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Обзор компаний, продающих тягачи в России и странах СНГ: как сделать выбор

Итальянский специалист по наземному обслуживанию представляет современные концепции

Сегодня сотрудникам крайне важно быть в курсе событий в аэропорту



RHI PREVIEW Every issue, Russia Handling International will feature an in-depth report on a critical aspect of ground handling, with a specific focus on The Russian Federation and CIS. Featuring comments from industr y specialists and detailed summaries of available technologies by technical journalists, these special features will provide a definitive guide for our Russian readership who are increasingly choosing to invest in western equipment to ensure compatibility with the modern aircraft now flying to Russia and the CIS. Russia Handling International is delivered to over 2000 key decision makers in Russia and the CIS. This limited English language version of Russia Handling International has been prepared especially for readers who may find forthcoming editorial content in our Russian magazine of interest. The May edition of RHI will be summarised, in English on our website:

RHI Magazine The Stables, Willow Lane, Paddock Wood, Kent, TN12 6PF, United Kingdom Publisher Tim Ornellas +44 1892 839209 Editor Tom Sharrad +44 1892 839213 International Sales Director Alison Woolley +44 1892 839208

Special feature

Snow Clearance

Snow is a fact of life. But what exactly is required to keep an airport running? At the time of writing, snow is falling across the world. Many European countries, along with the United States and China, have seen the heaviest snowfall for 15 years. Russia, too, has had a hard time of it – especially so, for a country that is more than used to a sprinkling of the white stuff. It may be pretty, but snow can be a nightmare for airport management – especially when the airport is unprepared for the quantity that falls. So, just what is required for a successful snow clearance operation? Talk to snow clearance equipment manufacturers and one comment occurs on a regular basis when it comes to the subject of supplying this kind of heavy machinery to Russia. It would appear that those who are buying in Russia are not always sure of all the options which are available – and there are many. Sometimes requests are made along the lines of: “Please quote me for a runway sweeper” or “Let me have the details of your certificated snow clearance equipment.” The critical information to relay to the manufacturer is how often, for how long and in what conditions the equipment is to be used. Will the snow clearance machinery be operating at an airport with a flight frequency of every 15 minutes or so - or is it a case of two flights a day, one in the morning and one in the evening? With this information provided, the manufacturer or supplier can calculate an optimum clearance time for the runway and advise the prospective purchaser accordingly, thereby ensuring

they have the right tools for the job. Certification is of course an entirely different issue. Any equipment used within the Russian Federation must have achieved GOST certification, which is usually a lengthy process.

snow blower can be usefully employed to blow away the resulting mound of snow from the side of the runway. Such equipment, depending on supplier, quantity and any discounts, could total anything from €3-6m: in consequence, snow removal equipment Trends within the Russian purchase is not a matter to Federation take lightly. It is not uncommon to find snow removal equipment Some general sourced directly from the military considerations sector in the Russian Federation. Snow equipment is Often these comprise tractors frequently customised so it’s with bolt-on snowploughs and not simply a case of one size perhaps a few other adjustments fitting all. and modifications. Given that snow clearance This makes sense for a number is now becoming a priority of reasons (the most significant as more and more carriers of which is probably cost) but take an interest in Russia and are they really up to the job? the CIS, the old-fashioned, Diverting snow from the runway manual approach to snow is one thing, but there are limits clearance may be on the to what a snowplough can way out. But actually buying do; to complete the job, more snow equipment isn’t usually specialised equipment is often an overnight decision: 12 required. months may elapse between With the advent of the an enquiry and a sale; then newer, Western aircraft from there may be certification the likes of Boeing and Airbus and on top of that there is the has come more interest in build time, which may take up sourcing the right kind of GSE to four months. Because of for the job. The bigger stations the investment required, GSE are adapting but there are still suppliers don’t usually have many smaller airports that have snow equipment ready built, yet to come to terms with the waiting in their workshops. changing environment. Russia The other aspects to consider is increasingly buying US are maintenance and spares. A equipment at its bigger stations snow machine leads a very hard but it has quantities of German life: it’s used heavily for maybe GSE, too, a fact that is aided three or four months and then by the proximity of the two it’s ignored until the next countries. season. So, deterioration can Back to the GSE ordering: set in. Batteries go dead, the what has to be understood is the greasing may get overlooked numbers of vehicles required for and other small problems a given operation. At an average occur. Then there’s the roller airport the operator could well brush fitting. Brushes do wear employ six to nine vehicles to and have to be replaced. drive along the runway, in a There are basically two sorts staggered line, to effectively of brush in the marketplace: remove snow. After that, a the cassette type and the tube

and ring type. With the cassette type it’s a case of removing the old brush system and slotting in a replacement. This job can be performed in an hour or so. The packed tube, which tends to be favoured by the US, is rather more complicated and can take up to a day to switch. Usually, a spare tube is required. As for the drivers, they often require retraining by the time the next season arrives because they may have lost familiarity with the equipment. It’s critical that the equipment is kept in good working order because any problem could lead to an airport closure – which is a very expensive business. Maintenance, then, is vital. If the GSE is looked after properly, the operator should get 20 or more years’ service out of it. It’s a big investment, yes - but it’s an even bigger cost if the runways aren’t cleared. Supplier perspectives On to the suppliers: JeanClaude Berli of Switzerlandbased Marcel Boschung says that the manufacturer is present in most countries where one finds suitable quantities of snow and ice. This includes Europe, the Americas, Russia, the CIS and China. “We have several machines going into the Russia. As Russia is a large territory, with very different climatic zones, products of all types throughout our range are sold there. “As for selling, when it comes to markets there are no easy ones. Russia has some administrative barriers, which includes that of GOST accreditation. Then there is the question of transportation, which is not that easy. You have to recognise the problems of distance and road condition as well as the possibility of theft. “Our airport sweeper blowers operate in many cases as all-yearround machines since they are multi-purpose and can operate with plough, broom, blower and spreader in the winter time. It’s worth recording that this GSE can be converted to a high speed vacuum sweeper for summer time use, for example; they can also carry other attachments. It’s

important that an efficient cold package is installed and that regular servicing is carried out with these vehicles. “If there is anything that sets our products apart I would say that it is high performance which is due to the GSE’s unique concept and the fact that it is multi-purpose.” Boschung, thus, is keen to provide a variety of equipment when it comes to the snow removal business. One selling point that should be underlined here is that of the multi-purpose face of its GSE: by designing a vehicle that can have uses outside the snowy months brings with it inherent advantages. For example, Boschung can offer equipment with detachable blades and de-icer units: by retaining the sweeper, the GSE may double as a cleaning vehicle in the warmer months of the year through the simple fitting of a collection receptacle. Alternatively, equipment can be fitted out with other accessories, such as grass cutting machinery or maybe a gycol collection device. Part of the uniqueness referred to encompasses the chassis (which is built inhouse and which is modified according to the client’s wish) although the cabin and engine are both outsourced parts of the equation. Other assets of note include the company’s Road Condition and Weather Information System as well as its Fixed Automated Spray Technology application. Anti-icing technology is embraced by Boschung: its Micro-FAST application, for example, has helped clear roads with the minimum of effort. But it’s the multi-purpose design that provides the winning formula. Its Jetbroom model is based on the company’s double (or triple) axle vehicle design; equipped with two engines (one for motive power, the other for operating the ancillaries), the truck generates around 800 horsepower. The blowing system is powered by either one or two vertical turbines: and the blowers can also be positioned on different parts of the truck, according to need.

This particular GSE can therefore clear snow with a plough, brooms and blowers as well as be employed for de-icing runways: in this application it can lay down a variety of materials that can be solid or liquid in composition. A rear suction facility allows the recovery of surplus material and the truck is also equipped with a vacuum sweeper. Boschung firmly believes in a product that is equipped with four wheel drive and the Jetbroom comes wth a 16 speed automatic gearbox for ease of use. CAN-bus equipped it is essentially a high performance vehicle that can fulfil a multitude of rôles. The Snow Booster, a short wheelbase unit also offered by the company, can operate as a snow blower as well as be used for snow loading. The cabin can be raised and lowered by up to 800 millimetres for an impressive field of view and is of spacious and ergonomic design: it provides the driver with a high level of control and visibility of other vehicles whilst working on the ramp. Fitted with four wheel drive and four wheel steering, the vehicle also has a “crabbing” feature for maximum versatility. Insofar as longevity is concerned, a Boschung sweeper should see a couple of decades’ worth of use without any problem. And for any buyer looking to maximise his investment, the comprehensive and many-faceted nature of the product has much to recommend it. The company’s comprehensive range includes vacuum sweepers as well as snow cutters and blowers. An Austrian option? Peter Berger is in the Sales Export division of Austria-based Toni Kahlbacher, a company that dates back to 1949. “A l l equipment is manufactured step-by-step in our Austrian plants in Kitzbühel and Amstetten. Since 1995, we have been EN ISO 9001 certified, and this has resulted in us establishing a zero-defects

philosophy as our goal,” he relates. The company’s airport programme includes snow ploughs for runways and taxiways and the GSE comes with ploughs that range from 4.2 to 6.9 metres in clearing width. Helpfully, accessories like the so-called ECO clearing rail help lower the use of de-icing chemicals. Other useful features of the snow clearance equipment include double ejection chutes for loading residual snow from difficult-to-reach areas when performing normal clearance. Cutter and blowers with extra long chutes for perfect loading when clearing run-up areas are also available; moreover, Kahlbacher makes high speed cutters and blowers for runways and landing strips, which, because of their power output (which is approximately 1,300 horsepower), are able to keep up with the snow clearing vehicle fleet. “At Salzburg, eight vehicles are ready for use on the runways and they are fitted with VAMPIR KL series snow ploughs and air-blast sweepers. As soon as the weather report predicts a critical situation, a squadron of road sweepers and de-icing machines are prepared. This winter, the dual path clearing method was changed to the single path clearing method in order to make the clearing quicker and more cost-effective,” he explains. In the dual path clearing method, each half of the main runway is cleared in two passes; with the single path clearing method, the vehicle squadron uses more vehicles and the group clears a 36 metre wide path in one pass in just ten minutes. Any left over snow is blown to the side by air-blast sweepers. The snowbanks that accumulate on the runway edges are thrown on to the fields with the tried and tested KFS 160 M-Hy machine. Rotary snow blowers have to work under very difficult conditions: they are required to pick up snow conveyed to the middle of the runway by snow

ploughs and runway sweepers and then deposit it beside the edge of the runway or taxi-way. For the operator, an early warning system for black ice continuously monitors both the ground and air temperature with the help of sensors. Based on this data, the runway deicers can then be used in a more environmentally-friendly manner. In terms of the actual clearance operation, Safeway KA runway de-icing fluid is used. However, Peter notes that price increases of around 80% last year have made this winter service considerably more expensive and has increased the need for even more perfect mechanised clearing. The de-icing fluid in question is distributed with either 6,000 or 8,000 litre fluid spreaders. “Typical amortisation periods are 15-20 years, depending on the airport in question. At the end of that period they usually sort the equipment out and start thinking about new, state-of-the-art equipment. Depending on their budgets and conditions, they may keep this GSE for a long time.” The co m p a ny also manufactures the KFS 170 M2, which is a development of the above-mentioned 160 M-Hy. Here, a compact attachment to a winter service truck chassis permits the smallest possible front axle loading, resulting in a wellbalanced vehicle and better all-round manoeuvrability. This application is able to cope with anything from frozen snow to slush and a patented cutting and conveying system means

that piled snow is quickly scooped up and disposed of. The cutter augers are actually powered by planetary gear and their revolution speed can be selected via several steps: this in turn means that the operator can adjust the equipment according to the quantity of work. An ejection chute removes the snow and this can be swivelled through 150º to the right or left, according to need. Helpfully, the blower wheel revolution speed and cutter auger speed can be selected independently. “As we produce snow clearing equipment, so we use our experience also for passenger stairs. Because the GSE is often parked in very cold conditions, we are able to supply additional heating facilities for the cabin, windows and the engine, for example; these can be built in. Also, we offer a modem option for remote diagnostics.” Snow clearance isn’t just about specialised, sophisticated machinery, though: after all, snowploughs can be fitted to trucks if necessary, can’t they? “Usually, snow ploughs can

be adapted to fit every truck, providing the front axle load allows it, which is mostly the case. There are some recommendations, such as all wheel drive, and the operator may need certain requirements, such as an attachment plate and a hydraulic system. “If the application is for use on the roads there are no disadvantages but in airports they use larger snow ploughs, up to 8.5 metres in width: they are obviously heavier and need stronger axles.” Peter adds that a lot of machinery currently operating in Russia and the CIS is over three decades old so new

equipment is, in many cases, overdue. Local agents, he declares, are essential in any sort of business relationship. New models Last year Bucher Schorling introduced a new sweeper to the marketplace. Under the name of P21 CS, the vehicle is more correctly a development of several existing models. Powered by a Mercedes-Benz

engine (one of two elements that are bought in, the other being the hydraulic system), a key feature of the latest model is the possibility of siting a blower before the broom sweeper in order to lessen the likelihood of snow accumulating on the cover of the broom. Considered a more efficient machine because of this fact, the changes haven’t ended there for the P21 CS can now

be driven at speeds of up to 55 kilometres an hour; moreover, the addition of castors on the boom proper provides a higher degree of stability for the driver when clearing snow. Many, if not most of Bucher’s sweepers are custom-built to a certain extent for the client. Bigger or smaller engines are both available and because the company’s marketplace is so diverse, ranging as it does from customers in the US, through Europe and into Asia, so it is important to be able to offer a choice of product. According to the company, a Bucher sweeper should be good for 20 years of work assuming

that maintenance schedules are rigidly followed. That lifespan is based on an annual usage of around 300 hours and an onboard diagnostics system helps with the identification of any shortcomings or problems. Jean-Claude Berli is Sales Director Export. He says that the amortisation period will vary with the exact vehicle : it comes down to frequency of usage and the hours it is employed, as well as the severity of the conditions at the airport. “We have customers with our machines that have clocked up 20,000 working hours and we have machines in the market (such as sweeper blowers) which have been in operation for more than 20 years.” Helpfully, Boschung will tailor the product to its final marketplace. “Depending on where the machine is working, we may recommend cold packages. Standard machines will work to -10ºC. Then we have a cold package which goes to -25ºC and another one that is effective to -45ºC. These might be required in Canada and parts of Russia although northern Sweden and Norway

would also make use of this facility.” These kits basically comprise more resistant hoses and fixings and fluids that are manufactured with a higher concentration of anti-freezing agents. “Ploughs can of course be fitted to trucks for snow removal purposes but they are limited in what they can do. You’ll need a front plate for attachment purposes and you could probably clear away 95% of the snow. However, it’s the last 5% that’s crucial. “With our Jetbroom, that remaining 5%, whether it be slush or water, is brushed up and then blown away by means of an airstream. Our turbine can generate 12 cubic metres of air per second and can blow at speeds of up to 500 kilometres an hour to the side of the runway. Our target is that the ramp and apron behind the sweeper is black and dry. A bolt-on plough will never give you that.” Knowing the market Aebi Schmidt is another well-known player in the snow removal business. Its products have found a ready market in Russia and the CIS, where airports like Vnukovo International have benefited from this technology. Continuity of operations and f light dispatch continuity, along with the reliability of any airport during the autumn and winter periods, are basically decided to a great extent by the organisation and

techniques of snow clearance operations as performed by the airport’s airfield maintenance services. Both speed and quality of snow and icing removal from an airfield are the chief performance factors of this vitally important division at any station. Furthermore, flight safety conditions are a paramount consideration and have to be fully met at all times during snow and ice removal operations. Back in 2006 the airport saw the comprehensive reorganisation and upgrade of the airfield maintenance division. The key component here was the procurement and introduction into service of a quantity of snow and ice removal equipment Manufactured and supplied by Germany-based Schmidt, along with the acquisition of some domestic equipment. All this was specifically tailored to ensure that the snow and ice removal would be handled with maximum efficiency – and performed on time. On the shopping list was a Schmidt SUPRA 4001 snowplough/ blower with a rotorcutterhead; a quartet of Schmidt Jet Sweepers (Type 630); and a Schmidt Compact Jet Sweeper Type 914 SuperP. Field trials of a brand-new sweeper-type snowplough manufactured in Belarus actually commenced in October 2005. This latest addition to the above equipment mix forms the backbone of the operation at Vnukovo International. With the introduction into service of these Schmidt vehicles to augment the operation of the two Boschung snowploughs acquired in 2004, the total fleet

of snow removal and de-icing equipment now comprises seven vehicles: they allow for a 30 metre-wide swathe of runway surface to be swept clean in one pass. This has proved to have an immediate, positive influence on both the speed and quality of snow removal and de-icing operations at the airport. The commissioning of the second MAZ-642208 dumpbody with a CAT-118 trailer and a capacity of 26 tonnes (three times that of the previously used Maz-5551 dump-bodies) as well as of the two all-purpose wheeled K-702-chassis bulldozers, has made possible the clearance from the apron and aircraft stands of sizeable snow bank deposits within days of severe weather events. With a view to decreasing both snow and ice deposit buildup that tends to occur on the apron, taxi-ways and runways and in particular on aircraft stands during severe snowstorms, a number of similar vehicles needs to be added to the existing fleet. In order to ensure a proper level of airfield maintenance at any given time the entire snow clearance fleet is divided into two detachments, one to service the runways and taxi-ways and the other to take care of the ramp, apron, and the adjacent maintenance areas. In this manner the two detachments can be juggled and dispatched to handle a variety of tasks in different locations, anywhere on the airfield as the situation may require. This sort of flexibility also enables a more efficient resource planning and utilisation. Thank s largely to the detachments’ specialisation,

the airport reports that both the quality and speed of these operations have dramatically improved. The introduction into service, trial runs and scheduled operation of new snow-removal equipment has resulted in an average 50% increase in the speed of snowclearance operations at the airport, thereby significantly improving Vnukovo’s ability to remain fully operational during severe weather. This reorganisation of Vnukovo International’s airfield maintenance division is but the first step in its ongoing development to conform with the international standards that apply in the sector. Schmidt also sells de-icing vehicles: recently, three were delivered to Heathrow, comprising two 20,000 litre ASP sprayers and one 8,000 litre application that is actually a combination de-icer in that it can deploy pre-wetted pellets rather than the more traditional grit on roads around the airport. In line with other suppliers who look to make their products multi-purpose, the de-icers are in this instance fitted with a twin disc spreader as well as a dual boom sprayer. Usefully, the vehicle can be mounted on a trailer if required and rows of low pressure nozzles sited at a critical height above the ground mean that the deposits are not blown away by wind action. Aside from pellets other materials, such as calcium magnesium acetate, can be spread. A maximum spraying width for the de-icing fluid is some 24 metres, which is achieved by laterally projecting bars: at Heathrow two types of fluid are

employed, one with a glycol base, the other potassium acetatebased. These are supplied by Univar and Kemira. The Schmidt vehicles make use of the popular Scania chassis. At Heathrow storage facilities have been enhanced and fluid capacity now stands at around 500,000 litres of chemicals. Tests are underway at the UK’s principal airport to see exactly what percentage of the used fluids can be recovered: the station is very much to the fore when it comes to environmental matters. It is hoped that 25% or more might be drawn from the ramp surfaces. Answers from Norway Nor wegian construc tor Overaasen retails its snow removal equipment all over the world: this includes Europe, Antarctica, China, the US and Russia. Siri Fløistad, the company’s Sales Secretary admits that Russia is an interesting market, with many potential customers but notes that doing business there can be hampered by finance, its border customs - and its national laws. The secret to a smooth-running snow clearance process is really no secret at all. “We have maintenance and service procedures which need to be followed. Daily routines include checking the oil level, coolant level, filter indicator, air system, tyres and brush pattern. The annual service will include changing different types of oils, filters, coolant and the batteries. Lubrication and a check of the entire sweeper is important and operators should follow service procedures after the first 50 hours of use. Each sweeper is delivered with a maintenance

manual and our sweepers are built for operation under tough winter conditions, year after year. Overall, we’d expect 15-20 years of operation from our units. “If anything sets our equipment apart, it’s performance and reliability. We supply a quality range, based on long experience.” It’s no idle boast: Overaasen sup p li es an ama zin gl y comprehensive range of snow equipment, ranging from the compact to the huge. At the company’s heart is its modular concept, which enables an operator to chop and change, add and subtract, from the basic configuration. Such thought and care are evident throughout the manufacturer’s range of machinery. Overaasen’s proven Modular System 200 is just one example and it provides the basis for all airport snow removal equipment. Unlike most other snow clearing machinery, the manufacturer employs a system which allows the equipment to be quickly detached and interchanged with other Overaasen units to keep up with changing conditions. The Modular System RS 200 consists of four main module groups. From these groups it is possible to build solutions and interchange units to satisfy the various, changing needs of an airport. This modular concept, which has been compared to children’s Lego® bricks, thus offers an operator great flexibility when it comes to dealing with winter weather. After all, we have here a company that can supply products that will enable their user to clear a 3,500 metre long runway in just ten minutes… Add to that mechanical snow clearance through brushes

and a high-powered airstream and you have a system that is not only efficient but one that also reduces the need for chemicals that can be environmentally unfriendly. The company’s jumbo-sized RS 400 runway sweepers, which are equipped with a 5 metre clearing width, mean that an entire runway can be cleared in a single pass. Overaasen has delivered 50 of its special RS units to airports worldwide in recent years, including Munich, Frankfurt, Düsseldorf and Copenhagen, as well as the world’s highest airport, that of Bangda in Tibet. Of all its output, runway sweepers form the most important product group in Overaasen’s current product programme, and will undoubtedly remain a priority area in the future. Like most suppliers, Overaasen has faced great challenges in developing a range of snow blowers that can withstand extreme conditions, including exceedingly heavy snowfalls and hurricanestrength winds. For more than 40 years, research and development has been focused on detachable snow blowers for use on different-sized wheel loaders. And the result? Today it can offer snow blowers and allied equipment with capacities of up to 12,000 tonnes/ hour. Overaasen has also developed high-speed, high-capacity units, which includes the world’s largest wheeled snow blower.

special feature


Are you going green? De-icing: are you going green? On the subject of environmentallyfriendly de-icing fluid, it is worth mentioning some of the developments that are occurring elsewhere. Clariant, one of the leading suppliers of aircraft and runway de-icing and antiicing products in Europe, North America and Asia, can offer a unique de-icer fluid recycling management concept that allows airport authorities to cut their purchasing of new de-icer fluid by up to 70% and reduce waste and energy consumption at the same time.

and ADF production centre. Initially,

Its EcoTain on- and off-site systems

the run-off is collected in suitable

not only allow the aircraft industry to

remote storage facilities, such as basins

remove run-off safely and protect the

or tanks, via drainage from the apron

environment but also permits up to 60%

and de-icing pads and the use of glycol

of the spent fluid to be recouped and re-

recovery vehicles. It is then transported

used. As a result, customers can lower

to concentration units at the centre

their costs and reduce the environmental

where the glycol concentration

impact of their winter operations.

is monitored and an ideal target

Nigel Westlake, the Sales and Marketing

concentration of 35% water and 65%

Manager Aviation at Clariant, comments:

mix of glycol, breakdown products,

“Clariant has been supporting the aviation

dirt and oil and aircraft fuel is achieved.

industry and airport operators worldwide

Mechanical cleaning and purification

with know-how concerning the handling

then follow in which precipitates (oil

recycled glycol of approximately 2m litres

and recycling of de-icing waste water

and aircraft fuel, for example), are

per season.

for nearly 20 years. This, in addition to

removed, and chemical cleaning is

over 40 years’ experience of supplying

carried out for the ready-to-use aircraft


aircraft and runway de- and anti-icing

de-icing fluid concept. Evaporation

airport opted for an off-site system. Its

products, put us in an ideal position to

of excess water and distillation of

combination of on-site pre-concentration

create recycling systems that would bring

the glycol to a final glycol content of

facilities and off-site recycling has

all-round benefits to our customers. Our

approximately 60% makes the recycled

successfully reduced its disposal costs

on-site and off-site systems are tailored to

fluid available for further use.

for used fluid.

In order to incur minimal equipment Zurich


individual airport requirements, meaning

As an example of the success of

Typical Clariant off-site systems include

that customers can take advantage of full

the concept, Munich International

transportation and logistics for pre-

service packages including engineering,

airport has been using Clariant’s on-

treated waste waters, with recycling at

installation, commissioning, management

site recycling and ADF production

Clariant’s plant in Gendorf, Germany. In

and operation, depending on their needs.”

and management services since 1992.

the off-site system, the recycled glycol is

Actual equipment investment to create

As a result, the airport operator has

used in a variety of industrial applications

a recycling management system will be

achieved a major reduction in disposal

in addition to the remanufacture of de-

reflected in the chosen option for each

costs for used fluid of approximately

icing fluid.


€1m per season, an approximate 60-

As one of the world leaders in de-icing

70% per season reduction of externally

fluid production, Kilfrost has had a busy

On-site support

purchased aircraft type I de-icing fluid,

winter season. Knowing what governs

Clariant’s on-site recycling system

and on-site production of Clariant’s

the incidence and formation of ice in the

requires a dedicated recycling process

Safewing type I premix based on

first place is seen as key to its control, as

Dr Foster Ross, Chief Technical Officer at

of between 22-33%, both on the ground

ing times. Type IV fluids offer extended

Kilfrost, explains here for the benefit of

and in the air. Combine this loss of lift

holdover times, excellent aerodynamic

readers of Russia Handling International.

with other factors, such as an aircraft’s

flow-off properties and good dry out

load and the length of a runway, and it

characteristics, as well good shear and

When does ice form?

becomes much clearer why we see so

storage stability. For ease of recognition

“Generally, the heaviest ice forms close

many avoidable accidents every year.”

these fluids are coloured green.

to 0ºC because the water content in the air is at its highest: as the temperature drops further the air actually becomes

“All of the fluid types are designed What is the best way to de-ice an aircraft?

with a low immediate viscosity, and when applied to frozen deposits, they melt

increasingly drier, and so produces less

“We need to remove the rough

and dissolve the ice which then drains

ice. Commercial aircraft fly at high enough

surface and leave the wings, particularly

away. With Type II and Type IV fluids, a

altitudes above the cloud base to not

the leading edges, as clean as possible.

small amount does remain on the wings;

be troubled by ice in-flight, but during

There are various methods of de-icing

however, as the aircraft takes off, this

take-off and landing, exposed surfaces

but it’s most common for an aircraft

shears completely away to leave the wing

are at risk of ice and frost accumulation.

to be sprayed, and a number of fluids

clean and smooth.”

It’s also when the aircraft is actually on

are available. De-icing fluids typically

the ground that it is at most danger from

consist of glycol and water mixtures that

winter conditions. Many people fail to

are heated in advance and applied hot.

“Type II or Type IV fluids provide an

realise that even a small amount of ice

The heat melts the ice while the residual

ongoing anti-icing protection, with each

build-up can substantially degrade an

glycol prevents re-freezing. The degree of

type of fluid and each brand having its

aircraft’s performance.”

protection against re-freezing depends

own guaranteed level of protection,

on the type of liquid that is applied.”

which can be easily reviewed using a

How should an operator check an aircraft for ice deposits?

Holdover Chart. The performance of What type of de- and anti-icing

“Initial safety checks are vitally

How do anti-icing fluids work?

fluids are available?

these fluids is manipulated by modifying their rheology profile, which allows the

important, and particular attention

“There are three core families of

fluid to effectively “stick” to the wing and

should be paid to critical surfaces like the

fluids: Type I, Type II and Type IV, and

provide an anti-icing capability, but then

aircraft’s flying wing, especially its leading

they differ according to their function

to also flow off the wing surface on the

edge, as this is where the majority of the

and the holdover, or ongoing anti-icing

take-off run to leave the aerodynamic

lift is produced. Visually check for ice

protection they provide.

integrity of the aircraft intact. Essentially,

deposits, but if you can, run a finger over

“Type I fluids primarily de-ice and don’t

the fluids remain viscous to allow them

to feel for any change to the smoothness

offer any significant holdover protection,

to cling to the wing until the aircraft

of the wing edge. Most airports and major

so are often used as part of a two step, de-

accelerates to a speed which creates

airlines will have their own operating

icing/ anti-icing procedure. A range of this

enough airflow to act a shearing force on

guidelines, and where these differ we

type of fluid is available – Kilfrost offers

the fluid. This destroys the viscosity of the

would always advise to err on the side of

DF Plus, for example – and they are all

fluid and allows it to run cleanly off the

caution and if in doubt, treat the aircraft’s

coloured orange for ease of recognition,

aircraft surfaces.

exposed surfaces.”

offer ease of application with minimal

“It’s absolutely imperative that the

foaming, and have a pH around 8.5 to 9.5.

right level of protection is provided, so

Why is ice so dangerous?

Type I fluids are always applied diluted

for larger airports, or those where the

“If the leading edge becomes

and heated.

time between the fluid being sprayed

contaminated with ice, this has been

“Type II fluids can be used for de-icing

and the aircraft actually taking off can be

shown to substantially reduce the

purposes, but unlike Type I fluids, they

measured in the tens of minutes or even

effectiveness of lift. Contrary to some

also offer extended anti-icing holdover

the hour or more, anti-icing via a Type II

thought, it’s not only the weight of the

protection and can be used in a variety

or Type IV is normally used.

ice which causes issues but also the

of ways. We offer ABC-3, which boasts

“Aircraft de- and anti-icing is safety

surface profile. In fact even something

good shear and storage stability, is non-

critical and there really is no reason to

with the surface of the finest emery paper

hazardous and fully biodegradable. Type

take a chance. Ultimately it is the pilot’s

is enough to cause a distortion of the

II fluids are a light straw colour for ease

responsibility to ensure that his or her

aircraft’s aerodynamic properties.

of recognition and have a pH around 7.0.

aircraft is correctly and comprehensively

“Type IV fluids offer maximum anti-

de-iced, and that any fluid applied has


icing holdover protection but can also

sufficient holdover to protect it until it

Washington’s wind tunnel data, particles

be used for de-icing purposes, similar to

reaches altitude. But we all play our part

of frost or ice as fine as a grain of table

Type II fluids. Type IV fluids can be used

in ensuring that the many thousands of

salt and distributed as sparsely as one

in a variety of ways: they are very useful

aircraft worldwide operate safely.”

per square centimetre over an aircraft

at airports which experience severe

wing’s upper surface can cause lift losses

weather conditions and/ or long taxi-

“According Transportation




National Board

special feature

HARD SELL? looking to break into the russian market? RHI talkS technicalities AND TACTICS with Dmitry ochkinas of cavag “Welcome to Moscow. I hope it must be certified. Without that you don’t find the weather certification it simply cannot too cold?” be imported as the certification This was how Dmitry Ochkinas, certificates are required to obtain the Commercial Director of customs clearance.” There is a CAVAG, greeted me. This National Certification system in immediately made me stop and Russia which is not harmonised think. It was minus 21ºC and yet with the EU or the US so that a all the Moscow airports were GOST-R Certificate of Conformity functioning normally, including is mandatory. It is hoped that if and the various items of GSE. I didn’t when Russia joins the World Trade want to imagine how cold it was Organisation this will change and in Siberia and beyond. So, all the that European Declarations or Western GSE I similar standards had seen at the “Before we can even such as “CE” will airport seemed offer our customers be taken into quite at home imported equipment account in the here - but not certification it must be certified. necessarily Without certification procedure, but straight out of it is unlikely it simply cannot be the box. imported as it is one of that this will I had come to the legal requirements s u b s t i t u t e Moscow to meet GOST in obtaining customs t h e with the largest certification. clearance.” distributor Needless to say, Dmitry Ochkinas of imported this does present ground handling a natural import and airport equipment in Russia barrier to many companies that and, as the company celebrates otherwise would be interested ten successful years in the business in entering the Russian market. in 2010, clearly it must know what This is where CAVAG scores, it is doing. because will oversee the entire certification process and look CAVAG is a privately-owned after the manufacturer, all the company with its operational way through this lengthy process. headquarters in Moscow but To achieve the GOST certification with international offices in there are basically three stages. Frankfurt and the US, which gives The first involves the approval of the company good access to the ministry of aviation which is international finance resources. then followed by stage two, the Currently, the company quality and safety approval. Finally represents more than ten comes the third stage, that of a leading international equipment suitability approval. manufacturers (see footnote) but it is not only a matter of just making a A long process sale and delivering the equipment. Dmitry explains further. “Within Dmitry explained to me the rather reason, stages one and three are long and complicated process normally straightforward but involved. it is the second stage that takes “Before we can even offer our the longest time to achieve and customers imported equipment involves the greatest expense.

The quality and safety checks are carried out in the manufacturer’s factory, which involves flying over the entire team of inspectors to wherever the manufacturer is based. The process is conducted entirely in Russian so if, for example, the inspections are in the US, full time Russian/ English technical interpreters are needed.” Any manufacturer thinking of selling into the Russian market and reading this will be relieved to learn that CAVAG takes care of all these rather complicated arrangements. So, moving forward six months (yes, it takes at least that long to get the full certification and approval) and considering that the entire process has cost you anything from US$5,000 to US$100,000 (if you are producing new GSE in Russia), at least you are now ready to start selling into the market. Actually, not quite. Each piece of imported equipment must be “Russianised” as Dmitry refers to it. When asked about this procedure, Dmitry explains what is involved. “Actually, it depends from manufacturer to manufacturer and model to model. It may only be the necessary modifications for winter operations but, for example, when it comes to refuelling vehicles or perhaps catering trucks, some local airports insist on a locallymanufactured chassis that they are familiar with from an operational and maintenance viewpoint - so we will take care of this conversion in our specialised workshops here in Moscow.” Dmitry points out that Volvo began manufacturing chassis at its new plant located in Kaluga, 200 kilometres south west of Moscow

at the end of 2009. According to Volvo, the new factory has a capacity of 10,000 Volvo and 5,000 Renault trucks of all types. As I begin to build up the picture of the CAVAG operation I can see it is very different from other GSE agencies I have come across. The commitment starts for the moment that CAVAG agrees to represent a manufacturer and it has to be a long term commitment, given that it will be several months before the equipment is allowed to operate in Russia. The company holds an extensive stock of essential spare parts in its Moscow facility and other original parts that ensure the minimum of downtime. CAVAG’s staff of 15 specialist GSE engineers are all English speaking so that when they are called out they can handle any complex repair problems by direct contact with the manufacturer rather than having to co-ordinate such communication through a third party. This greatly reduces the downtime. These engineers are all factory-trained and this is an essential skill, since customers in the Russian Federation insist on training as part of the deal. This training is certified by CAVAG. The company doesn’t generally get involved in maintenance, since most Russian customers undertake their own but the company has recently started up its own manufacturing facility using local chassis to manufacture trailers, dollies and even some ground power units. Given that the customs clearance tax is 25% plus the prevailing rate of VAT (currently 18%), this approach

offers considerable savings to the end user. Finance options As for finance, CAVAG is able to offer a flexible range of finance and ownership options, ranging from deferred payments (up to 12 months) to more straightforward finance and leasing arrangements that allow the ownership of the equipment to transfer to the airport at the end of the term. The market for used GSE doesn’t seem to exist as airports (and the few independent handlers) insist on new equipment to comply with tight regulations about how long GSE can remain operational on the ramp. It will be interesting to see, as the volumes of imported GSE increase, if this will remain the case or indeed if leasing companies that offer “pay as you use” schemes will come to the market. I asked Dmitry about recent sales. “Actually it has been a good time for us overall and the year ended very well with good sales for Contrac. We sold around 60 new

and used buses for them in the last few years.” Andreas Funk is airport bus manufacturer Contrac’s Managing Director and I asked him for a comment about his relationship with CAVAG. “The contract between both companies for CAVAG to become the dealer for Contrac in Russia and former CIS countries was signed in 2006. Since then, CAVAG has sold about 70 new and secondhand Cobus apron buses. CAVAG ervice engineers have been intensively trained at Contrac facilities to provide local service and Contrac has established a spare parts stock at the CAVAG premises. CAVAG is a very demanding but quite successful partner and we have enjoyed working with them. Besides the business relationship there has been a personal friendship established over the years.” When asked about CAVAG’s strong points, Andreas mentions the company’s ability to finance local projects and the fact that it is now looking into establishing

lease proposals in Russia. “They also have an office in Germany close to Frankfurt which eases cooperation.” Brad Compton is VP, Sales & Marketing at TUG Technologies: he, too, commented on his experience of the supplier. “CAVAG is a large part of TUG Technology’s long term business strategy. They offer distinctive differentiation and are aligned with our focus to deliver value and long term GSE support to all ramp operations within their territory. Within the Russian market TUG has seen considerable success over the years. TUG is proud to be a part of CAVAG and a part of their strong reputation.” Tim Rane from JBT Aerotech, another of CAVAG’s clients had this to add. “We have an excellent working relationship with CAVAG, which is very important when selling complex, high-value capital equipment with multiple configurations into the vast Russian

speaking territories. Trust and good communication is the most essential element of creating widespread success. CAVAG purchases equipment from us on open account; then they will give special purchasing terms to their customers, such as extended payment financing or leasing. For nearly ten years CAVAG has been our exclusive distributor in the Russian speaking territories and we have been delighted with their performance to date. CAVAG have the structure, mentality and JBT-certified skilled staff required to provide excellent after sales service across this huge territory.”

At present, CAVAG represents: AMS / Clariant / Clyde / Contrac Cobus / FFG / GSS / JBT Aerotech / JBT Jetway / Kocoverk / ROHR / Rosenbauer / Schmidt / Stinar / Tesco /TUG Technologies / Zodiak

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May 2010 - RHI Editorial Schedule

•Baltic Outlook Tom Sharrad visits the Baltic States. How has the recession affected the handling market in Latvia and Lithuania and will Riga remain top of the transfer hubs in the region?

•Factory Visit: Contrac Cobus Industries manufacture the most popular airport bus in the world. RHI visits their factory in Portugal to learn a thing or two about German reliability.

•Major Airport Redevelopment Anna Nazarova and Tom Sharrad visit two of Russia’s major airports to gain an insight into their modernisation programmes, planned equipment investment and expansion aims. (Featuring interviews with ground handling directors and senior advisors at Pulkovo and Vnukovo.)

•GSE Suppliers in the Russian Federation and CIS Tim Ornellas speaks to Dmitri Ochkinas of CAVAG about the trials and tribulations of selling equipment to the Russian market and why having an agent might well be the only way forward.

•Snow Clearance and De-icing With temperatures below -25C and a foot of snow on the ground, what does an airport need to continue functioning through a Russian winter? Alwyn Brice provides a comprehensive overview of the options available to the airport.

•Low-cost Carrier Handling Alwyn Brice explores the world of low-cost carrier handling. How does a handler go about trimming down an already lean operation? •Plus all regular updates, including World News / Russia and CIS News / IT News / Contract News / Recent Appointments.

Russia Handling International May Edition - EDITORIAL PREVIEW