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2012 SUPERINTENDENTS’ REGIONAL REPORT RGV LEAD

MISSION STATEMENT: PARTNERING TO ENGAGE STUDENTS IN COLLEGE-ANDCAREER-FOCUSED LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES TO ACHIEVE A HIGHER LEVEL OF COMPETENCE IN THE WORKFORCE.

Prepared by: Dr. Anadelia Gonzales, Special Projects Coordinator & Patricia G. (Pat) Bubb, Executive Director


2012 SUPERINTENDENTS’ REGIONAL REPORT RGV LEAD INTRODUCTION TO THE REPORT Rio Grande Valley Linking Economic and Academic Development (RGV LEAD—formerly Tech Prep of the Rio Grande Valley) facilitates collaboration between employers, community leaders and educators from public schools, colleges and universities to assist students in acquiring the academic and career skillsets necessary for success in higher education, careers, and life. As part of this effort RGV LEAD provides Rio Grande Valley school superintendents with an annual report of their students' and staff’s participation in RGV LEAD programs. RGV LEAD provides each superintendent with a copy of the regional report, presenting information for all districts together, plus an individual report providing only data pertinent to each individual school district.

CONTENT OF THE REPORT IN COMPARISON WITH PRIOR YEARS RGV LEAD’s 2012 regional data report is different from the regional reports shared in 2011 and earlier years in these ways: (1) Historical Tech Prep Student Performance Reports: Most of the Tech Prep data reports included in this regional report are reports provided to this region by a THECB contractor in late 2011. For the 19 years that Tech Prep in Texas was funded with setaside funds under Title II of the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act (and earlier versions of that act), THECB contracted with a college that obtained data from the Texas Education Agency and Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board and then compiled regional and state reports comparing the performance of Tech Prep students with that of their non-Tech Prep peers at regional and state levels. The resulting reports were provided to the regions and also posted on the College Tech Prep of Texas website. Using those reports, it was possible to compare student outcomes by PEIMS code, consortia, and school districts within each consortium. The Tech Prep reports provided to the region in 2011 form the basis of most of the Tech Prep information included in this report. RGV LEAD is in discussions regarding the possibility that data and/or reports might become available through a contract with the Texas Education Research Center housed at the University of Texas at Austin. This center was created by legislative mandate in 2006 as an “independent, non-partisan, and non-profit organization focused on generating data-based solutions for Texas education and workforce demands.”1 The Texas law addresses federal requirements of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act in a manner that gives the Education Research Center access to all Texas data 1

See http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=8067 for additional information regarding Education Research Centers.

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housed at the Texas Education Agency, Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, and Texas Workforce Commission. There would be a cost associated with obtaining data through this source, and the support provided annually by individual school districts for RGV LEAD’s regional operations has made these discussions possible. If current discussions result in a contract with the Education Research Center at UT Austin, new sources of data will be available to RGV LEAD and therefore to the region. In the meantime, this report utilizes Tech Prep data from prior years as well as Tech Prep and non-Tech Prep student data in reports and data sets provided by the Texas Education Agency and the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2) New Tech Prep Student Higher Education Report: One new Tech Prep data report that was utilized for RGV LEAD's 2012 report is a report provided to RGV LEAD in summer 2012 from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board through the courtesy of Dr. MacGregor Stephenson, Assistant Commissioner, Workforce, Academic Affairs, and Research; Dr. Stacey Silverman, Deputy Assistant Commissioner, Workforce, Academic Affairs, and Research; and Dr. Gabriela Borcoman, Senior Program Director, Planning & Accountability. Dr. Borcoman sent reports for 2008, 2009, and 2010 with data sets comparing the performance of Tech Prep (PEIMS 3) students with non-Tech Prep students at regional and state levels. This regional report draws information from the reports shared by Dr. Borcoman for some of the information included in Sections 2 and 3. (3) P-16 Data Sets: In earlier years data reports were provided to RGV LEAD as manager of the Valley’s regional P-16 council (Lower Rio Grande P-16 Council), but that process was discontinued in 2012 because THECB created a data resource accessible online at http://www.txhighereddata.org, and RGV LEAD staff have worked with data available through that source in creating some of the information shared in this regional report. (4) Local Research in Preparation of the 2012 Report: The 2011 regional reports and earlier regional reports were prepared by the Tech Prep Coordinator, who utilized the regional Tech Prep reports and P-16 data sets described above. In April 2012, Tech Prep (now RGV LEAD) eliminated the Tech Prep Coordinator position and assigned the duty of creating regional reports to RGV LEAD’s Special Projects Coordinator, a degreed sociologist, who conducted additional research that is included in this regional report. Some of the research done for the 2012 report that was not done in earlier reports utilizes data available through the website of the Texas Education Agency, as well as information from other, related research studies that are referenced in the 2012 report as appropriate. For the information obtained through the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board and Texas Education Agency, data shared reflects institutional standards for working with data. Due to privacy and other issues, the data sets available through these websites do not provide students' individual characteristics. Because of these data constraints, almost all the analysis completed

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for the regional report use the district as the unit of analysis. When tables and charts in the regional report provide statistics for the region as a whole and individual districts within that region, those rankings are intended as tools for understanding the performance of Rio Grande Valley students and not as comparisons between and among districts.

STRUCTURE OF THE 2012 REGIONAL REPORT This 2012 Regional Report is divided into three sections plus an appendix, as explained below: •

Section One addresses RGV student success rates using percent of students passing all TAKS as the measure of success plus a brief discussion of the effect that being economically disadvantaged and/or Hispanic has on that success rate. Section Two is focused on RGV students’ participation in Tech Prep programs of study and related career-focused programs and the effect that participation has on those success rates. Section Three addresses student transition to post-secondary education including percent enrolling, percent needing remedial courses and failure rates. Some of these statistics are by region and some are by district. The Appendix provides supplemental information described in Sections 1, 2, or 3, plus regional data reports prepared by RGV LEAD staff who have collected that information from partners in school districts.

Superintendents of all districts served by RGV LEAD will receive a copy of the regional report plus an individual report prepared especially for that individual district by RGV LEAD staff. The individual district reports include information such as 2007–2011 College Enrollment by Year, District and Campus; 2011 Graduates Enrollment in Higher Education by College/University; and information about each district’s participation in local RGV LEAD initiatives.

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SECTION ONE REGIONAL HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT SUCCESS USING PERCENT PASSING ALL TAKS AS MEASURE OF SUCCESS High school student success can be defined in several ways including graduation rates, college enrollment rates and performance on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS). This report uses passing rates on the TAKS because that is a major factor that the state of Texas uses as the definition of student success. This analysis of student success indicates that in 2011 Rio Grande Valley school districts with a high percentage of economically disadvantaged students were more likely to also have a lower percent of students who passed all the statemandated tests taken. However, the picture is not as bleak as it could be. Statistics indicate that, in general, Valley educators have had much success in overcoming the obstacles associated with economic deprivation. Table 1 is an alphabetical list of the Rio Grande Valley school districts plus IDEA Public Schools with selected success-related factors that are likely to influence scores on the TAKS. A regression analysis2 of all these factors with percent passing all TAKS as the dependent variable indicated that the only factors that have a statistically significant relationship with TAKS passing rates are the percent of students who are Hispanic and the percent of students who are considered economically disadvantaged. That is, a higher percentage of Hispanic and/or economically disadvantaged students in a district is likely to result in a lower percent of students in that district passing all TAKS taken. A correlation analysis2 also showed that in the Valley the correlation between being Hispanic and being economically disadvantaged is very high; therefore, it is not possible to determine from these data whether there is a separate direct effect of being Hispanic. That is, it is not possible to determine if the lower passing rates are due to just being economically disadvantaged, just being Hispanic or a combination of the two.3 National research shows that minority students are less likely to pass the state-mandated tests.4 The average percent of Hispanic students in Valley districts is 96.7% compared with 50.3% for the state of Texas. Given these facts, it follows that the passing rate for Valley school districts would also be considerably lower than the state.5 National research also indicates that another factor that influences student success is socio-economic status.6 Socio-economic status includes 2

A “regression analysis” is a statistical technique for estimating the relationship among multiple variables. A "correlation analysis" measures the relationship between two items. Statistical significance indicates that the relationship(s) is/are not random or due to chance. 3 Data for Tables 1 and 2, Chart 1, correlation analysis and regression analysis were taken from TEA’s District & Charter Detail Data; 2010-2011 Data (Snapshot 2011) downloaded from http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/perfreport/snapshot/2011/index.html. This data set has 91 data elements for all Texas school districts. 4 Rooks, Nolive M. Why It’s Time to Get Rid of Standardized Tests. Ideas Time. October 11, 2012. http://ideas.time.com/2012/10/11/why-its-time-to-get-rid-of-standardized-tests/; Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Issue Brief: Reading, Mathematics, and Science Achievement of Language-Minority Students in Grade 8. April, 2012. www.nces.ed.gov/pubs2012/2012028.pdf 5 Texas Education Agency. Texas Assessment of Knowledge & Skills – Summary Report 2011-2012 School Year. www.tea.state.tx.us/studentassessment/taks/rpt/sum/. 2012. 6 Hernandez, Donald J. Double Jeopardy: How Third-Grade Reading Skills and Poverty Influence High School Graduation. The Annie E. Casey Foundation. Baltimore, Md. www.ACEF.org. 2012.

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the parents’ income and educational background. In the Valley the percent of students who are considered to be economically disadvantaged due to their parents’ income is much higher than the rest of the state, 84.7% for the Valley and 59.2% for the state. Again, given these numbers, the expectation would be that as a whole the Valley would have a much lower passing rate than the rest of the state. Despite having to deal with barriers that are greater in this Valley than other parts of Texas, Valley educators are helping an increasing number of students to experience success, and participation in Tech Prep programs of study and related college-and-career-focused programs is contributing to that success. Table 1: Alphabetical List of Rio Grande Valley School Districts with Selected Characteristics 2010-2011 District

Total Students

Percent Hispanic

Percent NonHispanic White

Percent Economically Disadvantaged

%

% Pass TAKS All

LEP

Brownsville ISD

49,800

99

1

95.4

33

73

Donna ISD

15,023

100

0

97.0

51

62

5,334

100

0

98.7

38

63

Edinburg CISD

33,066

98

1

85.4

30

74

Harlingen CISD

18,339

90

8

76.9

14

72

Hidalgo ISD

3,435

100

0

88.6

52

63

IDEA Public Schools

6,855

95

3

80.0

20

86

La Feria ISD

3,576

96

3

80.5

14

70

La Joya ISD

28,805

100

0

95.3

47

66

La Villa ISD

634

100

0

89.0

27

60

Lasara ISD

464

97

2

86.4

12

76

Los Fresnos CISD

9,970

96

3

77.1

23

83

Lyford CISD

1,533

97

2

82.9

12

75

McAllen ISD

25,490

93

5

64.9

27

75

Mercedes ISD

5,697

99

1

93.2

29

61

Mission CISD

15,732

99

1

83.3

33

69

Monte Alto ISD

947

98

2

93.0

35

69

Pharr-San JuanAlamo ISD

31,424

99

1

87.8

41

65

Point Isabel ISD

2,532

91

8

90.3

34

71

Progreso ISD

2,224

99

1

65.1

58

67

Raymondville ISD

2,265

98

1

93.9

9

52

Edcouch-Elsa ISD

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District

Total Students

Percent Hispanic

Percent NonHispanic White

Percent Economically Disadvantaged

%

% Pass TAKS All

LEP

Rio Grande City CISD

10,755

100

0

96.0

58

79

Rio Hondo ISD

2,299

97

2

84.7

16

63

Roma ISD

6,625

100

0

92.4

66

72

11,351

99

1

81.8

24

70

San Isidro ISD

272

98

2

78.7

20

84

San Perlita ISD

287

84

15

71.1

11

79

Santa Maria ISD

712

100

0

95.2

44

50

Santa Rosa ISD

1,170

99

1

95.2

15

66

Sharyland ISD

9,953

90

6

55.5

28

84

South Texas ISD

3,173

82

8

59.6

2

90

Valley View ISD

4,701

100

0

93.4

58

80

17,782

98

1

86.1

25

73

Rio Grande Valley Average

96.7

2.4

84.7

30.5

71

State of Texas Average including all Charters

50.3

31

59.2

17

76

San Benito CISD

Weslaco ISD RGV Total Students

332,225

LEP = Limited English Proficiency Source: Texas Education Agency; see footnote 3

The hypotheses that there is a direct correlation between TAKS pass rates and percentage of Hispanic as well as percentage of economically disadvantaged students are both supported by the regression analysis as well as the figures presented in Table 2 and Chart One. Table 2 indicates that in the Valley even a slight increase in the percent of Hispanic students makes a difference in the percent of students who passed all TAKS taken. For example, districts with 100% Hispanic enrollment have a passing rate of 66% while districts with 90 to 95% Hispanic enrollment have a passing rate of 77 percent. Table 2 and Chart 1 both depict the relationship between being economically disadvantaged and passing all the state-mandated tests in Valley school districts. Both the table and chart show that as the percent of students who are economically disadvantaged increases, the percent of students passing all TAKS decreases. Table 2 shows summary numbers while Chart 1 expands on the data to show a more detailed view by school district. For example, South Texas ISD and Sharyland ISD, that have 55.5% and 59.6% economically disadvantaged, respectively, both have a TAKS passing rate above 80% while Edcouch-Elsa ISD and Donna ISD, that have 97% and 98.7% economically disadvantage, respectively, have very low TAKS passing rates.

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There are many other factors such as teaching methods and curriculum content, that may also influence a district’s TAKS passing rate. RGV LEAD does not have access to that type of data; therefore, the relationship depicted in Table 2 and Chart One is only a partial representation of all the variables that may be influencing the Valley’s scores. The regression analysis, however, does show that the relationship is statistically significant or that the relationship between race/ethnicity, poverty and TAKS passing rates is not due to chance. As apparent from this chart, there are some districts whose students perform well despite the high percent of students who are economically disadvantaged; however, the data available are not sufficient to provide a definite indication of the factors influencing those higher success rates. Table 2: Average Percent Passing all TAKS by Percent Hispanic and Percent Economically Disadvantaged in Valley Districts 2010-2011 Percent Hispanic in District

Average Percent Passing All TAKS

Range Percent Economically Disadvantaged in District

Average Percent Passing All TAKS

100%

66%

90% - 99%

66.2%

99%

67%

80% - 89%

70.2%

98%

70%

71% - 80%

78.5%

97%

71%

60% - 70%

70.5%

96%

76%

55% - 60%

85.5%

95% - 90%

77%

<90%

83%

Source: Texas Education Agency; see footnote 3

One important reason for including the analysis above is to emphasize the fact that Valley educators have to overcome significant obstacles to student success. There are several national studies that indicate that being born into a family that is economically disadvantaged has a negative impact on a child’s chances of achieving academic success.7 A recent report released by the Center on Children and Families at the Brookings Institute, Pathways to the Middle Class: Balancing Personal and Public Responsibilities, shows that individuals born into low-income households are much less likely to succeed at each stage of life and less likely to achieve middle class status by adulthood. The following is the website address for the entire report. (www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2012/09/20-pathways-middle-class-sawhill-winship). Because the majority of Valley students are burdened by economic deprivation, their struggle to achieve academic success is difficult and fraught with pitfalls for failure. The results presented in this section indicate that in the Valley, as in the rest of the nation, being economically disadvantaged does have a negative impact on academic success. However, the 7

Sawhill, Isabel V., Scott Winship, and Kerry Searle Grannis. Pathways to the Middle Class: Balancing Personal and Public Responsibilities. Center on Children & Families at Brookings. Washington, D.C. 2012.; Gandara, Patricia. The Latino Education Crisis. Educational Leadership. http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/feb10/vol67/num05/The-LatinoEducation-Crisis.aspx.

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overall picture is not as bleak as it could be. Despite these obstacles, Valley educators and leaders have experienced considerable success in increasing graduation rates and the percent of graduates who enroll in higher education as well as the percent that pass all TAKS taken. For example, the difference between the state TAKS passing rate of 76% and the Valley passing rate of 71% is only five percentage points. Recently District Judge John K. Dietz in the prelude to his ruling declaring the Texas system of public school finance as unconstitutional wrote of Valley school educators: “…We see these students that are economically disadvantaged and think……How they are ever going to succeed? We tend to concentrate on the deficits. On the other hand, the superintendents, the principals and teachers…..who work with these children on a daily basis, focus not on the deficits but rather on the tremendous potential of each of these children…The miracle and promise of education is unlocking the potential in every child, as you find them, to grow and to achieve.”8 RGV LEAD counts it a privilege to work with education and business leaders who are focused on the tremendous potential of Valley students. RGV LEAD's mission is to work with Valley leaders to implement college-and-career-focused programs that help students overcome the drawbacks of being economically disadvantaged. The results reported in the next section indicate that participation in RGV LEAD’s programs, especially Tech Prep programs of study, does in fact help students to be more successful in high school and in transition to post-secondary education.

8 Long, Gary. Brownsville sets sterling example with scholastic chess. The Valley Morning Star, Sunday, February 10, 2013. Print.

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Chart 1: Percent Passing all TAKS Taken by School District and Economically Disadvantaged 2010-2011 (see footnote 3) Edcouch-Elsa ISD Donna ISD Rio Grande City CISD Brownsville ISD La Joya ISD Santa Rosa ISD Santa Maria ISD Raymondville ISD Valley View ISD Mercedes ISD Monte Alto ISD Roma ISD Point Isabel ISD La Villa ISD Hidalgo ISD Pharr-San Juan-Alamo ISD % Pass All TAKS

Lasara ISD

% Economically Disadvantaged

Weslaco ISD Edinburg CISD Rio Hondo ISD Mission CISD Lyford CISD San Benito CISD La Feria ISD Idea Public Schools San Isidro ISD Los Fresnos CISD Harlingen CISD San Perlita ISD Progreso ISD McAllen ISD South Texas ISD Sharyland ISD 0

20

40

60

80

100

120

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SECTION TWO ROLE OF PARTICIPATION IN TECH PREP PROGRAMS OF STUDY IN RIO GRANDE VALLEY STUDENT SUCCESS The data presented in the charts and tables in this section support the conclusion that RGV LEADâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s programs have a positive impact on the academic success of Valley students. Data for the last ten years show that students who participated in Tech Prep programs of study have better attendance rates, lower dropout rates and higher graduation rates than those who do not participate. This is true for the entire state of Texas; however, a comparison of the Valley with other regions in Texas shows that despite barriers such as high levels of poverty, Tech Prep students in the Valley do as well as the rest of the state (see Table 3). Tech Prep students were also more likely to graduate, 94.3% compared to 76.5%, and more likely to prepare for college, 94.9% compared to 87.3%, than the non-Tech Prep students. Table 3: Comparison of Rio Grande Valley Tech Prep Students with Rio Grande Valley Students Pursuing Career and Technical Education Coherent Sequences (CTE Students), All Other RGV Students, and State Tech Prep Student Category

Attendance Rates 2010

Dropout Rates 2007-2008

Graduation Rates August, 2009

All Other Students--Rio Grande Valley

92.8%

3.8%

76.5%

Participation in College Prep Courses May 2006 87.3%

CTE Students--Rio Grande Valley

93.5%

2.3%

88.2%

90.3%

Tech Prep Students--Rio Grande Valley

94.8%

1.4%

94.3%

94.9%

Tech Prep Students--State of Texas

94.8%

1.1%

95.4%

83.1%

Source: Latest figures available from College Tech Prep of Texas

As of October 2010, Rio Grande Valley school districts had 20,865 students participating in Tech Prep programs of study (see Table 4). These 20,865 young people represented 24.1% of all Valley high school students, and this participation rate was one of the highest in the state. Table 4: Tech Prep Participation as a Percent of the Total Rio Grande Valley Grade 9-12 Enrollments as of October 2010 PEIMS Category Tech Prep programs of study

Total Number of Students 20,865

Percent 24.1%

CTE coherent sequences

15,404

17.7%

Other

50,468

58.2%

Total

86,737

100.0%

Source: College Tech Prep of Texas

Chart 2, drawn from the regional reports provided by College Tech Prep of Texas in 2011, illustrates the enrollment growth of student participation in Rio Grande Valley Tech Prep programs of study. This chart shows that since January 2002, enrollment in Tech Prep programs of study had grown in all grade levels; however, the highest participation was in the last two years of high school.

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Chart 2: Valley Tech Prep Participation by Grade Level and Year 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0

01-02 Grade 9 651 Grade 10 1,447 Grade 11 2,282 Grade 12 2,742

02-03 786 1,302 2,848 4,184

03-04 1,923 1,945 2,352 3,893

04-05 2,758 2,924 3,516 5,257

05-06 3,173 3,491 4,578 6,241

06-07 2,508 3,232 4,786 6,414

07-08 2,785 2,967 4,013 6,082

08-09 2,744 3,075 4,561 6,582

09-10 4,496 4,354 5,333 6,815

10-11 3,594 4,383 5,834 7,054

Another indication that participation in Tech Prep programs of study produces better results is the student scores in the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for Tech Prep students. Table 5 illustrates a typical example of the pattern of scores by PEIMS code. These data illustrate the percentage of 11th grade Hispanic students in the Rio Grande Valley who met minimum standards in the 2009-2010 tests. These figures show that in all categories Hispanic students enrolled in either Tech Prep programs of study and/or CTE coherent sequences tend to perform better than the overall percent for Hispanic students in the state. An even more impressive fact is that in all academic subjects Hispanic Tech Prep students in the Rio Grande Valley met minimum standards at higher rates than both non-Tech Prep students in the Valley and Hispanic Tech Prep students in the rest of the state

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Table 5: TAKS Report 2009-2010 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 11th Grade: Percent Hispanic Students Meeting Minimum Standards PEIMS*

Math RGV

Reading State

RGV

Science

State

RGV

Social Studies

State

RGV

State

0 (no CTE enrollment)

78.0

83.1

81.4

88.6

77.4

85.3

93.8

96.0

1 (CTE as elective)

81.8

83.3

86.2

88.7

83.0

85.2

95.1

96.3

2 (CTE coherent sequence students)

87.2

86.9

91.5

92.0

86.8

85.5

96.8

97.3

3 (Tech Prep students)

92.6

90.3

94.0

93.6

92.7

91.4

98.7

98.3

* State classification of students based on participation in CTE courses, CTE coherent-sequence programs, and Tech Prep programs of study

In addition to overcoming obstacles to student success, Valley educators and RGV LEAD have been successful in encouraging a significant percent of graduates to enroll in higher education. Rio Grande Valley students enrolled in post-secondary educational institutions at a slightly higher rate than students in the state of Texas as a whole. Table 6 is a snapshot and comparison of the Valley with the state as well as a comparison of results for the four Valley counties. These figures indicate that high school graduates in all Valley counties enrolled at a higher rate than the state as a whole.9 Table 6: Comparison of Student Enrollment in Higher Education by State, Valley and County in Fall 2011 Jurisdiction

% of Graduates Enrolled in Higher Education

State of Texas

48.21%

Rio Grande Valley

52.83%

Cameron County

55.25%

Hidalgo County

52.59%

Starr County

59.88%

Willacy County

52.35%

Source: THECB. See footnote 9

These numbers are encouraging; however, they are far from meeting the anticipated requirement for the skilled workforce of the future. Labor economists estimate that in the future 70% or more of all jobs will require some education beyond high school. The link between education and economic prosperity and the need for the nation, the state and the Valley to increase the educational level of its workforce has been well documented. From inception, RGV LEAD has recognized this need and has focused its efforts on working with Valley leaders and educators to achieve a highly educated workforce in the Valley. That focus is continuing at this time. 9 Data for Table 6 and Table 8 were taken from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Boardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Annual TSI Test Report of Student Performance 2010-2011 High School Graduates Enrolled in Texas Higher Education During Fall 2011. Data set accessed at http://www.txhighereddata.org/Interactive/HSCollLinkFilters/AnnualTSI.cfm

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Table 7 contains information provided to RGV LEAD by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board in Summer 2012. THECB shared information about both enrollment in twoand four-year institutions of higher education (see Charts 3 and 4 below) and information about the need for students to be enrolled in Developmental Education (DE) at the time of enrollment in college. Table 7 shows the percent of students enrolled in higher education who also enrolled in developmental education by type of institution and PEIMS code for the entire state of Texas and the Valley (see Table 6 for a representation of the percent of graduates who enrolled in higher education). Table 7 shows that for the state as a whole, students classified as PEIMS 0 were least likely to be enrolled in developmental education, 35% versus 46%, 47% and 41% for PEIMS 1, 2 and 3 respectively. For the Valley, however, that distribution is reversed. That is, for Valley students, those classified as PEIMS 3 were less likely to be enrolled in developmental education, 29% versus 43% for each of the other three PEIMS classifications. This indicates that Valley students classified as PEIMS 3 (Tech Prep) were more likely to meet the requirements that exempt them from developmental education. While these data do not indicate why the Valley is different from the rest of the state, the data do show that for Valley students participation in Tech Prep programs does translate into higher levels of performance. Table 7: Students Enrolled in Two- and Four-Year Institutions of Higher Education and in Developmental Education 2010, Rio Grande Valley and State, by PEIMS Code PEIMS

Type Institution

0

University

0

Community College

State Total 16,599

Total State % Valley Total Total Enrolled Enrolled in Enrolled in Enrolled in DE DE DE 2,419

15%

404

31

Valley % Enrolled in DE 8%

18,387

9,869

54%

643

421

66%

34,986

12,286

35%

1,047

452

43%

1

University

14,503

3,294

23%

868

86

10%

1

Community College

25,254

15,142

60%

1,285

840

65%

39,757

18,486

46%

2,153

926

43%

25%

739

85

12%

2

University

13,209

3,230

2

Community College

24,182

14,432

60%

1,117

707

63%

37,392

17,662

47%

1,846

792

43%

3

University

13,562

2,848

21%

2,441

210

9%

3

Community College

22,740

12,039

53%

2,354

1,193

51%

36,302

14,887

41%

4,795

1,403

29%

148,436

63,273

43%

9,851

3,573

36%

Total

Source: Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board

Table 7 also shows that for both the state and the Valley as well as for all the PEIMS classifications students enrolled in 2-year institutions are much more likely to require developmental education. It is highly probable that this need for developmental education contributes to the lower rate of completion for community colleges. Developmental education is

13


costly to the student because those classes do not count toward a degree and student progress is delayed. Research shows that students who are required to enroll in these remedial courses are more likely to become discouraged and eventually drop out.10 Therefore, increasing the number of students who do not have to take developmental courses is an important goal for all concerned. Students who enroll in Texas institutions of higher education are exempt from taking assessment exams and enrolling in developmental education if they meet the standards established though the Texas Success Initiative (TSI). There are several ways to qualify for exemption including scores on the SAT and ACT exams as well as scores of at least 2200 on the math and English sections of the TAKS. Table 8 includes a comparison of the Valley with the state of the percent of all graduating students who met TSI standards in 2010-2011. As shown in this table, Valley school districts are somewhat behind the state as a whole in graduating students who would be exempt from any remedial courses. (This data set does not provide a breakdown by PEIMS code. In addition, Texas' TSI system is undergoing change as this report is written.) Table 8: Annual TSI Test Report of Student Performance 2010-2011 High School Graduates Enrolled in College in Fall 2011 Met TSI Standards % All Areas

% Math

% Writing

% Reading

State of Texas

68.49%

76.88%

82.44%

82.31%

Cameron County

65.49%

77.15%

78.95%

79.80%

Hidalgo County

62.84%

75.85%

75.17%

78.53%

Starr County

62.24%

79.76%

71.09%

74.82%

Willacy County

50.34%

63.45%

72.41%

71.03%

Jurisdiction

Source: Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board; see footnote 9

RGV LEAD hopes in the future to secure access to data and analysis not available for the 2012 report--data that will show which programs are more effective based on the level of difference they make on graduation rates, TAKS performance, post-secondary enrollment and completion rates as well as placement in the workforce either right after high school or after completing a post-secondary program. If RGV LEAD is able to enter into a contract for data analysis with the Education Research Center at UT Austin, these types of data may become available and more detailed analysis possible. However, at present with the data now available, it is still possible to state that the data indicate that Valley students who participate in RGV LEAD programs (especially Tech Prep) tend to have better performance in most success indicators than their nonparticipating counterparts.

10

Vandal, Bruce. Getting Past Go: Rebuilding the Remedial Education Bridge to College Success. Education Commission of the States. May 2010. (www.gettingpastgo.org)

14


SECTION THREE TRANSITION TO COLLEGE AND COLLEGE SUCCESS As emphasized in RGV LEAD’s 2012 Labor Market Information Report11, most good-paying jobs in the Valley, the state, and the nation are likely to require post-secondary training. Nationwide many research and policy organizations have reached this conclusion and have urged educators and policy makers to formulate policies and programs that will address this development. For example, a report from the Harvard School of Education, Pathways to Prosperity: Meeting the Challenge of Preparing Young Americans for the 21st Century, states: “The message is clear: in 21st century America, education beyond high school is the passport to the American Dream.” The report concludes that: In the U.S. our goal should be to assist every young adult at the end of middle school to develop an individualized pathway plan that would include career objectives, a program of study, degree and/or certificate objectives; and work-linked learning experiences.12 Chart 3: 2011 Valley High School Graduates Enrolled in Post-Secondary Education by Type of Institution

Source: THECB See footnote 13

Not Found 38%

Not Trackable 6%

2 Year College 28%

4 Year College/Univsersity 28%

11

http://www.rgvlead.com/lmi.html William C. Symonds, Robert B. Schwartz and Ronald Ferguson, February 2011. Pathways to Prosperity: Meeting the Challenge of Preparing Young Americans for the 21st Century. Report issued by the Pathways to Prosperity Project, Harvard Graduate School of Education.

12

15


As shown in Table 7 in Section 2 and other documentation in this report, Rio Grande Valley students are just or more likely to enroll in higher education than those in the state as a whole. Charts 3 and 4 further break down the type of institution selected by Valley students as well as a breakdown by PEIMS code. Chart 3 shows the percent of students enrolled in either two-year or four-year post-secondary institutions in Texas. As shown in Chart 3, 2010 Valley high school graduates were just as likely to enroll in a two-year college as in a four-year college/university. The THECB did not supply PEIMS coded data for 2011; however, based on the 2010 data it is probable that this distribution is not the same when PEIMS code is factored into the analysis. As shown in Chart 4, in 2010 students coded as PEIMS 3 (Tech Prep) were much more likely to enroll in four-year institutions. Chart 4: Valley 2010 Higher Education Enrollment by PEIMS Code and Type of Institution 4 Year

2 Year

61.41%

59.68%

60.18%

38.59%

40.32%

39.82%

0

1

2

49.09%

50.91%

3

Source: Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board; see Item 2 on page 2 of Introduction section.

Another interesting fact is that Valley students tend to continue their education in Valley postsecondary institutions. As shown in Table 9, 3,330 or 63% of those enrolled in four-year universities and 4,957 or 96% of those enrolled in two-year colleges enrolled in post-secondary institutions located in the Valley.13 Therefore, a total of 8,287 or 79% of those enrolled in any trackable state post-secondary institution stayed in the Valley. At this time the state is not able to track students who enrolled in out of state colleges/universities or students who enrolled in forprofit institutions or vocational schools; graduates who have non-standard ID numbers and cannot be matched by the computer software or graduates who do have standard ID numbers but were not found at any Texas college or university. Students classified as â&#x20AC;&#x153;not foundâ&#x20AC;? could be enrolled in out of state institutions or not enrolled at all. 13 Data for this table were extracted from the THECB report Texas High School Graduates for FY2011 Enrolled in Texas Public or Independent Higher Educational Institutions by Fall 2011; http://www.thecb.state.tx.us//Reports/Docfetch.cfm?DocID=2182&Format=XLS&CFID=2535938&CFTOKEN=d12a02b16c6da 1f-7785956C-9C9C-F8E5-9A67F03EBC084DA5

16


At this time RGV LEAD does not have data that would indicate why Valley students tend to stay in the Valley to continue their education. However, there is ample anecdotal evidence that indicates that lack of monetary resources as well as the desire to stay close to family are two factors that may be driving this pattern. Whatever the reasons, the fact remains that students do stay in the Valley and this lends support to the conclusion that Valley colleges/universities must have the resources to prepare these students for the global workplace. Table 9: 2011 Rio Grande Valley High School Graduates Enrolled in College by Fall 2011 Post-Secondary Institution

Number

Percent

11

<1%

5

<1%

St. Edward's University

18

<1%

St. Mary's University

64

1%

University of the Incarnate Word

31

1%

5

<1%

Texas A&M International University

49

1%

Texas A&M - Corpus Christi

38

1%

Texas A&M - College Station

247

5%

Texas A&M - Kingsville

309

6%

Texas State University - San Marcos

185

3%

24

<1%

5

<1%

21

<1%

University of Texas - Austin

236

4%

University of Texas - Brownsville

621

12%

Total Percent

Four-Year Universities: Baylor University Rice University

Stephen F. Austin University

Texas Tech University University of Houston - Victoria University of Houston

University of Texas - San Antonio University of Texas - Pan American University of North Texas Other Four-Year Universities Total

209

4%

2,709

51%

11

<1%

510

10%

5,308

28%

Two-Year Colleges: Blinn College South Texas College Texas College

20

<1%

3,152

61%

6

<1%

Texas Southmost College

981

19%

Texas State Technical College - Harlingen

824

16%

Other Two-Year Colleges

188

4%

Total

5,171

28%

Not Trackable

1,195

6%

Not Found

7,200

38%

18,874

100%

Total Graduates

Source: Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board ; see footnote 13

17


Getting students to graduate from high school and transition into a post-secondary program is only the beginning of the greater goal of improving the Rio Grande Valley’s economic prosperity. In order for the goal to be realized, students must complete their programs of study. These programs might be certificates that take one or two semesters to complete, post-graduate degrees, or many other points in between. One of the problems in the Valley as well as the nation is that many students fail to complete their programs of study. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development only 46% of Americans complete the program of study that they started.14 This college dropout rate costs the nation, the state, the Valley and its communities, and the individuals themselves a great deal in lost income and taxes. A 2011 study, The High Cost of Low Graduation Rates: How Much Does Dropping Out of College Really Cost? 15by the American Institutes for Research estimated that the cost of students seeking bachelors' degrees but failing to graduate in six years was $3.8 billion in lost income and $566 million in lost federal income taxes. The estimates for the State of Texas were $341 million in lost income and $51 million in lost tax revenue. The study did not address the losses from students not completing other post-secondary programs of study or dropping out of high school; however, it is probably safe to conclude that these other actions follow a very similar pattern of loss to both the individual and the taxing jurisdictions. (The study did not address individual regions, such as the Valley.) The reasons that students fail to complete their programs of study are many and diverse.16 One of the reasons that students drop out may be that they are working. A recent report, School Enrollment and Work Status, from the Bureau of Census shows that in the nation 20% of college students worked full-time year round and 52% work less than full-time.17 Other possible reasons include the amount of time a student spends on activities other than studying or attending class. Personal reasons are beyond the influence of public policy except to inform students of the consequences of their behavior and providing student financial aid. However, other factors, such as lack of understanding of the quantity and quality of work involved in achieving academic success, can be addressed at the high school level.18 When preparing students for success in college, high schools must make certain that they are academically prepared to perform at the level required in the college or university of their choice. Charts 5 and 6 show that about 38% of Valley 2009-2010 high school graduates who enrolled in a Texas college/university by the fall of 2011 had a failing GPA their first year (see text boxes below charts). Table 10 shows the numbers and percentage of 2009-2010 high school graduates who were enrolled in Texas public colleges/ universities as well as those enrolled in Texas independent institutions and those not trackable or not found. This same data set is used for the Charts 5 and 6, but only the GPAs for those enrolled in Texas public post-secondary institutions 14

OECD (2012), Education at a Glance 2012: Highlights, OECD Publishing. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag_highlights-2012-en) Schneider, Mark and Lu (Michelle) Yin. The High Cost of Low Graduation Rates: How much Does Dropping Out of College Really Cost?. American Institute for Research. Washington, D.C. August 2011. (www.air.org.) 16 Weissmann, Jordon. “Why Do So Many Americans Drop Out of College”, The Atlantic. 10/22/2012 http://www.theatlantic.com/ 17 Davis, Jessica. School Enrollment and Work Status: 2011. January 2013 by the U.S. Census Bureau 18 Ternzini, Patrick T., et al. “The Transition to College: Diverse Students, Diverse Stories”, Research in Higher Education. Vol. 35. No. 1, 1994. 15

18


are represented in the charts. For example, Brownsville ISD had total graduates of 2,628, but only 1,653 were trackable and enrolled in a Texas public two-year or four-year public college/university. Therefore, the charts provide only the academic performance of those 1,653 students. These charts however, do indicate that as a whole, a significant percent of those Valley high school graduates did have a hard time maintaining a passing GPA in Texas colleges and/or universities. Table 10: Numbers Showing Actual Number and Percent of 2009-2010 Graduates Whose 2011 First Semester GPA Is Illustrated in Charts 5 and 6 District Brownsville ISD Donna ISD Edcouch-Elsa ISD Edinburg CISD Harlingen CISD Hidalgo ISD IDEA Public Schools La Joya ISD La Feria ISD La Villa ISD Los Fresnos CISD Lyford CISD McAllen ISD Mercedes ISD Mission CISD Point Isabel ISD Progresso ISD PSJA ISD Raymondville ISD Rio Grande City CISD Rio Hondo ISD Roma ISD San Benito CISD Santa Maria ISD Santa Rosa ISD Sharyland ISD South Texas ISD Valley View ISD Weslaco ISD Total

Total Number 2,628 712 297 1,640 995 185 54 1,390 178 39 552 118 1,352 267 771 160 104 1,775 127 556 144 351 613 33 64 599 466 239 917 17,326

4Year N 552 166 80 580 241 68 28 274 53 9 115 26 461 54 222 38 21 481 33 118 29 85 101 6 13 258 278 47 203 4,640

% 23% 23% 27% 35% 24% 37% 52% 20% 30% 23% 21% 22% 34% 20% 29% 24% 20% 27% 26% 21% 20% 24% 16% 18% 20% 43% 60% 20% 22% 27%

2Year N 1,101 209 99 370 394 50 6 414 65 10 204 51 449 108 283 45 56 545 29 237 66 160 243 16 23 182 88 99 342 5,944

% 42% 29% 33% 23% 40% 27% 11% 30% 37% 26% 37% 43% 33% 40% 37% 28% 54% 31% 23% 43% 46% 46% 40% 48% 36% 30% 19% 41% 37% 34%

Independent Number 14 3 2 11 23 1 11 10 3 0 7 0 28 1 13 3 0 7 2 1 0 0 3 0 0 23 33 0 16 215

% 1% >1% 1% 1% 2% 1% 20% 1% 2% 0% 1% 0% 2% <1% 2% 2% 0% <1% 2% <1% 0% 0% <1% 0% 0% 4% 7% 0% 2% 1%

Not Trackable Number 189 81 17 108 26 9 1 167 6 1 35 9 68 14 30 21 2 129 2 33 2 12 28 2 0 25 7 21 42 1,087

% 7% 11% 6% 7% 3% 5% 2% 12% 3% 3% 6% 8% 5% 5% 4% 13% 2% 7% 2% 6% 1% 3% 5% 6% 0% 4% 2% 9% 5% 6%

Not Found N 772 253 99 571 310 57 8 525 51 19 191 32 346 90 223 53 25 613 61 167 47 94 238 9 28 111 60 72 314 5,439

% 29% 36% 33% 35% 31% 31% 15% 38% 29% 49% 35% 27% 26% 34% 29% 33% 24% 35% 48% 30% 33% 27% 39% 27% 44% 19% 13% 30% 34% 31%

Independent = Texas Independent Institutions; Not Trackable = Non standard ID; Not Found= Standard ID, but not found, could be either in out-of-state college/university or not enrolled in any college/university Source: Report of High School Graduatesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Enrollment and Academic Performance in Texas Public Higher Education. http://www.txhighereddata.org/Interactive/HSCollLinkFilters/HSGradAcademicPerformance.cfm Table does not include any school district with 25 or fewer graduates.

19


RGV LEAD does not have data that would provide information about the reasons for the failure rates illustrated in Charts 5 and 6. Certainly there are multiple reasons for that failure and without data, it would not be prudent to point to any factor as the most important. It is, however, reasonable to suggest that there is a disconnect between high school and college/university educators regarding the level of academic preparation necessary to succeed in college.19 If the United States, Texas and the Valley are to be successful in increasing the number of Americans who have post-secondary credentials, this disconnect must be eliminated. RGV LEAD's work in P-16 initiatives is designed to help eliminate this disconnect. Another reason that many Valley college students do not complete their programs of study is the need to attend to family and financial responsibilities. While RGV LEAD does not have hard evidence of the percent of students who are faced with these responsibilities, there is ample anecdotal evidence that this is quite prevalent among the Valley population. RGV LEAD has recognized this need and in 2012 secured a grant from the TG Public Benefit Fund that funded a three-year program called Success by Degrees, which began in late 2012. Created by the Texas Legislature in 1979, TG is a public, nonprofit corporation that promotes educational access and success so that students can realize their college and career dreams. Success by Degrees is a program that informs potential college students and their families that it is possible to achieve college completion incrementally by pursing college and work in tandem and earning degrees as needed for career success. The goal of this program is to increase the number of Valley college graduates by guiding students through this non-traditional approach to college and career.

19

Kirst, Michael W. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The High School/College Disconnectâ&#x20AC;?, Educational Leadership: Closing Achievement Gaps. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). 2004. (http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/journals/ed_lead/el200411_kirst.pdf)

20


Chart 5: First Year GPA for 2009-2010 Valley Students Enrolled in Two-Year Post-Secondary Institutions by Fall after Graduation PROGRESO ISD MCALLEN ISD LA VILLA ISD SOUTH TEXAS ISD LA JOYA ISD RIO GRANDE CITY CISD MERCEDES ISD SHARYLAND ISD EDCOUCH-ELSA ISD MISSION CISD EDINBURG CISD ROMA ISD MIDVALLEY ACADEMY CHARTER… INFORMATION REFERRAL RESOURCE… DONNA ISD WESLACO ISD HIDALGO ISD PHARR-SAN JUAN-ALAMO ISD VALLEY VIEW ISD SANTA ROSA ISD LOS FRESNOS CISD HARLINGEN CISD SANTA MARIA ISD BROWNSVILLE ISD SAN BENITO CISD LA FERIA ISD RIO HONDO ISD RAYMONDVILLE ISD POINT ISABEL ISD IDEA PUBLIC SCHOOLS

<2.0 2.0-2.49 2.5-2.99 3.0-3.49 >3.5 UNKNOWN

0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00%120.00% Source: Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board

2.0 = F 2.0-2.49 = F & D 2.5-2.99 =D & C 3.0-3.49 = C & B 3.5-4.0 = B & A

21


Chart 6: First Year GPA for 2009-2010 Valley High School Graduates Enrolled in FourYear Post-Secondary Institutions by Fall after Graduation ROMA ISD SOUTH TEXAS ISD LYFORD CISD MCALLEN ISD LA FERIA ISD SHARYLAND ISD RIO GRANDE CITY CISD MERCEDES ISD HARLINGEN CISD RIO HONDO ISD SAN BENITO CISD POINT ISABEL ISD MISSION CISD EDINBURG CISD WESLACO ISD LA JOYA ISD SANTA MARIA ISD BROWNSVILLE ISD PHARR-SAN JUAN-ALAMO ISD SANTA ROSA ISD DONNA ISD LOS FRESNOS CISD PROGRESO ISD EDCOUCH-ELSA ISD IDEA PUBLIC SCHOOLS HIDALGO ISD RAYMONDVILLE ISD LA VILLA ISD 0.00%

<2.0 2.0-2.49 2.5-2.99 3.0-3.49 >3.5 UNKNOWN

20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00%

Source: Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board

2.0 = F 2.0-2.49 = F & D 2.5-2.99 =D & C 3.0-3.49 = C & B 3.5-4.0 = B & A

22


CONCLUSION The data and analyses presented in this report show that when it comes to education and economic development in the Valley, there is both good news and bad news. The good news is that despite the high poverty rates, educators and other community leaders have had success in preparing students to pass the TAKS, graduating from high school and enrolling in higher education. Achieving this success has required much effort from the entire community, and RGV LEAD has played an important role in facilitating this success. The bad news is that many of the students still require developmental courses and too many have unacceptable grade point averages after their first year in college/university. Also, the percent that drop out of college is too high. Valley educators and other leaders are to be commended for successes achieved to date in the face of the Valleyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s high poverty rate. However, this is not a time to â&#x20AC;&#x153;rest on our laurels.â&#x20AC;? In order to compete in this new global economy, the Valley must increase the number of students who complete high school, enroll in post-secondary education and complete the requirements for a degree or certificate. From inception RGV LEAD has recognized that achieving the goal of a workforce that is ready for the emerging global economy requires cooperation between all stakeholders. No program, organization or school can stand alone. That is why for over 20 years RGV LEAD has had a policy of inclusion that strives to reach all stakeholders. Active RGV LEAD partners now include school districts, city economic development organizations, chambers of commerce, businesses, government agencies, post-secondary institutions and community organizations. All work together to implement and strengthen and develop programs that prepare Valley students for success in both college and career. Specifically these programs seek to decrease high school drop-out rates, increase performance, provide activities and information to students and educators, eliminate the disconnect between high school and college academic expectations as well as decrease the percent of students who need developmental education. For both students who transition to careers right after high school as well as those who go on to either two-year or four-year post-secondary institutions RGV LEAD provides accurate information regarding the emerging labor market. Recently RGV LEAD has also implemented a program, Success by Degrees, designed to guide students who must complete their college education on an incremental basis. RGV LEAD counts it a privilege to work with Valley stakeholders to develop new programs and improve and expand on those programs that have proven successful. A recent goal is also to acquire data that will lead to understanding which of these programs are most effective, and work to achieve that goal is underway at this time. RGV LEAD is proud of its strong relationship with Valley educators as well as its relationship with Valley leaders working

23


diligently to improve the economic prosperity of the Valley by increasing the educational attainment of the Valley workforce. RGV LEAD appreciates the participation of Valley school superintendents and/or their designated representative(s) in planning, implementing and evaluating our programs, events and other activities. RGV LEAD looks forward to achieving a lasting impact on the Valleyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economic prosperity though this collective effort of educators, business and political and community leaders.

24


APPENDIX The following documents are provided in the Appendix as a source of additional information: 1. Regional Reports provided by THEBC contractor in 2011. a. Regional Annual Attendance Rates Grades 9-12 (2009-2010) b. Regional Annual Dropout Rates Grades 9-12 (2008-2009) c. Regional Senior Graduation Rates Grade 12 (2008-2009) d. Percent of Regional Graduates Completing College-Preparatory Plans (2005-2006)

Page 27

2. Regional Report from THEBC website a. Annual TSI Test Report of Student Performance 2010-2011 High School Graduates

Page 28

3. Regional data reports compiled by RGV LEAD staff: a. Participation in Education & Career EXPO (2010-2012) b. Participation in RGV LEAD staff development (2011-2012) c. Participation in Tech Prep Texas Scholars (2007-2012)

Page 30 Page 31 Page 32

Page 26 Page 26 Page 27

25


2012 Superintendents' Regional Report  
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