enough to easily support all of our energy needs. Solar energy is natural, renewable, free and doesn’t contribute to greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change. I aim to create a ‘Solar Landscape,’ generating electricity that is sold back into the grid. Using solar energy to generate electricity will significantly reduce carbon emissions, reduce the cost of electricity, and will encourage a more self-sufficient future.

Scale 1:50,000


SITE EXTENT

I have chosen to investigate a 165-hectare area in Point England, comprising mostly of state housing. This area is currently supplied electricity from a methane power station. Methane is a natural gas that is nonrenewable, and contributes to greenhouse gas emissions. The council aims to cut costs in this Point England area, and carries out ‘Community Renewal Projects,’ addressing social exclusion, among other issues. Most houses in this area have a spatial disadvantage, so I will specifically target public spaces to create a more self-sufficient community in terms of energy. The average New Zealand house uses 10,660 kilowatt hours a year, or spends around $2345 a year on electricity. Each home requires a 6.9 Kilowatt solar system to support its energy needs. My area of focus contains about 1550 houses. A 7.5 Megawatt solar system would provide energy for this area all year round. My solution for this areas energy needs is to integrate 15 large Solar Towers within the open spaces. I am also placing two small solar towers within the area - to inform the local public about the use and benefits of Solar Towers at a smaller scale.


SOLAR PANELS VS SOLAR TOWERS

ABOVE: Solar Panel area required to provide energy for my site.

ABOVE: Solar Tower area required to provide energy for my site.

Solar Towers only need a third of the area to generate the same amount of energy as Solar Panels. One Solar Tower of 1450m2 can provide electricity for 68 houses, whereas you would need 4400m2 of Solar Panels to power the same amount.


SOLAR TOWERS

Sun

Receiver at top of solar tower

Steam and turbine energy generator

Solar towers use ‘Concentrated solar power’ to generate electricity. This method generates more electricity than Photovoltaic arrays (solar panels), and uses less space. Solar towers generate electricity by using heliostats (mirrors) to concentrate the sun’s rays (solar radiation) onto a resceiver located on the tower. The heliostats are angled perpendicular to the bi-sector of the angle between the sun and the receiver. Smaller mirrors can more accurately focus the sun’s rays onto the receiver. This is captured as extremely high temperature heat, which is channelled into a turbine to generate electricity. The electricity generated is sold back into the grid, with the money going to those who have invested in the Solar Tower.

Heliostat perpendicular to the bi-sector angle between the sun and the receiver


CASE STUDIES

- Located in the Mojave Desert - 392 MW (can power 56,810 NZ homes) - Three towers at 225 metres high - 173,000 heliostats - To be completed in 2013 - Reduces carbon dioxide emissions by more than 400,000 tonnes a year

POWER TOWERS AT BRIGHT SOURCE ENERGY INC’S SOLAR PLANT

- Located in Southern California - 5MW (can power 725 NZ homes) - Two towers at 55 metres high - 24,000 heliostats - 12 months construction, 300 temporary jobs and 21 permanent employees - Reduces carbon dioxide emissions by more than 7,000 tonnes a year

SIERRA SUN TOWERS

- Located in New South Wales, Australia - 500kW (can power 72 NZ homes) - One tower at almost 30 metres high - 170 heliostats - Reduces carbon dioxide emissions by more than 700 tonnes a year

SOLAR TOWERS AT THE ‘NATIONAL ENERGY SOLAR ENERGY CENTRE‘


GIS ANALYSIS

Because the areas are of close relation to both Mount Wellington and the Tamaki Estuary, there is a great drop from the West (30m) to the East (0m). This map has allowed me to identify areas of suitable slopes for the Solar Towers.

The area, especially within the centre of the site, is a maze of rivers, floodplains and overland flow paths. This map shows me the areas which I cannot place my Solar Towers on. These areas must be protected with appropriate planting.


Most of the coastline, some river areas and some floodplain areas have slopes of 15 degrees and higher. These areas cannot be built on, and must be protected against further possible erosion with appropriate planting.

There are many heritage trees (and buildings) in this area. They add to the character of the area and should be protected. I will not be able to build on these areas.


These highlighted areas have height restrictions on building structures because of view shafts to Mount Wellington. I will not be able to build in these areas, and will have to modify my site extent.

There are many open spaces within my site. I want to target and develop my Solar Landsacpe on these areas as they can be accessed by the public, and will also be seen by those who travel through the area.


PROTECTED AREAS

Before deciding the placement of my Solar Towers, I have mapped the areas that need to be protected and planted. These are rivers, floodplains, overland flow paths, slopes over 15 degrees, heritage trees and height restriction areas. Rivers, floodplains, overland flow paths and coastal areas susceptible to erosion have been revegetated with either coastal, riparian or stream bank plantings to revegetate and remedy the eroded areas. I have left the heritage trees as they are, and have restricted my site to within the mapped height restriction areas.


PLACEMENT OF SOLAR TOWERS

The Solar Towers are placed in open spaces that can be easily accessed and viewed. The 15 large Solar Towers are distributed throughout the area. I have placed two small Solar Towers along a pathway and river; as an example of how the smaller Solar Towers could link the larger Solar Towers together. I have just focused on Dunkirk reserve (shown in the left image), an area where I have placed seven large and 2 small Solar Towers. This area is a very reserve bordering the Tamaki Estuary.


CURRENT DUNKIRK RESERVE

Looking South from the top of Dunkirk Reserve.

Above and Right: From the Tamaki Estuary edge of Dunkirk Reserve looking south towards the bordering houses.

Looking South from the bottom of Dunkirk Reserve.

From the houses bordering Dunkirk Reserve looking towards Tamaki Estuary.


SOLAR LANDSCAPE PLAN - DUNKIRK RESERVE

B In Dunkirk Reserve, I have placed seven large and two small Solar Towers. In my design, the mirrors are situated five to seven metres off the ground. This is to allow people to walk underneath and view the Solar Towers at a closer distance. This also means that they do not directly block the views of the houses bordering the space. In order to connect the landscape, paths and a bridge have been implemented through the revegetation areas.

A A

B


SECTION A - A

SECTION A - A

Section looking North from the Southern end of Dunkirk Reserve - from the road, through floodplain planting, concrete pathway, through coastal erosion planting to the Tamaki Estuary. Solar Towers and existing palms in the background.

FACING NORTH


SECTION B - B

Section looking towards the Tamaki Estuary


y (east) through the centre of Dunkirk Reserve.

SECTION B - B

FACING EAST


PERSPECTIVES

PERSPECTIVE SEVEN

PERSPECTIVE FOUR

PERSPECTIVE SIX PERSPECTIVE THREE

PERSPECTIVE TWO

PERSPECTIVE FIVE PERSPECTIVE ONE


PERSPECTIVE ONE

Overall view of the Solar Landscape at Dunkirk Reserve looking North - west


PERSPECTIVE TWO

Sunrise at the Solar Landscape


PERSPECTIVE THREE

Large grouping of Solar Towers at the Northern end of the Solar Landscape


PERSPECTIVE FOUR

Looking South from the 8 metre wide concrete bridge across the stream that leads to the Tamaki Estuary


PERSPECTIVE FIVE

From 4 metre wide conrete path at the Southern end of the Solar Landscape looking North


PERSPECTIVE SIX

The Solar Landscape at night - the energy produced throughout the day provides electricity for the wider surrounding area


PERSPECTIVE SEVEN

A daytime view of the ‘Mini‘ Solar Tower, above the pathway next to the stream that leads to the Tamaki Estuary. The ‘Mini‘ Solar Towers also act as lighting for the pathway during the night


PLANTING PLAN SAMPLE PLANTING SCHEDULE

My site is made up of four main revegetation areas - Riparian, Stream Bank, Floodplain and Coastal (Erosion). I have chosen an area of 60 x 40m near the Northern end of my site to show a sample of my planting plan. This 2,400m2 area is in the centre of the largest grouping of Solar Towers and includes all of the four revegetation areas. The plants I have chosen for these areas (see plant schedule) are all native plants.

A view of the sample planting plan area, looking towards the Tamaki Estuary. Also see ‘Section A - A‘ for another view of the planting (in another area of the site).


Scale: 1: 100 at A1

CAREX LESSONIANA

CAREX SECTA

PHORMIUM TENAX

MUEHLENBECKIA COMPLEXA

CORDYLINE AUSTRALIS

METROSIDEROS EXCELSA


This ‘Solar Landscape’ will become more useful as Auckland’s populatio It will act as a model in rethinking the way we


on and energy demand increases and non-renewable resources diminish. e both generate energy and use public spaces.


RINGA TAURA PANMURE

Josephine Clarke

Rationale: The issues I seek to address through this design investigation relate to the urbanisation of Maori. The significant changes influencing Maori values and culture; many have referred to the colonisation of Maori has had a negative effect upon their culture, although Maori have dealt with these hostile situations of oppression by exhibiting their resourcefulness, inventiveness and innovation overcoming these circumstances. The ‘Urban shift’ of Maori through the post war period lead Maori to the city and urban areas removing themselves from their origins, to become a part of the desirable ‘Pakeha world’. By the 1960s the impacts of colonisation were obvious and the change of the 1970s lead Maori to reconnect and reclaim what was considered taken away resulting in the motion of the ‘Maori Renaissance’ and the development of urban Marae, Kohanga Reo, Kura Kaupapa. The purpose of this investigation is to provide a guide by producing a process in understanding the current values of Maori; in this case will be focused around the iwi of Ngai Tuhoe. In understanding their tikanga and kawa of the Ngai Tuhoe to develop a concept planting plan and the development of a new Marae complex for their taurahere marae, ‘Te Tira Hou’. The following three articles; (‘Ecology and The Urban Aesthetic,’ Mark Johnson, ‘New Symbols of Possibility,’ Robert Thayer and ‘A New Lens for the Urbanistic Project,’ Joan Busquets) will help in defining and further understanding the way in which this project has towards the field of Landscape Architecture. This is the loyalty Landscape Architecture has towards their design interventions they create. Embracing the connection between ecology and culture. Creating landscapes embodying meaning and have cultural significance, which is easily understood by the interpretations of everyday people. Initiating the relationships between the culture, ecology and geology of the landscape to evoke awareness, embracing these connections are the fundamental work of Landscape Architects (Johnson). By using these same principals of valuing the linkages between culture and ecology, to create a sense of place will produce awareness in addressing the issues and values relating to Maori. In relation to the Maori belief of applying kaitiakitanga, as a part of the inherited aspect of rangatiratanga, to further and actively protect the natural resources as the underlying values of Maori as they are centred on holding these resources of their environment as the most important. This design investigation will further develop around these types of values to produce in a place in relation to up holding the values of the relationship of culture to landscape.

Scale 1:50,000


Form the left: Wider scope of Tamaki River focusing on the past transport links of the Tamaki River and is cultural significance through history. above; view from top of Mt.Wellington towards the Panmure Basin and Panmure township. To the right; is a historical map identifying the significant areas of the Tamaki River. below; view from a top of Mt.Wellington over looking ‘Stone field Housing development and looking out toward Auckland CBD.


RINGA TAURA PANMURE

EXISTING SITE

From the Left: Sketch diagram indicating the main amenities of Tamaki River; Panmure Basin, Mt.Wellington and the new ‘AMENTI’ link to come. below; view of the Panmure Basin pedestrian bridge. to the left and below; Panmure and Mt. Wellington Highway view of the industrial increasing upon surburbia. far below; view from the Tamaki River towards Mt. Wellington.

Above and to the left; Panmure Bridge taken from the Tamaki River. above; picture taken at over looking Panmure Basin.


Form the left: View of the main street of Panmure, towards the identifying large rounda-bout. above, view down the main street scape of Panmure. to the right; Mt. Wellington and Panmure bridge highway taken among the Tamaki River.


RINGA TAURA PANMURE

EXISTING SITE

Above; view from the Tamaki River towards Mt. Wellington. to the right; location map of Panmure- highlighted in colour to define the township of Panmure, within the grey surrounds of the western bank side of the Tamaki River. below; Panorama of Panmure shopping amenity and character of the existing township of Panmure. to the left; one of the main intersections of Panmure township- within its shooping cetre character.


Above; existing building footprints of Panmure- brown indicating the Panmure shoppinh cetre, red is the statehousing within the vacinity of Panmure, purple- is ‘Te Tira Hou’ Marae. below; view up the Tamaki River towards Halfmoon bay and outer harbour accessed through the open system located along the edge of Tamaki River.

Above; ‘Te Tira Hou’ Marae of Ngai Tuhoe, located on the edge of the Panmure shopping centre. to the right; Mt. Wellington and Panmure bridge highway taken among the Tamaki River.


RINGA TAURA PANMURE

EXISTING SITE

To the Left: open space near the bottom of Caen Road Panmure. below; another view of the open space. below to the bottom; the above terrace of the open space.

Above: Caen Road Panmure. to the right; public school.


Slope: 15% step slopes indicated in the red.

Zoning identified for Panmure: Purple= Residentual Housing + Brown= Business + Barge= Speciality/schools + Green Openspace

Both to the left: are taken at the recreational sportsfields by Panmure Rugby club, over looking the Tamaki River.


RINGA TAURA PANMURE

ANALYSIS MAPPING

Aspect: Red indicating the southern most slopes- the aspect of land mostly in shade Elevation: the levels of Panmure, from the highest to the least being light blue- indicating the floodplains.

Aspect: Yellow indicating the northern most slopes- the aspect of land mostly in sun.


Overland flow path: where the water runs over the land in times of rain + flood plains + water retail pipe line for Panmure. Overland flow path: Flood plains- the likely accumulation of water in times of rain.

Overland flow path: where the water runs over the land in times of rain + flood plains


RINGA TAURA PANMURE

ANALYSIS MAPPING

Overland flow path: where the water runs over the land in times of rain + flood plains + green= vegataive stream buffer.

Overland flow path: where the water runs over the land in times of rain + flood plains + red = statehousing + brown = shops at Panmure

Overland flow path: where the water runs over the land in times of rain + flood plains + green= vegataive stream buffer + orange =actual removal of state housing.


Bottom: taken at Mt. Wellington overlooking stonefields housing residential deveolpment. to the left: taken upon the Tamaki River, of yahtt.

Overland flow path: where the water runs over the land in times of rain + flood plains + green= vegataive stream buffer + orange =actual removal of state housing + yellow= aspect of sun.

All the previous analysis mapping of Panmure, has lead to the discovery of the potential of the ‘Ringa Taura’ - new in-vention of urban marae project withn Tamaki and for the existing taurahere marae of ‘Ngai Tuhoe’. The previous mapping have lead to justifying the removal of some state housing for a way to enrich the eco-tones of the existing environmental integrity. And having the cultural relation of the iwi of ‘Ngai Tuhoe’ leads to the potential of amplifying the community relation between cultural heritage of Tamaki River, to the everyday community ot Panmure. The potential of this site to not only improve the cultural connection to the land but also the community awareness to the tikanga of the culture, to be emmersed in the embodiment of ‘Te Ao Maori.’ Where the boundaries of unjust become blurred and the sharing in the new co-laboration of knowledges may continue.


RINGA TAURA PANMURE

CASE STUDIES

Awataha Marae (Akoranga Dr, North Shore, Auckland): The concept plan for the Awataha marae complex was devised in 1985, the marae development originally included the following; Whare Whakairo (carved meeting house) a place for ceremonial activities suited to accommodate 150 sleeping adults Whare Kai (dining hall) where they aimed to hold conferences, concerts and all general social activities able to cater for 300 Kokiri (House of learning) providing skills centre for teaching of traditional arts and crafts Wahi Whakatupu Rakau (plant nursery) providing natural materials for Kokiri programmes as well as the identification and propagation of tree and ferns for the marae nature walk Ngahere Takahanga (Nature Park) natural environment for the marae Kainga kaumatua (housing for the elderly) will provide security for the marae (an ongoing presence) as well as passing on knowledge of Maoritanga to visitors and Kainga as local housing for the marae complex workers and groundsman. Awataha looks at connecting people and community with the tikanga Maori to intergrate into the urban fabric of Auckland.

Awataha Marae: New Urban Marae strategy. (http://www.awataha.co.nz/Awataha+Project.html)


Te Noho Kotahitanga (Carrington Rd, Mt. Albert , Auckland): (http://www.unitec.ac.nz/index.cfm?624A834C-145E-6A3C-46A1-6C94DA3886DC)

Urban marae serve as a marker of pride and belonging with the opportunities to reaffirm and rediscover culture, serving to facilitate Maori and Pakeha to learn and participate in all aspects of Maori culture and tikanga. This is a tertiary Marae which is at the heart of the University. It is where the pulsating matauranga o Te Ao Maori disapates from and through the entire university. The Architecture is unique in encorporating Te Ao Maori and tradition techniques as well as contempoary techniques; bringing together the cultural aspect to merge with the structual component producing a harmonious unification being ‘Te Noho Kotahitanga’ (to sit as one in union). The entire Marae complex is still underconstruction; the intention of the exterior green network is to encorporate the element of sustainability by way of encorporating a green roof and solar panels. The exterior planting will focus on purifying the storm water of the site. This Marae complex ‘Te Noho Kotahitanga’ consists of; ‘Ngakau Mahaki’-Whare nui, ‘Pukenga’ -office

Hoani Waititi Marae/Kura kaupapa (West Coast Rd, Glen Eden, Auckland): Hoani Waititi was established in 1980, in Waitakere, West Auckland, this was as part of the pan-tribal/ urban marae initiative, as a place for Maori to uphold Maori tikanga such as tangihanga, birthdays and marriage. Hoani Waititi set up the first Maori language total immersion kohanga reo in Auckland, they also now have a Kura kaupapa Maori and Te Wharekura kaupapa Maori are all located around the marae. Hoani Waititi marae is not only a place for whanau but also is a workplace and has the responsibility to ensure the safety and wellbeing of the wider community. It is also home to Te Roopu Manutaki kapa haka group.


RINGA TAURA PANMURE

DIAGRAM POTENTIALS


Whare Ora Specilaised Rongoa Maori Health Centre

‘Te Tira Hou Marae’ Where the iwi of Ngai Tuhoe are able to reconnectto their turangawaewae within the urban frabric of Tamaki by the practice of their kawa and tikanga

Papa Kainga

consisting of kaumatua housing as well as housing for the families of Ngai Tuhoe. this allows the iwi to enrich and passon the knowledge surrounding their iwi to the wider communities of Panmure and therefore Auckland

Kohanga Reo +Kura Kaupapa Total immersion in Te Reo Maori kinde and primary school focusing around ed through Te Ao Maori.


Whare Kura Total immersion in Te Reo Maori Highschool focusing around education through Te Ao Maori.

ergarden ducation

Whare Taonga Community center for the purpose of connecting community to Te Ao Maori through the education of Mahi Toi and Maori arts

RINGA TAURA PANMURE

PLAN


B-B 1:500

C-C 1:500

A-A 1:2000

Iwi Total Area 1.5 hectres

Iwi

Key

Total Area 1.5 hectres

Iwi

Ngai Tuhoe

Aa Ae Bt Ke Ds Pt

Botanical Name

Agathis australis Alectryon excelsus Beilschmiedia tarairi Knightia excelsa Dysoxylum spectabile Phormium tenax

Maori Name

kauri titoki taraiere rewarewa kohekohe harakeke

Common Name

kauri titoki taraiere rewarewa kohekohe flax

Spacing (mm) 10000 10000 10000 5000 10000 2000

PB Size

Quantity %

40-95 12 12 12 12 5

10 15 25 10 10 30 100%

total Iwi Total Area 2 hectres

Overall Quantity per plant 3 3 4 4 2 23 39

Total Area 2 hectres

Tainui Key

Botanical Name

Maori Name

Ed Ca Cj Hs Hp

Elaeocarpus dentatus Cordyline australis Cyathodes juniperina

hinau ti kouka mingimingi koromiko houhere

Hebe stricta Hoheria populnea

Common Name

hinau cabbage tree hebe

Spacing (mm)

PB Size

Quantity %

2000 2000 1000 2000

5 12 12 12

5 2.5 10 10

Overall Quantity per plant 25 3 20 10

2000

5

10

10

Iwi

Total Area 1 hectre

Ngai Tuhoe Key

Botanical Name

Maori Name

Common Name

Aa Ae Bt Ke Ds Pt

Agathis australis Alectryon excelsus Beilschmiedia tarairi Knightia excelsa Dysoxylum spectabile Phormium tenax

kauri titoki taraiere rewarewa kohekohe harakeke

kauri titoki taraiere rewarewa kohekohe flax

Key

Botanical Name

Maori Name

Common Name

Ed Ca Cj Hs Hp Me Pt Pk Pa Rs To

Elaeocarpus dentatus Cordyline australis Cyathodes juniperina

Pseudowintera axillaris Rhopalostylis sapida Typha orientalis

hinau ti kouka mingimingi koromiko houhere kawakawa harakeke kumarahou horopito nikau raupo

Key

Botanical Name

Maori Name

Common Name

Dd Ca

Dacrycarpus dacrydiodes Cordyline australis

kahikatea ti kouka

cabbage tree

Tainui

Hebe stricta Hoheria populnea Macropiper excelsum Phormium tenax Pomaderis kumerahou

hinau cabbage tree hebe

flax pepper tree cabbage palm

Ngati Paoa


RINGA TAURA PANMURE

ORIENTATION PLANCROSS-SECTIONS

D-D 1:500

Iwi Total Area 1.5 hectres

Ngai Tuhoe Key

Botanical Name

Maori Name

Common Name

Aa Ae Bt Ke Ds Pt

Agathis australis Alectryon excelsus Beilschmiedia tarairi Knightia excelsa Dysoxylum spectabile Phormium tenax

kauri titoki taraiere rewarewa kohekohe harakeke

kauri titoki taraiere rewarewa kohekohe flax

Spacing (mm)

PB Size

10000 10000 10000 5000 10000 2000

Quantity %

40-95 12 12 12 12 5

total

Iwi Total Area 1.5 hectres

Key

Botanical Name

Maori Name

Common Name

Aa Ae Bt Ke Ds Pt

Agathis australis Alectryon excelsus Beilschmiedia tarairi Knightia excelsa Dysoxylum spectabile Phormium tenax

kauri titoki taraiere rewarewa kohekohe harakeke

kauri titoki taraiere rewarewa kohekohe flax

Spacing (mm)

PB Size

10000 10000 10000 5000 10000 2000

Quantity %

40-95 12 12 12 12 5

Spacing (mm) 10000 10000 10000 5000 10000 2000

PB Size

Quantity %

40-95 12 12 12 12 5

Overall Quantity per plant 10 15 25 10 10 30 100%

total

3 3 4 4 2 23 39

Spacing (mm)

PB Size

Quantity %

2000 2000 1000 2000

5 12 12 12

5 2.5 10 10

2000 1500 2000 1000 1000

5 5 5 3 3

10 20 20 10 2.5

2000 1500

12 3

5 5 100%

total

Spacing (mm) 10000 2000

PB Size

40-95 12

Quantity %

Overall Quantity per plant Total Area 25 1 hectre 3 20 10 10 30 20 20 5 Iwi 5 8 156 Total Area

1.5 hectres

Overall Quantity per plant 5 20

5 10

Ed Ca Cj Hs Hp Me Pt Pk Pa Rs To

Botanical Name

Elaeocarpus dentatus Cordyline australis Cyathodes juniperina Hebe stricta Hoheria populnea Macropiper excelsum Phormium tenax Pomaderis kumerahou Pseudowintera axillaris Rhopalostylis sapida Typha orientalis

Maori Name

hinau ti kouka mingimingi koromiko houhere kawakawa harakeke kumarahou horopito nikau raupo

Common Name

hinau cabbage tree hebe

flax pepper tree cabbage palm

Spacing (mm)

PB Size

10 15 25 10 10 30 100%

3 3 4 4 2 23 39

2000 2000 1000 2000

5 12 12 12

5 2.5 10 10

Overall Quantity per plant 25 3 20 10

2000 1500 2000 1000 1000

5 5 5 3 3

10 20 20 10 2.5

10 30 20 20 5

12 3

5 5 100%

5 8 156

2000 1500

Quantity %

total Iwi

Overall Quantity per plant

Iwi Total Area 2 hectres

Tainui Key

Total Area 2 hectres

10 15 25 10 10 30 100%

3 3 4 4 2 23 39

Ngai Tuhoe

total Iwi

Overall Quantity per plant

Ngati Paoa Key

Botanical Name

Maori Name

Dd Ca Cs Cl Ds Fb Pt

Dacrycarpus dacrydiodes Cordyline australis Cortaderia spp Corynocarpus laevigatus Desmoschoenus spiralis Freycinetia banksii Phormium tenax

kahikatea ti kouka toe toe karaka pingao kiekie harakeke

Common Name

cabbage tree

flax

Spacing (mm)

PB Size

10000 2000 1500 2000 500 1000 2000

Quantity %

40-95 12 12 3 3 5 5 total

Overall Quantity per plant 5 20 30 10 10 5 20 100%

5 10 11 5 40 5 10 176

30 10 10 5 10 10 10

Overall Quantity per plant 23 8 8 4 8 12 2

Ngati Whatua ki Tamaki Key

Botanical Name

Maori Name

Common Name

Cr Ca Cl Dv Hs Ls Me

Coprosma robusta Cordyline australis Corynocarpus laevigatus Dodonea viscosa Hebe stricta Leptospermum scoparium Metrosideros excelsa

karamu ti kouka

shinning karamu cabbage tree

karaka akeake koromiko manuka pohutukawa

hebe tea tree pohutukawa

Spacing (mm) 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1500 10000

PB Size

12 12 3 3 12 12 45-90

Quantity %

Tainui Key

Botanical Name

Maori Name

Ed Ca Cj Hs Hp Me Pt Pk Pa Rs To

Elaeocarpus dentatus Cordyline australis Cyathodes juniperina

hinau ti kouka mingimingi koromiko houhere kawakawa harakeke kumarahou horopito nikau raupo

Hebe stricta Hoheria populnea Macropiper excelsum Phormium tenax Pomaderis kumerahou Pseudowintera axillaris Rhopalostylis sapida Typha orientalis

Common Name

hinau cabbage tree hebe

flax pepper tree cabbage palm

Spacing (mm)

PB Size

Quantity %

2000 2000 1000 2000

5 12 12 12

5 2.5 10 10

Overall Quantity per plant 25 3 20 10

2000 1500 2000 1000 1000

5 5 5 3 3

10 20 20 10 2.5

10 30 20 20 5

2000 1500

12 3

5 5 100%

5 8 156

total Iwi

Total Area 1 hectre

Ngati Paoa Key

Botanical Name

Maori Name

Dd Ca Cs Cl Ds Fb Pt

Dacrycarpus dacrydiodes Cordyline australis Cortaderia spp Corynocarpus laevigatus Desmoschoenus spiralis Freycinetia banksii Phormium tenax

kahikatea ti kouka toe toe karaka pingao kiekie harakeke

Common Name

cabbage tree

flax

Spacing (mm)

PB Size

10000 2000 1500 2000 500 1000 2000

Quantity %

40-95 12 12 3 3 5 5 total

Iwi Total Area 1.5 hectres

Overall Quantity per plant 5 20 30 10 10 5 20 100%

5 10 11 5 40 5 10 176

30 10 10 5 10 10 10 15 100%

Overall Quantity per plant 23 8 8 4 8 12 2 3 68

Ngati Whatua ki Tamaki Key

Botanical Name

Maori Name

Common Name

Cr Ca Cl Dv Hs Ls Me Sm, Sf,Sc

Coprosma robusta karamu ti kouka Cordyline australis Corynocarpus laevigatus karaka Dodonea viscosa akeake Hebe stricta koromiko Leptospermum scoparium manuka Metrosideros excelsa pohutukawa Sophora microphylla, S.fulvida, Skowhai

shinning karamu cabbage tree

hebe tea tree pohutukawa kowhai

Spacing (mm)

PB Size

2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1500 10000 10000

12 12 3 3 12 12 45-90 12 total

Quantity %


1

‘Te Ringa Taura’- project for the new re-invention of the urban marae of ‘Ngai Tuhoe’ and their ‘Te Tira Hou’ taurahere marae within Panmure. This perspective is encaptualating the desires of the iwi of ‘Ngai Tuhoe’ through co-laboration with the iwi. The idea is to encoporate the tikanga and kawa of the iwi of ‘Ngai Tuhoe’ without the stripping away of mana from the other iwi associated to the area of Tamaki.


RINGA TAURA PANMURE

PERSPECTIVES

2

‘Ngai Tuhoe’ and their ‘Te Tira Hou’ taurahere marae within Panmure, is to be made up of many of the elements assocaited to the values of Maori within the urban environment. The nessessity to link back to your turangawaewae by having the convieniece of a taurahere marae outside of your iwi boundaries. The important values for maori is to be able to re-connect to their culture (as part of the Maori Renaissance) by having these types of taurahere marae with the option to teach through tikanga of that particular iwi. This lower perspective incorporates an element of this ideal- to being able to house kaumatua and kuia near the vacinity of the marae and the schools as these rangatira hold the knowledge and teachings to keep the iwi and culture striving into the living system of development.


3

Kohanga Reo + Kura Kaupapa-Total immersion in Te Reo Maori kindergarden and primary school focusing around education through Te Ao Maori. The buildings take the form of the hinaki- eel trap which is woven together. These fall under the early childhood education stradegy of ‘Wharaki’ which is that to weave, creating a network system encoporating the tikanga of ‘Te Ao Maori within each strand. Whare Hou Ora, will be resourcing from the internal environment of the project where the majority of the species of plants planted are those of native desent to New Zealand and culturally connective back to each of the different iwi acknowledged in this project. In this case this above perspective is showcasing the iwi of Tainui.


RINGA TAURA PANMURE PERSPECTIVES

4

Perspective of walking through the sub-canopy stages of the ‘Ringa Taura’ project. Within the acknowledgement of the iwi of ‘Ngati Paoa’. These iwi are to be acknowledge through the plants which link to the particular environmental ameitnity they are grounded to. For example the iwi of ‘Ngati Paoa’ have a Rangatira named Tukutuku, in whom they all decend from. And is also the art work of tukutuku panels therefore the plants represented within this scheme are those inwhich utalised for the creation of this art; pingao, kiekie and toetoe. The idea being tha the Whare Taonga- can function as a community centre where the artform is passed down through education and that the wider community of the Western bank of Tamaki be able to share in the experience as well.


5

Walking through the lower region of restoration revegation and cultural embodiment ‘Te Ringa Taura’- project for the new re-invention of the urban marae within for the taurahere marae of ‘Ngai Tuhoe. Gifting power back to the tira hou iwi as well as unifying and weaving the connections to acknoledge the tangata whenua of Tamaki. This particular perspective is within the environment of ‘Ngati Whatua ki Tamaki.


RINGA TAURA PANMURE

PERSPECTIVES AND DETAILS OF PLANTING: SCHEME Planting Plan: The planting plan is more of a sequence of scales, the larger of the scales along with the cross-sections are defining which plants lie within each of the zones defined by the iwi of Iwi Ngai Tuhoe Tamaki and their own cultural significnace to the area. The percentages of the plants through these iwi affiliated groups as they link them back to their turangawaewae giving the Key Botanical Name Maori Name sense of cultural enrichness and significance into the protection of this environmental integrity.

Total Area The next stage in scales is the idea that the percetage of the planting and the coded iwi affiliated area is shown within the sketches of the perspectives. For example the blue 1.5 hectres Aa Agathis australis kauri zone to the right indicates the iwi affiliated zone you are looking at addressing and the below table identifies the plants, percentage and spacing used.

Ae Alectryon excelsus titoki Bt Beilschmiedia tarairi taraiere The perspective is the visual cue needed into to making sense of how the planting is to look. To achieve the asthetic amenity, the retaining of the environmental integrity and Ke Knightia excelsa rewarewa the use of eco-tones with the enriching ability the linking of significance to culture, resource and people. In this instense the wetland growing plants will be closer to the stream; Ds Dysoxylum spectabile kohekohe karamu, ti-kouka, korimiko, akeake, karaka, manuka, kowhai and pohutukawa. Pt Phormium tenax harakeke

Common Name

kauri titoki taraiere rewarewa kohekohe flax

Spacing (mm)

PB Size

10000 10000 10000 5000 10000 2000

Quantity %

40-95 12 12 12 12 5

total

The design: What it is! Who it involves! And why it is relevant in ‘The big picture’ ...

Iwi

Key

Pk Pa Rs To

Botanical Name

Maori Name

Pomaderis kumerahou

Pseudowintera axillaris Rhopalostylis sapida Typha orientalis

kumarahou horopito nikau raupo

Common Name

hinau cabbage tree hebe

flax pepper tree cabbage palm

Spacing (mm)

PB Size

when basic needs are wasted the poeple will die out to the death of the night.

2000 2000 1000 2000

5 12 12 12

5 2.5 10 10

Overall Quantity per plant 25 3 20 10

2000 1500 2000 1000 1000

5 5 5 3 3

10 20 20 10 2.5

10 30 20 20 5

2000 1500

12 3

5 5 100%

5 8 156

Ngati Paoa Key

Botanical Name

Maori Name

Dd Ca Cs Cl Ds Fb Pt

Dacrycarpus dacrydiodes Cordyline australis Cortaderia spp Corynocarpus laevigatus Desmoschoenus spiralis Freycinetia banksii Phormium tenax

kahikatea ti kouka toe toe karaka pingao kiekie harakeke

Common Name

cabbage tree

flax

Spacing (mm)

PB Size

10000 2000 1500 2000 500 1000 2000

Quantity %

40-95 12 12 3 3 5 5 total

Iwi Total Area 1.5 hectres

3 3 4 4 2 23 39

Quantity %

total

NGAI TUHOE: Total Area Rangatira Tuhoe Potiki- ‘maumau taonga, maumau kai, maumau tangata ki te po’ 1 hectre

10 15 25 10 10 30 100%

Tainui

The progression of Auckland- linking into how resilient people can be, by utalising this way of approach to a project it becomes beneficial to people, culture and the environment. The harmonious union between all these elements and how these elements can act together in-unison.Total The Area way in which the plants are the unifying connection between the people, culture, and environment. How they cleanse the water; providing the eco- tone, links into kaitiakitanga and therefore into tino rangatiratanga (falling under the hinau 2 hectres Edthe connection Elaeocarpus dentatus tiriti o waitangi). How the planting unifies the idea of sustainability by which of resource and ecological filtering - how this allows for the continuation of the shifting opensystem; ti kouka Ca Cordyline australis realising that the environment has its own type of life force and that the affect of this life force cannot be pre- determined but that the approach must allow for the continuational Cyathodes juniperina mingimingi Cj changes among the world; being the realisation of this resilience. The planting is the is the resource of the environmental values and the cultural values as well. Focuses on how koromiko Hs Hebe stricta to connect the urban marae iwi- with the pre- existing tangata whenua iwi by way of acknowledgement, not diminish the mana of one iwi from the other but more to appreciate and houhere Hoheria populnea allow all iwi affiliations for the site and to Panmure being able to work together. The planting expresses these links fromHp the environment to culture by also acting as the Eco-tone unifying and weaving enriching the bonds between people and landscape. The braiding of all these significant elementsMe is the coming Macropiper of strength excelsum of the project, as wekawakawa are the Pt Phormium tenax harakeke weavers of interaction and relationships we give power to those we unify- ‘RINGA TAURA’.

Iwi

Overall Quantity per plant

Overall Quantity per plant 5 20 30 10 10 5 20 100%

5 10 11 5 40 5 10 176

30 10 10 5 10 10 10 15 100%

Overall Quantity per plant 23 8 8 4 8 12 2 3 68

Ngati Whatua ki Tamaki Key

Botanical Name

Maori Name

Common Name

Cr Ca Cl Dv Hs Ls Me Sm, Sf,Sc

Coprosma robusta karamu ti kouka Cordyline australis Corynocarpus laevigatus karaka Dodonea viscosa akeake Hebe stricta koromiko Leptospermum scoparium manuka Metrosideros excelsa pohutukawa Sophora microphylla, S.fulvida, Skowhai

shinning karamu cabbage tree

hebe tea tree pohutukawa kowhai

Spacing (mm)

PB Size

2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1500 10000 10000

12 12 3 3 12 12 45-90 12 total

Quantity %


TAMAKI CONNECTION

TAMAKI CONNECTION

Community + Urban Intensification + Landscape Rebecca Cray

An investigation into commercial buildings, landscape, residences and their relationships. An earlier design project on the Tamaki has led me to investigate my interest in how communities operate in landscapes that are becoming commercially intensified. Recent plan changes, along with the new Auckland Spatial Plan, have earmarked Sylvia Park and surrrounds for future urban intensification. Alongside this is a large residential region and a need to house an increasing urban population. I am interested as to how the residential population can be accomodated and provided for as their ‘neighbours’ (commercial developers) become increasingly imposing on the Tamaki suburbs and skyline. I felt it was essential to develop a strategy is resilient in the long term, as the planned denisification is likely to take place in stages over a number of years. The research question therefore became: How can future commercial and urban infrastructure be connected with existing suburbs, in a way that enhances the integration of the surrounding community and landscape? My resulting proposal is to introduce a new axis to the Tamaki by creating an alternative extension of the Mt Wellington Highway. This achieves: A. Community connection to both recreation and retail/working environments. B. Commercial integration C. Landscape unification of Hamlins Hill and Mt Wellington, and Panmure Basin.

Scale 1:50,000


TAMAKI CONNECTION

Community Integration - How is it currently being addressed?

My investigation began with site visits to the suburban fringes which bordered the Sylvia Park development, particularly at the northern end of the site. The photos opposite demonstrate the overall impression I got which was that the Sylvia park development has effectively not addressed any form of community integration. When I was there I felt that the Sylvia Park facade had been put upon these northern suburbs. As shown, the vegetation suggests a formal and upmarket nature, I didn’t feel it represented or complemented the character of the community. The signs around these suburb/Sylvia Park also suggest residents have a huge issue with the traffic flows past their houses. Community Complaints from public notification of Plan Change 235: These were the most relevant complaints to my research question. - Wanted Aranui Road widened and the footpaths upgraded. - Stormwater issues (alledgedly a result of the Sylvia Park development) - Requested street upgrade, with power being put underground. - Wanted cycle/ pedestrian access from the sunurbs South of Sylvia Park.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Auckland Spatial Plan

In the new 2011 Auckland Spatial Plan, the Tamaki has been identified as an area the Auckland Council wants to intensify. This is as it strives towards ‘Auckalnd’s most liveable city’ strategy.

Since the Sylvia Park Plan Change 235 has been passed, it could be reasonably assumed that future intensification could or should centre around this Sylvia Park development. It has been anticipated that in the long term, the council or other potential developers will likely purchase land adjacent to Sylvia Park on its western side. My design proposal has taken advantage of this assumption to give a long term solution to the potential of future development and community integration in the Tamaki. Photo (right) view of Mt Wellington (Maungakiekie) from Hamlins Hill.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Case Studies

commercial buildings,landscape,

A comparison between

residences

and their relationships.

Similarities - Century City and Sylvia Park will both have a relatively low building spread, punctuated by a minority of high rises. - Both developments have park land and open space readily available to them. - Both developments have nearby hills/higher landscape features, and exist on the flatter low lying land in between. Differences -Century City is more grid like in structure, and more dense. - Sylvia Park is likely to take a lot longer to achieve similar development, due to a lower support population. - Surrounding Century City residents have used vegetation to effectively ‘block out’ the noise and visual impact of the high rises, whereas I want Sylvia Park to be integrated with the residential form.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Case Studies

Truly a mixed use development.. Century City’s suburbs and apartments fall just outside of its highly urbanised commercial centre, this gives us a similar impression of the potential future relationship between Sylvia Park and its suburbs once it has been rebuilt. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:2009-0727-CA-CenturyCity.jpg Retrieved 22/09/2011

“Its gleaming high-rises stand in stark contrast to the small apartment buildings and single-family detached homes in the lower-density neighborhoods surrounding it, and were some of the first skyscrapers built in Los Angeles after the lifting of earthquake-related height restrictions in the early 1960s.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Century_City,_Los_Angeles Retrieved 22/09/2011

Century City includes: - High rise office buildings - Retail - Apartments - Hotels adjacent to... - Park land/ green space - Suburban residencies.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Personal Perspective

My aim for this project is to achieve

long term community integration in the midst of an intensifying urban centre development. My response to Tamaki’s call to intensify is to approach from a landscape perspective.

Mt Wellington

I have identified the potential for connection of landscape features iconic to the Tamaki character and also that of Auckland. - Mt Wellington/ Maungakiekie - Panmure Basin - Hamlins Hill/ Mutukaroa Boldly linking these striking features opens up their potential as visual features/ icons, but more importantly their recreational opportunities for the Tamaki residents are uncovered.My proposed intervention would provide a development corridor for Tamaki’s planned urban intensification. However, it would also provide public space which would allow public integration into this new business and retail hub. I believe that this intervention and its identified benefits will help create a cohesion to the Tamaki urban intensification project, but also create a unique identity and character to this part of the Tamaki. These are factors which will be crucial in its long term success and economic sustainability as an urban centre.

Integrity Issues - Community + Urban Intensification + Landscape What’s at stake here? - Community identity, values and structure. - Risk of overuse of recreational resources. - Developers interests and wants. Sylvia Park

Hamlins Hill


TAMAKI CONNECTION Site Visit

The second site visit took me to investigate Hamlins Hill, Mt Wellington and the residential areas in between. Hamlins Hill reaches up to fifty metres at its highest point, offering fantastic 360 degree views of the greater Auckland. The diagram below illustrates the landscape connections I was able to make on my site visit.


TAMAKI CONNECTION

Panorama from H


Hamlins Hill 2011

TAMAKI CONNECTION The Brief


TAMAKI CONNECTION Area of Interest Initial Analysis Map This identifies the extent of the interest area, and the key landscape and structural elements which frame this area.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Proposed Axis and Zones Cut

Zones Cut & Implications From here I was interested in seeing how my site was zoned. I identified that a large proportion is residential and commercial, with severe underuse of recreational areas. To me this showed a heavily divided landscape in need of long term integration.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Landscape Icons - A History

Mutukaroa History

Cultural significance

Mutukaroa / Hamlins Hill Management Plan – as identified by Auckland City Council Excerpts and key points taken from: Mutukaroa Hamlins Hill management plan, 4.0 History http://www.aucklandcity.govt.nz/council/documents/managementplans/hamlinshill/section4.asp Retreived 28/09/2011 Area: 48ha (ARC, 2011) “Mutukaroa-Hamlins Hill is a landscape modified by the effects of human occupation and nature over time. These effects arise largely from the occupation of the site over several centuries leaving many layers of archaeological and spiritual associations with the land.” (Auckland City, 2011) Mutukaroa is interpreted as meaning ‘end of long battles.’ Mutukaroa was under contention, due to its strategic location and control over the crucial portage way between the Manukau and Waitemata harbours. Its potential as a site also lay in it fertile volcanic soils, and easy access to both harbours’ shelfish beds. Freshwater springs around the hill itself completed this Maori settlement. (Auckland City, 2011)

Maori - Extensive coverage with dwellings, pits and terraces. Particularly on the Western slopes, hilltops and ridges. - Possible prehistoric gardens along the lower , flatter areas. - Midden. - Areas of adze making - Palisade fortifications

Brief history - C.AD1400 and AD1700 Mutukaroa was the largest undefended pa site in pre European times. - It is estimated (using carbon dating) that these settlements existed somewhere between AD1400 and AD1700. - 1960 Ministry of Works acquired 30ha for Manukau reclamation works. - 1993 Mutukaroa Management Trust formed to monitor the Crown owned part. - Currently : Auckland Regional Council is now currently formulating a conservation management plan, a step in turning Mutukaroa into a ‘future park’.

European - Early European farming remnants e.g. stone walls, hedges, channel depressions and fences. - A stone embanked creek - Stone and concrete foundations. “Any ground disturbance within the reserve could potentially damage archaeological features and should not be undertaken without an impact assessment in consultation with the Historic Places Trust.” (Auckland City, 2011)


TAMAKI CONNECTION Maungarei Or Mt Wellington is the largest scoria cone in Auckland, and is approximately 9000 years old (the youngest of our mainland volcanoes). It reaches up to 135 metres high and is an incredibly important cultural and landscape feature. The mountain was inhabited by Maori and is of archaeological importance, their name for it being ‘the watchful mountain.’ The mountain has since been quarried and had a reservoir installed. Retrieved 03/11/2011 from http://www.arc.govt.nz/environment/volcanoes-of-auckland/mtwellington.cfm Panmure Basin A tidal estuary, located South of Panmure town centre. It is suggested to be the crater of a volcano. From the height of Mt Wellington or Hamlins Hill we see a large blue circular patch of water. Retrieved 03/11/2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panmure_Basin

Panmure Basin


TAMAKI CONNECTION Topographical Analysis

Contours & Proposed Axis The terrain crossed by the proposed axis is of reasonable undulating form, with steeper gradients occurring nearer to both the mountains.


TAMAKI CONNECTION

Water Systems

Contours & Water Systems There is one major flood plain which is intersected by the axis (centre), adjacent to the Panmure Basin. There are two river numbers which would require management plans in the initiation of my landscape intervention.


TAMAKI CONNECTION The Built Tamaki

Contours & Building Footprints The majority of buildings are residential and situated west of the axis. The overall map suggests a completely urban environment of mostly impervious surfaces.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Future Urban Development

View looking from Hamlins Hill to Mt Wellington

Present

Future: Sylvia Park Developments

Tamaki urbanisation, what will it look like? Following the plan change 235 for Sylvia Park Developers Kiwi Income Property Trust, my site needed to incorporate these future urban additions. The models on the left attempt to visualise the impact of these future developments, particularly from the key vantage points in the area; Hamlins Hill, Mt Wellington and the Panmure Basin.

Future: Sylvia Park Developments and supporting commercial development.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Future Urban Development

View midway along the axis, looking towards Hamlins Hill.

Present

The photos below demonstrate the point where the new axis would meet up with the Mt Wellington Highway. Mt Wellington sits in the distance.

Present

Future: Sylvia Park Developments

Future: Sylvia Park Developments and supporting commercial development.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Future Urban Development

View looking from Mt Wellington to Hamlins Hill These models show the way in which Sylvia Park may dominate the skyline, being at least as tall as Hamlins Hill in some parts.

Present

Future: Sylvia Park Developments

Future: Sylvia Park Developments and supporting commercial development.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Transport Connections

New Transport Connections The future addtion of the AMETI link to the northern end of the Mt Wellington Highway will ease traffic problems and open the area up commercially. The interventions I propose are an off - ramp from the Soutehrn Motorway to directly connect up with the new axis. This would be followed by an extension of the northern end of the axis to provide a directt connection to Mt Wellington.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Pedestrian & Cycle Routes

New Pedestrian & Cycle Connections These would also follow the framework of the proposed axis, linking up the recreational potential of Mt Weliington and Hamlins Hill. The photo below is Hamlins Hill, the dark patch of vegetation is approximately where the new pedestrian bridge would land. The lower photo has been taken from Aranui Road, at the point the pedestrian bridge would start from, Hamlins Hill can be seen in the background.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Pedestrian & Cycle Routes

The cycle and pedestrian overbridge has to cross over the South eastern highway, the Southern motorway and the Ellerslie - Panmure highway to connect Hamlins Hill to the wider Tamaki residents. The Southern motorway is pictured below from Hamlins Hill, Mt Wellington in the background.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Pedestrian & Cycle Routes

As well as being functional the bridge will also need to look aesthetically striking from a driver’s perspective. The bridge will become a symbolic feature, the ‘Tamaki Gateway’ in essence, a marketing tool for the Tamaki’s intensification. Some initial concepts are shown below left.

Conceptual views of the bridge (in section)


TAMAKI CONNECTION Ecological Implications

Current projects on Hamlins Hill include the replanting of several hectares with native vegetation. The most recent (pictured below) is in its first year, while the bush patches in the background are up to six years old. These projects are helping to shape Hamlins Hill into an important recreational amenity for future generations. From a landscape perspective both Hamlins Hill and Mt Wellington need to be managed in a way that encourages ecological enhancement, and allows the public to use and understand the significance of these areas, both ecologically and culturally.

On visiting Hamlins HIll, I also investigated another large revegetation patch, planted in 2003 - 2006. It was here I noticed a surprising amount of natural life insects and birds were functioning in these spaces. This was complemented by a pebble trail,leading to the highest point of Hamlins Hill. This enabled visitors to get an inside view into how these bush patches function. This is a particular character I feel needs to be protected and suported in the future use and development of Hamlins Hill.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Design IConsiderations

The significance of Hamlins Hill to both Maori and early New Zealanders means the new bridge to the hill could be designed to be a cultural icon. Its rural character could also be beneficially integrated to create a greater sense of cohesion, extending along the whole Tamaki axis. As part of my design work, I captured photos of particularly interesting rural characteristics on Hamlins Hill, and researched the Maori history and symbology that could also be associated to come up with my bridge design.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Pedestrian & Cycle Bridge

The bridge path winds over the various highways and off - ramps from the point on Aranui Road to land near a revegetation patch on Hamlins Hill. This reduces the intensity of a continuation of the axis and allows the mixing of natural and urban to become more representational in the bridge form. Below: The point of landing on Aranui Road.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Pedestrian & Cycle Bridge

The overall scheme the bridge connects into. The bridge weaves over stormwater ponds (shown left) which would need enhancement and monitoring should the development go ahead.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Plan

Mt Wellington

Panmure Basin

Sylvia Park

Hamlins Hill

Scale: 1: 7,000 at A1


TAMAKI CONNECTION Section Areas


TAMAKI CONNECTION Section A : Pedestrian & Cycle Bridge

View north of the pedestrian

This final bridge design references cultura overlapping is representative of Maori we representative of a weaving or integratio community and ecological connections. Th integration on many levels, making it truly wider Aucklan

Scale is 1:100


TAMAKI CONNECTION

and cycle bridge extent.

al and social themes. The curving and eaving on one level, but furthermore on of cultures, and an overlapping of he concept allows for connectivity and iconic within the Tamaki and also the nd region.

0 at A1


TAMAKI CONNECTION

Perspectives 1 - 4 : The cycle and pedestrian bridge in the wider landscape

View looking south east , with Sylvia Park future develoipment in the background.

View mid way along the Mt Wellington Highway towards Hamlins Hill, with the bridge curving off in the distance.

View looking south, demonstrating the residential oreintation and viewpoint.

View looking north along the southern motorway, One Tree Hill in the background.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Hamlins Park

The proposed axis intersects Hamlins Park, which backs onto residential areas and a Countdown supermarket. The photo on the left shows the entrance from the Mt Wellington Highway, while the two lower demonstrate the expanse of the sports fields. The next section is taken along this part of the axis, through this park, whcih would become more exposed and used in the installation of the proposed axis.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Section B: New Axis Extension

View north of the pedestrian

The axis would support the developme apartments, cafes, parks and medium western

Scale 1:1


n and cycle bridge extent.

ent of the Tamaki as mixed use, with density housing being included on the n side.

100 at A1

TAMAKI CONNECTION


TAMAKI CONNECTION Section C: Northern axis extension

View north of the pedestrian

At this northern end the axis supports me the recreational connec

Scale 1:1


n and cycle bridge extent.

edium density housing, while maintaining ction to Mt Wellington.

100 at A1

TAMAKI CONNECTION


TAMAKI CONNECTION Planting Plan

The placement of trees and shrubs within the site extent has been done strategically to create various effects. By planting speciment trees along the boulevard in irregular patterns, I am hoping to draw attention to certain features along the way through a distortion in perspective. To complement the most frequently used human social areas smaller shrubbery was needed to incorporate the human scale.These have been used in clumps or as hedges to further enhance axis interreclationships.


TAMAKI CONNECTION Perspective 5

View north from the intersection of Aranui Road and the new axis


TAMAKI CONNECTION Planting Schedule

In creating a planting scheme for my landscape intervention,I wanted to draw on the diverse areas my bridge and axis cover. The significance of the closer Hamlins Hill, for cultural reasons, meant that I wanted to mirror some of its vegetation types, and focus on using native vegetation to give my project a sense of grounding in the wider landscape. As a main street or boulevard, I also wanted to incorporate seasonal colour, so I have tried to use a variety of specimen trees which flower at different times of the year.

Code

Botanical Name

C.r

Coprosma robusta

C.a

Cordyline australis

C.l M.e S.c

Corynocarpus laevigatus Metrosideros excelsa Sophora chathamica

Common Name Karamu Cabbage Tree Karaka Pohutukawa Kowhai

V.l

Vitex Lucens Small Shrubs

Puriri

M.a

Muehlenbeckia astonii

M.c

Muehlenbeckia complexa

Number of

PB Size

8

10

Mature Height Flowering Period 6m Aug –

8

60

12 -20m

Nov Sept - Dec

15 14 3

95 95 60

18m 20m 20m

Aug - Nov Nov - Jan Sept –

4

95

15m Spacing

Torararo

5

30cm spacing

-

Pohuehue

5

30cm spacing

-

Climber C.p

Clematis paniculta

Nov May

Spacing Clematis

3

1.5m spacing

Jan - Mar

Plant schedule references and images: Cabbage tree: http://www.doc.govt.nz/conservation/native-plants/cabbage-tree-ti-kouka/ Kowhai - http://www.newzealandatoz.com/index.php/page/ display/164/?name=Kowhai Karaka: http://tpo.tepapa.govt.nz/ViewTopicExhibitDetail.asp?TextSize=Large&Language=English&ExhibitID=0x000a6dc5 Karamu: http://www.taranakiplants.net.nz/natives/lowland/karamu.html Muehlenbeckia astonii http://www.doc.govt.nz/conservation/native-plants/shrubby-tororaro/you-can-help/ Meuhlenbeckia complexa http://www.cops.org.nz/webapps/i/77844/252215/363282 Puriri: http://www.virtualoceania.net/newzealand/photos/flora/puriri/


TAMAKI CONNECTION Perspective 6

View south along the pedestrian bridge towards Hamlins Hill


TAMAKI CONNECTION Perspective 7

View north from Hamlins Hill along


g the pedestrian and cycle bridge

TAMAKI CONNECTION


TAMAKI CONNECTION References

Case Studies: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Century_City,_Los_Angeles Retrieved 22/09/2011 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:2009-0727-CA-CenturyCity.jpg Retrieved 22/09/2011 Historical references: http://www.aucklandcity.govt.nz/council/documents/managementplans/hamlinshill/section4.asp Retreived 28/09/2011 http://www.arc.govt.nz/environment/volcanoes-of-auckland/mt-wellington.cfm Retrieved 03/11/2011 Plant schedule references and images; all retrieved on 03/11/2011 Cabbage tree: http://www.doc.govt.nz/conservation/native-plants/cabbage-tree-ti-kouka/ Kowhai - http:// www.newzealandatoz.com/index.php/page/display/164/?name=Kowhai Karaka: http://tpo.tepapa.govt.nz/ViewTopicExhibitDetail.asp?TextSize=Large&Language=English&Exhi bitID=0x000a6dc5 Karamu: http://www.taranakiplants.net.nz/natives/lowland/karamu.html Muehlenbeckia astonii http://www.doc.govt.nz/conservation/native-plants/shrubby-tororaro/you-can-help/ Meuhlenbeckia complexa http://www.cops.org.nz/webapps/i/77844/252215/363282 Puriri: http://www.virtualoceania.net/newzealand/photos/flora/puriri/ http://www.google.co.nz/imgres?q=karaka+trees http://www.google.co.nz/imgres?q=puriri+trees http://www.google.co.nz/search?q=Manuka http://www.google.co.nz/imgres?q=Cabbage+trees http://www.oratianatives.co.nz/catalogue_item.php?catalogue_id=654 http://www.flickr.com/photos/fostert/6152122204/ kowhai http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panmure_Basin Photos


SYLVIA PARK Sylvia Park Skypark Catherine Duncan Contemporary development favours demolition and reconstruction leaving suburban sites with shallow identities.The process of zoning and in this particular area the separation of residential areas from business, whilst ensuring residents are not negatively impacted by industry practises, has resulted in large areas of impervious surface. Industrial land uses and processes have a tendancy to contaminate stormwater, resulting in reduced water quality in the nearby waterways. The Edge of the Tamaki Estuary that meets the suburb of Mt Wellington is traditionally an industrial area whose location has developed around the need for ease of transportion of goods to other locations, the Sylvia Park area is located in Aucklands demographic centre. Some construction in the area is reasonably new and others are nearing the end of their lifespan. Redevelopment of brownfield sites are oportunities for an enhanced outcome for the community and ecology. There also needs to be cohesion between the new and the existing when development occurs, communities can lose their sense of belonging, their connection with their neighbours/social peers when uncharacteristic modifications are imposed upon their environments. There has been some recent regeneration in the area through the construction of a shopping mall (Sylvia Park) in an area of a former WWII American army base, this included the construction of a new railway station on the eastern line. This development currently excludes the neighbouring communities through its lack of community facilities or focus. There is no connection between Sylvia Park and the Tamaki Estuary, the focus has turned from the river and is now facing inwards, towards industry, motorway and rail connections. Residents and visitors to the area are missing opportunities to relate to the river for enhanced quality of life. Workers in the nearby industrial area have no direct access to the railway station from the eastern side.

Scale 1:50,000

Patterns of development due to zoning regulations Note large areas of impervious surface and isolation of communites.


Auckland is a city designed by infrastructure The Tamaki region, through a mixture of geographical constraints and the superimposition of infrastructure has evolved by means of transportation systems, firstly through the waterways (pre and post European) then via land based rail and road networks.

¢

¢

Legend

Tamaki Transportation Patterns

1:75,000

Tamaki Estuary Railway Road

Legend Tamaki Estuary Railway

This process of transformation has helped to create Mt Wellington/Sylvia Parks nodal position within Aucklands polycentric metropolitan area and is one of the reasons why it has been selected for further intensification.

Road Commercial Open Space Residential Schools

Zoning

1:100,000


Future Concerns - Issues Affecting The Auckland Region Climate Change • Temperature - Climate scientists expect that average temperatures will increase by between 1.1 and 6.4°C this century. New Zealands average temperatures are projected to increase about 1°C by around 2040 and about 2.1°C by around 2090. There is likely to be a substantial increase in the number of days with temperatures exceeding 25°C. • Extreme Weather - We can expect increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. This may result in the inundation of low-lying coastal land. • Rainfall - More rain is likely to fall in the west of the country and less in the east. We can also expect more episodes of heavy rainfall with a greater risk of severe storms, placing increased pressure on storm water infrastructure. • Sea level rise - It is likely the sea level will rise 18 to 59cm by 2100. Faster ice-sheet melting could lead to even higher sea levels leading to increased coastal erosion, flooding, salinisation of freshwater, and drainage problems. • Policy changes - Many Territorial Authorities are already implementing policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions as part of their response to climate change. They are often targeted at reducing city-wide emissions from transport, industry and homes, and improving energy efficiency to reduce fossil fuel use. These policies will all affect the way urban individuals, households and businesses operate. • Preparing for the physical impacts of climate change - Despite measures taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions now, the levels of carbon dioxide already in the atmosphere are expected to continue to affect climate change. This means that as well as reducing emissions, cities will need to prepare for climate change and adapt to its impacts. Without a reduction in emissions, greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will continue to rise meaning the rate and extent of climate change is likely to be greater. At the same time, preparing for and adapting to climate change will minimise the risks to New Zealand as well as maximising opportunities arising from a changing climate. Reduction in Available Resources Access to resources such as fresh air, and clean water is vital. Global forces such as climate change and economic globalisation affect food production, contributing to increased costs and creating food shortages that affect both producers and consumers. • Transport – Increased fuel prices are likely to reduce the average distances that people are prepared to travel resulting in an increased demand for cost effective and efficient public transport. This could lead to a demand for higher density development that brings people, services and goods closer together. These demands could significantly affect the way that urban areas are planned and developed. • Renewable electricity generation – The need to reduce carbon emissions alongside increased demand for energy has made investment in renewables such as solar, wind turbines and micro-hydro generation a priority for New Zealand. • Energy efficiency – Higher costs for energy leads to increased demand for better efficiency in products. Buildings are a major component of the New Zealand urban environment that will likely see a marked improvement in energy efficiency. • Water – The management and efficient use of existing water supplies is a prominent issue in all urban areas. This will require more creative approaches from local councils to source potable water for their residents. Globalisation • Keeping pace with technological change requires cities to plan for, and provide appropriate communications infrastructure. • A challenge for New Zealand’s towns and cities is to actively and creatively develop and maintain their individual cultural identity. This is particularly important as New Zealand is reliant on the international tourism market. • Globalisation can also increase competition between towns and cities to attract businesses and skilled workers. This often requires towns and cities to build on their unique strengths and points of difference. Changing Demographics Statistics New Zealand predicts that our population will peak at 5 million by the late 2020s. Two-thirds of New Zealand’s population growth in that time is projected to be in theAuckland region. Some significant changes in New Zealand’s population include: • Aging - it is estimated that over 65s will make up one-quarter or more of all New Zealand residents by 2051 An increasingly older population will be more reliant on services such as government housing, health, transport and recreation services. • Increasing ethnic diversity – since 2001, the percentage of population identifying as European have decreased, all other groups have grown. Growing cultural diversity provides an opportunity for local councils to plan how different cultures can be accommodated and expressed in the urban environment. • Decreasing average household size – in 2001, the average was 2.6 people per household. This is expected to drop to 2.4 by 2021. Changing lifestyle preferences are leading to a change in housing. Recently there has been a steady increase in the number of apartments rented, this change in tenancy patterns presents a challenge for New Zealand’s towns and cities to develop appropriate public space, and social and utility infrastructure to support higher population densities. • Populations can shift in location as well as characteristics. An example is the recent New Zealand trend of rising inner city populations, relative to the rest of the city. This change in population location significantly affects municipal planning for transport and housing.


SYLVIA PARK GIS Mapping

¢

1:10,000

Legend Railway Roads Open Space Buildings Impervious Surfaces

Mt Wellington Open Space


¢

¢

1:10,000 1:10,000

Legend

Legend Railway Roads Buildings Impervious Surfaces

Railway

Mt Wellington Impervious Surfaces

Roads Business Residential

Mt Wellington Business and Residential Zones


SYLVIA PARK Demographics

The 680 Ha Mt wellington South area is dominated by commercial and industrial property. Sylvia Park Shopping Centre occupies 60,000 square metres. The small residential area on the coastal edge is characterised by rental housing mainly government(state) owned and is known as “Riverside�. The single school in this area is Panama Road School, the in zone intermediate and secondary schools are in nearby Otahuhu. Sporting facilities are located in the Mt Richmond Domain. A second small residential area is located to the north of the suburb is isolated by major roads and is services by Sylvia Park School. Transportation by car to the CBD is via the southern motorway. There is a regular bus service to the city. The train departs from Sylvia Park and runs to destinations north and south. The main listed occupation in the area is listed as labouring, there is a low percentage of tertiary qualified resdients and a high number have no high school qualifications. The 6200 inhabitants of this community are primarily of Pacific Island descent, with a slightly smaller percentage of Europeans. Maori and Asian populations are also well represented. Fifty four percent of residents consider themselves Christian, small numbers of buddhist, Hindu and Muslim are identified in the 2006 Census data. The household composition of the area is predominately single families with children living in a detatched house, sixteen percent of households have more than one family in residence while fifteen percent live alone.


SYLVIA PARK Regulatory Context

The Auckland Regional Transport Plan 2009

The expected intensification of the Auckland region is programmed to develop along existing and future rail corridors. The Auckland Regional Transport Plan includes the prioritisation of transit oriented development projects. The Sylvia Park area is desinated a future strategic route.

Sylvia Park Shopping Centre Zoning

The Auckland Plan All of Auckland’s centres are classified according to their future role and function and are defined by hierarchy. Sylvia Park is defined as a metropolitan centre. These serve regional catchments or have strategic roles within the region. They provide a diverse range of shopping, business, cultural, entertainment and leisure activities, together with higher density residential and mixed use environments. They have good transport access and are served by high frequency public transportation. These centres have significant growth opportunities for additional business and residential accommodation.

Key Attributes of Metropolitan Centres Built Form • Medium Rise 3-10 Storeys • Gross average density 40-100 dwellings per Ha Transport • Major hub at sub-regional scale • High trip generation given its destination function • Generally has the provision of high frequency public transport Economic • Active 16-24 hours • Finance, Insurance and proffessional services • Food and beverage • Comparison and specialty retail • Regional offices Social • Cultural/entertainment destination • High quality public spaces • Tertiary education


Sylvia Park East - Awaiting transformation Kiwi Income Property Trust The owners of Sylvia Park have facilitated a Change to the Auckland District Plan to allow for further intensification of the shopping Centre. In this plan change Auckland Council regognises Sylvia Park as a stretegically suitable location for intensive redevelopment, of a mixed use incorporating a wide range of activities including retail, entertainment, education, civic, commercial and residential. Industrial land to the east of the railway station is noted as an opportunity area in which to focus activities (occurring both within the site and on adjoining properties) towards the railway station. A pedestrian plaza of at least 400 square metres is required to be provided, this plaza has specific controls, it must be designed for personal safety, and receive direct sunlight between 11:00am and 2:00pm. The location of the plaza should be determined having regard to the alignment of nearby streets, the distribution of activities, and the configuration of buildings. The plaza is to be provided no later than the completion of 148,000m2 of gross floor area of development on the site. A financial contribution of $1,500,000 shall be provided by the developer for works to improve off-site amenity in the local Panmure / Mt Wellington / Sylvia Park community. Such works may include children’s play areas, street landscaping, paving and furniture, pedestrian facilities, and environmental improvements. Current railway access Through SEART Park and across road to overbridge


Characteristics of Sustainable Urban Areas Innovation While climate change adaptation and emissions reduction is a challenge, the push from the international community for greater sustainability also presents a chance to improve. Solutions to curb greenhouse gas emissions, for example, can often have benefits for a city’s economy, culture, and social environment. An example is linking higher density mixed use centres to, public transport hubs and networks. This type of development can reduce the need to travel significant distances between daily activities. It can also increase the vibrancy of an area through the clustering of residential, commercial and recreational land uses. Urban Areas as Systems 1. Cities can be seen as interconnected systems - transportation networks, industrial/business zones, utility systems, water catchment areas, and green networks. How these various systems interact can result in various outcomes. They have ‘inputs’, such as raw materials and energy, and ‘outputs’, such as commodities and greenhouse gas emissions. 2. From this ‘urban metabolism’ perspective, it is possible to gain insights into what shapes, regulates and governs the flows of inputs and outputs to and from cities. This helps us determine how urban areas can contribute to long term sustainability. 3. Many national and local governments are focussing on how to minimise the adverse impacts of urban activities on the natural and physical environment. This focus is being driven by a growing understanding of the existence of an urban ecology. 4. An example of taking an eco-system approach to urban development is the Low Impact Urban Design and Development programme, lead by Landcare Research. This programme of research and application aims to integrate urban storm water management with natural drainage and filtration methods. Reducing the amount of contaminated storm water reaching water bodies. 5. People are now recognising that cities are whole systems that equal more than the sum of their parts. Improvements can be made by connecting the economy, environment, culture and technology with sustainable practices and the future in mind. • This sort of ‘system thinking’ is represented in the Integrated Approach to Planning project, led by the transport sector of the New Zealand government. This project investigates how transport, land use and urban design can work together to improve the way cities function.

Legend Sylvia Park Extent

Sylvia Park Neighbourhood Intensification

Resilience 1. Resilient urban systems are recognised as important for achieving long term sustainability. The characteristics of urban resilience include the robustness or strength of an urban system to withstand stress, and the adaptability of an urban system to respond to change, like a major disaster, or dramatic economic changes causing job losses. 2. One way of creating resilience in an urban area is by designing resilient infrastructure, localising the provision of services like electricity, drinking water, storm water reduction, and wastewater disposal. Another is ensuring that infrastructure and new development is not located in areas subject to natural hazards such as flooding or erosion.

1:10,000

Central Square Railway Station Openspace Medium Density Residential 600m Radius Commercial Roads

Gradual development of a city due to the renewal process provided by the finite lifecycles of structures are opportunities for transformation. Infrastructure being the longest lasting of these structures provides the form. The character and identity of this area can be resurrected by intensification within the suburb. There is also the opportunity to tackle issues such as lack of open space, contaminated soil remediation and stormwater management in the process. The transformation of the former industrial area into Sylvia Park Shopping Centre can be continued into Sylvia Park East using the principles of sustainable urban design. This proposal, a medium density residential community adjacent to Sylvia Park Mall and Railway Station is modelled on a Transit Oriented Development (TOD) encompassing a civic plaza, additional retail and mixed residential use. Principles of LIUDD are used in the stormwater management of the site and surrounding catchmnet. The Skypark for example has roof garden beds to filtrate and reduce stormwater from the mall roofs.

Roof Garden Examples

Quality Urban Design Quality urban design and planning has economic, environmental, cultural and social dimensions. The creation of well-connected, inclusive and accessible places can have significant positive effects. The New Zealand Urban Design Protocol vision is 'making New Zealand towns and cities more successful through quality urban design'. It identifies seven essential design qualities: 1. Context - Seeing that buildings, places and spaces are part of the whole town or city 2. Character - Reflecting and enhancing the distinctive character, heritage and identity of our urban environment 3. Choice - Ensuring diversity and choice for people 4. Connections - Enhancing how different networks link together for people 5. Creativity - Encouraging innovative and imaginative solutions 6. Custodianship - Ensuring design is environmentally sustainable, safe and healthy • Collaboration - Communicating and sharing knowledge across sectors, professions and with communities.


6. Custodianship - Ensuring design is environmentally sustainable, safe and healthy 7. Collaboration - Communicating and sharing knowledge across sectors, professions and with communities.

SYLVIA PARK

Successful Urban Form Internationally, there is a return to a more compact urban form. This is being driven by growth management strategies at varying levels, cities that are recognised internationally for their sustainability often exhibit: • A compact form, as opposed to a sprawling form • A high level of connectivity within their transport networks • A Land use pattern that is well integrated with public transport and options for walking and cycling • Defined areas of growth, or ‘town centres’ that contain a mix of residential, commercial and recreational land uses. This type of development is attributed with reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A more compact urban form also optimises the capacity of existing infrastructure and reduces the need for costly extensions to networks. The potential to achieve this may be difficult in New Zealand, however, more compact towns and cities offer the increased density of population required to make investment in public transport more viable.

Community Focus Urban planning and design determines the nature of the spaces where people interact within an urban form. Successful cities place high value on attractive, liveable and vibrant communities, developed with the following considerations: 1. Urban form that properly accommodates pedestrians 2. Provision of affordable housing that includes a variety of different groups in the community 3. Considering employment options when creating more intense, mixed use urban development. This maximises the potential for an urban centre to provide options for residents to “live, work and play” in one location. 4. Ensuring an attractive public realm. This recognises roads represent the majority of public space, and includes provision of accessible parks, town squares, and communal spaces. 5. Utilising, protecting and enhancing the natural assets of an area – high value landscapes and geological features, local waterways, topography and native vegetation 6. Taking into account the natural and physical heritage of the region – in New Zealand in particular, the story of Tangata Whenua provides a distinct cultural and historical context for development 7. Consulting with communities during development of a future vision and detailed design of their community.

A specific strategy often used for improving the urban form of a city is with transit oriented development (TOD). Transit oriented development seeks to intensify development around public transport nodes. It uses urban design principles to ensure intensification of urban centres is pedestrian oriented, safe, efficient, has high public amenity and is attractive to live in. TOD helps improve the accessibility and uptake of public transport by increasing the modes of public transport that are available, concentrating patronage, and encouraging shorter “local” trip lengths. Good design of public space in these areas is also prioritised. This design includes providing green-space that enhances local natural features. The Auckland Regional Growth Strategy is a New Zealand example of a strategy that focuses on the shape, through location and provision, of urban form as a way of improving regional sustainability.

Waterpoint Development Sydney Harbour Billbergia Developments - Enjoying a  commanding   position  at  the  very  tip  of  a  harbourside  peninsula,  Waterpoint  is  surrounded  by  the  Sydney  Harbour   and  local  parklands.  The  Shepards  Bay  project  is  a  new  mixed  use  residential  development  comprising   900  apartments  with  retail  and  commercial  along  the  Parramatta  River.  Set  on  4.3  Ha  and  built  over  6   stages,  construction  commenced  in  2002  and  was  completed  in  2009.    The  strategy  was  to  rejuvenate   an  old  industrial  waterfront  precinct  to  enhance  and  reinstate  natural  aspects  of  the  region  by   introducing  environmental  and  sustainable  initiatives  including  rainwater  harvesting  and  double   glazing.  Features  include  landscaping,  open  space  shopping  and  community  centre.  There  is  easy  

Planning and Designing for Multiple Benefits The advantage of planning and designing for a compact urban form is the wide range of benefits that can be achieved from a single solution. Well designed urban centres with a compact form: • Improve economic development by concentrating a wide variety of high value, knowledge intensive, and service orientated economic activity • Increase physical activity through creating more walkable environments. Studies have shown that walkable cities can help reduce obesity and provide other health benefits • Improve urban liveability (including individual safety and reduced crime) through the careful design of public spaces. This includes designing safer street environments that are also community places • Build stronger “communities” with easier access to social services and facilities • Improve social cohesion and creativity within the community by providing good public spaces • Consider changing housing preferences providing a wider variety of housing types to accommodate demographic needs. • Improve energy efficiency through easier access to public transport, walking and cycling, whilst acheiving other benefits including reduced household transport-related costs. • Move goods and provide services more efficiently • Reduce greenhouse gas emissions, lower pollution levels and reduce noise • Optimise national, state and local government investment in transport and other infrastructure such as schools.

Case Studies


Travel Management The New Zealand Transport Strategy has a strong focus on reducing CO2 emissions from domestic transport. There is evidence that, for short distance journeys, travel behaviour change can reduce private car travel more effectively than making changes to the physical environment. Because of the way individual urban areas vary in shape, an integrated range of measures can be tailored to the region or city concerned. These measures can include: 1. Behaviour change programmes - walk to school programme, and workplace travel planning such as car pooling. 2. Land use planning - zoning policies that encourage compact, mixed use, and connected settlement patterns; road pricing to better reflect true modal costs; and development fees designed to support essential infrastructure 3. Managing peak time congestion - congestion charging and increased inner city parking fees 4. Economic measures - carbon taxes, and tax policies that encourage the use of alternative modes of public transport 5. Infrastructure development for alternative transport modes - integrated ticketing and investment in quality, efficient public transport, cycleways and pavements. Achieving Integration • Sustainable urban areas are often the result of long-term and integrated decisionmaking. This usually involves all sectors involved in urban development agreeing on a clear strategic vision to guide their individual and collective decisions, and aligning planning and budgetary processes. • Decisions are primarily based around planning and investment. In an urban environment, elements affected by these decisions include transport, land use, economic development, housing, education, health, and culture. The aim of integrated planning is that each agency involved in these areas is able to make decisions that take account of the other areas. Working in a collaborative way can also result in ‘synergy’ or additional, unforeseen benefits as a result. Prioritising Public Investment • Achieving more compact, mixed use urban development often requires a shift in infrastructure investment. Local bodies also tend to change the requirements in their planning. This shift often includes prioritising public transport funding, walking and cycling, and quality, higher density, mixed use urban centres. • Proper integrated planning is typically best supported by similarly integrated funding packages. A transit orientated development, for example, is likely to work well if funding is provided to develop the transport infrastructure, public space landscaping, private housing, community services, and commercial elements of the area. • Focusing public investment into a local, integrated development can increase the value of the land and properties involved. This increase in land values can often attract private development investment. As well as increasing the economic value of an area, focussed public investment can also improve local economic activity and amenity value for the community as a whole.

SYLVIA PARK New Lynn - Transit Oriented Development

Case Studies

The 20 year vision for New Lynn is that by 2030: “To create a unique sustainab;e urban place centred on a world class transit interchange that is capable of attracting and maintaining a population of 20, 000 residents and 14,000 workers (within the area)” Critical Sucess Factors • Growing and sustaining a stable resident population in a medium to high density living environment • Encouraging economic diversity and attracting higher density retail, commercial and knowledge based employment. • Maximising connectivity and movement. • Creating an exceptional level of amenity in open spaces and the public realm. • Delivering a distinct, quality and sustainable built form that captures the distinct character and heritage of the place. • Maximising the attractiveness and activity of the town centre. • Changing attitudes and perceptions. • Surpassing social infrastructure requirements. • Place marketing the town as somewhere to live, work and visit. • Creating a delivery mechanism for implementation.

Principles of Transit Oriented Development: • Organise growth at a regional level to be compact and transit supportive.

• Place commercial, housing, jobs, parks and civic uses within walking distance of transit stops. • Create pedestrian-friendly street networks, which directly connect local destinations. • Provide a mix of housing types, densities and costs. • Preserve sensitive habitat, riparian zones and high-quality open space. • Make public spaces the focus of building orientation and neighborhood activity. • Encourage infill and redevelopment along transit corridors within existing neighbourhoods.


Fort Road Old Town - Transit Oriented Development A development creating a higher density, walkable mixed use environment around a transit centre. It optimises use of existing public transport and creates mobility for residents. New urbanism principles are used in the design.

SYLVIA PARK Case Studies

Residential • Variety of housing forms offered • Houses oriented towards street with parking in interior of block • On street parking encouraged • Street trees provided where possible Parks and Open Space • Village square focal point of urban village • Parks linked through pedestrian accessways • Universal accessability Street Pattern • Simple street system encouraging pedestrian activity • Streets designed to slow traffic Transit Station • Facilities exibit sense of place • Higher density development in proximity • Create a safe and lively community environment Mixed Use • Diversity of uses encouraged • Land use integrated horozontally and vertically • Work from home opportunities encouraged Place Making • Prominant buildings architecturally designed • Street network designed to maximise focal points Walkability • Pedestrian connections clearly defined • Street crossings clearly marked, convenient and safe Active Street Fronts • Residential and commercial buildings front onto street • Street orientated retail provided


SYLVIA PARK Connection to Sylvia Park East Central to a TOD is a transportation hub (railway station) and public space. Skypark Sylvia Park serves multiple functions: • Access to the railway platform is now available from both the mall and surrounding property to the east. • Direct access to the railway station is provided from the mall removing the need to cross the road and ascent stairs to the platform. • Pedestrian access is now provided from the eastern side of the railway lines to both the train platform and the mall. • A north facing outdoor space is provided for people to enjoy. • Stormwater runoff from Sylvia Park is now reduced and filtered before entering the stormwater system and consequently the Tamaki Estuary.

Detail of swale system in TOD neighbourhood


SYLVIA PARK Planting Plan

Disphyma australe

Se An An Li Li Dr Sa An Sc Di Pi An Di Co Co An Di Dr Li Co An Pi Pi An Di Co Co An An Se Di Sc An An Sa Pe Co Co Li Di Di Pe Co Pi Co An Se Di Dr Li Sa An Pi Co Co Pi Di Dr Sc An An An An Sa Co Pi An Se Li Sc An An Dr Se Di Sa An An An Pi Pi Pi AnSe An An Se Se An Di An An Pi Pi Sc Pe Se Di Di Se Mu Pi An Se Di Se Se Di Se Mu DiMu Mu Mu Pi Pe Pi Se Pe Se Mu Dr Di Di Pe Pe Dr Mu Di Pe Pe Mu Dr Dr Dr

Libertia peregrinans

Pe

Dr

Planting List – Roof Garden Code

Botanical Name

Common Name

PB Size

Spacing (mm)

Quantity

An

Anaphalioides bellidioides

Everlasting flower

PB3

1000

45

Co

Coprosma acerosa

PB5

1500

12

Dr

Dichondra repens

Mercury bay weed

ET*

200

116

Da

Disphyma ausrale

NZ ice plant

PB3

1000

46

Li

Libertia peregrinans

NZ iris

ET

1000

102

Mu

Muehlenbeckia axillaris

Creeping pohuehue

PB5

1000

10

Pe

Peperomia urvilleana

Wharanui

PB5

300

16

Pi

Pimelia prostrate

NZ daphne

PB5

1000

27

Sa

Samolus repens

Maakoako

ET

200

125

Sc

Scirpus nodosus

Leafless sedge

ET

200

236

PB3

1000

27

Se Selliera radicans * = Envirotube trays

Notes

quantity is amount of individual plants quantity is amount of individual plants

quantity is amount of individual plants

Streetscape Planting Code

Botanical Name

Common Name

Li

Libertia ixiodes

Tukauki

Ef

Eucalyptus ficifolia

Red Gum

Coprosma acerosa

Di

Anaphalioides bellidioides

Pimelia prostrata

Planting Plan

Samolus repens

Di An Sc Dr Dr An An An An Pi Pi Pe An Sc Dr Di Pi Pi An An Di Sc Pi Di Pe Pi Pe An Sc Di Li An An An An Pi Pi Pe Di Di An Pe An Pi Di Pi Pi Pe Pi

Scirpus nodosus

Scale 1:200 @A1

Peperomia urvilleana

Muehlenbeckia axillaris

Selliera radicans

Dichondra repens


SYLVIA PARK References Kaufman, C and Morris, W (1995). Transit Supportive Development – Benefits and Possibilities Occasional Paper Series 2, Report prepared by National Capital Planning Authority for the Better Cities Program Latz, P. (2007). In Search of Identity Over Time. From: Suburban Transformations: New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Auckland Council (2011) The Auckland Spatial Plan (draft) Auckland Council (2009) Auckland Regional Transport Plan


CARBINE CREEK

BOWDEN ROAD, MT WELLINGTON INDUSTRIAL AREA, Alex Smith

Carbine Creek is the working title I have given to an un-named stream that is fed by a 295 Ha catchment that contains Sylvia Park Shopping Mall and a large area of industry. It has been progressively modified over the past 50 years, reaching the point today that almost nothing of it runs in it’s original watercourse, with the majority buried in culverts or encased in concrete channels. It is also the centre of my design. As a result of previous investigations in this studio, it was found that the health of the native ecological systems of Tamaki Estuary and it’s catchments (and the native species they support) have been heavily degraded by the effects of urbanisation. Within a site defined by the industrial area fed by Bowden Road I have investigated methods by which the quality of the stream environment, the connectivity across the region for native bird life and the quality of storm water being discharged into the Tamaki Estuary can be improved. What resulted was a three stage process to mesh and integrate natural processes and ecologies into intensively used areas such as the site: Stage 1, a partial recreation of Carbine Creek and establishment of a stream side walkway between carbine road and the sea to meet a proposed coastal walkway. Stage 2, being practical improvements to the street environment of the site. Stage 3, suggestions for storm water treatment and disposal for industry and private property It is hoped that through a recreation such as this, people will come to expect and believe that streams and natural systems may exist alongside intensive human land use.

Scale 1:50,000


Site Location

Mt Wellington Industrial Area

Page 4

Bowden Road

Carbine Road to the Tamaki River


Contents

Carbine Creek

2

-

Site Location

13

-

Design Development

4

-

A flow on effect

16

-

Final Concept

5

-

Case Study

22

-

Planting Plan

6

The rational behind the design

Sweetbrook Stream Restoration, Staten Island New York

-

Initial concepts and workings

Plans and Sections

An introduction to some region wide issues

Site Analysis

Examining the sites specific issues

Page 5


A flow on Effect

The rationale behind the design As a result of previous investigations in this studio, it was found that the health of the native ecological systems of Tamaki Estuary and it’s catchments (and the native species they support) have been heavily degraded by the effects of urbanisation.

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Storm Water, Streams, Catchments

Birds and Connectivity 2"%)"$0+0& 3"140(& 5"6%)")

Marine and Aquatic Ecologies !"#"$%&'()*"+,& -")./#01)

Terrestrial Ecology

5*1*"& 3"140(& 5"6%)")

A second issue identified was the poor connectivity

A key issue in the degradation of the Tamaki Estuary has -7110.)%14&89%+:&&30(0+;%7+(< been the regular

      

of the isthmus landscape for native forest birds.

discharge of storm water laden with D,&8?)'#$)E'(()D2$,(

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

contaminants, such as sediment, heavy metals and other

Auckland lies between two major forest habitats, the

chemicals. Rain washes these contaminants from the roads,

Hunua and Waitakere ranges and for these to have

roofs and hard surfaces of urbanised regions, into systems

continued viable populations birds must be able to move

and streams into the harbour often without treatment.

between them.

The streams themselves have also suffered from intensive

It was noticed from GIS mapping that the suburban

land use, often being highly modified from their natural states

landscapes around the Tamaki estuary seemed to offer good

5)()3(* %8! ) -+!-.$!)*.%*)*"(.,%2.$.%-%)$*-+%.'!.*(*-.-+!%!-%-)*./-!"/'2(+'!-*"1$!,! .$!(.,%2+,*0% !-$%.."*,,)#!*"-+!%!-*(!",*(*.$"*,!-.,3) #,%/'./,!6%) !)(3!, %-$!,  

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ptions for enhancing forest biodiversity across New Zealandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s managed landscapes based on ecosystem modelling and spatial design. This model suggests an ideal patch pattern model for urban areas, consisting of: -Minimum sized 6.25 ha core sanctuaries to provide habitat for most native species including all birds, located approximately 5km apart for connectivity.

in order to cope with vastly increased flows of storm water

connectivity for forest birds because of their proliferation of

-1km spaced, minimum 1.6 Ha patches, providing habitat for most native species and insectivorous birds, as well as connecting the larger patches, being food resources for migrating frugivorous birds.

during flood events. An increase in impervious surfaces due

mature trees, an environment structurally similar to forest.

- 0.2 km spaced 0.01 Ha patches of native trees to aid connectivity.

to roaring, car parks and roofs, means rainwater collects in

However the Mt Wellington industrial area (the location

large quantities quickly, rather than slowly soaking through

of my site) was suspected of presenting a barrier to the

the ground as it had previously. This leads to fast moving

movement of native forest birds because of its relative lack

surges of storm water moving down streams than cannot

of vegetation and clear lines of sight, which make travel

physically cope with it, leading to erosion of its banks and

through it more difficult.

.1-"*/) .$..$!(&%.$(!).*)-%-.-*" $*(*#!)*/-4*)!-) /-.,%',!-//,-) ,&-$!-//,- 6,8,)32&#$)52)+82%"$,)')0"10)$,18,,)23)=24"("57)'#$)8,*2&8-,*)328)4"8$*9

!"#"$% &'()*'+,-*'.$'#",/'(012"$(3 !"#$%&'()*$%+ 4(5*26'("*7-*'.$789::9;:9 !/-<:&=>?

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/&')  ./,''3  !.,%!0!  ",*(  055+@AA6669328,*5'#$4"8$92819#BA60'5!6,!$2A+82C,-5*A '&-?('#$!#'5&8'((7 -Lindenmayer D B, Fischer J. (2006). Habitat Fragmentation and Landscape Change: an ecological and conservation synthesis. Washington: Island Pres -Meurk CD, Hall GMJ, 2006. Options for enhancing forest biodiversity across New Zealandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s managed landscapes based on ecosystem modelling and spatial design. NZ Journal of Ecology 30(1): 131-146

sedimentation in slower moving sections of the stream,

degrading the environment for aquatic life. More street trees and vegetation

To improve the ecological health and viability of the Tamaki estuary and its waterways, the stormwater and the streams and systems it flows through must be better treated, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s quality improved and itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s amounts reduced, something that has been known

Waitakere Ranges Habitat

along stream corridors may be a option that could improve this connectivity.

Tamaki Estuary Catchment

for a long time. Options include the restoration of streams, more treatment systems for stormwater and the recharging

Hunua Ranges Habitat

of groundwater through soakage systems. Stream levels can rise rapidly by a factor of meters during heavy rain in areas of low water permeability.

Page 6

Connecting â&#x20AC;&#x153;Bird Reserviorsâ&#x20AC;? The Tamaki Catchment forms a key connection between two large forest Habitats


Case Study

Carbine Creek

Sweetbrook Stream Restoration, Staten Island New York

The restoration of the Sweet Brook Stream on Staten Island illustrates the

pond to slow water upstream. As a result a technical compromise was used,

challenges that renovating an urban stream to state that even resembles the

where the normal base flows would run along a restored above ground stream

original ecological structure and function. Being one of Staten Islands major

bed, while during flood events, the water would be diverted by a flow diverter in

streams, it alternates between open fragments of it’s original course and

the culvert into a series of new storm drains running under the adjacent street.

stretches of underground storm sewers. The Channel was restored by the removal of dumped rubble and accumulated In 1995 it was decided to restore one of the above ground segments as part

sediment (used to fertilise the banks), rebuilding retaining walls and the

of the Staten Island Blue Belt Program (a large scale attempt to infiltrate

reshaping the streamed with native stone. The stream banks were then

stormwater into the ground). This segment runs for 400 m through a stretch of

replanted with a variety of native species, some reintroduced after a long

wooded valley, an open space containing limited housing and Sweetbrook Rd.

absence from the island. Overall this restoration cost a total of US $1.1 million.

and is fed by a completely culverted upstream section, emptying into another culvert.

Carbine Creek, the stream that is the subject of my design is a similarly fragmented waterway, with along sections buried in culverts. The catchment

Restoration was undertaken following a series of damaging floods caused

feeding the stream similarly lacks the room for stormwater treatment and

by the narrower open stretch of stream being unable to cope with the input

retention devices.

of water from the culvert. The ubanised setting of the stream prevented a catchment wide treatment approach with a lack of space for even a retention

Richard Claytor, a principle engineer with the Centre of Catchment Protection stated “Whether such projects are worth the investment is widely debated” (Thomson, J.W. Sorvig, K. 2008), pointing out that while stream restorations in fragmented watersheds are not uncommon, they are less valuable ecologically than a continuous stream. They lack the aquatic exchange of plant and animal species, but may function as an educational facility, aiding the ability of local residents to appreciate the water cycle. Carbine creek differs in that there is an opportunity to restore the stream from the sea along a significant length, bypassing a culverted section and removing the breaks that are so problematic for aquatic life. There also is an opportunity to divert the stream during flood events into the existing tunnel in a manner similar to Sweet Brook Stream.

The restored section of Sweetbrook Stream today, showing it’s urban surroundings and high amount of impervious surfaces.

The restoration process of the stream. Top: Tonnes accumulated sediment is being dug out from the streambed and used to fertilise the stream banks. Bottom: The completed restoration, with natural streambed and lush riparian margins. In the background is the culvert that is the source of this section of the stream, inside of which is the flow diverter for storm events. (Images from “Sustainable Landscape Construction” by William Thomson, J Sorvig, K. Map From Google Maps)

Page 7


Site Analysis Introduction

Based on my Rationale outlined earlier, I felt it was important to find a site within the Mt. Wellington/Otahuhu Industrial area which contained a degraded stream. The Unnamed stream that runs from the Tamaki, under Bowden and Carbine Roads seemed to match my requirements perfectly. My site was therefore defined by the industrial properties fed by Bowden Road, including the cul-de-sac Timaru Place. Within this site are two foci, the streetscape and the stream, chosen for the opportunities they offer to address the problems of poor quality of stormwater, connectivity for native birds, and habitat for native aquatic and terrestrial life. The site itself comprises of an area of 29 Ha. The Catchment which feeds the stream (herein referred to Carbine Creek) contains a large area of Industrial and Residential land use, a portion of Hamlins Hill Regional Park and the large Sylvia Park Shopping Mall and related carparks. Like all city stream catchments this has created issues of high volume stormwater run off.

Page 8


Site Analysis

Carbine Creek

Topography and a Historical Overview

Topography The Topography of the site is flat to gently sloping, ideal land for industrial activity. The only significant slopes on the site are located around the coastal edge where there is a drop of around 5 meters and the Stream, Carbine Creek, where there are some subtle drops and steep retaining walls. The site drains towards the stream corridor or to the tamaki estuary, with a small area to the south east draining into another catchment.

History The Sylvia Park region has been subject to industrial and commercial development since WW2, with the construction of the Mt. Wellington Highway and Sylvia Park Stores Depot by American Forces. By 1956 a number of buildings had appeared on the apparently recent Bowden Road, and since then the sections between them have been progressively in filled with new developments or yards and the older buildings refurbished or replaced with new developments such as Timaru Place. As a result today Bowden Road feeds a diverse mix of building types, sizes and ages. Carbine Creek has been progressively modified over the last half century to cope with the increased flows of floodwaters during storm events as a result of the increased areas of impervious surfaces in the catchment. At some time between 1956 and 1996 a tunnel was built (as indicated by the dashed line) to bypass a section of the stream , which was retained as an overflow. The rest of the stream was placed in a concrete channel. Flood control devices have also been installed below the Bowden Road bridge, and in 2006 a Gross Sediment Trap and Sediment Settling pond was also installed here.

2008

1996

1956

Page 9


Site Analysis

Hydrology and Stormwater System

Carbine Creek is fed by a catchment of 295 Ha in area, 57.5% of which is covered with impervious surfaces, the largest proportion of which being industrial areas. Of this area of impervious surface, 33.8% (or 100 Ha) comprises of roads and paved yards, while 23.9% (or 70 Ha) comprises of the roofs of buildings. As can be seen in the map to the right, the majority of the catchments waterways have been piped or covered as part of council stormwater systems. No sections of Carbine Creek remain in their original course. It runs along a concrete channel from the sea and Weir of the Settlement Pond to the where it disappears into a tunnel at the railway lines, with a brief period in a tunnel within the site. The headwaters of the stream consist of the buried drains of the roaring network, residential areas and the treatment ponds of the southern motorway, which all drain into a stretch of channeled stream that runs alongside Aranui Road. Within the site many drains feed directly into the tunnel, with the overflow channel only providing drainage during floods.

1:10,000

Page 10


Photographic Survey Stream Environment

Carbine Creek

From Carbine Road to the Weir the stream runs through a concrete channel as pictured in 1. For a 300 m stretch this has been covered to form a tunnel. Should the flows become to great for the tunnel, a section of the original stream course has been retained to take any overflow (5), although it was probably filled in with spoil from the tunnel to divert water into the tunnel. After running under Bowden Road the stream encounters a number of flood direction and control measures, devices to direct and slow the water (2). Following these there is a 2 m deep pond formed by a concrete to collect sediment and debris. A Gross Sediment Trap also captures floating debris before it escapes into the sea. The tide reaches up to the weir through a tidal channel (3) and empties into the Tamaki Estuary (4).

Page 11


Site Analysis

Land Use and Zoning

The site has been subject to industrial development since the 1950â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and today is zoned business zone 5 under the Auckland City Council District Plan. This means that it is an area of business whose occupants activities (such as industrial processes that create loud noise, fumes and pose a risk) mean they make for poor neighbours of other land use types such as retail or residential. Because of this, while having to comply with environmental requirements, the level of amenity required from businesses in this zone is less than required elsewhere, due to the difficulties these existing businesses would face in relocation. This zone is provided for general industry and other businesses which do not seek a quality environment and no great amenity will be provided for any office or retail that may occur within the zone. I have conducted a brief statistical analysis of the surrounding area in an effort to anticipate whether this area may be subject

Legend

to pressure to be converted to other land use types, such as

Coast

commercial or residential. The site is surrounded by regions of

km_radius

Legend

Roads_cl

mid to low population density (0-27 people per Ha).

Coast km_radius Roads_cl

No_Qual_12

Following this I have determined that because of a general shortage of industrial land in Auckland and this areas prime location for transport and a local workforce (the level of education and income points to a population suited to the current manufacturing and distribution work), it will probably remain in industrial use for the foreseeable future. This means that any improvements made on the site must be designed around the functional requirements of an industrial area and the fact there is little or no money available for improvements.

Page 12

Legend

Individual Education

HS_Qual

No_Qual_12

Uni_Qual

HS_Qual Uni_Qual

Other

Census Earnings Incomes Earningsversus

Level of

Legend

Other

Census Earnings Earnings 0

0

No_Qual_12

No_Qual_12

1 - 20200

1 - 20200

HS_Qual

20201 - 27300

HS_Qual

20201 - 27300

Uni_Qual

27301 - 34900

Uni_Qual

27301 - 34900

Other

Other

Census Earnings Earnings

34901 - 48400 Census_extent

Census Earnings Earnings 0 1 - 20200 20201 - 27300

0

27301 - 34900

1 - 20200

34901 - 48400

20201 - 27300

34901 - 48400 Census_extent

Legend

Legend

Population Density versus Level of Population Density PopDensity Education No_Qual_12 HS_Qual

0-8

9 - 18

Uni_Qual

19 - 27

Other

28 - 41

Coast

42 - 74

Legend No_Qual_12 HS_Qual

Legend Population Density PopDensity 0-8 9 - 18

Uni_Qual

19 - 27

Other

28 - 41

Coast

42 - 74


Photographic Survey Street Environment

Carbine Creek

The street environment of Bowden Road is typical of itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s time, with a narrow road (originally with ditches on either side), foot paths either side and little or no verge for amenity planting. Timaru Place, which runs off Bowden Road has bigger verges (4), being constructed more recently. All amenity planting visible in these photos (3, 2, 1) has been conducted by handful of the owners. A Lunch Bar (5) provides most of the foot traffic on the site, although one industrial owner occupies several properties across the road from each other. At the end of Bowden Road, Trees are used for conversations and smoko breaks as seen in figure 1.

Page 13


Photographic Survey Industrial Sites

The types of industry occurring within the site are very varied. The are precision component manufacturers (3), powder-coaters, warehousing and distributors (1) and limited retail (5) scattered randomly over the site. Timaru Place contains the greatest number of new buildings, all being built or rebuilt since 1996. There still exists a number of more elderly buildings dating from the ‘50’s and ‘60’s (4), however many of these have been or are in the process of being rebuilt (2).

Page 14


Carbine Creek

Design Development Initial concepts

It was thought that a good method of providing a reason to reinstate Carbine Creek would be to include it as part of a walkway along the watercourse to the sea. A coastal walkway has been proposed for the Tamaki Estuary edge, and connecting to this may

Tamaki Estuary

also aide pedestrian and cycling mobility through the local area, connecting the suburbs of Penrose with Sylvia Park and the sea.

The Site

From here initial ideas about the form and structure of the ‘new’ stream were developed. Below is a diagram summarising the functional requirements

Sylvia Park

of the design, accompanied by some initial ideas on how this stream could be recreated.

Hamlins Hill

Proposed Coastal Walkway Water permeable Gabion baskets and other hard landscaping form retaining walls where needed.

Possible Carbine Creek Walkway

Flexible Grasses and upright trees easily allow floodwaters to pass. They also shade the stream, reducing it’s water temperature, providing a degree of water filtration and stabilise the streambanks.

Surrounding Industry

Surrounding Industry

Stream banks allow for a minimum flood depth of 1.5m

Stream width and depth varies to provide different habitat types

Stream width averages 4 m wide. Design is intended to incorporate the current flood water volumes over a greater area.

Rocky stream environment oxygenates and slows stream water, also providing habiat for aquatic life within the stream.

Page 15


Design Development Concepts and workings

It was decided early on that there would be little point in designing this stream to simulate natural systems. Due to limited opportunity to purchase land, there would not be enough space to contain a self sustaining terrestrial ecology. Initial concepts were centred around actually providing a habitat for aquatic life and providing a stop off point and pathway through the Mt Wellington Industrial Area for Migrating Native Birds. It was decided to show clearly that this was a man-made stream, while supporting and encouraging native ecologies. A design driver of Meshing and Colonisation was adopted, taken from the constant process of colonisation by both human activities and naturally occurring plants and species of the landscape (above), resulting in a meshing together of the two. I aimed with this project to further mesh the native ecologies into the public awareness, primary by keeping it in sight.

Page 16

Initial Retaining Wall and Seat Concept


Carbine Creek

A retaining wall that allowed people down to the water, allowed human life to mesh with aquatic more easily was the purpose of these retaining walls. The Drawings to the left illustrate ideas on how itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structure would allow this and reflect the design driver. Far Right Top: How the walls could mesh with the landform. Far Right Bottom: An experiment with a meshing pattern. Right Top: The ramps concept sketch. Right Bottom: Experiment to determine the ramps system worked in practice.

New Stream Centre line The Stream will be engineered so that it forms two pools to maintain itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attrac-

need to be dug out 1-2 m. The section illustrates this depth of the stream and

tiveness over the summer months. Between these will run a series of shallow

depth of excavation required.

rapids.

Elevation (m) Scale1?200

In order to match the streams current stream bed level, the recreated stream will

8 6 4 2 0 Distance, Scale 1/500

100

200

300

Page 17


Final Concept

Strategy Part 1- Stream Reconstruction

E

The Final Stage of the strategy involves diverting “Carbine Creek” back into what is believed to be it’s original watercourse, and the construction of a walkway alongside. The design was driven by concepts of meshing and colonisation, noticed on the site where weeds and natural processes colonised the stark unforgiving concrete lined stream and hard surfaces of the site, meshing with human activity.

N

1.

Two cataracts allow for pools to form in the stream, providing habitat for Aquatic life and visual interest for the human users of the design.

B

Floodwater can overflow into the existing tunnel here.

C

Two efficient truss bridges carry the walkway across the stream.

D

Between Carbine Road and the diversion point the concrete stream bed will be replaced with a boulder lined creek bed.

E

E’

Road

u Timar

A

Place

1:1000

e Carbin

A

F

C

D

B

D’

C

e Road

Carbin

C

F

E

G

A A’

B

F B’

A

C’

A fish ladder at the settlement ponds weir and the forming of a deeper water channel along the remaining concrete stream bed to makes it more traversable for aquatic life.

F

Retaining walls formed by a series of interlocking ramps, allowing for easy access to the water level. Constructed from gabion baskets they allow water to pass through and allow plants to colonise them over time. They are also cheap to construct.

G

The Stream banks are planted with a variety of tall trunk native trees, grasses and shrubs able to cope with seasonal floods.

Page 18


E

u Timar

Carbine Creek Eâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Place

E.

Left: Crucial to the success of the design is the fish ladder and channel. Currently the weir provides and impenetrable barrier to the movement of aquatic life. It and the settlement pond may be retained and allow mobility of fish with a fish ladder (below), which bridges the fall of the weir. Cutting a channel into the concrete steam bed is also crucial as it provides a depth of water that is actually navigable by aquatic life.

F.

C

Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

C

Right: The stream bank profile has been modelled on others seen around Auckland, such as the Whau Stream below right. This design has been in-

A

fluenced by them, however it seeks to solve some of the problems the engi-

Câ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

neered profiles create. The retaining walls provide access to the stream while

eR

Carbin

B

supporting the stream bank, the stream bed is natural stone, not smooth cast concrete and the stream edges are planted to provide shade and stability.

Page 19


Final Concept

Strategy Part 1-Stream Reconstruction

F.

On the bend of the new Carbine Creek, retaining walls will be required to prevent erosion and direct the stormwater. For ease of construction, flexibility and low expense Gabion Baskets will form these retaining walls. Held in place by their massive weight, their wire mesh construction allows them to flex and hold the bank, even if erosion occurs. They are also commonly colonised over time by grasses and other plants, eventually becoming a stable part of the stream bank. Needing a stable footing, it is assumed at this stage that the excavations required for the stream will reveal the necessary base rock for the Gabion Baskets Foundations In order to further encourage people to mesh with the stream and the greater ecologies it represents, the retaining walls will be constructed as to ramp gradually down to the streams water level, the ramps being constructed from cut down Gabions mounted on top of traditionally laid baskets. Gabions decked with wood will also form the seating on the site.

B-B’

C-C’

8

8

6

6

6

4

4

4

2 0

Page 20

2 0

Elevation (m)

8

Elevation (m)

Elevation (m)

A-A’ 1:200

2 0


Carbine Creek

D.

Restricted dimensions and buildings located very close to the stream corridor dictate that the concrete retaining walls must remain along the stretch of stream between Carbine Road and the diversion point. Stream Bed however could be subject to a vast improvement, with the removal of the impervious concrete lining and replacement with a bed that is more natural in structure. It is hoped that the replacement rocky stream bed formed from local quarried rock and boulders will create a greater diversity in habitats for aquatic life and slow the flow of flood waters. This rocky bed could be inter-planted with various stream edge carex species to provide visual interest and help to stabilise itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s channel.

E-Eâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

8 6 Elevation (m)

D-Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

4 2 0 Page 21


Final Concept

Strategy Part 2-Street Environment

2.

The completion of stage 1 could be used a driver to improve on the street environment of Bowden Road and Timaru Place. Functionality dictates that the road width and car parking must remain, however the replacement of one footpath with a swale or rain garden treatment device is achievable due to the low foot traffic on the site, and relative ease of crossing the road.

A

Additional street trees to supplement those already planted by council and those industries who are aware of amenity could also help to soften the area and improve the connectivity across the isthmus for native birds.

B

C

Image: Copyright Firth

A.

B.

C.

Street trees will be planted on the side of the street opposite to the major utilities, where space allows and with consultation of adjacent land owners. Native Trees such as Titoki, Totara and Puriri would ensure an attractive look as well a food supply for native species.

Permeable Paving could help divert stormwater into the ground, recharging groundwater supplies and reducing volumes of stormwater. Careful installation so that it slopes away from the road could help to prevent any contamination of the ground should a spill occur on the road.

Swales and Rain Gardens will filter rainwater run off from paved areas, removing sediment and some contaminants. Depending on their design the will allow soakage into the ground or drain into a stormwater system. An overflow is provided for flood events.

Page 22


Final Concept

Carbine Creek

Strategy Part 3-Private Property

3.

A

Following Stage 1 and 2, it is hoped that the businesses of the site will be persuaded to install a means of stormwater treatment. There are many solutions available for industry to improve the quality of itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s storm water. Although some solutions such as permeable paving are inappropriate, others solutions could used successfully.

B

As the installation of these devices is a significant investment for the private owner, a carrot and stick method may work best, with a form of storm water treatment required whenever a building or site is refurbished and a possible rates reduction incentive for the treatment and maximisation of stormwater run off in industrial areas like these.

C

A.

B.

C.

Green roofs slow and minimise stormwater run off by storing in the soil and then evaporating it through the transpiration process of the plants living on it. Green Roofs also provide insulation benefits.

Water tanks store rainwater for the use of the landowner and delay itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s infiltration into the stormwater system, reducing flood surges. Modular systems such as the one picture can reduce the space required for them. They may overflow into a sand filter and then into the ground water or stormwater system.

Swales and Rain Gardens will filter rainwater run off from paved areas, removing sediment and some contaminants. Depending on their design the will allow soakage into the ground or drain into a stormwater system. An overflow is provided for flood events. Page 23


Carbine Creek Strategy Planting Plan

Overview

Planting Zone Schedules

This Planting Plan has been generated for the most complex section of Stage One of my design, a bend in the stream. Five planting mixes were required for three major zones contained within this space. Views of the stream and path were important to maintain for safety and to keep the stream in the public eye. The first zone is the stream edge, a corridor of land beside the stream that will see regular floods. Mixes are SLM, HLM and TZM, three mixes chosen to convey the character of the area of the design they are in and reflect the design driver of meshing. Plants chosen for this mix are able to lie flat against the ground letting water pass over them, preventing erosion by slowing the waters scouring effect. Cabbage Trees will survive floods because of their tall trunks. The second zone is the upper stream banks. Low growing Coastal Flax and Toetoe will stabilise the streams banks. Flax on stream banks can actually

CodeLandscape Botanical Stream Common Spacing Height % of Soft Edge Mix (SLM)

PB Size

Total

Name Name Code Botanical Common Spacing 0.5m ctrs Small Carex CV Planting Zonevirgata Schedules Name Name Swamp

Mix % of 30 Mix

PB Size

Total

30 60

3 8

75 45

% 60 of 10 Mix

PB 8 Size

Total 45

30 10

3 3

75 6

60

8

45

australis Name

connectivity in the region and provide food for passing birds.

Steam Bank Mix (SBaM) Code Botanical Name PC

CF

Phormium cookanium subsp. hookeri Cortaderia fulvida

Page 24

Common Spacing Name Coastal Flax Toetoe

Height

1m ctrs clumped

1.5 m

1m ctrs clumped

1.5 m

% of Mix

PB Size

65

8

Total

Tree Name

3PB

Size

8

Common Spacing Name

Height

% of Mix

PB Size

Total

Code Botanical Phormium PC Name cookanium

Common Spacing 1m ctrs clumped Name Coastal

Height 1.5 m

% of 40 Mix

PB 8 Size

Total 90

1m ctrs clumped 1.5m

1.5 m 2m

40 5

8 28

90 3

subsp. Phormium hookeri cookanium Sophora subsp. prostrata hookeri Sophora Hebe stricta prostrata

Flax

Dwarf Koromiro Kowhai

1.5m 1m clumped

2m 1-2 m

5 30

28 12

3 67

HS CR

Hebe stricta Coprosma robusta

Karamu Koromiro

1m clumped

1-2 5 mm

30 15

12

67 34

6Total

CR CA

Coprosma Cordyline robusta australis

Karamu Cabbage Tree

1 m ctrs clumped

5 8m

15 5

12 8

34 11

PC SP

6

SP HS

CA CD

Cordyline Rhopalostylis australis sapida

Cabbage Nikau Tree

1 mctrs ctrs 1m clumped

8 5m

5

8 18

11

0.5m ctrs 1m Carex CL Hard Carex dissita Stream Flat LeavedEdge 0.5m Mix ctrs (HLM) 1m CD Landscape Ruatahi lessonia

60 40

3 3

105 70

CD

Rhopalostylis

Nikau

1m ctrs

5m

5

18

11

Code Botanical Carex dissita CD Name

% 40 of Mix

PB 3 Size

Total 70

60

3

105

Height 1m

3

105

1m

Mix 40

3

70

sapida Note: -Plants notes to be clumped are toclumped be arranged in groups of 3 or more, interspersed with the other plants. -Hebe stricta is an attractor of insects Note: -Plants notes toproduces be clumped are to be arranged groups -Coprosma Robusta copious amounts of fruitinfor birds.of 3 or more, interspersed with the other plants.and Rhopalostylis sapida to be clumped in threes or more within other -Cordyline australis -Hebe strictabut is no an closer attractor of 3 insects vegetation, than m to eachother. -Coprosma Robusta produces copious amounts of fruit for birds. -Cordyline australis and Rhopalostylis sapida to be clumped in threes or more within other vegetation, but no closer than 3 m to eachother.

Height

% of 30 Mix

PB Size

Total

Specimen Trees and Plants

0.5m ctrs (TZM) 1m Carex Zone Stream Edge CL Transition Carex dissita Flat Leaved 0.5mMix ctrs 1m CD Ruatahi lessonia

30 20

3 3

26

Specimen Plants NameTrees andName

Code Botanical Carex dissita CD Carex virgata CV Name

% 20 of 15 Mix

PB 3 Size

Total

3

5 9

3 3 8

Sedge

clumped

Common Flat Leaved Spacing 0.5m ctrs Name Sedge clumped

Height 1m

Transition Zone Stream Edge Mix (TZM) Carex lessonia

0.5m ctrs

1m

Ruatahi

Code Botanical Common Spacing Height % of Transition Zone Stream Edge Mix (TZM) Name Flat Leaved Sedge Common Name Ruatahi Sedge

0.5m ctrs clumped Spacing 0.5m ctrs

1m

3

Total 26

Code

Botanical

Common

Spacing

Height

PB Size

Total

Notes

Code

CU

Botanical Cyperus Name ustulatus

Spacing 1 m ctrs

Height 1.5 m

PB 3 Size

Total 12

26 5 26

CU PT

Cyperus Podocarpus ustulatus totara

Common Giant Name umbrella sedge Giant Totara umbrella sedge

1 m ctrs 9m

1.5 m 10 m

3 95

12 1

3 8 3

26 93

PT AE

Podocarpus Alectryon totara excelsus

Totara Titoki

9 6m

10 8 mm

95

1 2

3 3

5 3

AE

Titoki

6m

8m

95

2

VL

Alectryon excelsus Vitex luciens

Puriri

6m

10 m

95

3

VL

Vitex luciens

Puriri

6m

10 m

95

3

ST

Sophora tetraptera

4m

8m

18

1

ST

Sophora tetraptera

Large Leaved Kowhai Large Leaved Kowhai

4m

8m

18

1

Notes Sharp edged leaves make this ideal for control of Sharp people.edged leaves make this ideal for control of people. For use as a specimen tree for Public Amenity. For use as a for Provides food specimen tree for birds Public Amenity. Specimen Tree, Provides foodand for fast growing birds year round food Specimen Tree, resource for fast growing native birds and year food Largeround Abundance resource of Flowersforin native Spring birds Large Abundance of Flowers in Spring

clumped

Common Flat Leaved Spacing 0.5m ctrs 0.5m ctrs Small Name Sedge clumped

Height 1m 0.8m

9

Swamp Sedge 0.5m ctrs ctrs 1m 30 0.5m 0.8m 15 Small Purei 0.5m ctrs 1m 30 Ruatahi Swamp Sedge Carex Flat 1m 20 CD Carex dissita secta PureiLeaved 0.5m 0.5m ctrs ctrs 1m 30 CS Cordyline Cabbage n/a 8 5 Sedge clumped CA australis Tree 0.5m 0.8m 15 Carex virgata Small CV Cordyline Cabbage n/a ctrs 8 5 CA Swamp australis Tree Sedge Note: Species of the Hard mix are to gradually intersperse secta Pureitransition 0.5m ctrs 1m two. 30 CS soft mixCarex to form a gentle between the Carex Carex virgata Carex secta lessonia

PB Size

with those of the 8

26

Note: Species of the Hard mix are to gradually intersperse with those of the soft to form a gentle transitionn/abetween the Cabbage 8 two. 5 3 3 CA mixCordyline australis

Tree

2

4

Coastal Dwarf Flax Kowhai

Total

Common Spacing 0.5m ctrs Name Ruatahi

Note: Species of the Hard mix are to gradually intersperse with those of the soft mix to form a gentle transition between the two. 35

Code Botanical Name

PB Size

CL CV CS

many chosen for their visual form or shade. They are also intended to aide

3

75

Site Boundary Mix (SBM)

Mix % of 60 Mix

Code Botanical Carex CL Name lessonia

Name Carex dissita CD Code Botanical Carex CL Name lessonia

Specimen trees have been chosen for their value to the amenity of the design,

3

Cordyline n/a 8Height 10 Code Landscape Botanical Cabbage CommonEdge Spacing % of CA Hard Stream Mix (HLM)

placed above the anticipated level of flooding.

birds and insects, while maintaining view into the site or privacy where needed.

0.8m

Hard Landscape Stream Edge Mix (HLM)

CL

of types of medium to large plants, picked to provide food resources for native

Height

Sedge 0.5mMix ctrs 0.8m Small Carex virgata Stream CV Soft Edge Carex secta Purei 0.5m ctrs (SLM) 1m CS Landscape Swamp Sedge Code Botanical Common Spacing Height Carex secta Purei 0.5m ctrs 1m CS Cordyline Cabbage n/a 8 CA Name Name australis Tree 0.5m 0.8m Carex virgata Small CV Cordyline Cabbage n/a ctrs 8 CA Swamp australis Tree Sedge Carex secta Purei 0.5m ctrs 1m CS

aide erosion due to their resistance to flood waters, which is why it has been

The thrid zone is the boundary, with the planting here comprising of a number

Site Boundary Mix (SBM)

Planting Zone Schedules Soft Landscape Stream Edge Mix (SLM)


Carbine Creek

AE SBM Mix

VL

SBaM Mix

VL Grass

AE

PT

SLM Mix

12 CU

VL

HLM Mix

Job Title

#Project Name For

#Client At

#Street #City N #CAD Technician Checked #Architect Creation Date 09/06/2010 TZM Mix 3/11/11 Plot Date Drawn

e

u Plac

e Road

Timar

E’

C

D’

C

A’

C’ B

e Road

Carbin

A

B’

Carbin

E

ST

Drawing Title

planting plan Drawing Number

102

Scale

N

1:200

1:200

ALL DIMENSIONS TO BE VERIFIED ON SITE

Page 25


MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY MT WELLINGTON DI HUANG

What is the issue? Population growth and household formation are the key issues that will drive Aucklandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s demand for housing in the foreseeable future. Approximately 330,000 additional dwellings will be required by 2040. Therefore, this issue of course will be effect the growth of Tamaki edge and need to find out more spaces to accommodate people. Brownfields will be a target of intensification of housing and further implications regarding to ecological landform. Industrial along the estuary pours material into stormwater system, finally to the estuary. Pollution activities are associate with wide range of indusial and pollutant types. However, I think industrial should not be located along estuary.

According to USPA, brownfields are real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant. Brownfields has received increasing attentions in many countries. It is considered a sustainable land use strategy as it provides an opportunity for restraining urban sprawl by accommodating urban development activities that would otherwise occur in greenfields. Furthermore, councils have started to realize that these brownfield sites provide an alternative land use supply and thus a more sustainable way to preserve land resources. The conversion of industrial site will result in an increase in property values for nearby property owners as well provide more open space for residents.

Scale 1:50,000


MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Content

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Legend

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Sylvia Park Study Area Railway State highway

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Site Analysis of Study Area

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Site Analysis of Water Edge

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Site Design

4

Perspectives

5

Planting Plan


MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Site Context

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MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Site Analysis: Zoning & Road Systems

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1:15,000

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Sylvia Park Railway State highway

Isthmus_zoning

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Sylvia Park

Business

Railway

Open Space

State highway

Residential Special Purpose

building outline Road systems


MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Site Analysis: Evevation & Slope Degree

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1:15,000

Sylvia Park Railway State highway

Elevation 107 - 134

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Sylvia Park Railway State highway Slope Degree

80 - 107

0-5

53 - 80

5-8

26 - 53

8 - 15

-1 - 26

15 - 81


MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Site Analysis: Hydrology & Aspect

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Sylvia Park Railway State highway Flat (-1) North (0-22.5)

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Sylvia Park Railway State highway Stream Flow Direction

Northeast (22.5-67.5) East (67.5-112.5) Southeast (112.5-157.5) South (157.5-202.5) Southwest (202.5-247.5) West (247.5-292.5) Northwest (292.5-337.5) North (337.5-360)


MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Site Analysis: Hydrology & Aspect

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Sylvia Park Railway State highway viewshed3 viewshed2 viewshed1

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Sylvia Park Railway State highway

Mangrove

LCDB Broadleaved Indigenous

Mixed Exotic Shrubland

Indigenous Forest

Open Space


MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Site Analysis of Water Edge

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1:5,000

Legend

Sylvia Park

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Railway

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1:5,000

Sylvia Park

State highway

Railway

Open Space

State highway

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Sylvia Park State highway

0.5m contour

Contour

Stormwater Drain

Railway

Open Space

Open Space

1:5,000

Stormwater

Open Space

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MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Site Analysis of Water Edge

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Sylvia Park Railway State highway 0-5 5-8 8 - 15 15 - 81 Open Space Flow Direction

Slopes

Water Depth Charts

Composite Analysis


MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Site Analysis of Water Edge

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Contaminated levels Highly polluted area in red; less polluted areas in pink

Proposed building area Proposed building location Proposed linkage to existing open space

Phytoremediation zone


MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Site Design: Plan

Boardwalk (public)

Vegetation buffer zone Private garden

open space (community shared)

Viewing platform

Refer to planting plan 1, Chapter 5

Carpark

Refer to planting plan 2, Chapter 5

Marina (private)

Phytoremediation zone

Scale 1:2000

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MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Site Design: Circulations

Secondary Double-storey terrace house Single-storey terrace house

Buildings

Public

Primary

Private

Open Space

Internal External

Vehicular Circulation

Predstrain Circulation

Opportunities There is currently no large scale residential project in Mt. Wellington South, this may indicates the lack of competitive advantage of community life in terms of supporting facilities, range of recreation and accessibility. The site was suffering from various degree of pollution due to industrial contamination, therefore rehabilitate the damaged natural environment, restore while transforming a former polluted site into an ecologically healthy and aesthetically attractive landscape for wild life and local residents will be significant.

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MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Site Design: Sections 1

2

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Communal space

Public space

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Section AA

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MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Site Design: Sections

Private space

Public space

Communal space

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Public space

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Section BB

1:200

Section CC

1:500

Private marina

Bush continuing

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MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Site Design: Case Studies Latitude 37, Auckland Viaduct Harbour, Auckland 0.42 Ha, 150 dwellings (approximately). DPH: 357 Plot Ratio: 0.71:1

Discovery Bay, Hong Kong 649 Ha, one of the largest resort-style residential developments in HK. Lowest plot ratio in HK with wide selection of high-rise, low-rise and garden house with different unit mix. Plot Ratio: 0.18:1

Norman Reach, Brisbane Foreshore, Brisbane River. 0.87 Ha, 36 dwellings (9 river homes, 20 apartments, 4 villas, 3 penthouses and private marina). DPH: 41 Plot Ratio: 0.5:1

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MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Perspectives

Design Principles

Total Development Area 9.6ha

Promote ecological sustainability; shore planting protects from erosion.

Open space â&#x20AC;˘ Private 3.3 ha 35% â&#x20AC;˘ Public 5.4ha 57%

Encourage the planting of native vegetation in residential environment to private food habitat for native wild life. Promote privacy and security within community.

Residential 0.9ha 8%

Maximise access to the river edge.

Site Plot Ratio Design pedestrian circulation based on the accessing the waterfront.

0.9/3.3=0.27

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MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Perspectives

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MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Perspectives

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MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Planting Plan 1

PC

ME

PG

CR

AO

AC RS DF CA

AS BF FN

Scale 1:200

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MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Plant List

Planting Plan 1 Code AC AS AO BF CA CR DF FN PC PG ME

Botanical Name Astelia chathamica Apodasmia similis Asplenium oblongifolium Bolboschoenus flunatus Cordyline australis Coprosma robusta Dicksonia fibrosa Ficinia nodosa Pittosporum crassifolium Phormium â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Green Dwarfâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Metrosideros excelsa

Common Name silver spear oioi shining spleenwort marsh club rush cabbage tree karamu wheki knobby club rush karo flax pohutukawa

RS

Rhopalostylis sapida

nikau

Spacing 2.5m 1m 0.7m 1.2m 2.5m 2.5m 2.5m 1m 3.5m 1m 7.5m

Height 2m 1.2 m 0.7m 1.2 m 4.5m 4.5m 3.5m 1.2 m 5m 1m 11m

PB Size 18 8 5 8 40 18 40 8 40 18 95

2.5m

4.5m

40

Planting Plan 2 Code AF CA PA

Botanical Name Agonis flexuosa Cordyline australis Populus alba

Common Name willow myrtle cabbage tree white poplar

Spacing 5m 2.5m 3m

Height 5m 4.5m 6m

PB Size 95 40 40

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MARINA RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY Future Plan

Long-Term Plan For the future plan, the marina community development will covers the whole industrial site next to Sylvia Park, become a mixed-use emergence city block for urban living, work and play that characteristic of post industrial landscape. The element will successfully combines apartments, townhouse, water villas, restaurants, cafes and function space, with fully accessible and safe 24 hour public open space. After a few years phytoremediation, all the highly contaminant land will return for public to use. Sylvia Park will be a â&#x20AC;&#x153;Hubâ&#x20AC;? for Tamaki River.

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Tamaki River City Project Part 2 of 3  

UNITEC - LAND 7226 - STUDIO 6 Part 2 of 3

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