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A VISUA l

DICTIO N ARY OF

ARCHITECTURE

fIlAN( U O . K . ( H INC;


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VISUAL DICTIONARY OF

ARCH ITECTU RE

J I I I I I I I I

FRANCIS D.K. CHING A VNR BOOK

JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC NEW YORK

CHICHESTER

WEINHEIM

BRISBANE

SINGAPORE

TORONTO


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A VISUAL

DICT-IONARY

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ARCH路ITECTURE f{

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FRANCIS D.K. CHING fER~ANr7~l


This book is printed on acid路free paper. 8 CopYright @1995 'ry John Wiley &Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published simultaneou5~ in Canada.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in arry form or by arTy means, electronic, mechanical, photocop-yinq, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as ~rmitteJ under Sectionsl(J7 or 108 of the 1976 United States CoPJlight Act, without either the prior written pemission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropr~ per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Cenw, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvere, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4744. RequesUi to the Publisha for pennisslon should be add~ to the f'enni55loos Department, John M.~ & Sons, Inc.. 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 1015U012, (212) 850-6011, fax (212) 850-6008, E-Mail: PERMREQ@W1lEY.COM. This publication is designed to proMe accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the underetanding that the publisher is not enqaged In rende:ing professiot131 servius. If professional adviCt or other expert assist...anu is required, the services of a competent professional person should be oought. U~ralj' of Congre% Cataloging-irH'uuncatlon Data: ISBN 0-471-28451-3

Printed in ~e United S~ of America. 20191817 16 15 1413 12

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(ONTENTS

PREFACE 7

ARCHITECTURE

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FORCE 96

PLASTIC 192

ARCH 12

FORTIFICATION 98

PLATE 194

BEAM 15

FOUNDATION 100

PLUMBING 196

BRICI< 18

FRAME 104

REINFORCED CONCRETE 202

BUILDING 21

GEOMETRY 108

ROOF 208

CABLE STRUcnJRE 28

GLASS 112

ROOM 216

CEILING 30

HARDWARE 114

SHEll 219 . SITEWORK 221

CERAMIC 32

HEAT 117

CHURCH 35

HISTORY 128

SOIL 224

COLOR 38

HOUSE 136

SOLAR ENERGY 226

COLUMN 40

JOINERY 140

SOUND 228

CONCRETE 42

LIGHT 142

STAIR 233

CONSTRUCTION 48

LOAD 151

STONE 236

DESIGN 52

MASONRY 155 -

DOME 60

MATERIAL 161

SURVEY 246

DOOR 62

MEASURE 166

TEMPLE 248

DRAWING 66

MEMBRANE 168

THEATER 256

ELECTRICITY 74

METAL 16?

TRUSS 259

ELEVATOR 80

MOISTURE CONTROL 176

VAULT 262.

'STRUCTURE 238

FASTENING 82

ORDER 179

VISION 264

FIREPLACE 87

ORNAMENT 182

WAll 266

FIRE SAFETY 88

PAINT 187

WINDOW 271

flOOR 92

PLASTER 188

WOOD 276

INDEX 285


PREFACE

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One picture is worth a thousand words

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Just as a single image can be worth a thousand words, a single word can conjure up in the mind's eye a thousand images. Regardless of t.he power of a solitary word or image, however, each communicates meaning more effectively when brought together into a sfngle preserrtatlon, The symbiotic relationship between graphic and verbal communication is the basis for this visual dictionary of architecture. Instead of an alphabeticallistil19 of entries as found in most dictionaries, the information is clustered around basic aspects of architecture as outlined in the table of contents. Within each section, words are placed in a visual context which further explains, clarifies, and completes their meaning.

The reader may use this dctionary in a number ofw3'js.lf one trows the exact term and wants to find CiJt rts meaning, then one can 1001: it up in the index. Looki~ up one term will always present related terms arTa:1ged around one or more illust<ations. If one does not Know the precise teim, then one can lOOK up the ~eneral subject either in the table of contents or the Index, One can then refer to the appropriate section, brOn-5e the illustrations. and scan fer the terms, While browsing, if one encounters an entry or a word used in a definrtion that is unfamiliar. one C3', look rt up in the index.

Included are fundamental terms relating to architectural deSign, history, and technology. Since architectcre is a visual art, most of the entries naturally lend .themselves to graphic representation. Some are more abstract but are included to help clarify related terms or to complete the treatment of a subject. Others are inserted simply because they are of historical Interest, This is a book for the curious to browse as well as a desktop reference for the student of archltectuJe. The' compilation of words and definitions is not intended to be exhaustive. RAther, the selection is designed to be comprehensive enough to reflect the rich, complex. and multidimensional nature of architecture,

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Archftut.ure Is an 1rt for aU to !earn because an are concerned with It. -John Ruskin· Archltect1Jre depends on Order. Arran~ Eur:;thmy, Sym metry, Propriety, and Economy. All of these must Pc built with d~ reference to dUl'3billty, convtn1enu, and beauty. ~urabll;ty will lie assured when foundations are carrleJdown to the solId ground

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and ~Is wl~ and liberally selected; convenience, when the amngement of the apartments Is faultless and presents no hindrance to use, and when each class of building Is assigned to Its sultal1le ana approprlateexposure; and

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pe~uty. when the appeal'3nce of the work Is pleasing and In good taste. and when Its members are In due proportion accordtng to correct principles of symmetry. -Vltruvlus • Architecture Is the masterly. correct and magn iflcent play of maS6eSproughttDgetherln light. -leCorpusler· Anyone entering on the studyofarchitecture must understand that even though a plan may have abstract peauty on paper. the four facades may seem weU,palanced and the total I'Olume wen-p~. the pulldlng Itseff may turn out to Pe poor architecture. Internal space, thAt Sp3ce which cannot ~ completefy rtpresent:ed In any fonn, which can

De grasped and felt only through direct expmence.ls the

p"*,gonlstof .archttecture. Tograsp space, to know how to see It. Is the ~eytothe understandingoflnJikllng. -Bruno

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levi- Arch~re,palntlng,and sculpture are callecl the flnearts. They appeal to the eye as music does to thet3r. Butarchitut-ure Is not judged Pyvlsual appeal alone. BUildings affect all of the human senses- sound, smell, touch, taste. and vision. -Forrest Wilson· It became apparent to us that architecture Is generally assumed to be a h~hly specialized system with a set of prescribed technical goals rather than a sensual soci31 art responsive to real human desires and feel1ngs. This nmltatlon Is mostfrlghtenlngly manifested In the renanceontwo-dimenslonaldi34rams that lay more stress on the 'luanttfla ble features ofbuJldlng organ1z3tion than on the polychromatlc and thr~-dlmensI011al I\ualJtlesofthewholearchltectural experience. -Kent Btoomer&Ch3r!es Moore • The only I'4'Jj'OU C3n 1nJ1ld. the only

ny you can get the ~u!ldtng Into being. Is through the

me3sura~le.

You must follow

tr.e laws of nature and use

I\uantltles of ~rk;l::. methods of construction, and engineering. But In the end. when the lnJildlng Pecomes p3rt of living. It evokes unmea5'Jral11e qualities, and the spirit of Its existence takes (J·m. -l.ools Kahn • Built environments have

varioltS purposes: to shdter people and their activities ana possessions from the elements. from human and anImal

enemies, and from supernatural powers; to esta~nsh place: to create a hum.in!z.ed, safe area In a profane and

poten tsally dangerous !York.:; to stress social identity and Indicate status; .indsoon. Thus the origins of archi~re are ~ understood If one ta~es a wider view ana considers sociocultural factors, In the broadest sense. to Pc more Im~"t than

chrnate, ~hnology, materials. and economy. In any sltuatlon,lt Is the Interplay of all th~ factors

th4t Pcstexpblns thefonn of ~ulldlngs. No single explanation wfllsufflu. ~use InJlldlngs - even appart11tly humPle

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dwcUl"4S- are I'IOrCthan materlalo~ects or structures. They arelnstlMlons, baslc cultlJ;.i Iphcnomen.. Pecplethlnk environments Veforc they ~lk:I them. Thought orders space. time, actlvIty: status, roles, and ~ehavlor. But gr.-Jng physlcalexpreS$lon to kleas Is valuable. Encoding laeas makes them useful mnemonics; Ideas help Penavior Dy remInding

people of how to ~ how to !leh3ve. ana what Isexpec1'...ed of them. It Is Important to stress UutalllnJlJtenvlronments -~,~, and landscapes -

are one W<rJ of orJerlng the world by making ordering systems vlsMe. The

esstntIal step. therefore, Is the ordering or organizing of the environment. -Amos Rapaport • Ruskin said: 'Great natlonswrlte their allto~raphles In thrumanuscrlpts, the rookofthelrt!eeds, the book of their words and the ~ook

of ~Ir art. Not one of these ~ooks can I1e understood unless we rt3d the two others, but of the three the only trust~or.e Is

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the last.' On the whole I think this Is true.lfl had to say which W3S telling the truth arout society.

a spll('JCh bya ministerof' housing orthe actual ~ulldlngs put up In his time. I shoukl "elievethe InJlldfngs. -Kenneth Cla~ • We requ/reofarry rulldlng. that It act well. anddo the things It was Intended to do In the Pest way; that Its~k well, and S3y the things It was Intenaed to S3y In the Pest words; that It look well. and please us by Its presence. whatever It has to do or ~. -John Ruskin • Archltuture also exists without necessary assistance from an architect; and architects sometlmescreate buildings which are not architecture. -Noryal White· Archfttcture Is proJuud \;y ordinary people. for ordinary people; therefore It should pe easily comprehensib~ to all. -Steen Eiler R3slT'ussen

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ARCHITEC

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ART

architecture The product or result of archit tural work: ~u~ldlngs. collectively.

and SCIENCE architecture

of

DESIGNING architecture The profession of designing Duildlngs and other ha~1 ~le environments.

and CONSTRUCTING arch itectu re

BUILDINGS

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ARCHITECTURE art The consclenu use of skill craft. and creative lm.1glnatk>n In the production of what Is beautiful appeallng. or of more than ordil'l3l)' slgnlflcanu.

aesthetics The branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of art. beauty. tJste. with a view to estabhshlng the meaning and valiatty of clitlcalJudgments conceming wori::s of art. Also. esthetics.

ana

beauty

delight

The aggregate of qualities In a person or thing that gives Intense pleasure to the senses or deep satlsfactlon to ~ mind or spirit. whether arising from harmony of fonn or color. excellence of craft. trutirfulness. originality. or other. often unspeGlfIal7!e property.

A high degree of pleasure or enjoyment.

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taste CriticalJudgment. discernment. or appreciatlon of what Is fitting. harmonious. or beautiful prevailing in a culture or personal to an Il1<.Ilvldual

environmental design The ordering of the physical environment by me3ns of archlt.xture. e~lnurlng. construction. landscape architecture. urban design. and city planning.

url1an design The 3spectof architecture and city

planning that de3ls with the design of urban structures and spaces.

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inUrior design The art.l7tJslness. or profession of p13nnlng the design and supervising tr.e ~utlon of archttecturallntulors. includlng their color schemes. fumishi~s. fittings. finishes. and

city planning The actMtyor profession of determining the future physical arrangement and condition of 3 community. involving an appraisal of the current conditions. 3 forecast of future requirements. a plan for the fulflllment of these reqUirements, and proposals for legal. financial. and constructional programs to Implement the plan. Also called town planning. urean planning.

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sometimes architectural features.

space pIa nnjng The 3Spect of archItecture and Interior desIgn that deals with the planning. layout. design. and furnishing of spaces within a proposed Of' exIstIng building.

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ARCHITECTURE science A branch of knowledge dealing with a body of facts or truths olrtalnea!1y direct observation. experimental Investigation. and methodical study. systemat1cally arranged and showIng the operatIon of generallal'ls.

technology Applied science: the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technIcal methods and materials. and their Interrelation with life. society. and the envIronment.

technics The science of an art or of the arts In

general.

tectonics The science or art of shapIng. omamentlng. or assembling materials In construction.

architectonics The unifying structure or concept of an artlstlc work.

r firmness The state or quality of Delng solidly can structed.

engineering The art and science of applying scientific principles to practical ends in the design and construction of structures. equIpment. and systems.

l1ehavioral science Any of the Sciences. as salology and anthro po logy. that sed: to discover genera I truths from theoDservation of hum.. n behavior In society. ~cio(ogy

The science of hUlT13n social Institutions and relationships: sped. the study of the o~ln. development. structure. fu neticnlng. and collective behavior of organized groups of human befngs.

anthropology

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The scIence of human beings: speclf. the study of the origins. physlc3l and cultural development. and environmental and $OCtal relations of hUlt13nklnd.

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.--- -------:7'..::--------------c:=.:~~;~~~~~ landsc;ape architecture The art. business. or profession of deSigning. arranging. or modifying the features of a lanJscape for aesthetic or practical reasons.

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tARCHf A cUrYed structure for spanning an opening. des~ned to support a vertlcal103d primar~y \:7y axial compression. N50nty M-ch

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An arch constructea of Individual stone or prick VOlJ ssolrs. ~voU$$Oir

keystone The wedge-shaped. often embellished voussolr at the crown of an arch. serving to lock the other voussolrs In place.

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• extrados

Any of ~he wedge-sh2ped units In a ITI3sonl)' arch or vault. havl~ side cuts converging ,,' one of the arch centers.

The exterior curve. surface. or ;;.:'..: 11d31')' of the visible face of an arch. Alsv :3i!ed barr ~--_

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the sprlMIMtI line to the

Impost

archivolt Adecorat1ve molding or ba nd ,;;", "he fau cf an arch follOWing the curve of t.!-~ ;ntraclos_

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I 5pring The point at which an arch. VJu~. or dome rises from Its support. Also CJi!ed

1springl~. ~croWn - " - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - , -The- highest J'"Ir1 or point of a

.----------.------..:..' spandrel The triangular-shaped. sometin-.es ornamented area 17etween the ~.ndos of two adjoining arches. or ~ ~~ left or right extrados of an arch .rJ t.:...t rect3 ng ular fra mewon: su rroundi rI.,1 It.

cormx ccnst:ructlon. as anarcn. vault.or~_

t-~-~~------------~of an arch curving down

Also~Sp2ndril.

from the crown to the Impost.

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!7Iock. capfbl. or molding. from

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or~~l------------------~ ArrJ several concentric ring s of forming an arch. esp. when e3ch Dro1·~.~\'~~[~, ',-U-l.J"'pCjond the o:'.e pelcw.

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r.g Acrosspleu connectlng the I".l>s in 3 centering. Also called folster. f

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.~ An archway having sides or Jam~s not at .. :~ right angles with the face of Its abutments_

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A temForal)' fl7lmework for supportln~ a ma son I)' arch or vault during construction until the work can suppo~ Itself.

camber piece Aroard used as centulng for a flat arch. \~ \ \ \ \ \ ( slightly crowned ~ allow for settling of the arch. Also calle4C.1l)1per 51ip.

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l ARCH

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The manner In whlcn an arch transforms the vertlca I forces of a su pported load Into Inclined components aria transmits them to abutments on either side of the archway.

r--~-------+- ~rchaxis the median line of an arched structure. .---------J-..~

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line of thrust;

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, The setof路resultantsbf thrust and weight each part of an arch Imposes 0'1 the next lower one. For bending to be eliminated throughout an arch. the line of thrust must coincide with the arch axis.

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Junic~lar .1rc_h I An .rch shapeJ to develop only axial compression und~r a given loading. This sh3p<: may ~ found by Inverting the funicular sh.:;pe for a c.:;ble carrying a similar Ioadlng pattern. As with any funlcu13r structure. funicular arch Is subject to Pendlng ~ the loading pattern changes.

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An tr.oerW ~ry is t~ funlcul.r 5hape for

arch C3tTjlng a vtrtlC3lload uniformly JI5triMd i1hng the lenqth of the arch axis.

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TIle p2r3rol1l$ the funicular sh3~ for an arch C2rT)fng a o;r:rticz{ load uniformly di5trW.d C'ltritS horlzw...af projection

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The outward force or pressure rertea I7y one part of a structure against another.

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. i The thrust of an arched structure on Its

~~-#-r-------------t-I.L-.~.~ abutments. proportional to the total load

ana span, and Inversely proportional tcthe rise .

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tigid arch--路i An ;m::hed structure of timber. steel. or relrrforc;ul concrete. constructed as a rigid body capable of carrying bending stresses.

fu:ed arch A fhed frart'~ structure having an arched form. two-hing~

arch

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~Mment ~

A two-hlngeJ frame structure havir.gan archeJ form.

The part of a structure receiving and supporting the thrust of an arch. vault. or strut.

thru-hinged arch

tie rOd

A thru路hlng~ frame structure h3vlng an arched form. ~

Su fr3rt1~ 5trvcture

An Iron or steel rod serving as a structural tie. esp. one keeping the lower ends of an arch or frame from spreading.

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ARCH ~ triangular arch' A primiUve form of arch consisting of t . . o stones laid diagonally to support each other over an opening.

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An arch having a horizontal Intrados with voussolrs r.:Idiating from ~ center ~w. often puilt with a slight camPer to allow for settnng. Also C31~1c ai-aI:', I

corbel arch ~

A false arc~ cc:~s~ructed by corbeling courses from each slde of an opening until they meet at 3 midpoint where a ca pstone Is laid to comp!eU the won:. The stepped reveals may be smoothed, but no arch action Is effe.c:.ed.

French arch . A flat arch having voussolrs inclined to the same angle on each side of the center.

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rampant.1rch .

fL··J·~ An arch having onc Impost higher than the other.

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round arch' An arch having a continuously cuc;'ed Intrados. esp. a semicircular one.

• RolTL1n arch An arch having a semicircular i~tr.:ldos.

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An arch restir~ on imposts treated as downward ccn,i~uations of the arctr0lt.

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. 'A round arch rest'lng 011 two large corbels

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with cUrYed taus.

hor$eSMe arch An.rch having an Intracios that Mdens

aPove the spri~lng Pefore 1I3rrowing to;jJ rounded crown. Also cal1e£fMoorIsh arch.! ,'trefol1 arch

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An .1rch having 3 cusped Intrados with three

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round or pointed foils.

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An arch strock from one or more

centers ~Igw the springing line. • skewPact _'--,-_ _ _ _ _- . l

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polll'ted arch' An arch ~vlng a pointed crown.

• ettuli~r3rarc&'

Z r =' A pointed arch havIng two centers and r.:Idll

equal to the span.

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A stone or course of masonry having a sloping f.Jceagainst which the: end of a segmental arch rests.

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; basket-handle .1rch

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la~arcltt A pointed ~rch having two unters and radII greater than the span.

Athree-centered 3rch having a crown with a radlus mUGh gre3ter than that of the outer pairofcurYes. Alsocallefn~ de panic!

, drop al'C"

A pointed a rcll haying two centers arid r.:IdJl tess than the spar!.

G~thl~'~Rh; I r.. ApoInted arch, esp. one havIng two centers and equal r.:Idn.

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: 'lU'pased arch An arcn havIng a ri~ of tess than half the span . . -3..

o¥earch A pointed arch, e3Cn hJunch of which Is a double curve with t~ c.cncave side uppermost

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BEAM

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A rigid structural member designed W C3rry and transfer

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elements.

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1span ' The extent of space l7etween two supports of a structure. Also. the strocture so supported.

; rc\earspa~'-:..,,:-"------------~ The dIstance b-etween the inner faces of the supports of a span.

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distance l7etween the supports of a

=+ t f ±[f -+ -t + span.

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Ptnd~mcment -<,--'_ _ _ _ _ _ _--":yz:...~:.;:zc....---'X:.?'-_,.

An exta1tl1 monierrt~ndlng to C3'J5e fi3rt of a structJJ re to rotJte or ~end. ea 031 to the al¢'r31c sum of the moments amt the neutnl axIs of the section U~&!­ CO ns k:lerJtIo n.

\._~'.~ ------- --------- -------~---. a;mpresslon

1 ~~ moment t------------------~---, • An fnt:er.ul mOmerrt'ec{U31 and opposr-..e to a ~~ roment_ generated by a fcru couple to Nlntaln equilibrium of t<~.e sectbn Deing considered.

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.. \ ~ft.!--------' 1 ~-~ulard1stance a spanr.i~ If'.em~ ~tes from ;1 true W1.J~ under ?4nsverse loadlng.lncre3sing with Ioad;lM span. and aecre3Slrlq ·...-f';h 3fl1ncre:ase In the morr.ent of Inertl3 of the sectloo or tM modulus of ei3~..ctty of the ruteri3 L

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_ ;neut-i-alaxis , An ImagInary line passing through the cel!troid of the cross section of a beam or otMr rneml7er su~ject to !lendIng. alonq which no ~ending stresses occur.

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bending- 5tre55 ,

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A coml7inatlon of compressive and tension stresses developed at. cross section of a structural mem~ to resist a transv~ force. having a maximum yalue at the surface furthest from the neutral axIs.

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~sngfit' convex curvature Intentlot1311y

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truss to compellS.1te for an anticipated

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.---:\ vertical shearing stress;

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _----1 -An extern.alshearforu at a cross section ~~h~~

of a beam or other member subj~ to Pendl~. fl1U31 to tM a~ebralc sum of tnnsverse forces on Ofle side of the section.

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The snearlng stressdevetOped t.J prevent -~ slippage alang Iong!tudlnal planes of a ~m' ur.oer transverse loading. ~ual at any point '-"-. to the vertlcal~h~~r:l~_~ *e:;;;at that point

AIso ca lIec90ngftudinaf s~rfn4 s~s;

The shearing stress developed along a cross section of a ~eam to resist transverse shear. havIng a ma"xtmum value at the neutral axIs and decreasIng nonlinearly toward the outer faces.

:

~. -- - -:- - -------- -- -- - ----:- ---~

~

15


BEAM fp

=MC{!)_______ where

f.

= extmn~ firer stress In ~ndjng

M

= bending n10mttTt

C

=

from neutnl/axis to th~ outermost surfJC~ in b~ndin9

distJnc~

mamentoflnertia The sumOfthe products of each element of 2n 2rea 2nd the square of Its dlstance from a coplanar axis of rotation. Moment of Inertia Is a geometric property that Indicates how the cross-sectional area of a structural mem~er Is dlstrl~ted and does not reflect the Intrinsic physical properties ofa material.

If

Yc = ®~-------then

fp

I

ry 3 tJacre{ z. JouPling th~ depth

reduces t;!!e bending 5tres5eS by 3 factor of 4.

=

"

secuon.

I:

The tfflcfetlcy cf 3 Pe3m 15 lnCT'e3seJ by CQnflgurlng the CT'OS5 section to provfde the requireJ moment cf Inmb or section modulus with the 5maOe$t pos5M~ 3rea. usua!1y by mating the section kep with most of the

Whk ~ 3 ~ span reduces th~ bending ~

=MIS

section modulu,

'A~~r6pMy of a cross deflned as the moment of Inertia of the section divided l1y the dlsta nee from the neutral axis to the most remote surface.

I1 i

m3teri;( at the ~mitles where th~ maximum bending ~ occur.

33.25 inz = Area of section

11.20 in 2 = Area of 5Xtion

= iaboutx-xaxis

25OIn4 = I aPoutx-xaxis

3861n 4

52.61n' "" S

54.7in 3 =

5

principal stresses The tensile and compresslv~ stresses ' resulting from the Interaction of ~na1nf! and shea r stresses at a cross section of a beam.

_1-

At the txtreme surfaces of a bam. only !>ending 5tr~ses &:xl5t and the prlnclp;1l stres:.e-s 3rt equivalent to the tensiJe and a;mpr-c5slvc str~5e5 resulting from l>alJ1nq.

L

At th~ nelltra/axls of the section. only shar stresses exist and these can ~ rcscI~eJ InW ta7sJ1~ ;mil compre55l¥e ~ses xtJn~ at 45" mgfe.s to the neutnl1Xl5,

J

For 217 lrrU:rrnedim element sut;ect to botb be:nJlng x.J she3r 5tre55eS. the prlnctp.al stresses h3re 3n InclinztJcn ktemI/neJ by the rd3t1r~ magnitudes ofth~ 5tre55e5.

L ,tress trajectories lines depictIng the direction put not the magnitude of the principal stresses In a ~eam.

-

5hear ceo'Ur T~~p~-~nal~Ia_~9f.a s~l~~gIfWfiICfi'i'?·

transverselOad';r'-ust pa'55 In orJe~ to

16

Iongltudlnal axis.

~-

tension

L J

L

-,- ,

prevent torsion or twlstlng.of the mem~er a~out.a

I I

rI

L


BEAM r

l

f

-.-t."

f

.

tlU 1 +J.1J.Lt

L

I

. ::

111.11111111'

,heard.g .. m

~:.

A graphic representation of the variation In magnitude of the external shears present In a structure for a given set of transverse loads anel support con.:fitlons.

I,

I!

...

-' -

Concentrated loads produce e~ma( she~

cantilever beam

Uniformly distribtJud loads produce (ine3ri) :.": X'pro~rij veat:ns,u pPPfted. a~ only.one

~~~~~.~!~CQn-'~m.'g.wJ'-~ ~~~: :.,,'''''. ;;';~~'

r i

moment reslst4nce. As with any st.otlwfly aetennlnate structure, the v-alues of an reactions, shears. and moments for a simple beam are Independent of Its Crc5S' sectional shape and ma~31.

,'I!

momentdi.1gram _ _ _ _ _ _

r

;:

t

). '~ .• !:; II.·~' ii'l:1 III !r !( III .... I

t

r i

5imple beam A ~m restlC\3 0.1i sim~~~u.ff£ljs at Dot.~ ends, which are free tc rota~ and have no

r

A¥3EIC:~torrott~~nJn:

fF

.

~i

6'

'r ~ . J

I.

positive shear

I :

Uniformly distribrMd loads produce

panbciJc311y var:lr.~ moments.

cantilever

';~~~~~~~~'~=:~~~~~~~~~~~=t -

.

.

.P,,~~. .t. . ,.res~l?nt. of.shearforceSth3tacts

r vertIca~ upW1rd'~n the left part of the structure !:>errig consldered.

~ A~."r:esutta .. nt. of.5. hearforcesthatact5 "ertIC3l!:t ~~rapn the left part of the structUrl: ~elrig'c·onsldered.

overhanging peam A slmple Deam extending beyond one its supports. The overhang reduces the posltlve moment at mldspan while developing a n~3t!ve moment at the Inse of the cantliever over the support.

Assuming 3 lJI1/formly dTstrWvW (03d, tJ;e projection for wltfch the morrr~ OY~ the 5I.:pport Is eqwf ind opposlU ta the morr.t:rt 3t midspan is approxlmMy% of the Sf!41

negativeshear ----------------~

positive moment

""',' ' ,

:

:;

Concentr.lted loads produce bending mom~ts which vary hne;;rfy between loads.

louis and support conditions. The overall

tkf1ected shape of a structure subject to Pendlng can often lie Inferred from the shape of its moment diagram.

::

.

:-~:~~!-W,f~~jj,!!e.:

,

~---:",""r-T--,.-,-.,."-l...1fJ-l-L-L...LL.....w.-l...L.L....w..::...

~.~.~._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _- " -_ _- '

·.c.,....

A !:>ending m<Jrrtent ~ proaUcesa concave ClHYaturl: at a section of a structure.

$J,

1 J. 1

I

J, J. J, J. J. J. 1

:

J.

i .L4t-

'

:

; .

As5l.ifT1ir., 3 uniformly distriWW l:::;;J. the projections for .,.,nlch the mommts

:

OYerthe5Upport53~eq~/md

'oppos,'u to the momer.t 3t midsp71 ;;re approximately '/, IJf the sp:m.

fuea-:.eM~r.t-

h3unch - - - - - - - - - -

Thepartofalleamthat!Sthlcl:e~OCi' ~

~~Th~~f~~t;~~aM ~~ " ~ J J ~,.< J 1 ~ inc~e;jS@iiY shaping Itslertgth In respon..~ 5u'pended-span AsImple ~m supporW by the cantlievers of two adjolnln~ spans with pInneJ constructlonJolnts at polnts of· zero moment. Also calW hu~-span.

to the moment and shear values whk;h typically vary along Its Iongttudlnalaxls.

~

"

~' ~'~~~;.~~~~

~~'

maxlmum defIect1on.

~

[Y

tr..nsfer !:>ending 's~s,lncre-ase the rlgldlty of the ~m. and ~uu Its

1J_ ccrttinuou5 pe4m

_

~ be3m extettding~~t~~ih",,~J~, .. ~~§Jn ordu to aevelOp greater rlgfdttyaiid smaller moments than a ser~s of simple lleams having similar spans and loading. Both fIXed-end and contJnuous !:>eams are Inktamlnate structures for which the values of all reactions. shears. and mo~nts are dependent not only or. span and Ioaalng but also on crosssectlonal Sh3F~ 3'1d material.

effective length The dist3~ce Det ..... een Inflection points In the sp3~;f a flxed'end or continuous beJ~. quiIl3ie.-: in nature 3

simp!]

s~pported

to the actualleng~h

~

'eam.

17


,lJJ.Sl.(W A m3SOf1f)'unitofclay, formed into

• rectar.gwr prism while plastic and lurdenea Py drying in the sun or

l.

firi~inaUn.

~~~~ ! scft-mud process

'ccmmott~~

. The process of forming prick l:>y molding relatively wet clay havlng~re C$!:Vwt- Jt

Brict made for general Pulkllng purposes and :let s~1a11y treated for color and te~~re. Also C311ea building brick; _.. ' -- ....... - .. - -

~

mingl1rict' !3rlcl: maJeofspec~1 clays for facing a wall. often treate4 to produce the ~sJ~~.~glg~ and 5\Jrfau text.ure. Also calrea fa ci In-Ick. :.--. --:

Bricl: formed In the soft·mud process wlt.,~

~~!llllllllllilll~1

1

A des~ll3t1on Indicating the pennlssll7le ~rtatlon In size. color. ch Ippage. a"d dJst.ortk)n albwed In a facing I7rick unit.

rex F.ang I1ricl:: suitable for use where a !ninlmum ~rlatlon In size. narrow color fA ng~. and high degree of l.T1ech3nlc31 pafectlon are rea.ulred.

Bricl: formed In the soft-mud process with 3 mold lulnicated with water to prevent stlci:!~. producing 3 smooth. dense surface.

r"trrt-mud waterstruckhick pro~ !

The process of fonnlng prick and structur.il tile ~ extruding stiff Put plastic clay having a moisture content ofl2t to 151 through 3 !~ cuttlng the extrusion to length with w'res l:>efore firing.

FB5

1drrpress process

kick sultaple for use where a wider color ~,nd greater variation In size 3re ~rmitted than for type FBX.

u

i

The process of fanning prick ~ motdlng relatively dry clay having a moisture co~•.e:q; of 51 W under high pressure. resulting in sbrpedged. smooth-surfaced pricks.

FDA F.a~ I1ricl:: sulta\7te for use where

I

l.i

1 b1n) f.. fumau or oven for Pumll1g. I:1aklng. or dryi~ ~I~. esp. one for firing pottery.17a\:ir-3 , m=ks. or dryl~ tlml:>er.

p,rtlcubr effects are desired resultlng from lIOIIurJformlty In size. color. and texture of the Individual units.

j~~hin~'f

t MW~

A dr!s~tUtIon indicating the dura!7i11ty of a . A ImCk grade suitable for exposure to-,moder'3te weatherl~ as when used ~e m:t unit wfIen exposea to weathering. The grade on surfaces unlikely to l7e penneated u.s. Is drtW In~ three weathering liiltn Wlltel Iii subfreezing temperatures. ~ - serer!. moderate. and negllgll7le .3cc,~·dIng to,nnual winter rainfall and the 6n~1 number of freezing-cycle days. Brick is pJd for use In each I'C9lon according to ,

u

ana

F,cln~

lorici~'

3

mold lined with sand to prevent stlckln9. producing 3 matte-textured surf~

1 prick_type!

,

.....

j5.1ndstruck brick

, - - - - - -_ _--.: Plfing luiCk un~lterTl4tely with too much or too httle air to vary their face COlOr.

!cull " 1 A !nicI: or tlmb~ rejected as being ~ Infer':£r quality.

.

~ strength. maximum water a~.andm3XlmumSJturatlon

coefl'.clent.

t1~­

j5W ~ , II !nick grade suita~1e for exposure to \severe weatheri~,;as when In contact with ---~-----=::: the ground or uSMon surfar.es Ukely to ~ permeated with water In subfreezl~

~-~~

ve-

temperatures.

.

NW ...... - ..... -.... -... ,.. ...... .... ........

~.

A brick grade sulta~1e for ~posure to jl!e9~n~~~ ~~as when usea as a 113Gb,,. orin Itfterlor ma son r y . -

The ~ofW3ter a~ Py. claL I"'.lSOlllj' unit when Immersed In either cold or boIIIn4 I'I7ter for a st3 ted length of time. ~'5 a percent3ge of the weight of

,-!J

~l.,edryl/l1lt.

~iI coefficient The rnlooft~ weight of water absorbed ~5bhiy Dille hi!mtlrsta In cotr IIt7ter to the weight a~sorPed when ~ In rolh~ water. Indicating the ~ resistance of the brick to the #etlan of freezl~ and thawing. ~.

.-.;,~ . ,; _;;>:'!f' .t.t~ ~:'l :' .:!{ : : ~.~..

~.

I

...,

;(

"'.

...

~. -

-

-.;.;" .":~~;" ~ , , ; : ; . ~. ~\q

.." ,-i·

~-:-;;~~·.:.~I':~ ~, ~~ h.·.'j~) S

dflo~res;e:;~~:~~ "V.'

weight of water absorbed ~._' partially Immersed for A white. powdery deposit that fonns on an croe minute. expressed I~ grams or ounces exposed masonry or concrete' surface. caused Vy the leaching and crystallization p minute. AlsocalleJ mlt/al rau of of 50luple salts from within the material.

3

iTl3S011f'y unit when

iI~

18

i

\.~ ~ -- ...... ~~

Jfi!e·l7ridcr·-···: A GT{£mUle of fire clay ana used for IInln~ amaGtts and flreplaces.

t.~_c~ A

Wct¢ry clay usea In the making of

~rucl&t;S. aria otHer objects exposed

to high tempentlJres.

~!y_,

A material having the avlllty to ~taln Its physical shape ana cliemlCal WnE§' w~ suPjected to high temperatures.

I

U


BRICK

~l

rnoml,,' dim ",.Ion

A brlc~ dline~S'o()f1 Lvgerthan the actual dJ~s:cn account for the . thicl:ness rf 3 :nortar Joint.

to

I

.3 courses = 8 in. (20.3 mm)

·'h

-·r---·

moduL-lr brick A 17rld: h.wing nominal dimensions of 4 x 21,.'3 x3 in. (102 x68 x203 111m) .

NormJn brick APricl: h.wing nominal dimensions at 4 x 21,'3 x12 in. (102 x 68 x 305 mm) ...

SCRurick Briel:: h3';119 nominal dimensions of 6 x 2113 x12 In. (102 x 68 x 305 mm).

5 COU."'5ts = 16 In. (406 mm) ~=:::ib=:::o:;f=:.d,-,-~~£..

engineered brick AInicl: h.wlng nominal dimensions of 4x3~/s.5In. (I02x81x203mm).

Norwegian I1rick A 17M h3Vi~ nominal dimensions of 4 x 3'/s x 12 in. (102 x81 x 305

r

mm).

4 coursts = 8 In. (20.3 mm)

Roman brick Brick ha'ling nominal dimensions of 4x2x 12 in. (102x5! x 305 mm).

r jumbo urick

r

ecanomy Prick A modu~r vrick having nominal dimensIons

.

Any of "'3 r100J 5 C'1erslzed 17ricks h3vlng nomlnJl di~~S:Ons establJshed Dy the

of 4x 4 x 5 in. (102 x 102 x 203 mm).

m3nubct~~e-.

r

f r

i

r

seal'

I

A brd or tl.e i-.3Ying normal face

stret:.cMr

-'i

A l?rlcl: or other m3sonry untt laid

"

hortzoot..fIy In a wall with the lo~er or parallel to tne$lJri:ou.

dlmensloos ~Jt 2 nominal thickness of

eage~

2In.(51I11m~

'·'·' .. ''~r.,

ht-J

A 17rld: or other m3sonry u,nlt /;lid horlzonta ily 1(1 a wall with the shorter end ~ or parallel to the surface.

A !mel:: cut t... rsversely so as to leave onetr1dw~

-., .. ,~~J

~:..,

TaChipar rJC> stones or 1nicks to a

A I7rld: lakl horizontally on the longer

edge with the shorter end exposed. AI$O.~J

certain s~ c-r sl1ape.

fc.~~}

r

A I7rld: laid vertically with the longer face edge ~pqsed .

. itorl

r~k lakl vertically with the I1read faceex~.

, ... '.' 7shineri 'A brIck i3J h<:Jrizontally on the longer wge with the broad face exposed A!S] called pull str~her.! '! 1

• See mJSOnry for types of mortJrpr.:s

19


BRI(K

fbrickwcrij

erfck~Ion, esp. tM art of bondin9

Prld:s effealvely,

.... soldlerccur5e,

'~ndt Anyofmblsamngements of masonry units ~.iI regular, recognluble, usually OYerbp~ pattern to Increase the strength and enhance the appea r3 nce of

Acontinuous ecurse of soldiers In brickwork.

the conskuctlon. . ~tack~ond '). br1ckwori: or masonry bond havin9 = : : > = = : ; ; : : - successive courses of stretchers with all head Joints al1g ned vert lea Ily. Also. ~acked I1ond.!

j ",n~~/- .......... -.--··-·· .. .. A lni:iwort or masonry bond composed of

OY~ stretchers. Also called 's~ron(U

I

i

I j

pa.otllond 1 A lni:iwort bond having a course of headers ~ ~flveor slxCQu~ P-f

stretchers.AlsocalW .f'rieffi.1nl1~,

J

J

Ii

f

clesa' .......... -.......... . A NSOnry unit specially formed or cut to fDsh " COU~ or complete the bond at ~ co,cner of a wall. Also, closure.

~~~l

~~~~~~~~~::=:K :Englishcros5 PondODD DCJDDD .A rnodJfJed EnglJsh bond In which the heaa DD~D~~~ Jolnts!n the stretching courses are offSP,t ~~C=::J( .by half the length of a stretcher. Also called

Alni:illlOrk laond having altemate courses of hakrs ~ lid stretchers In wh leh the ~n untered on stretcMrs and the joints ~ stretchers nne up vertically

ODDDDDDDDC ,-Dutdt~1

lnaiCOlll'StS.

~ ~=~h::~.I.~.t~:-:~~- 00.-

Dc::=Jt=Jt=JDT ODDDDDDDDC

-

6

c=J c:::Ic::Jc:=Jf

ODDDDDDDDC

forroa"1~ng" course or for spacIng

Dc=Jr==Jr==:JO(

reglbr !nicks. Also;C\uun closure.

ODDDDDDDDC c=Jr::=:JDDc==J[

fJem~~~1

Flemish CtO~5 Pond

headtrs and StretcMrs In e3Ch cou~, ~ ~ ~ng centered arore and Pelow

A mod1f1ed flemish bona having courses of altel'Tl3te headers aM stretchers "ftem3tI~ with stretching cou~ .

A~ bon(i having alternatIng .iI~.

-.. - flare header A brick h3vlng a damr end exposed as

~da~ ---------- ....... --- .. ~'='==_::::!±:=::! A ~uarter Imci: fodlnlShlng a cor..e or for spacing reg ilia r lmcks,t Also. ki". cfO$Ure.

!F~~ 'A fonn~~nd In which the c.ourst:S n

pattera.

offset to form a dta mona

L

a heac.ier In pattemed brlcl:won:.

~)~~~~~~~Ill: larden-wall Ponel F ~prlclilYOrHond for lightly loaded ~~~~~i~~~g: rounaary walls, having a seq~ence of a

po ~~~~~i~~~~=

t=

header and thru stretchers In each course, with each heac.ier ilelng centered over a header In alternate courses.

L L L J

f L

20


BUILDING

A ~ Is A sheltb' from r3in, SUn, and wind. This mpIks a~ and Waifs wsupport It. If the ~ emtmy m;Jose th~ 5pau WIthin, ~ xt ~ for access. 3I1d WlndCW$ for ¥t- Ro:7fs and waDs, door5 and WIndows a~ ~ ~ fe3tures (J( buffdl"95.

Arelatively permanent enclosed structure constructed over a plot of land for habitable use.

~

uperstrLICture

The vertical extension of a l7ulldlng or other construction aDove the foundation.

,.------,c::z;~~~

!

sloping. or curved. A roo f with ~ slope Is C3iWa Lan-to. When two ~ roofs ~ upa! p3r.l1ld w;Jn5 and le.in Roof5 T/U'j b.: f!.it:.

they meet In a hor/zorrt.31 rlJge.lt ~ ~,XIII form a G3t>1e at t.3ch~. If two rQ/Js m;;;i~ aprojecting ang~ their rwfs ~ 1n3n It1cIiMJ lint called a fip. If the rr;;aIl:; me&t;, a reentulng angl~, the ItIcfJr,d ile of IrrtersectSon Is calfed a Valley. Orcul.r JlQIJs C3rrf ca1Id or dcmlc31 roofs..

a~ns:r;ne ~

If thae Is m«e dwI tX7e 5tcry, the fL1t; roof qf the ~ stcry b.:comes the Floor (J( the stQry ~.lfthe fYX!f extenJs b.:yond the wall tJrzt suppa-ts It, the projection 15 called the &;es. If the W31al5o proj~cts to suppon the ~ (J(the roof. the projection is calJtJ ;/ ComJce. The principal member (J( a ccmice. JIIhJch project5llf:~ a 5heJ f and crO'Nr15 the IQI, is c;tIIeJ ;/ Corona. Wans 3rC ger.er;Hiy I1I3de Wfd~r}U5ta t the bottom 5<);15 to get a better b.:.arlng on the ground T1r5 projectItXr Is the Ba5e. A similar ~ at the tq7 Is calJed;/ CiIp or. IfIt project6 nJCh. a Ccrrke, ;15 h35 been said. A low"., Is akJ A r~ A short piece rJf "an .iIboIrt.25 bng.25/t Is thIct 15 calida rcs:..3IIrIlflt~5<JfT1ethI"9.a ,~theprt~ It6 capanJb~15

thaT the Ole. Atal pest Is caned a PIer, If It Is 5qlI3~;nd a Cdumn If It Is round. Wp5 (J( pierS xtI cdumns xt c.alled wpftals. and the p-t ~ the C3p and the ba~, the 5h3ft. The M ~ marIber(J(3 C3pitaJ Is c.al/ed the~.

A bam tit3t 5p311'5 the spxe Pmrun two pIerS or ccJumns or b.:twetn;l pier or c.dumn MJJ a tIr.1ils aJIJedJill ArchJtrav~, or EpiStyk. Abc¥~ fC. ~ the architrave and the CCJmIa. tha'e Is generalfy a 11tti~ strip of wall (.;J/f~ the ~ ArchItr;ve, frieze, and &ornJce~the~A~

cf columns Is C4i1eJa CcIontude. The 5p3US ~ pierS or coVnns ~ sometimes 5p3m.e4 Py .Jvcks, A ~s (J( which Is c.alled

l

3f1~

The spx:e ~ ~ paralfd wansl5 ~ ~bya sa-trJf c.?r1Unuou5

• munJation

3rdI c.;fIeJ ;/ Y.at~ In5tt.3d rJfby a floor or reef.

The Wa( the PIer, and the Cdumn, WIth or irlt:hovt the pede5t.aI. COr7'StItu te th~ chief ~memb.:rs.· the Frle:zt and Cornice, fIrltIr the roof tit.7t rests upon them, ~ the chidptofthe load they urry, The ~ the keres, and ~ Spandrds fcmI part cf the 1caJ rel3tJy~ to

~ubstructure

,

The underlying structurefor~g the foundation of a Duildlng or other., construction. . .

Wt Is ~ tMrJ. Mar~ SUpporting members ~i3tJVe to wh.1t Is a/Joy~ them. f3e5kks ~ valu.1b1e 35;1 sh~IUr, a building ff!3y be In It6df;/ noble md delightful obJ~t. :Jnd architects ~ bvilder5 who, by gMnq a Pvd&ng p:J proportJcns and flroe details. and by tm~ ""~tJfulIfl3tma15,11I3i~ It rafU3&1e onl'tSl7Wnacccl(Int..ln«pendentJy of ft5~.

system A group of Interacting. Interrelated, or Interdependent things or parts forming a complex or unlfted whole, esp. to serve a common purpose.

-William Robert Ware (he American Vignol;

)1


BUILDING

I

j

I j

1j I i

L1

J i

~

I

-' story f 1 Acomp~ koriz.o~ arvision of a

__ ..i _ _ _ _----,~ fFTI::.--_ _ _L--f... _--1':t;~------____f ~ I

yF\?

i

/~

1

".

:l

1111 1111111

o

/\

!

I1uildi~.~"4 a contlnuous or nearly :

continuous floor ana comprising the . : spa~ l>et;.leen two 1acent levels. 路路i

LJ

Descrll1lng a Irolldlng having a comparatively large numl1er of stories and equipped with elevators. r->..

\

!

I

high-rise

\.

( I

I

-

!Ill I!

[]

-

( ..... 7' I

-----'-

J

II

[HI-! IHH

n~

n

:iTt

,m

ni iii

nf

nr nr nr

rtf'

m nr

nr Mn

-

J

f---c. f---c. f---c. f---c.

; )J

lh.

I

I

I

+

f+ rt-

II'

f

f J

I

I' I

1/

TI

i

1

I---

-

,

I

U

I

low-rise:

I

DescrlUiog ,;a I1ullding having one. two. or three stones and usually 110 elevator. One of the upper floors of a warehouse or fa~. typlcal~ unpartltloned ana sometJmes converted or adapted to other uses. asl!vlng a.uarters, artists' studios. or exh i!:>felon ga l!eries.

I

loft ~ikiing A \?tJ:!dlng haVing several floors with large areas of unobstructed space. originally rerrtea out for ~ht Industrial purposes and r.aw fre'.uently converted to residential OCCt;p3r.cy.

;

I

1

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BUILDING

L

.rttic Aroom or space directly under the roof of a Pullding. tsp. a house.

luffeltory _._ .. _... _..... -._ ......... ' .. A usal7le living space within a sloping roof. usually hav~ng dormer windows for lighting.

",

t. _

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·crawl space ,...,.,." An area In a build In!! hJvl"9 a clearance less than human height. M accessible I1y crawhng. esp. such a space below the flrst floor tha t Is enclosed by foundation walls.

,

cellar __ J Aroom or set of rooms. for the storage of food. fuel. or the like. wholly or partly underground and usually be'neath a bulk/ing.

cyclone cellar A cellar or other underground place for shelter during violent storms. as cyclones. torna.ms. or hurricanes. Alsa called stann cell.1r.

L

[f

l1ulkhe3d -. __ ...... __ •.•........ -... _-'/ A horizontal or InclIned door over a

/

~ .~l__________~____st_a_/~__aY_g_M_n_g_~_c_~_s_to__a_ce_"a_r_.____

=-__________________

:" floor A contlnuous supportl"9 surface . extending horizontally throughout a : bulkllng. havl"9 a number of rooms and ; const~utl"9 one level In the strocture.

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;-.- mezzanine A low or partial story Wtween two main : stories of a bUllalng. ~p. one that projects i as a blcony and forms a composltion with

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the story beneath It.

-B---

r- fi~tfloor ! :

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The gl"O'Jnd floor of a bu!k:flng. In 8rltaln and elsewhere. the first floor IS tile floor Immediately above the ground floor.

--;-.. ground floor :

The floor of a bu/ldlng at or nearestto ground level

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..;.+:--l-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

~_I__

areaway A sunken area affording access. air. and light to a !1asement door or window.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.... _ _ _

;'" pasement : A story of a building that Is wholly or part~· -Avbelow - ground level. I

subbasement Arry story or floor below the maIn basement of a buifding


BUILDING

~~~~~~~~~~~~~- ..-....... - .... --.------.---fro nUspiece

The front of a ~ulk:llng or any of Its skies facl~ a pu~hc wtrj or space. esp. one dlsUngulshui by Its architectural

A princ!p31 fac3de. or a part or feature of a facade. often t~ as a separate elerTl!rTt of tl-.e des~n 3nd highlighted by

"',:reatment.

""

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OrT1a~ntation.

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~"~~~==::S r- pavilion ~

:

Acerrtr31 or fIar.l:i:-..g ?ro}xt~ su~alvlslon of a f:3C3de. us~i!J ~tea by more elabor3t.e decon<;:cn or gre3W hel9ht a~.d distinction of ~~r,e.

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d

nlsefront

stcr"f A major ho"';.zontal archlt.ectur31 dlvlslon.• 5 of 3 fac3de or the w.ii

A~ falstfyl~ the size or lmp:lrtance of a ~Ildlng.

u

ofa n.ve..

pay Ar'rJ of. 1\~mper of prlr.clpal alvls\o(l5 of • wall roof. or other part of;; ~Ji1d1~ rnarl:~ off by vertical or tr;;nsve~ supports. bll~r"f

A ft'Ia]or horizontal dMslon of a w;; il havl~ no m.erlor windows.

U

I

I7lind DescrIbi:'~;;

recess In awall havi~

the appe4 r3 nee of a wlndow (~l1rJ wlMcw) or Joer (Plln4 door). Inserted to c.omp~ a serles of wlnOows or r.o provide symme-try of

~alccny

An eb7ted platfonn projectl~ from the wall of a ~~ and enclosea by a ram~ Of p3rapet.

l~ i

Je~n.

J="

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fenestration The design.

l..w

proportioning. and

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alsposltlon of windows other exterior openings of a ~ulldlng.

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ana

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BUILDING r-

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l ~~~ ~

~

. f==

,~

:p6~1?:1

\#lfJ A r.a~ p~tfunn. appro;;;;heJ by steps $Oft1etl~ having a nxrf.

An ~r appendage to a i1ulldlng. forml"4 Ii covered approach or vestlpule to a doorway.

at the

ofahou~.

\

~n

roof;J ~~d

usualti pt1y enclosed. 25 by a raUir:g. often ~1"4 across the front and sldes of a ~. A!so.;erandab. i

t~,;1. esp. a fully fuml:shd

0

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r = r-

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r-~I1i£g,J Aporch having a roof supported by . columns. often leading ta the entrance of a ~ulldlng.

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IcnrWer/

series Of re~u13."'Y spaced columns

supportIng an er:tJNture and usually one sIde of a roof structure. lf05te~tq

e

used 4IS a livI~rOOm.

-A prfvateorside entrance. as 011(: for peaestrians next ta a porte-cochere.

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::~:;:.; r--- ---. - ----- -.- ,-_._._ ... _.......... 2"fO~hert: •

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' " A porch roof proJdtlng over a driveway at the entrance ta a lnJlldlng and shelterjA!tfho~ gettlng In or out of

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ve.bIcles·;A1So calleatarrt.ue porch. f· ..~. . . . 1

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(#:;::::::r::::.:::::::~)

t~A An open. unrociea porch or ~tform ~ng fl"Ol1 a hou~ or ~r ~ng.

--.-------.--~

portal,

.

A doorway. ga):e. or entrance. esp. an ImposIng one emphasIzed by size and

stately archltp;tural treatment.

25


BUILDING

I_l

••• 1. : • rotunda A rC1Jnd. domed pullding. or a large and b~h clrcularspau In such a puJldlng. esp. or..! surmounted l'Ya dome.

, !'

piloti _:._ ..i

---- Any of a serIes of columns supportIng a pulldl~ an open ground level

arove

ell AwIng at right angles to the length of a pUllding. Also. ef.

wing

I

Apart of a buildIng projectl~ from a"4 sul10rdlnate to or main part.

~

sL;b A ~..anqu"r ~Ji!dlng h3V!r-qlittle width ~..., respect to its length 3na hetqht.

I [., ..,: :. ,.

I~

An area open to the sky a nd mostly or court

_~entlrely surrounclea by walls or I7ulldlngs.

~

A P-.lltalng or structure hIgh In proportlon to Its lateral dImensions. . ~ standing alone orformir.g part of a lo rgtr I7ulldlng. atrium A skiit. central court In a buil.::li~~. esp. a farge Interior one bavl~ a glass roof and surrc~ -Jed by sevml Stories of galb'es.

Ploc1: II ~rge buildIng divided Into a numberof ~me a~rtments. offices. or shops.

~~

-

"

....................... .

L.fi

AcOOnnakd or arcaded space within the body of a ~ng !lut open to the air on one ~?ften at'an upper story overlooking an ~ccurt.

rUM no17i1e

_ ... -................

00 • • _ · · · _ · ·

•••••

courtyard Acourt adjacent to or wlthfn a building. esp. one enclosed on all four sIdes.

patio A courtyard, esp. of a house. enclosed by low I1Ulldlngs. arcades. or walls.

J

atrium

The prir.clpaf story of a large ~ulldlng. as a pal3ce or villa. wtth formal reception and din~ rooms. u5~1ly one fltqht a!love the

An open. skylit court around which a house or bultdlng Is ~ullt.

~floor.

D L y

corU!e •. ---- ...... -- .. -- -- ... - -----. --. A br~ or principal courtyard of an Italian

palma.

patuza A large. Imposing puplic ~JM'~ ~ priV3':.e residence. esp. In It31y'

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26


r-

I

BUILDING orientation The position of a Duilding on 3 site In relation to true north. to pOints on the compass. to a speclfiG place or feature. or to local conditions of sunlight. wln:~and

l _

r

te._

cbim

front To face In a specific direction or look out upon.

To assert Of' dema nd re~nitlon or possesstcn.

folly A whimsical or extravagant structure built to serve as a conversation piece. lend Interest to a view, or com memoratea person or event.

.-

pavilion A small, often ont3mental bUilding In a

merge

f

L

garden.

To comlnr.e. !knd. or unite ~radU311y by stages so 3S to I1lur identity or distinctions.

pL1Z3 Apul7llc 5qUJre or open space In a city or town.

gazebo Afreestanding roofed structure, usually

i-_

open on the sides, affordll19 shade and rest In a garden or pari:.

L r

i

'luadrangfe .â&#x20AC;˘ - ........ -.... -............. . Asquar~ or 'tU3aranguiar space or court surrounded ;,y 3 bui!dll19 Or I1ulldlngs. as on a college CJmpus. Also called quad.

L 941 llem Aspaclo!JS promenade. CCIIrt. or Indoor maR. usuar1y navl"9 a V3ulted roof and lined

r ~Ivedere Al7ulldln!J, or architectural feature of a

I[J[ If aS0Rf-H .......

11ullJlng. des19ned and situated to look aut

with comrr.erci;;ll establishments. pro~fUde ]

L

upon 3 pleasln!J scene. topi3ry

or.wall:.esp.~n.

An aro;I use.dfora stroH pul7Hc p!xe.lS for p!easu~ or dlsp!ay.

3

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Jllee French tern for a broad walk planteJ ",itn trees..

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Clipped or trimmed Into ornamental arlO fantastic shapes. or the won: or art of such clipping.

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Jri?or _ .... - ............ _-- ...... -..... _.... -.. A shelta c.f shruPs ana 17r.lllches or of bWcewor1: Irrtmwlned with cl1mlnl19 v1n_~~ . d flowers. . ~" ~ .

rf

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uellis Afume supportlng open iattlcewon:. used as a screen Of' 3 support for ~rowlng vines

or plants I.3ttice A Structure of crossulstrlps arranged to form a rt:.3JiJ r p3 ttem of open spaces.

pergola . A structure of parallel colonnades supporting an open roof of Peams and CrOSSl119 raftus or treillswon:. over wHich cllml1lng plants are trained to grow.

27


r j

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CABLE STRUCTURE r-

! t

sU5penslo~ structure

A structure of cal7ies suspended and prestressed !letween compression meml7ers to directly support applied loads.

r i

suspension 17ridge A Imdge having a d,e.c.I: suspended from cables raised on towers and securely anchored to abutments at the ends.

~~ ... ' .

.

' ..

_

~

single-curvature structure A suspension structure utlllzl~ a parallel series of ca17les to support surface-forming l7eams or pl3tes. A si~le-cul'V3ture structure Is susuptlule to flutter Induced by the aerodynamic effects of wind. This lia17i1ity can l7e reduced by Increasing the dead load on the structure or anchoring the primary ca17les to the ground with

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transve~guyca17les.

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component of thrust In a suspension or ~ cal:>le-stayed structure a n d . . n . transferring the force to a ground foundation.

------~-

n~

v

,-_.......,;:;~

primary cable One of the pretenslooed cables directly supportlng the load on 3 suspension structure.

Avertical or inclined compression rneml7er In a suspenslon or cablestayed structure. supportlng the sum of ~ vert.ical force components In the primary aM gfl'J caPles. Incnning the mast enal:ks It to pIcl: up some of the hortzootal cal:>le thrust and reduces the foru In ~ guyca!rles.

i------------ -- .-.- ... -

double-cable structure - .--.- - -.. A suspension s~re having upper and lower sets of cables of different curvattlres, pm.ensloned by tles or compresslon struts to make the system more rlgk:l2nd reslst3nt to flutter.

secondary cable 011e of the pretensloned cables used for stal:rillzln a 5uspenslof'l5tructlire against flutter, uS1J311y having a cumture oppo$fte to tha t of the primary cables.

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douule-curvature structure Asuspension structure composed of a field of crossed C41l>leS of different

I

I

I L .. bound2rycable

i: ~

Acable for ~nchorlng a set of secondJr)' cables In a suspenslon S""....JCture.

and often reverse curvatureS. Each set of caufes h3s a different natu:"31 ~rIod ofvlur3tlon, thus form log a selfdam~nln~ system that Is more resistant to flutter.

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C3ule-stayed structure A structure h3Vln~ vertical or Inclined masts from which cables extend to suppcrt horizontally spannIng members arranged irI a parallel or radial pattern.'

---------

29


., (ElLING The overhead interior surface or Iini"4 of.1 room. often concealing the underside of the floor or roof above.

o

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!?eam ceiling The unac:rslde of a ftoor showIng ~ supporting I1eams arid finished to form a ceiling.

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CQVe Ut1~

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~ ullifli· Ace!ling hMng;l cove. Also. caved C()Ve

-

71"-'1 /,/

jcoffer

1

One of a number of recessed. USu.iily square or octagonal panels in ;I ceiling. ~. or

;

vault. Also called c.alsscn.i.1curur.

_ •........•.•...•.••.•.•................. ~/'.

'; bcunar/

A CO~ surfue fonnln!! part of • celh"i at Its ~ so as to eI1mlnat.e the usuallnt:enor angle ~etween the wall and the celnng.

. Aceiling. soffit. or vault adorred Mt-h a pattern of recessed p:onel5.

plafona , Aflat or v3ulW ceiling of decorative character.

l 30


(ABLE STRUCTURE A structural system utilizing the caHe as the principal means of support..

.' sag Theyert~31

distance from the supports to

the lowest point of 3 cable structure. As the 5Jg of 3 CJb{e incre35t:S. the Inte.maJ forces dtvtloped in the uble dXre3se. cap~

A flexIple structural meml1er. as wire rope or ~'chaln, having high tensile strength / IxIt offering no reslsta nee to com presslon Or~g.

I !

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funicularslupe ... j

The shape assumed Vi a fruly cleformlng

C3P\elocation In directofresponse to the magnitude and external forces. Acaple alw-ays adapts Its sh3pe so that It 15 In pure tension under the action of an applled load.

!

j

,••".".".".,

funicular polygon· .,._ ...................... / The wpe assumed Vi a freely cleformlng ~ In direct I'tSf'On5e to a set of

concentrated loads.

~,

........ ,

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~":~:::;ed;;~·i~~:ki;~·I~~·· ····-···1<'",.... C3u\elndlrectresponsetoa uniformly J"tStrIbuteaload.

,.. structure sha pea to ca rry or support a given Ioadlng Vi either axial

,-'

..........

l\ \ , -+-.'

~~""

.

",' ,~t /''"

tension or compression. For arry !liven loading condit;1on. there Is only ~ general funicular shape. If the L:ndlng pattern ella nges. bendl~ Is iruJuud In the structure.

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~r;.;;~~.~-;;;i.;~.~~~.- ----.-._-- ;\~:--.-;:iLl r.m~'"

uniform cal7lesuspendeafreely from two polnt6 not In the same vertlcall1ne. For a load that Is uniformly distrluutea In a ~I prqectlon. the cUrr'e approaches ~ of a p3r.1rola

u

funicuL1r structure

0-----------,-,0

.

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- .• - .-•. - ..... --.- •.•.•.. --- .,- .•. -.---. - •..• - .•• ---.......... - ....... -.... "._" ..•... _.... .,;

I

8uttresses. -.-......•... -... --... ~5tnJts.

-- .. -.• --•.•• -.--.-.- ..• ' " orsnbrelements ~re rtflufret/ ~ contJfn ~nJ ".; ~thehOitz0nt3IC1)mponentsqfthe~/lIe "'" thrusts. """

~ ~mbl u m~r-." " '...

A lens·shaped structure having the outward thrusts of an arch ualanced by the Inward pulls of a caple. resulting In no net lateral forces at the supports.

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f-

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28

i


, CEILING dropceili~

suspended ceiling Aceill~ suspended from an overhead floor

A ~ry cel~ formed to provlde space fer plpln.g or duC1Jl!ori. or to ~tter the proportions of ~ room. Also. dropp~

or roof structu re to provide space for pipes. ductwork. lighting fixtures. or other service eqUipment.

uili"i- --------_. r

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. '. :' ;":';.~: ........' ~ •.;.... :.; ~ :.:~. :,;, .., . ":.' .:.~: ~

~:,' .:~':; ~~ ~'.: .7,: ': =;::;,\',,1 ~~! ~:'. :<;.) ~::!'::':, ..' .•··.l·-~ ~.;: ',:) . :..:':. ..·.2.:. ·_~,~l

~========:::;:========::::::::.::::::::;::z:~:ti:::::o::::::q:±:::::::::::::~:;:j:;;:i:::~~~~::iz.:~i:::c:b~2:z:c~~~=:±:~-T"1

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plenum / The space petween a suspenaed celilng ana the floor structure apave. esp. one that serves as a recelvlll9 cham!1erfor conaltloned air to pe dlstrl!1uted to Inhaplted spaces odor return air to pe conveyed pack to a central pl3nt for processln~.

r r j

accu5wltik Tl~

made In v.rlous sius anJ textiJres from

acoustical ceiling

a soft. 5OOnd-~!?sorVlng matertll. 35 corl

A ceilln!! of acoustical tile or other sou ndabsorbing material.

mlnenf f1w. or ~bss f1l>~.

metal pan --------------------.-----------\ An~stlcaltl~cons~ofasteelor

\

aluminum p3n having a perfonted fau and cont3lning a 5epante l3yer of soundal1sortl119 material

r

t exposed grid 1 A metal grid of Inverted ---- cross tee

r r

A secand3 ry mem ber of the grid su pportln~ a suspended ceiling system. usu.ally a sheet-lretal tee carried by t~ main runn.ers.

-----.- m3in rtJnnu A prlllClp31 rnemDer of ~ grid supportlng a suspended ceinng system. usually a sheetmetal char.nel or tee suspended by hall9er wires from the O'>'erhead structure.

rI

, recmtigrui' -.1 Ametal grid for supporting a suspenaed celhng of acoustical tiles haVing rapl:>eted

-----

J?~~.

. -.- spline

1

f

tees suppartin~

the acoustical tiles of a suspenaed ceiling.

11I1i!!i;IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIWrr-

A thin metal str:p Inserted InCO the edges of two acoo5~31 t;ile= to ma~ a lrottJolnt between them.

------.--.- kerf /

i

Agroo.-e cut In c.o the edges of an acoustlcal tlle to rteelve a spline or T-shaped m~~r ~rt1~qrid.

~ pconccal&:J grid ~. A metal grid suppOrting the acolJstl~1 tiles

of ~ suspended ceiling. hldcfen within kerfs cut Into the edges of the tiles.

(j~r mebl uiling

A suspended ce:1I~ system of narrow metal strips. usually Incorpornl~ rnodul3r I19htl/l4 .nd alr-nanJnll9 components. ;II ~'5...; :) ~ ~~

A'S;..

.;)

~

.;I.

Integrated ceiling A suspended cell1~ system Incorporating ~~§~~ 1igh_~n.9 •..~11<;f alr-l13ndling_ £QmponentsJnto.a .unlf1ed whole...

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c' lumina us ceiling A sus~nded ceiling of t~,~slucent PJr.els for diffUSing the light frc-r, !umlnaires

mount.ed above it.

linear diffunr

~

A long. narrow dlffuserdeslgned to disperse air through slots l>etween the panels of an Integrated ceiling system. Also called slot diffuser.

louvered ceiling A susperJed ceiling of multlceUular louvers for shle!d11l9 the nght sources mounted above ft.

31


(EMMIC Any of VArious hard.lnittle. noncorrosive. and ~UGtlve II'I4ttrbls formed by the k?nlc rondng of a metal and 3 nonmetaf. as In"!d:.~. and rl4tul'3lstone.

l~

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,

t .i

It li cu.. micware

earthenware

porcelain

enamel

Arty ofnrlous products made by firing clay

low·flred. opaque. nonvitreous ceramic ware.

A hard. vitreous. translucent cel'3mlc material consisting essentially of Kaolln. fek:lspar. and quartz. fired at a very high temperature.

A vitreous. usually opaque. decoratlve or protective coating appl1ea Py fusk)n to the surface of metal. glass, or pottery.

china A translucent ceramic material, I1lsque·

An opaque. grassy coating ponded to ~~.... I by fusing at a high temperature. Also wiled

fired at a high temperature and glaze·flred

vitreous enamel.

or similar NttrI3ls In a kiln. as !nick. tile.

andpc«cy.

stoneware Hlgh.flred. opaque. vitrified cel'3mlc ware.

I

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porcelain enamel

atalowertemperature.

kaolin

I

A fine white clay used In the manufacture of porcelain and white portland cement. Also called china clay.

flri"i The process of hardening or glazing ceramic W;i re by hating In • kiln to a speclfled

vitrify To make a clay body vitreous Pyflrlng ata specifled temperature.

temperWJ reo

D b

,/

lurd·hrnea _........... ...... ............

vftreo~

Reseml1llng glass. as In tl'3nsparency. hardness. l1rlttleness. luster. or having low or no porosity. b

o -

-------....

/

"/

, .' "',, '-. \'" \.

.: \\}~\,,\~\.\~,'".. ': .,~~A\~.~:~...

ceramic bond " A thermochemical rond I1etwun I!13w... ls '" resulting from exposure to tempetAt~ approaching the fusion point of the mtx-'"...I,;re.

~"'' ' I!I!II--••~~ '.

,

Ared ~. high temperature to near Yltrtflr..atlon and having relatively low apsorptlon and high compressive strength.

------

J

<-

;:":,\~:'

.....•.,,_...

,

/

\

-... ~... - body )

The structural portion of a ceramic ar--..<t:

~!~~aymaterlalormlxturefrom ~,,~ it

/ ·l1l~ue..fired

Fired to harden a clay Poay. bi,,\ue

Earthenware or porcelain that h;;s p~ flred once put not glazed. Also called W&allt. glaze-fired

5Oft·l7umed _................ _.......... -: semlvftreous Having a rnodel'3te wattr al1sorptlon of

Fired ~ • low ttmperature and having relatively h~h 3Vsorptlon and low compressNe strength.

shghtly under 61.

A fused or partially fused material that ts ground to Introduce a solulile or unsta~.e Ingredients Intc\glazes or enamels.

nonvitreous Having a water al1sorptlon greater than 71..

I I

L' I

32


CERAMIC / uramic tile t- ,..-

I--

-

I-- ,..-

.-_. 1-----;

_

1

_'~ ........

Any of varlcus fired clay tiles used for surfacing walls. floors. ana cauntertops.

/ glazed wall tHe Ceramic tHe h3ving 3 rfonvltreous Pody and a I1rlght. matte. or ceystailine glaze. used for surfacin~ Interior walls and IIght·duty floors.

c--; I-- - '

:

:

I I I I I

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/ ceramic mosaic tile Small ceramic tile haVing a porcelain or natural clay Dody. glazed far surfacIng walls

trimmer

""'"1

9

Any of various specially shaped ceramic

tiles foe

"'5hi" '" "",,'

or unglaztd for use on roth floors and walls. and usually face- or Pack'mounted on sheets to fac~rtatc: handling and speed Installation.

.~.#."

~

.... ; ...,

...............

....~

..

"-"~"~I'=~~~~ ~

A co.'ed tk set at the meeting of a floor and wall to prevent 3CCumuf4tlon of dlrt and to facll1t3te cleaning.

t

t;'Nk~"~":~

U

Unglazed ceramic floor tile having a I13tural c14y body. Alsa called promenade tile.

I--t--

paver tile

f--~

Unglazed ceramic floor Ule slmlf4r In composition to ceramic mosaic tlkl M thicker and Llr~c:r In surface area.

..

I

f--~ r--~

r-tt-tr-t-

f-~

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j

.LI.J.J !

Any of tM ceramic or nonceramlc articles designed to Pe affixed to or Insmed In tllewar+;. as tower I7ars. saap holders. and the like.

thlck-~et process

thln-l7ed prou~

A tllese'ttlng proussln which ceramic tile Is apphed OVer' a portland cement mortar Pea ¥.. to 1Vzln. (19 to:3a mm) thlel:. which allows for murate slopes aruf planes In the finished war+;.

Atllesettlng process In which ceramic tile Is bonded to a continuous. stable I7acklng with a thin coat of dlj'-set mortar. latex· portland cement mortar. tp<JY:i mortar. or an arg3nlc adhesive. '132 to '/aln. (008 to 32 mm) thlel:.

portland ument mortar

L

I--~

.......-

--," -N-O /"

t n~~~a~

qU3rrytile

I ...... ·····

Afield mix of portland cement. sand. water.

tile grout

and sometimes hydrated lime. used for leveling or setting ceramic tlle In the thlc~· set process.

A cementltlous or resinous mix for filling JOints In ceramic tllework. ---------r

~ndcorl

A thin coat of mortarfor rondlng ceramic tile to aI7ading.

33


(ERAMIC ,t.Mlctur.a1 clay tile A I-clIow tl~ of ftreJ clay having parallel cells or ceres. used In lnJitdlng walls ana ~s.

,(.B l..o3J-~ring structural clay tile sult3l1le for m.a sonry walls not exposed to frost xtbn. or In exposecJ masonry where protected by a facing of 31n_ (76.2 mm) or mo~ of stone. prick. terra cotta. or other mJsonry.

" LeX

l.o3d-~rlng structural cf3y tile sultal1le for IT13sonry waMs exposed to weathering or

frost

structura Ifacing tile

l

Structural clay tile having a glazed surface. used for facing walls ana partitions. esp.ln areas subject to heavy wear. moisture problems. and strict sanitation requlremen ts.

j

I

frS Structural facing tile suitable for e:xposecl exterior and InterIor masonry walls ana partitions where moderate absorption. slight va~~f~~dlroenslaJJs~ mlnor_ 3efects In surface flnlsh ..3 nd medlum color·

u

I

,!ng~ ~re ~~~a~ie, FTX

Smooth structural facing tile suitable for exposed exterior and Interior masonry W3l1s and partitions where low aJ??9.rp1Io.n ana stain resistance are required. and where a high degree of mechanical perfection. minimum variation In fau dimensions. and narrow color range are desired.

I

u

~ terr.1~o;

A n.ra. fired cby. reddlsh-prown In color whell unglaztJ. used for architectural ~s and ornaments. tl~ units. and

potttry.

cotta·,

~ ~rJlterr~ n.rJ-~rned. glneJ or unglazed terra ccu.. hand-molded or machine-extruded to or~ as.a cer2m1c veneer-for wans or for ~ntatlon.

"'";:':-;-:-._:~:p";,:,,,T:~:-:·~­ r- • ~';:t~!::,:-!-;:"Ii:C~ - -"","

"J .~ ~

IIP.-J..

,adck'"'J Sun-dried urick made of clay and straw. ~Iy ustd In countrieS with

,.Infan.

.

little

rammea~rth

A stiff mixture of cf3y. sand or other aggr~ate. and water compressed ana dried within forms as II wall construction. Also calleJ plse. plsay. plse de terre. ~-

..

--,.~

-;

i ~

L

I

1 1


r

I-CHURCH· A l?uiUling for public Christian worship.

Ch~nity The~. rounded on the teachings

of Jesa:sChrist,lncluding the Catholic. Pro~t. 3nJ ~tern Orthodox chu~ •

!

r*'~f A se-ll1lclrcutar or polygonal projection of a

I'

P3SiJka ---:...... - .................. .. An e~Chri5tlan church. ch.arackrtzea by a long. rectangular ptan. J ~h coIonnad~ nave lit I1y a cferestofy and coverea I1y a timbered gable n:lOf. tMJ or four lower side aisles. a semlci"cul3r ~ at the end. a 113~3tIJ often other fea tu res. as an atrtlln,,, ~. and small semlca'cutar 3pse5 terminating the aIsles.

L,

I

I

L

.

~ ~.'it

I

L..

.....

.' -'

later cruciform churches.

..- ...-......... --...... --.-----.. --...--..---.--

t;jnct@

church In which the princlp31 altarls placed.

\_.,\ ~lU'~j

!i~~-:;i-.-.-- ........... -.-.-.--.--..... --.-.-----

Theta~leln aChristlan church upon which the Eucharist, the sacrament celeUr.itlr,!! Chrl5t's Last Supper. Is ce!eUr.itea. Also

~~ij

/.. ~asit~tor ~ rttU31 cleansing wIth water In the atrltJm of 3n early Christian basilica.

The princlp31 or central part of a church. extending from the narthex to the choIr or chancel and uSU3llyflanl:ed by aIsles.

isfe=-4 tI'.nYC::of~tk

L

longitudinal divisions of a church. separa~ from the nave by 3 rowofcolumns or

-I·

.j

j •

,

!

~~;j--- ... --.---.-.............. .

The partied \.1efore the nave of an early Chrlstl3n or f\yz3rrt1ne church. appropriated ta ~nftents.

:

4 __ •

baptl5ttry

t~ .. \'

t. "

A partof a church or 3 sepa rate ~ In which I7aptlsm Is administered. Also. ~aptistfy.

eson.arthex .,'

i13,rJ:5m

A coverea walk or outer narthex situated before an Inner narthex.

A ~ntofinltbtlon Inta Christianity. of splritua I ~ner.Jtlon.llUrUd by a ceremonial immersion or "Ppl1c4t1on of water.

cal~it'tal7~P5

baldachin /

.

An omamet!1:41 caner.; of stene or marbl,e permanently placed (Ntr the altar In a church. Also. baldachino. ~akla'luln. Also called ciporium. _ ....... :

i

piers.

l

__ •

.~

Asac:ti-¥r~1y place, as that part of a

The ~d w3~ of an 3trlum or cloister.

L

-The bls~p's throne. occuPYing a recess or apse In an e3r1y Christian church. A transverse open space separating. the nave and U!e3pseofan e.rlyChrlsti3n church. develcpi"4ln1;() the transept of

b'~.fifJ·-- .. -·-.-·---.... --........ -----......

L

•. trivUMY

·. . . ·-..1I7emJ'

Tliefmurtof an early Christian church. flanked or SumllJ nde& by.ffrtiCOes:f

I

I

~ulkllng. uSU311y vaulted and used esp. at the sanctuary or east end of a church. Alsa. apSis. ...~ .,t.- ... /

l-............................ ~.

\1#~ Elther Of two raised mnds from i'rhlchthe Gospels or Epistles wer~ read or ch3nted 1n 3n early Chrlstl3l1 church. Also. am1?on.

An InMr narthex when two are present.

exonarthex /' C ~'.~~{

symronc

H

font A Pasin. usu.ally of 5WIe. holding the water IISed In Va ptlSm. .

I

.~

..... -

••, / ,/

~nu

The sanctuary sp3ce surroondlng the altJr of an ~stem churcn.

dbco nIcon

I

A sacristy In an e;Jrfy Chrlstlan or E..aste:m church. usuafrj on the solIth side of the

L

A room In a church where the sacrea vessels vestments are kept. Also C3 lied vestry.

!Jenu.

5Uristy

ana

I

I

I

prothesis .' Achapel In an E..astem Church where the

L

Eucharistic e~ts are prepared. u5l.:a!1y on the north side of the bema.

l

!

L

Iccn A representation of 3 sacred Christian Person.l¥. as Christ or a saint or angel. ~lcally palntea on a wood $(J rf.a ce 31Id Itself vener3 ted as De 1 ng sacred. esp. In the tradition of the Eas tern Church.

euara - ..:

iconostas(, -A SCrutl or partr.lon on which Icons are 1 placed. separating the bema from the nave of an E.astern church. Also, Iconostas.

A large apslaal extension of the Interior

volume of a church. Also. exhedra.

35


--- ..... "'itra~~ Th~ maJortklnSVer5e p3rtcf a cruciform church, crossln~ the main axis at a ~ ht :lingle lletweenthe n3Ve and choir.

15plr~--·-···· A tall. acutely tapering pY1'3mldal structure SUnTlountlng a steeple or tower.

I.

I

! ~pjiu1c:'i-··--··-----·-·-·---·--------J A Pel! tower, usually one near put not attached to th~ rody of a

lJ

lneepltj II tan oma menta I structure. usually enalng In a spire and surmounting the tower of a church or other pupllc

onTondOlffil

uulldlng.

A PuI17ous, cbrr.elike roof te\1~ating

sharp point. used esp.ln 1(~r;:,.::II~ OrtbAM'J{ church arch~ure to CIJoI.~n?Upola ~y

p

tower.

~ f

I

6 :.. ~~tterY1 .

II roofea promenade. esp. one ~tendlng Inslae or outside ;;Iong the exterior

wall of a Pulldlng.

A anop\ed r~s for a

t

L

5~ve churchl

I

An Ina~noo5 ~ndlnavl3n church of the 12th ana 13th Unturies, havl"i a tlmllerfrarne, pf4lnk walls. a ~Iered. stupty pitched roof, ana few windows.

r

IIoft·t

~ IIn3¥ or ICon.

, Ag2'11e1)' or upper level In a church or han.

arcak ---.-----.---~.-- ..... __ ..... i

r~pond ___ ._ ...••••. _•.••.• __ ••. __ •.••......... .1

A serles of arches supporte« Oil plus or

A pier or pilaster projtctl"9 from a wan as a support for an arch or lintel. esp. at the tenTIlnatlon of an arcade or coIonna~.

cofumns.

arcU.1U Curved or arched hke a Pow: a t"~rm used In descr1P~ the arched orv3u 1i;,;cJ st·l1.lcture of 41 Romanesque church or Cothlc C3tnear3l:lis distlngulsht<;,om the tr"aPe3ted archltectur~of "" Egyptian hypost~ hall or Greek Doric /:emple. Also.

Interlacing arcade An arcade, esp. a I1Iind one. composed of

arches resting on 31tema~ supports ana overlapping In series where they CI"05S. Also called InUrsecth!g arcade.

I7lindarcade A series of arc~s superimposed on 3 waH for decoration. AI50 ailed arc3UIl'e.

arcuauo.

36

I f

!


lHURCH

~ cathedral f

The principal church of a d~, contalnlny the l1ishop's throne called thl catf1eJra> :

[ f L ~-.

f'0 - i

chapel

\ Asepa rately dedica ted pa rt of a chu rch for

i

\ private prayer, meditation, or small ",religious services.

chancel The space al10ut the altar of a church for the clergy and choir, often elevated aDove the nave and separated from It by a ralhng orscrt:en. • '~'~""

_____ · __ ··_4

t ~~~lycarvedftqureofa hurrun or

.-~

anlrrul esp. OM wtth lin open mouth that serves 3S A spout 3M projects from a gutter to throw rainwater clear of a ~uilJif\!.

am~ulatory

An aisle enCircling the end of the choir or chancel of a church. Also called deambul3tory.

chantry A chapel enclowed for the saying of Masses and prayers for the souls of the founders or of persons named by them . • ------------~ ..

~--"----T

chevet The rounded east end of a Gothic cathedral. Including the apse and ambulatory.

lapyrinth -----A m3zel~ pattern

-.. -....... choir

the pavtmentofa IIIC;""C;Y,"-=~. church.

The part of a church occupied by the slnqers of a choir. usually part of the chancel

i

retrochoir

1

Aseparate alvlslon behlna the cholror high altar of a large church.

~win.dow~

:--. lady chapel

- .. -------.. -.---.-- .. -.....

;

Acfrcub;-Wfr,Jow. usu311y of stained glass " and dae.cor.ltecl ~ trn;ery sym met rica I • taoot t}.e center.

fI.

high atbr

~~~.\

The main altar of a church.

lGt.s5'c..~ or~ired by h:avlng p~.ents !r.lW ontolts surface or by Iuvlr.g V;1rious ~1I1c oxldes fused Into It

t

.... -'I

whik: lt1 J Il'1Often statL

t

~ ;--..-....-----:·-·- ..-.. ----1' j the

I

nHe arches anJ ~ and correspondlng to the 5f3U between the V3U ttir.,pr.a the roof of an aisle.

c~

An enclose& place. esp. the laM surrouMI~ or beside a~ral

.-------- 51ype

I ,

A covered passage. esp. onektween the transept and ctIJpter house X a

I I

cathedral. Also. slip.

f

ch4p'Ur hou5e

t t

p~Pyury

The part of a church reserved for the offlci3tl~ clergy.

!:.-

An;l~stmylnachurch,~

r

A chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary. usually located behind the high altar of 3 cathedral at the extremity of the apse.

: .

The place where the ch.1pter of OJ cathedral or !Monastery meets, usually a !?ufldl~g attached to or a hall forming part of the cathedra! or rnon2stery.

~7r~;;';;;;;;;;';;;;~;~ ~.;,;-,~-;----~~~;:~ ,~;,; p""h

lnJrl.;! pbce. esp. one beneath the main floor of. cntJrCh.

rood - .. ---- ....... -.- .. ---- --" -- .. -·------------·-,"--------7 A crucrfb: symbolizing the cross on whlcn i o

~

the c ha

~al or choir from the nave of a

meaie-;31 church.

'.~ "--paradise An atrium or cloister Dc:skJe a church. ~

garth

_

A courtya rd or quadrangle enclosed by a cloister. Also called cloister garth.

.... -... - .. - .... - .. ---

A SCru::1. ~n etlborllteiy adorned and pr~rlJ' S-Urn1ounted by Ii rood. separating

An assembly of the !I1On(s In a !I1Ol13ste1y. or the rnemDers of a religious house or order.

"-,,_

.

Christ .,...3S cruclflea. esp. a large one set . + Oirove ~ entrance to the choir or chancel of ;) rreJ~vJI church. rood~un

ch4pter

chapel for penitents at the west end of sorne medieval E.n9l1sh churches. Also. g3l1lee porch.

#[;f~~~~Jff;fL_..J±::tlt=:::d±=:tl

...• cloi,ter A covered walk having ;;n arcade or colonnade on one side opening onto a courtyard.

alure A walk or passage. as along a cloister or behind the parapets of a castle. Also. allure.

37


COLOR .., A phenomenon of light and visu.al perctptlon that m.ay ~e described in turns of an indivldU.arS perctption of hue, satur;ation, and ~htness for objects, and hut, s.aturation, and In-ightness for light sources.

~;:-~;\," .~f':

'r.~;:~t,'

pale

~rllli.ant

Deslgnatir..g a color having h~h ~htnts5 and low sa';;Jratlon.

Designating a color having high lightness and strong saturation.

Munsell System A system for specifying colors arr.l nged Inf three orderly scales of uniform vlsual steps according to hue, chroma, and value, developed In 189817:7 Alpert H. MunselL Hue extends In a rotary dlrectlon about a central axis through a spectrum of flve major and five secondary hues. Value extends vertically direction from black at the ~ottom through a series of gr?ys to white at the top. Chroma extends r3dla fly from the central axis at which saturatIon Is zero, out to the strongest saturation attalnaple for edcn color's hue andV3lue.

spectrum The distribution of energy emitted by 3 r3dlant source, arT3~ed In order of wavelengths, esp. the pand of colors produced when sunlight Is refracted and dispersed Py a prism, comprising red, orange, yellow, green,plue,lndlga, and violet.

II

11

I hue One of the three dimensions of color. the property of light Pywhlch the color of an apJect Is classlfled as pelng yellow, ":.: green, or blue, or an Intermedl3te /;>etween any contlg uous pa Ir of these colors.

rea,

d.ark

I

.J

Dt5Ignatl~..g • color h.ivfng low i<qhtlless arJ law satura~n, and rtfIectlng~!:i a smafl fr3ctlon of i.-.ciknt tIght.

.:IeepJ

j s.aturation

Des~natlng a color having low lightness and strong saturation.

I

I f •

One of the three dimensions of color. tne purity or vividness of a hue. Also called Inunsity.

~ chroma

The degree Py which a color differs from a gray of the same l~htne'5S or lnightness, corresponding to saturation of the

perceived color.

r~

I

,"---. . :.

,LJ

~

r~color

The perceived color of an oPJect, k ...mnlrled I1y the wavelengths of the light ~~ted from Its surface after selective a~tIon of otMr wavelengths of the lne~ light.

I

f' . "j

~.

'. 1

J

The degree l1y which a color appears to reflect more or less of the Incident ~ht, corresponding to lightness of the perulved

U

~-------------- .~ :".~'.::-- value

l

gray SQle .... sc.1e of achrornatk;

,:,~~ . . ~~::~

ra-. ~.t·t{'?1

C'j.'y.;·'i,' :" ':j

colors h.ivfng several. usua~ ten, equal: graa..'"tlons ranging ~.., from ..mite to pl.1ck.

~eJ~rption -:. Thea~ofcerbln wavelengths of t..'e 5ght \tIc1dent on a coIore<I surbce. the retr..alnlng portion pelng ~ or

ligh~!S

The dimension of color Py which an ol:>,Jut appears to rt&ct more or less of the Inck:!tnt light. V3rylng from Vlack to white for surface colors and from plack to colorless for transpa rent volume colors.

yellow

I

color.

brightness The dimenSion of a color which Is correia ted with luminance ana by which visual stimuli are ordered continuously from 'Iery dim to very plight. Pure white has the maxlmu m Prlghtness. and pure I1!acl: the mlnlmu m Lnightness.

!

u

!

j

U

transmitted.. ~uVtractlve color

A cclor produced by mixing cyan. yeflow. 2nd rnagent.a pigments. each of which a~rbs cer'bln wavelengths. A Pa fa need mlxtu re of these coIora~ or su~e primaries theomlcally yields I1IacI: ~ !t2~ 2n wav~~~ <?f~Sl~ !Jg.1!:t.<-

~itNecolor

A color produced Py combining lights of ~,_ green, and Irlue wavelengths. These light or addltlve primaries contain all the wavelengths necessary to produce a ~ss or~!te light:

optIcal mixing The merging of Juxt3posed dots or strokes of pure colors when sun from a dlst.ince to produce a hue cften more luminous than that avallaple from a premixed plg~nt.

L L J

L 38


COLOR

f

L

color wheel A circular scale of the colors of the spectrum. showing complementary colors opposite each other, Also called color circle.

w.rm , \ .. r:Jlow / yellow-green . _ _ _~.

D~s~natlng a calor Inclined toward or dominated by red. orange. or yello::,?'

,.~

I

yeHow-O~3f1ge

~~~m~;~~co!ors.as red. yellow. and

---/------------------

plue. r~arded as generating all other colors.

L

--- - -- ••. ~-.------- secondary color

---->f.i.-~--,_ .- ••

cool •. _._j

f

Acolor. as Ol"ange. green, or violet. produced by mixing two primary colors. _'1

_

Des~nJtlng 3

GOOrlnclined toward or dominated by green.l7lue. or violet.

L

advancing color • _______ . __ •. __ A warm color that appears to move toward an obserter. giving an illusion of space.

/~-----

rece.dingcplor .--_. __ . __ . ___ •• _. A cool color that appears to move 3WTj from an o~er. gMng an ftluslan of space.

tertiary color A color. as prown. produced by mlx!ng two secondary colors. or a secondary color with one of Its constituent primaries.

comptementarycolor One of a pair of opposing colors on a color wheel, perceived as completl"9 or enha nclng each other.

/

r .analogous color ; One of two or three closely related colors

\~_ .... _. _. __ .,_._. ___ .-'- ___ .__________________ 1on a color whee!. coler scheme , - - - - - - -.... triad Acombination of three colors forming an equilateral trol19le on a color wheeL

An 3rra~ement or pattem of colors conceived of as forming an Integrated whole.

r 'plit compleme~ry

: J. combination of onecolor ana the pair of i colors adJolnlng Its complementary color on \ ... __ • ______ • _________________________ ...J a color wheel.

l

Lr

------~

doul7lecompiementary Acoml7lnatloo of two analogous colors and their com p\ementary cokJrs on a color wheel.

~-Ir

r tint .-.- - ---. -- -.--.". --- .. -•• - .- - --~ Arelatively I~ht value ofa colqr, produced by adding white to It.

II

l ,

L

___

~

moncchroma~

: Having only one coler or exhll7ltlng varying • __ .... __ ...... ____ .. _____ ...... ____ • __________ .J: Intensities and values of a single hue.

r polychromrt.lc

i Having or exhlpltlng avariety of colors.

cowr triJngle A triangular dl~ram developed by Faber 6~ to describe the relationship between a pure h~. white. and PUck, which combine to y1etd second31) tints, tones, shades, and 9rays. All colors IUY be su\:1jectlvely ccnulved as a mixture of the PSJ'Chologlcal prirrurles - red. yellow. green. and plueplus the achronutic pair of white and blacK. shade Arela tlvely dark va lue of a color. produud by adding black to it.

---~

tone An IntermedIate value of a color between a tint ana a shade.

• gray An achromatic color between white and black.

achromatic Having no saturation ana therefore no hue. as white. placl:. or gray.

39


COLUMN A rigid. reL1tNely slender structural memper designed primarily to support axial compressive loads applied at the memper ends.

pillar An upright. relatively slender sh3ft or structure. uS1J311y of prick or stone, used as a l7ulldlng support Or standing alone as a monument. post -----------------.----------A stiff vertical support, esp. a wooden column In tlml7erframlng.

I'

\7uckling The sudden lateral ortorslon3llnstJbillty of a slender structl.Jral metnPer induced;y the action of a compressive load. Bucknng can occur well pefore the yield stress of U1e material Is reached_

l7uckling load The axial load at which a column ~ins to deflect laterally ana becomes un5t4ble.

Under a buct/ing 103d. acdumn C31lIICt gentriiU the Int:enu{ forces ~ to resto~ Its orlgln3llJr.ar contIJtIon. My

avshlng5tress:f~=P/A

-1

_____________ L__

r- -.

I,, /

addltJonaJ loading f+'O!Jid C3U5e the c.?lvmn to kflect further untJ cdapse oca;rs In kntifll Most columns In p7ctJa 3~ ~ to both com~ and be:nJir'1 due to rnt;tIon in

J, ifu rc.rt.lo n The critical point at which a column. carrying Its critical ~cl:lJng load. may either !?uckle or rema In undeflected. The column Is therefore In a state of neutral equffi!?rlum.

materlaI propcrtJe5.lnitbI Cl'OIXtJr.,zs In "brlC3~ or sense eccentricity if 10M ;ppllatJorL ThIs benJln§ qfterr ca~ tile 3Ctu41 bucl:Ilng ItnJ to ~ slightly bwa- tIt.ln tire critical budJlng 104d.

I

i~

r-:-·----·------·--·--- critic.al \7uckllng load .

The maxImum 3xlalloul th"t cart

@IA

~----------+----i--- ~Iende~~ ratSo The mlo of the effective length of a column 5fIort",lumn to Its te.st radius of gyration. .• --•. ---... -

i j

A thlcl: column su~ to failure P-y crush~ rather than l!y ~uckllng. : F;illure occurs when the direct stress • from an axial load exceeds the compressive strength of the material ml!;it,.!e In the cross sectk?n. An ecc-entnc load. however. can produce knJl~ and result In an uneven stress distrlWtlon In the section.

, I

The higher the sJenJemess mto. the lower Is the crltJcilf 5tres5 that 1+111 cause INckllng. A prlTTl3fj' objective In-the design ofi cdurnn 15 to redua Its slenderness mto by minimizing Its effectJve length or TTl3ximlzing the radius of

1f7\--------.-.-.~

~

{f;;

r =-.; 1/A

gyration of Its cross 5tCtIon.

!-.. _...... _._._--_._._ .. _._._ ... _--_._ .... intermedlau ",Iumn

long column f. slender column sul7ject to failure Vy

Acolumn having a mode of failure

buckHng rather than P-y crushing.

between that of a short column and a lOng column. often partly Inelastic by crushIng and partly ei3stlc by buckling.

L

theorttlC3lly~app~toa column without causIng It to puck Ie. The critical b-.rlllng Io3d for a column Is Jrwerse/y proportk?nal to the 5qU3 re of Its effective length. ana dIrectly proportIOruIl to the modulus of elasticity of the ~I anJ to the moment of Inertia of the cro:ss sectlon. Also C3ltea Euler ~ &cW.

--~

b

radiu5cfgyrmon The radlal dlst<lnce from any axls to a point at which the mass of a ~ cculd ~ concentrated without altering the moment of Inertia of the body abcM that axis. For a structural section, the radius of gyratlon Is equal to the SoqU3re I'OO't of the ~t of the moment oflnertb and the are4_

The higher the radius of~ of3 stnJctural section, the ~ resJst.;nt the ~on 15 to buckling. ;, Jeta-mlnlng tk (rO$s-sectlon41sil;pe of3 column, the

objective 15 to provide the ~ry radius gf gyr;tIon about the dfffermt iIXes. For ;n -- ... ----. J5}mmetrlC31 cross sectIOn, buclJln§ w:11 Cend to occur about the ~ 31/5 or In the

dlrutlon gf the 1~5t dimension.

40

! I

...J


ri

I

COLUMN

[~

[~-

= =

~

eccentricity

:

~

I

:

moment = load (P) x eccentricity (e)

axis-

p·delta effect __ ...• _..... ___ ... __ .. _....... _ An aJdltlol13l moment ~ In a ~

-I

stroctural mem~ as Its ~ltudll13l axis dev13tes from *~ nne of actlon of a compresslv~ fOf"'"~. equal to the product of the load and tr.~ rr.emPer dtfl.ectlon at any

1

1·_·1

!

'--t-

.

~nston\l.l ~I:

..

:

~ .mount t>y which an axis deviates from a~er pml!el

I

I .

!

i

~

coml1i~c:l5tresses A set of tensile ana compressive stresses resulting from the superpos1t!on ofaxlal and benalng stresses at a cross section of a structural metT1uer, acting In the same direction and equal it arry point to their 3lgel7ralc sum.

.

point.

··"'·ir= - ---- -T- ~;:'''tr.ll'''' '"Y ho",,,,,,I,octlo,

~.~ ___ m~·thirc:l MJle ______ . ____ ......

The proposition th3t a compressiv~ load '. "~ shc1Jta ~ locaW wlthln th~ middle third of .! - - - - - ~---.. i'~ a horizontal sec':1o!1 of a cofumn or wall to prevent tensile stres~ from developing In ~ ; t,1e section. : t

} L

i' / .~ ... - ( : ' :

I

re-t~n

Irtflectlon points In. column su17ject to l?uci:Ill14- The effective kmgth of a column detennir.es Its crttlc31 ~d!Jng load. 'rV'~~ this port!oo of a column

,

~.cides. the~~coIumnfJl1s.

/

\

-oJ

C

c:i

....:

III 1-' I

1

i . 1/

.... -

---.. t

!..-

1• i

kern point Apoint on either side of the untroldal axis

of a horizontal column or wall section defining the limits of the kern area.

\ \

If)

I

... -

\

\I ~,

"

. / .:

\

9---+

-l

/

~

dlamaet' / 4

r--@-.---- The effectlye ~gth dlstance

:

,/ /

of of a calumn or wall within which the resufta~ of all compressive loads must P3SS If only compressive stresses are to be present In the section. A compressive load applied beyond this area will cause tensile stresses to develop In the section. Also called kern area.

\ \

-l

c

C\i

\

II

J

1

..J

\

I

I

~ f

I I i

fixed

fixed

·1

p~)(

4-

pinned

fixtJ l

k=I.0

l=2.0 P&14

..... ~ k = 0.7 - .... ;

k=O.5

I

i

I'

1

effective length DcU:lr Acufflclent ~ modifying t~ actual ~ of a column acccrdlr.g to Its end ccMtlons In order to determine Its of a 1of1~ effxtive Iengt!1. Fixing column reduces Its effe<:tN~ length t>y h.;:f J.,d increases rts load-carT)ing capacity by 3 8ctor of 4.

rot., enas

/1

/1 11

II

11

II I I

I I I I I I I I

I

./

I

laurall7racing _ _. __ .. ___ I'·

unl1racea length

The uraclng of a column or other compression rr.emPer to reduce Its effective Iength.13teral uraclng Is most effective when the braCing pattern occurs In more than c~e plane.

The distance uetween the points at which 3 structural memper Is!n-aud against uudling In a direction normal to Its length

41


CONCRETE Art 2rtffici2lstcnelike building material nude l7y mixlrl~ cement ana various mineral ~tts with sufficient water tc cause the cement to set ana pinel the entire ITI3SS.

rutural cement A naturally occurring clayey nmesUlne which. when calclnea and ftnely pulverized. produces a hydraulic cement.

pczzoL-in A sll1ceous material. as fly ash. that reacts chemically with slaked lime In the presence of moisture to form a slow-hardening cement. named after a natural cement frcm Pozzuoll. an ancient Roman tawn near Vesuvius. Also. pozzoIona. pcnuol3 na.

siliceous Containing sillc. or oil silicate..

fly ash Flne particles of ash recovered from the waste gases of.3 sollcHuel furnace.

·

t.a-----...... ........... ....

A calcJne.d II'1lxtu re of clay ana I~ filely pulverized and used as an Ing~ In concrete and mortar. The term Is rnquently used Incorrectly

M i i

1

! .

forco~

! i

tnc.lcium sirute ---.-.--... -----1 ACO~constltutlng3rout half the voilr.e of pa1tind c:eme1Tt and ~for;he h.rdenlng or early pin ill ~th of the cemelTt.

j ; I

J"glcwnuOic& •.............-. ·······t A~ WlStltutlng aDoift onequarter of ~ volume of ~ nd : cement ana rtSpOMSl\7Ie for the aging .

l

or long.tM\ g3ln in s~th of the

------~

portland cement

Ahydraulic cement /I13de f;ly ~urnlng a mixture of clay and limestone In a rotary kiln and pulverizing the resulting clinker Into a very fine powdef. named for Its resem~lance to a limestone quarried on the Isle of Portland. England.

hydraulic cement Cement capa~1e of settlng and hardening f;ly a reac'tlon with water.

't~~~, "

U'II1erIt.

tricJlcium ,lumffUt.e.-.--.... A~ constituting arout onetenth of t¥ volume of ;x>rtland

~~..a .•.• ___ ........... . . . . . . . . . e ......... -«

:,.,"

.

~._.-;~.::./ ~

..

.\.;\:.~

0

A.

IlLm

\II

G

it.9

Q

It

0

..

, !

TyPe II: moQerrt.e Aportland cement having a reduced contelTtof trlc3lcium aluminate. makln~ It more resistant to su~ and causing It to ~ less ~ of hydl4itlon: usea In geMer.il1 constructlon where reslstanr...e to rnode~ sulfite action Is ~ulred or where heat l?ulk:lup can ~ damaging. as In

j i f

hlghe.atiystrength

~

..... ".

earlier than nonnal portland cement: uS&i when the early reI!1O'r'3/ of fonnworl: Is tksIrtd, or In coId-~ther construction to redL'Ce the time

rea.uired for protection

from low t.empmtiJres.

TyPe IV: low ht3t A portland cement having. reduced content of triGalclum sltlc::ate.nd an Increased content of d1calclum Silicate. catl$lll! it to genmte less ht-.at of hydmlon than normal portbnd cement: used In;he construction of massive ~ structures. as gl?ilty dams. where a large lnIildup In heat can ~ damaging.

~ne. clay. 5hz/e. oyster-sheDs. sHlca

~ :/," blended. I?3wmzUrl;/s""IfWI'JtopowJ""" . 1

r 8urnlng In ~ rot~ ki1n chAnges r;lW mixture

TyPe V: 5ulfate ~5ting Aportland cement having a reduced

jlnto cemerrt dlnket-.

clinker Afused mass of Incomlnlstll7le /I13tttr resultIng from heating In a kiln or the InImlng of coal.

Gypsum Is added to cflnk~ to

---?, C/lnkerlsgroundlnto ."" port/3nd cement. •. -- ".

4l

A.AiL ..... II

A very-flnely ground portland cement n..vIng an Incl"e35eJ content of trlc3lclum sl~. causing It to cure mter and gain strength

... S3IIJ. ¥JJlronore.

Qlcine

It

retaining walls.

R.3w m2terla/s ccn5l~ of coml1inations of

To hea~a SGPstance to a high temperatare M without melting or fusl/14 r.o «ive off volatile matter or to cause~ ~ reduction.

e.1 ... Le- • • ..a... • • J._ .... ,

Aportland cemelTt used for general construction. h3v1n~ none of the distinguishing qualJt.les of the other types. _ ...

T~1I1:

~ ana responslUle for the Initial settl~ r:J die cement. .,~-" -.~

t._._ .. ~ eo.

TyPe I: narm.1

the constroctlon of brge piers ana ht4"7i

?:~~::' ~..

-...l

..... ,

Ii

content of trlcalclum alumInate. lessening the need for gypsum. a sulfate normally addea to cement to retard its setting t!lr~ used where reslst4nce to severe sulfate action Is ~ulred.

air-entraining pcrtl.1nd cement AType l Type It or Type III portland ceme.rrt to which a sman qU3ntlty of an airentr.llnlng agent has ~een Intergrouna during manufacture: deslgnat.ed Py the

suffix A. as Type IA. Type IIA.or Type lilA.

.;i'

,.f.: ' L<_ ...

white portland cement Aportbnd cement produced from raw .ma t.eria 15 low In Iron oxJae and mangan~ oxide. the su~stances that give concrete Its gl4iy color: uS&i In precast concrete work and In the 1T1J1:1~g of temzzo. stur..co. and tile grout.

5uIbU actlon An expanslve rt3CtIon occurri/14 when the cement IItJtrIx of concrete or ~r CO!T1eS In contact wtth sutf~ dissolved In grouna water or In soli. ~ ...

&

.......

entrained air Microscopic. Spherlc31 air lnI!1V!es. tYF11y 0.0Q.4 to 0.04 In. (0.1 to 1.0 mrrT) In ~metcr.

Intentionally ~ In a concrete or .. ' mortar mix ~ an.~I~T!ral.nln:g ag.e~t~ : ~.- :'

r

I~ t f


(ONCRETE fine aggregate Aggregate consisting of sand haVing a particle size smaller than 1f41n. (6.4 mm): sptclf. the portion of aggregate that 1'1111 pass through a 3/& In. (9.5 mm) sieve, almost entirely through a No.4 (4.8 mm) sieve, and be predominantly retained on a No. 200 (74~ sieve. coarse aggregate Aggregate consisting of crushed stone. gravel. or I1last-fumace slag having a particle size larger than 1f4In. (6.4 mm): speclf. the portion of aggregate th3t Is retained on a No. 4 (4.8 mm) sieve. The maximum size of coarse aggrl:9ate In reinforced concrete Is limited by the size of the section ana the spacing of the reinforcing ~ars . .c_JL&~;(JlfJllf1I~d.'t}§O

••

~'*

A_. , • « •.• .•

.1

,

.......

,

,

mixing W4ter

agg~ate

graded aggregate

The W3~r used In a concrete or rnortJr mix. exclusive of any abs~ Dy the aggregate and free of such h3rmfulsubstances as O1"~pnic materol cl3y. and salts. W3Wfrt for drinking Is genenHy 3CCepta~1e.

Any of various hard. Inert. minerai materials, as sand and gravel. added to a cement paste to make concrete or mortar. Since agg~ate represents from 601 to 50% of the concrete volume. its properties are Important to the strength. weight. and fire· reslsta nee of the hardened cone rete. Agg~te shoukI ~ hard. dimensionally stable. and fru of clay, srlt. ana organic matter which can prevent the cementlng matrix from binding the particles together. --

Aggrl:93te having a partlcle-slze distribution ch3raGterized by uniform grading. Graded aggregate requires the least amount of cement paste to fill the voids and surround the particles.

cemertt p~5~ A mlxtlJre of cement and water forCC3~ setting. and ~1nd1ng t:he~pm!cles ~1er!n a concrete or mortar

fix.

.

particle-size distribution The range of particle sizes In a granular material. expressed either as the cumulative percentage by weight of particles smaller or larger than a speGlfled sieve opening. or as the percentage by weight of the partlcles that range between speclfled sieve openings.

uniform grading ,.. particle-size distribution In which aggregate particles vary uniformly from fine to coarse wtthout a preponkrance of anyone size or group of sizes.

o air-entraining agent An admixture that dlsperses entrained air In a concrete or mortar mix to Increase workability, Improve resistance of the cured proa'_ct to the cracking Induced by free-tha 1'1 c)ldes or the scaling caused by deicing chemicals. and In larger amcu~~5, tc produce lightweight Insulatln9 concrete. o~ acceleratcr

An admixture that h3stens the sectlng ana strength development of • concrete. mortar, or plaste:' r.-rx. o retarder

An admixture that slows the setting of a concrete, mortar. or plasttr ~i;( In order to allow more time for pl3c:ng and working the mix. I~ htweiglrt CO ncrete ConcrC"'"~

m.ade wt?I ~regJte of low $p'X!& gr.Mty and ~hlng less th3n nonTIJl conc~

which !us a unit weight of about t:o pcf (2.400 Ko/ m3).

r

I r

structur41lllghtweigltt concrete

expankd shale

Concrete II13de with strong lightweight aggrt43te. as expanded shale or slate, having a unit weight from 85 to 115 pcf (1.362 to 1,840 k~1 m3) and compressive

A stron~ lightweight aggregate oUtalned by the exfoliation of clay or

strength comparable to that of normal concrete.

shale. Also called expanded clay.

expanded 51a~ A strong lightweight aggregate oUtalned by the exfoliation of slate. exfolLrtion The sphttlng or swel/lng of certain minerals into a scaly aggregate wnen heated.

I insu13tin9 concrete

perlite

lightweight concrete h3vlng a unit weight of less than 60 pef (960 kg! m3) and low thermal conductivity, made with lightweight aggregate. as perlite, or with a foaming agent or gas·formlng chemical that Infuses the mix with a homogeneous cellular structure.

A volcanic glass expanded by heat to form lightweight, spherical particles. used as nonstructural lightweight aggregate and as loose-flll thermal Insulation. Also, pearlite.

o surface-active agent An admixture for reducing the surface tension of the mixing water m~ concrete mix. thereby facilitating the wetting and penetratlng actlc" of the wate. or aiding-In the emulsifying and dispersion of other additives in the mix. Also called surfactant.

o water-reducing ~ent An admixture for reducing the amount

of mixing water required for the de sired workabmty of a concrete or m~.3 r mix. lowering the water-cement rat~ In this manner generally results In Increased strength. Also called

superpla stlclur.

o coloring agent A pig ment or dye added to a cone re te mix to alter or control its color.

vermiculite Mica expanded by heat Into very light, wormlike threads, used as non structural lightweight aggregate and as loose·ftll thermal Insulation.

43


r[

tCONCRETi! mix~lgn

The n10St economlcalselecUon and

proportIOning of cement. water. and ~te to p~concrete or mortar

NviI1g the required properties of worbl7lllty. strength. durability. and W'~htness.

:

water-ce~entr3tio _.. _ ..•. _ ... ~ The ratio of mlxl"!! water to cement In a unit volume of concrete or mort3r mix. preferal7ly expressed ITy weight as a decimal

Aham'5law A ~w postulatl~ that, with given concrete /n4teri3ts. curing. and testlng conditions. W compressive strength of concrete Is UTrerseIy propot1lo1ul to the ratio of water to ument: developeJ (,y DA Al7rams In 1919 from experiments at lewis Institute In

fraction l7ut often stated In gallons of water per 94-117. sack of cement. The watercement railieantrots the strength. dura l7illty, and watertightness of hardened

Chlca~.

concrete.

7% -15%·· .- cement cefTtent The quantity of cement per unit volume cf

cement

concrete or mortar mix. preferably expressed In pounds per cubic yard put often st3ted In saus of cement per cubic yard of mix.

16% - 21%"-' water content

water

air

The quantity of water per unit volume of concrete or mortar mix. preferably expressed In pounds per cubic yard but often stated In gallons per cubic ya rd of mix.

1% -.3%

fine aggregate

.' . :'. .'

25% -.30%

J ; 1

.. - ."

.: ....... . :: ... "."..... : : :

, Ij

I Jj

.31%-5/%

consis~rn;y

o

~Iump~~

i

---~----~--~--~I 4 5 6 7 IJ gallons of W3ter per 53ck of cement

sack Ameasure of portland cement: 94 117. In the - -- "........... 87.5 1!7. In Canada. 112 117. ~~~.!.t48ritaln. and 50 kg In countres using the metric system. .... Iso cal~J \139.

The relative a!7ltlty of freshly mixed concrete or mortar to flow. usually measureJ bythe~p~~forconcre:U

A

and ITy the~ .te:st .fpr i..rqu.~r m~E. Consisttncy deperulsla rgely on the

proportion of~nt pasteto.gg~ate In

me.$lJ~ tke slump of. test speclmell.

I I lJ

a mix.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 workability

A mc-..hod for determining the consistency and wortability of freshly mixed concrete ~

I

11

slump

The relatlve e35e with which freshly mixed

A measure of the conslstency and wori::a~lIlty of freshly mixed concrete. tlXpres~ 35 the vertical setthng.ln Inches. of a specimen after It has I7een placed In a slur!1p cone. tamped In a prescrl!7ed manner, and the cone Is lifted. - - - - - - - -

concrete or mortar can !7e handle4. placed In fOr1T1W9rk. comp~ and finished.

6

Worb~ility depends partly on the water·

cement ratio and partly on the grading of the aggregate In a mix.

/plastJc mix Aconcrete or mortar mix that flows sluggishly without segregating and Is re adlly mokle.d. v

slump cone - ........... -- .. -.- -- ..... - ---- .•.. ----An open·~nJncated cone of

dry mix Aconcrete or mortar mix containing little water or too moch ~g~ In relation to the other components and having little or

no slump. Also C411ed stHf mix.

Sr.~metal.t2J=:( mm}hlgh. with 203 mm) and mm}. used to maY a speclrnenor freshly mlxeJ concrtte for the slump test.

.lr.i5"tiameter In • top diameter 41n.

wet mix

Aconcrete or mort3r mix having a relatlvely high water content and runny consisten0'. yJeld1~ a product that Is low In strength. duralnlity. and watertightness.

~ mpreS510n test

A test for ~lnlng the compressIve 5~ of aco~ "atch. using a hyd,..ut1c press to mc:asurethe maximum load 3 test cylinder can support In axial compression ~ore fracturl~.

···-'i~

.. :::.: .~";- '.':.::( .:.

u5tcyUnder •... -""-""-" _............ A cynnder of concrete 6 In_ (152 mm) In diameter and 12 In. (~mm) high. cast from a representative I7atch and cured In a laPof'atoryor In the field under controlled cond.1tlons.

-'=~-:---+----!.-'~"'-t-t--'--

cere test Acompression test of a cylinder cut from a hardened concrete structure. usually ~ means of a core drlii.

j


CONCRETE form Uner --.-.- .... -......... -............. ---"'-

form work

. -- . ,- spreader

concrete sur-fJu.

The kmpor.ilry structure ~ulreJ to support newly pl4ced concrete. Including th~ forms and an necessary supportl~ members. \7raclng. and hardware.

re~$eagent

form

Mata-bl for Iln~ the Inside face of a form. sped;;1!y selecttd to Impa rt a slTlOOth or p«erned finish to the

. A brau. usually of wooJ. for spacing and k~plng wall or footing forms apart. Also called spacer.

Arty of Y.IrIous lI1.3.terlJls. as ollar sillcoot. fa- preventl~ the bonding of concretetc a surf3ce. Also called partlni awnpound.

.-'.- wale A horizontal timber or steel beam for relnfon:;ing various vertical members. as In formwori: or she--<>t piling. or for retaining earth at the edge of an emlr.lr.l::nent. Also called In-east

bulkhead ------.... -.-.... - ... -.--...... - . A partltbl closJng the end of a form or pr~en~ the passage of newly place

timper. ran9er. waler.

concrete rt a constructloo Joint.

/"

"';trongmk

'K.eyw"3'f ------.-----.. _. -.---,

Avertlc31 support for aligning and

A \o11g ltucin.11 ~roove or chan nel .... fonnea Ia a coocrete fOOUng or ather ';

metT1rer ~ has~. proMlng a

s~r-resistlng

Boarding or sheeting of wood, meta I. pi3st1c. or ftberglass for ccntalning and giving a desired shape to newly placed concrete until it sets and gains sufficient strength to be self·supportlng.

relnfon:;lng wales. Also called I

stlffitack.

\

key for newly placed

conc~

yoke A cl4m~ device for keeping column fDm1s or the tops of wall forms from spre3di~ Ilf1kr the fluid pressure of newly pbce& concrete. ~ .:

form tie A metal t!e for I:eep:ng wall forms from spreading underthefluicl pressure of newly

pi3ced concrete.

:'--": -.-.- ..... ~ snaptie i: i A form tie having notches or crimps which II allow its end5 to ~ snapped off below the

~I

:l=====;r=={~i. ~ :

ru~tian

i

:L __ . i ' 'I .... !.. -.---

strip

A strip of wood or other material attached to the Inside face of a form to produce a groove In the surface of a concrete member.

Sonawbe ...: ITt3M ofccm~. resln'lmpregna~d paper.

cfuir

~I

A device fur supporting and holding steel reinfOfUllleTTt In proper posrtion before and duri~ the: pladng of concrete.

high ciuir

I'

I:,

II

i

r:::~~~~~~-I~'~;;;;;~~~~" . '-" -'-.' .-' !. TraJernart for a ~nd of cyllndrlc3l column form

II

i

.' • ". ..•. : . . .

"~

f01Ulnaform~tothew3les_

'~' .... '. "'_"

Ii

~~=H~~~~3Wl!I· ;~.

: :....-.

;!

~

spreader.

I

plastlG attached to a form tie to sp2ce and spread w.1I forms. leaving a neatly finished depressloo In tM concrete surface to ~ filled or!rlt exposed.

~ "--r""" ~'::~conslStir9 of waler rods which ~,

. .:."?.:

Aform tie ha,1ng cones at each end Insicle the forms which allow it to also serve as a

Ji~:~'~'~~"lli ' --T-' --.~ ~S:ll trul1C3tea cone of wood, steel. or

-.uo,./A •

Any of. varety of slotted d...ovlces for tightening formwori: ana transferring the

-

COI'.ePott

to

form to Indicate the top of a ccncrete lift.

• _______ • _____ •• __ ._ • _____ . _ . '

concrete surface after stripping of the forms.

~

II

. __

i

Ji

are ir.serted through the form and threaded ontotheendsofan inner rod. After stripping. the water rods are remcved while the Inner rod remains In the concrete.

>------

A ~n cgrorsupportlng top ~rs In a conc~beamorsb!7.

bolsur - - - - - - - - - - - - - A ~ chairforsupportlng and spacing rottom!r.rs in a concrete beam or slab.

clim~"ifurm A form that can ~ r31-sed vertically for succee.d~ lifts of concrete during the constructlon of a multistory bulk/lng.

lift

~.--

-. -.... -... -.-... -. -.-- -'" -.

The M~htof a qU3ntlty of concrete placed In a form .t one tlme.

slipform •.................. -'- ...

flying form

A form th4t can be moved slowly and contlnuously as concrete Is being placed during the construction of a concrete pavement Of" DuJtdlng.

A lar¥ form that can be moved by 3 Cr3ne. used In constructing the concre~ floors and roofs of multiStcry Duildings.

45


C:ONCRETE ./ time of haul

~st-jn-pbce concrete

Ccncrete &eposItcd, fonr.ed. cured. and flnlshed In Its flnal position as part of a structure. Also called ~st-fn-sltu

The period from first contact Petwun mixing water and cement to completlon of discharge of the freshly mixed concrete from a. truck mixer.

concr'eU.

J

I ready-mixed concrete Concrete mixed at alr.ltch plant for delivery by an ~Itatortruck to a construction site.

shrink-mixed concrete

.

"

!

......

Concrete partially mfxea at a lr.lteh plant and then mixed more completely In a truck mixer en rouu to a construction sl~.

. . ... -

~.

I ,"'*

transit-mixed concrete agitator iruclc A truck eqUipped with a rotating drum to prevent 5egrt9t1on or loss of plasticity of the ready·mlxed concrete !icIng delivered to a construction site.

piau me nt : The process of deposltl~ and consolidatIng • fi-eshly mixed concrete In a form or In the • final position where It Is to harden.

Concrete dry !latched at .Pateh plant and mIxed In a trud mIxer en route to a constructlon site.

I ; ,.$

I ,.

tn.Jclcmiur Atruck eqUipped with a rotating drum and

.~

~

a separate water tank for mlxl"!! concrete en route to a construction site.

i

concrete mixer A machine havl"!! a revolving drum. often motor-drIven. for mixIng cement. aggregate. and water to produce

direct pl3cement The a'rsch3rglng-of freshly mixed concrete dIrectly Into a fann from a concrete mixer. ~uggy. or crane l1ucl:et.

concrete. buggy A cart. often motor-driven. for

,-~ ...

....

transportlng heavy materials. 415 freshly mixed concrete. for snort distances at a construction site.

free fait The descent of freshly mixed concrete Into a for:n ~t the aid of a drop chute.

pneunutic placement The ddlvery of concrete. slurry. or plaster by a pIpeline or hose to the point of placernerrt on 3 COMstnJct1on site. etther In a plastic state for depositing In place or for spraying. or Ina dry state wtth wak< aaaed at the nozzle from which It 15 sprayed.

I

II

GuniU: A I~ntwelght concrete construction consIsting of a mixture of cement. sa nd or crushed slag. and water. pumped thro~h 3 and sprayed at high velocIty OV~ reinforcement until the desired thIdness Is reached. Also called shotcrete.

drop chuu: ....... -..--.. -........ -.... -.A chute for co~lnlng and dlrectlri~ a falling stream of freshly mixed concrete SO 3S not to cause segr~tIon.

!

t1

nose

chute An IncSned trough or tube for conveying free·fIowing materials to a lower level !1y ~ravity.

consolwt1on

The process of eIImlna~ voids other than entralne.d air within newfy placed concrete

and ensurinf close conbct of the concrete with fonn surfaces and eml1edded relnf~.

:.: '~ : "'S; 'l .l~·t·~ :;~'.:;~ ~:...~ •

t ~

.

~

• ..;.. ', •. •••0 .4

0

• ~

'V'"Q

-4'.1

::.

'0

;4.·:/1"..

Consorldatlon of newly placed concrete!1y d I ..... , .• 0. the repeated Insertions and with rawa s of '.... 4'

;::'i~3detIke tool.

Consolidation of newly placed concrete!1y the repe3ted Insertion's and Withdrawals of a rod.

ill I!f':~ . •..... ~"t... ~ ••

::'''''.:: •• 0, ••

"4 0t1 •

.. ~...

'padi~ ~ .. ---.------.------ .. ---.. --- ',,\.-'!r'" "--:J '-II

~'-:'::

1'1

0

-,.,

~~ : ....o..~

0

I

"'l. •

..... 4 0"

ilL 1:1 b.~.-" ,:r 1" •• \:~--!;: ,::.~. -,

4

0 ..qf·: :

-i.~

... .. ....... ~.

:/1;.°.1>':110._

.. 4.: . <l :. ~'.,~. :: ~_~._~'... ... .. ~ ~.: ~

!. . '.

vibration ----.-.j Consolidation of newly placed concrete by the moderately hIgh·frequency oscillations of a vlprator. vi~rator

An electric or pneumatic oscillating tool for agitating and consolidating newly placed

concrete.

stl9regation The separation of coarse aggregate from the mortar or of water from the other I"!! red1ents of freshly mixed cone re-te . resuftlrlg from excessive horlzont31 movement or free fall of the mix. orfrcm evervlmtlon after placement.

5tr.ttlfication The separation of an excessively wet or evervl!lrated concrete mix Into horizontal layers with Incre3slngly lighter material migrating toward the top.

.~

9

Illuding The emergence of excess mixing water on the surface of newly placed concrete. caused Dy settlement of solids within the mass. Also calleJ waUr' g.1ln.

laitance A milky depOSit containing cement ;lrd aggregate flnes on the surface of new concrete. ca used?j the !lleedlng of exuss mIxing water. oVenYon:lng of the mix. or Improper flnishln1.

L I

~ L L I

46


CONCRETE finl,hlng

.~---

The process of leveling. smoothing. compacting. and tre3tlng a newly placed concrete surface to produce the desired texture and appe3r3nce.

.:'

dar+J

architectural concrete Ex~ concrete won: requiring special care In the selection of materials. forming. placing. and flnlshlng to acquire the desired appearance.

A long wooden or metalstraightedqe for smoothing .a fresh concrete surface .lmmedlately after screealng.

screed ----------------------------- -A wooaen or metalstr3lghtedge drawn a over <I newly placed concrete sl3 b to bring it to proper level. 5GreeJ .----.. ------------ ----------------

A firmly esta!7lished grade strip or edge form serving as a guide for making 3 true \eve/surface on a newly placed concrete slab.

flc.at

~----- -"" -------- ---- ---- ----- --- ----- - -v:.-"/"""'- • .%"",,-,

A fu~ tool for spreadlng and smoothing a fresh concrete. stucco. or plaster surface.

''-I.

l7ullflo.at A float havll1{1 a large. flat blade attached to a long handle. L_. _____ ----\

dry-shake finish

peten brut

A colored finish produced by sprinkling a dry mixture of cement. sand. and a pyment on a fresh concrete surface follcwir.g screedlng and after any free water has evaporated, and then won:lng the mixture Into the surface with a float.

Concrete left In Its natural state after formwork Is removed. esp. when the concrete surface refleGts the texture. joints. ana fasteners of a !?oard form.

.

plaStlc material. as concrete. mortar. and

.

j

: :11·illlll:I·!!,:,·iil'i'i' "I', , . , . '

II'"

ill.i;j"\"'I.j'I.'" r'i:· ~l:i ill!: ".'1 ;. ,:'.:

I,ll:" t i l "':;' :11. 1 1..

float finish . --- -- -- ---- ---

"I

Aflne'~ured flnlsh obtained by smoothir.q 3 fresh CO!1crete. p13s:er. or stucco surfau with a wood fl..,"'3".

trowel -----.--- .. --------.--------------, Arry of v.arlous fut-bWed hand tools for \. appJ:t!ng. Spreadl"9. won:lng. or smoothing ....

l:[.lITPf,Pf.W.'l:':T::I.:' :. il·ill:I!::::!;!!i ::: 'i ;:}:. 1

'

. 1:lid:il!d!i1il/. :.,

III:i:j! ,1I':'I':I.:l:dl'"I ... ", jl,'kl\ii)

c

proom finish --.-------.. ! A striated flnlsh obtained by stroking a Dr~"'m or strff ttrJsh over a freshly troweled co~cr~..e surface.

pl3ster. powertrowd A port.aPle machine having steel trowels moun~ on

radlalarm5 that rot.1te about a •

vert1c41 shaft to smooth. compact. and

~

;;:~;c:::~;,~f~---<~ roondlngthe~sofafreshconcreteslaD 3Slt ~Ins to set.

_

eqUipped with.a slllc.on-carbiJe or diamond !n.1Je for cutting a control JOint In a hardened concrete SIaD. .-- -- -- -- -- -- .. ---

&et

~- .. ------------

...... ~

.>.~~>~., .

~wirl finish A textured fini$-' given to a fresh plaster or ccr~rete surface by troweling with a clrcui3~. overlappi~ matlon.

concrete, mortar. p\asw. or glue due to a phys1c41 or chemical ch~nge.

i

finish

fr3cturlng a concrete or stone surface wtth a power·drlven hammer having a rectangular head with a colTIJgated. serrated. or toothed face.

caused ry segregaUon during placement Dy Insufflclerrt consolidation.

!

I £JDDDDCJO-

Of'

»

lI

bu~hhammered

Acoarse·textured finish o17talned by

honeycom17 Vvlas on a formed concrete surface,

---------------------,

The assumption of ~ ~ld or hard state by

A deccr3tlve finish produced ry sand!:T!astlng. etching with an acid. or scrul7t:>lng a COllGrete surface after the Inrtl:al set In order to remove the outer layer of cement paste ana expose the aggregate.

,

trowdfinlsh· --------Adense. smooth finish obtained 7j wor(l~ • fresh concrete or plaster surface /lith 3 steel trowel.

p7f'ement ,.aw A whe.el-mounted, rotary power saw

exposed agg~ finish

cure ---------- ---- - ---. --- ---- -- -0 .. ---.-- .. --............ ---- .... -- .... "-' ....

~pa!ling

To maintain ntwly plaua concrete or rnortJr at the required temperature and humidity fur the first seven days following placement. castlng. or finishing to ensure satisfactory hyaratlon of the cementltious materials ana proper hardening.

The chlppl"9 or scaling of a hardened CC11crete or masonry surface caused ry freeze·thaw cycles or the applk;atlon of de'.cI"9 salts. Also called 5(;3l/ng.

hut of hydr.atlon The heat ~enerateJ by the process of hydr3tlon. as during the setting and curing

of a concrete ml)(.

hydration The process In whk;h a substance combines chemlGally with water. as that occurring when cement Is mixtd rllth water.

-

-

l~~'-':{';:t;i.'~&±;-~'~1

crazing Numerous hairline cracks occurring In the surface of a newly ha rdened COllcrete slab as a result of rapid drying shrinkage.

drying shrinkage A reduction In volume of concrete. mortar, or plaster caused by a loss of moisture. ~etting shrink3ge

A reduction In volume of concrete prior to Its final set. caused by hydration of the

cement paste.

47


CONSTRUCTION The art. science. or l1usiness -

~---------.----- .. -- ----- -- ---- -- --- ----- -~---.- --. --. -- --.------ Iicen5ea r-------l:------t I L~allycerUflecl bya governmental architect e~ineer ~ or other constItuted authority to Aperson who engages In the Aperson traIned. skilled, or engage In a !rosIness or professIon.

ofbu~ai~,

profession of architecture, usually l-L...J professlo!1311y enga~ed In any of trained and experienced in the rr-- various ~ranches of engineering. as desIgn and construction of structural mechanIcal. or vulldlngs. e!e.ctrlcal engineerIng.

ownu A person ororg:anlutlon twlr.g the ~al right or title to a piece of fL~,Il5~thearchlt.xt's

f'/

T I

I :

.. -

c!lent and pa~ to the ownerarch~t agrmnent.

I

II

r~p~--~---------l 1 Apersooor0f9nlz2t1onM

1 Inves~ In and develops the

I ~~ projectsforoWMership,

contractor

: I

:

IL- ma~ent, or res.J1e. _________________ ..!I

'--t

general contraGtor A person or organization that contracts directly with an owner to manage and supervIse a construction project. Including the won: performed I7y su l>contractors.

Iendil19 institution T~ institution, usually a ccmll"erclal !1.ni:, providing the

~-tefm fI~I~. for a

glveprofesslonalorexpertadvlce l rtgJrdlng a speclflc aspect of a : I______________________ p~Ject, as acoustics or IIghtlng. ..JI

I

I j: !

lib co ntracto r

Insurance The Insurl~ of property. life, or one's person against loss or harm arising In speclf\ed contlngencles In consIderation of a payment proportionate to the rlsI:: Involved.

A person ororganlutlon that Aperson or orga nlz2tlon that contracts to provlde the materials ~ contracts wfth a general and perform the wort for a contractor to provide a portion of the won: on a constructIon construction project at a speclfled time and rate. project.

I

t pot.enttalltles of real esta~ esp.

I

:

..J,.

I

I by Wtlatlng ana Implementl~

Also, registered. ! Ii

,--------------------1

I consultant I Aperson or organlutlon hIred to

r----------1

I

;

,

l

I" , .. -- .. :.-. ,--~ .. --.-. bonded H3v1ng a monetary commitment set aside to ensure that ail o~llgatlons 1 set forth In a contract are fulfllled.

10

.J

I)

constroctlon project.

!

II construction manager

I

n

A person ororganlutlon that contracts with anowner to advise on and coordinate all pha~ of a ltuik:ll~ prqect, from evaluatIng the constructlon cost and feasl~lity of design decisions to managing the ~ng. award, and construction phases of the project.

1

\ \

I

\

\

)'

\~~U~ --~--

design-l1uiIJ Of or pertaInIng to an amngement under which a person or organlutlon contracts dIrectly with an owner to design and constnJGt a ~lldIng or project.

I I

I

I I

r

I _________ IL _________ ,

I speculnwe ~ui1kr

I

~ A ~ ororganlz3tlon that : kv~ and constructs Dui!di~gs : for suPsequent S31e or lease. LI ____________________ JI

I

48

I

U

Architect

Subcontractor

turn-leey

Subcontractor

Of or pertaining to an amngement under which a person or organlz3tlon designs and constructs a lnJlldlng for sale or lease when ready for occupancy.

Subcontractor

~ t I

/

b


CONSTRUCTION The process of puilding, from site preparation through erection, assembly, and finishing operations.

top out To Install the highest structural member In . a construction or complete the uppermost course In a masonry wall.

falsework The tempora ry fra mewon: for supporting a structure under construction that Is nat yet capable of supporting ttseff.

scaffold A temporary structure or platform for supporting workers and materials at a height aDove the floor or ground during the construction or repair of a building. Also called staging.

I~I

fe.1swility study A detalfeJ InvestIgAtion and analysis conalJCf'.ed todetermlnt thefil13nclal. technical or other advIs3Dlilty of a

proposed constructk)n project.

......... .i> .. .................... ~ ......................~......... . i1iddin9 1'he compt:Utlve process of offering tv perform the wan: described In ;;1 contract fOf' a specH'ied sum.

L~I

award A formal auevtance of a Did or a negotla ted prof1QS.ll

notice to procee;l

erect

A written communication Issued by an owner authorizing 3 contractor to proceed with the won: and establishing the date of commencement of the work.

To construct boy the raising, positioning. fittlng together, and fastening of materials or parts.

- - - - - ----_._------,

puilding permit Awritten author!zatlan to p.-oceeJ wtth construction of 2 ~Ik:llng project In

ccntnct A ~ally enforceable agtUment. usually In written form. between ~ or more partIes to do or not to do something specified.

certificate ofoccupanq A document Issued by a j;,uJld1~ official certffylng that all or 2 designated portion of a building compiles wtth the provisions of the bUilding code. and permttung occupancy for Its designated ~.

p05U1ccupancy tnluation The process of d~noslng the technical. functional and l1eh2v1onl2spects of a completed building In or~er to accumulate Informatlon for future programming and design activities.

accordance with 2pproved dr.lwlngs and speclflcawns.lssued by the local. government agency havlngJurisdiGtlon after p!;:ns have been flied and reviewed.

buildi"9 offICial A person des4lnatea by a governmental authorlty to adm Inlster and enforce the provisions of a building code.

Q ~ Design ~ . ~ ~ fast-track ......................................................... ; .................... j .............. -.+ ..... -..-..-.. -- .. -~ .. ---...... Occupancy ..... 路)

Of or pertaining to project scheduling In

: : : :

which the des4ln constructk)n phases ob ~ttdlng proJectoverl3ptocompress

' :

ana

I

the total time required for completion.

L./ ~I

I I

CPM Critical Path Method; a method for punning. scheduling. ana managing a project, comblnlng all relevant Information Into a flow chart, Including the optimum sequence and duration of activities, the relative significance of each event, and the coordination required for timely completion cf the prOject

I

I

I

Ar-----------,

Constructlonphase 4- Ull....-_ _ _ _ _ _ _--'

I: Constr~tion phase 3 OC--========_________

..J

I I

Construction phase 2 6c=-----------t I I

Construction phase

1

0 II...._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

--l

49


(ONSTRUcnON The manner in whIch IUterials are ordered. assemlkd. 3M united into J whole. 3S fr.am~ construction. ,ysttm, Pui1di~ A constnsctlon prcuss U5ln9 a high d~ree of pref.l!nic4tlon In t1Ie nunufacture of standardlztd units or components to speed a-s~m171y and /:rectlon of alnJlldlng. Also called Industrialized Puitding.

contract documents

prefal1ricm

fabricate

esp.ln standardized units or components for qUid assem171y and erection.

usually standardized parts.

r0 fabricate or manufacture 17eforehand.

r0 construct l7y assembling diverse and

construction documents The ccnstructlon drawings and speciflcatlons setting forth in detail the I't<\uirements for the constroctlonof a project.

panel A pref.ll7riciW sectlon ~ a floor. wall. cein"40 or roof. h4nkJ as a single unit In the assem~ and erectlon of a pullding.

,.,n.:iwich p~ - - - - - - - - - - '

--------II~__

I

lj I

uniform ~y~um

A structural p3nel cooslstlng of plyw~ facings gl~ to lum!ler stringers. used as ~.oor. roof. or WAil $\.IbJect to Dendlng. The plywood bclngs and stringers act as a ~rb of I· beams with the plywood resisting ~~ all of the M1dlng stresses. Cross l7r3c~ rruy ~pUc.edto support the edges of the skin and to Idp distribute

A fo/'lT13t developed Py the Constructlon Specifications Institute for coordinating spectficatlons. flllng of technical data and product literature. and const<uction cost accounting. organized Into 16 divisions l7ased on an Interrelationship of materiJl, trade. or function. Also called Masterionnat.

memw

ccnc.entrne.d loads. .......

···-1 "

modul;r~n

f'lwr.mng al'lJ design at! ~1Zing prefa lnic3teJ Il"()(lyles or rroaubrcoordlnatlon for ea~ of ~ flexJbleam"¥f11ent. orvarie

...<. ~~'.'-'"

~U:Se.

Oivision 1

Gene,./ Req,uirement5

Otl'f51on2

~

OIrlslon 3

~

OIrlsJon4

~ry

OirlsJotl5

Met...1s

Oirlslon G

Wooa' & P135tJcs

Olvlslon 7

ThmTLl/ & Moisture ProUctJ:;n

OIrislOf'l~

Doors & Windows

Otl'f51on9

Finishes

D/rI5lon 11

EqUipment

Oil'f5ion 12

Furnishings

D/risJon 13

5ped31 ConstroctJon

{)(YisJon 14

Ccrweyfn, 5ysU~

--"-:.

..-=:-..r:; ............. . .---

modular coordiutfyn -....... - .--.-

-',

the dimensions of a structure

I;

i

1j i

1i I

b

. U

Oirls/on 10 Speci3/tJes

".

module _.- ..•.. - ........ - .. - ... "".'.Arty In a ~ of standard1zea, frequently i1Tterchange.il~ components used In ass.e:n~ untts of.tff~ size. ~Y. orfunalon. Cornbtl~

I:j

ana

weight ratio.

",

I

The partof the contract documents consisting of a ~11ed description of the technical nature of the materl4ls. standards, quality of execution of the . work to ~e pbced ul'lJer contract.

rebUvei)' ~ mterial ent;\osed Petween two sheru ~ a h~h-st~ material. ~rally re5lIltlng In a high stlffness'to-

'.

Ii!

'peciflCaticn,

A stnsctural p3nel CQ1S!stlng of a core of

we,5ed-5kin pand

The Ieq;I documents comprising a construction contr;lct.lncludlng the owner' contractor agreement. conditions of the contr3ct. and the construction drawings and s~iflcatlons for the proJect. Including all addenda. modifications, and any ather Items stipulated as being specifically Included.

",

{)(rlsJon 15 1kcJunJaf

Otrlslon 16 Bectnc41

and PIe unit sizes ~ Its cocnponents, ~ with ~ alJ of a planning grid l7ased on a +Jnch or1OO-lI'II1cu~1 module.

perlormanu 'pecification A speclflcatlon that Stipulates how a particular component or system must perform without gMng the means to be employed to achieve the results.

~ I

c:f~rjptlve 'pecification

A spectftcatlon that Stipulates the ex3ct C\U3nt/tles and C\uahttes of rroterlals to be fumlshed how they are to De asseml">led In a construction.

L,

reference ~pecification

L

ana

lift·,Llb co~ion

tilt-up construction

A technlq~ of constr~lng multiStory !7ulldings In ...mich aA horizontal stabs are C3St ,t ground b-ef and. wnen cured. are raised Into position Vy hydraullc Jacks.

A method ofcastlng relnforua concrete -wall panels on site In a horizontal position. then tilting them up Into their final position.

A specification that refers to a standard spectfic.atlon to Indicate the properties desired In <I ~terlal or component and the methods of testing required to substantl3te the performance of products.

proprietary 'pecification A specification that stlpul3tes the use of specific products. systems. or processes without prOVision for substitution.

t

,

I.

L f

!

l~

I 50


)

r

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~ui1dmg code A code regubtln~ the design. constructlon.alteratlon •• nd repair of l>u~. ~ and enforced by a local go;emnent~ncyto protect the pu17llc mety. hea~ .nd welfare.

no ncc mbustiUle construction Construction haVing a structure of steel concrete or masonrj'. and walls. floors and a roof of noncom17ustl17!e materials.

AbuilJ~ UJJe generally ~5t3b1ishes mfrrirrtUlf stmbrds for materials and methcJs ofCMStroction. specifications for s~anJfirtszfety. and other ~!mftents Wstd on the trpe 0 f const:ructJon ad the occupancy 0 f a budJ~oftm rsIng st3nJards ~blisheJ by the klerbI Socletyfqr T~ and M~ (AS1M). ~ American Ni1tIonal St3nJzJs ~ (ANSI). and various tecJrnJca/ societies and trade 3550cbtlons.

protected noncombustIble

construction Noncombustible construction having a structure ana major components with fire· resistance ratings at ieastequal to those speclfled by the appropriate authorities.

unprotected noncomuustiule construction Nancombusti17le construction havln~ no f1re·reslstance requirements except far f1re walls and enclosures offtre exits and

CONSTRUCT. ON construction type A classtflcatlon of a lrul!dln~'s construction accordln~ to the ftre resistance of Its major components: structural frame. exterior Pearlng and nonrearlng walls. Interior Pearlng walls. floors and cellin~s. roofs. and enclosures of ftre exits and vertical shafts. While each of the model codes differs In the detailed requirements for each construction type. they all limit the area and height of a 17ullJ1n~ according to construction. type and Intended occupancy. Also called construction cl3ss.

.. ; •. ....'.: ;. .... : )

'

nwdefcc&e A 17u~ cod!: developeJ I1y an organlutlon of states. professlona I socletSes. and tr.lae associations for adoytlCC'll1y local communities.

BOCA N.rtiottal Building Code A l7uI\dlng coJedeveloped .nd published by the 6u11dl~Offlclals and Code Administrators Intematlon31.lnc. (BOCAl and ~ prlm3 rily In the n~US.

Unifonn Buiidi"9 Code A Iru~ coJedeveloped and published by the lIrte~al Conference of 6~ OffIcbIs (ICSO~ and use.d

prlmrt,- In t&ecentr.rl and western us. Standard 5ut1ding Code A!ruMng caJe developeJ and published bytheSouthem Building Code Corrfereru (s6cc). and used primarily In the ~heastern u.s.

comuustible construction Any construction th3t does not fuffill the requirements for noncombustible constrJctlan.

ordinary construction A CO!1structlon type having noncombustible roenor walls and an Interior structure wholly or partly of light wood framln~. protected ordinary construction -'" .--~ Ordln2rj' construction h;wlng a structure and major components with ftre-reslstance ratings at !east e<tual to those specified by tM appropriate authorities. unpl'Otected ordinary construction

Ordlnarj' construction h;wlng no fireresistance requirements for the Interior structure except for fire wa lls and er.closures offlre exits ana vertIcal shafts.

ener~code

fl-I

A lrull.:Ang coJethat sets minimum sbndards for energy conservation and the ercgy-efficlent design of Dulldlngs. ~n' 'With D~auilitie-s Act

AIl ~ of Con¥ess that Decame 13w In 1992., estaDlisllln~ design stand3rds and

,

-r

reqt.'ltel1ent.sforalll7ulidlngs except sl~mlly residences to ensure their ~Ilty by the physlC311y J1s.ab!ed.

zoning ordinance An orcllgnce regulaUn~ the dMslon of 13 nd llTto zones. 2S to restrict the height. l?ul.~. J:Id use of Dulkllng s. and the prorisIcn of.ny 2nc ilia ry faeilities. as pari;~a prlncip2llnstrument In the Im~ of a master plan. Also called zonln§ co,U.

t.

I

r~ecoven.nt

A CO'r'eItInt IriUI a cl3use that restricts the ~ of Wi party to It. as an agreement.lIOflg property owners s~ the use to which a property can l7e put: raGbl and religious restrictions are legally unenforceable. noncmrfONR~

Of or pertaln~ to a material. type of co nstrllCt 100. or occupancy or use no t comp~ with the requirements set forth il'l a l7uKdlnq code.

~ V)'-ti mlrer co nstructio n A CO!1structlon type havl~ noncombustible e-..:terior walls and an Interior structure of tlmPers.nd decking of specified minimum sizes. Also called mill construction.

I ~,-~

light wood frame construction Aconstruction type having a framework of wood rnert1!1ers not meeting the requirements for he3vy-timi:>er constructlon.

protected light wood frame \ construction ........ -.~ light wood frame construction having a structure and m3Jorcomponents with flreresistance raUn~ at least equal to those speclfted I1y the appropriate au.thorlt~S. 00- ._ . . . . . - . -

unprotected 1i9ht wood frame construction LIght wood frame construction having no flre'reslstance requirements except for fire walls and enclosures of fire exits and vertical shafts.

V41rUllCe

r...1

!

r \

An offlctll pemt to do somethlnq nornt;lllyfo~n by rt:9ulatlons. esp.by Dulld1~ In a 'InY or for a purpose normally forbidden by a building code or zoning ordinance.

51


DESIGN The cre3tWn and organization of formal elements in a won: of art .

fOriit-i

.I

The ~pe and structure of something as dlstlngulsWfrom Its Silbstaru or

materl3l

.

@

.#Iine

\

The edge or wntdllr of a shape. \

/'

\, L_'

--¥-_-->-

,shape' The outline or surface conflgurauon of • partlcularform or figure. While form wsU311y refers to the principle that gives uni~y to 3 whole. and often Inclllks a sense of :rt355 or volume, shape suggests an outnne w.h some emphasis onttle ellclased are3 ~ mass.

<1~~:'~" .:'. ~'~::::-'.>

". -:-".:::

.

·;:;:<::~~~~~.:.s !textiirt

" .'

.

'7 visual

. The visual and esp. tactile '\uality of a surface, apart from its. color or form.

:,

ttXture

i tactile texture . The phY$lc3l dlmenslonal structure of 3 surface, apart from Its color or form..

The;;pparent texture of;; surface resulting from the comuinatloo and interrelation of colors and tonal values.

~~~

-+ [!]

Oforpertalnlrlg to shapes and forms having 1~l3r contcurs wflic;h appear to resem!?let:f-~of~ plants or animals.

!~.~ Of or pertaining to shapes and forms not ~ng natural or actual oujects.

cc-.--:;;>

~!

AIso.~~naI;··:;

~

~[]]

~

...........-.............. - .... -......... .

.....

Of or perblnlng to shapes and forms which

i~j~

resem!?le oremplcythe simple rectilinear or cu~r dements of geometry.

~----------------------.

'?a~··-·'"·''''·'·'''·''''''' Of or perblnlng to shapes and forms having an Intellectual and affective content ~ solely on their Intrinsic lines. cofors. and relatlonshlp to one another.

--+X

syntPot----',

• •

Something th3t st;a nds for or represents sornethlr.g e~ Dy 3ssoclatlon. resemPbnce. or ~n. derivl~ Its meaning chiefly from the structure In which ltappe3rs.

I

I' ~~~~

~

I.

_____---:"--~______---.JI _

\ ~~f!1f::d

artJcubtio n

I A metf1CJOflhanr.er of jointing that mJtes

A unified compostlon of two-dimensional

shapes or Rtru-dlrnenslonal volumes. esp. one 1:hat ftls or sffi the Impression of

the united parts cIQr, distinct. and pr~ise In relation to e3Ch other, ...

w~ht. dcnsfty. and Pul. t

addi1::i~e

7.... ··.... ·_ .. ·· ........ .

.J

Characterized or produced by addtUOn. accumulation. or uniting, often resuftinq in a new Identity.

5ulrtractive ~ .. - ................ . Characterized or produced by remmi cf. part or portion without destroying ;; ~se of the whole.

~."~\~'\I'~.:' / f~~~~~~:~

"'---.' .. -. --,

'''~\~:%~~~:\l', .. ,... "

52

~nvenUof13!

flgu:-t h3v!r.g .. meaning and used In puce of a word or ph~se to exprtss 3 complex notion.

'-'.'CIJ-'>, ;,


~DESIGN

form:

The manner of arm-.3in~ and coorana tlng the parts of a composition so 3S as kJ produce a coherent im~e.

!

orga~~tiorJ , 1l1i system3tlc arranqing of

II ;

,.

Interdependent or coordinated parts Into a coherent unity or functioning who~

I

~i

An InaiV1dual. minute, or subordinate p3rt of ~ whole.

I I

.11

~I

structure < Th~a-;:g3;;iffikJn of e~ments or p3-;S In a complex system as dominated ~ tee general eha raeter of the whole,

" ".II

-\

i ...

I(

III

l1li

••

II

----------------------~ j

tature

The c~ractaistlc structure given to ;a surfJCe or 5u~tance ~ the stze, s!up~, ~rranqement,

and prcportlons

a' the parts.

. f4l>Mc .

01 :parti: :j The lias1c scheme Or ccncept for an architectural design, represented b] a dlagram.

diagr.wm : A drawl~, nat neceS5.'lrlly representational, that outlines. eXf-'ins, or clartftes the arrangement and relatlci1s of the pa rts of a whole.

,

pattern ' An ~rtlstlc or decorative design, esp. cne h<lYing ;I cruracterlstlc arran~ement and considered as a unit, of whkh an Ide3 can be given by a fragrr.ent.

'L_____

_

,~rBrl.fr~t

Ie

e Jlrrang n~ VI parts Or e me'lts fr.:.o proper proportion or relation SO as t.J form a unified whole. COrn'

___________ _

53


~ ~~ft prfncfvle: A fundarrental and CDtnprehenslve concept of visual ~ptIon for structuring an aesthetic CDmposltlon.

brder

turmony

ACDnditlon of ~ic3l harmonious. or comprehensible ma~ement In which each element of agroup Is properly disposed with reference to other elements and to Its

The orderly. pleasing. or CO!1gruent arrangement of the elements or p3~S ill an

arUstle wno Ie.

1'epCS6 : ~rmony In the arrangement of parts IX' colors that Is restful to the t:ye.

purpose.

unity'

lc.:3ic311y or 3esthet~311y ordered or

Ii

The state or quanty of Peing combined into one.astheorJerl~ofelements In an

lnU.grated to afford comprehension cr

I

arUstle lI'OIi: tIut coostItutes a harmonious whole or promotes a singleness

L.

'caherent

I[

L

recognition.

of effect..

DOD DDD DDD

~====~==~~====~==~~I========~

1---~.-- ..:

'j 1I~_,".ity;",~

The stateOrquanty of being Identical. hOlT'lOgtl1tlOUS. or regular.

';. homogeneeu '

proximity

I

I \

:

I I

ai~~

The state or quality of reing a whole composed ofcomp'bted,lntricate, or Interconnected prts.

~-

rl~lR

The stJte or 'l.U41nty of having varied or alV~ forms. types. or eha rae terlsties. ,~.

~ An artistic ccmpositlon of often dlverse ele:na1ts In ~n ti1:tly or unexpected Juxta positb n.

r-------..;-=-::..;;.= ...= ..;.;.;. .. ""' .. ~ .... .!.

··m II

!

I

I

kmrchy l

. A syst.e'mof eiements r.lnKea. elasslf.e.d. and organfud one 3DOYt: another. acwrdin~

I

to importance or s~nlf\canu.

~ ~~~ I~= : =;:,;: : : := _-=- -=·-=- ~-/~ ~;~":'=d

Stress or prominence given to an elcma1t of a CO«1posltlon by means of contrast. anomaly. or coonterpolnt.

......

l~~:~i

opposttIon orJuxtapos{tlon of

dlssinlbr ~ In a won: of art to intensify each eb1ent's properties and

~======~ r

[>f _

~>/

expres5iveness.

A~Ion from the normal or expected form, order. or arrangement. -..

\ntervenlngspaceor<*ject.

II.

ju$~

' < t" >'.' ' ..

I,I

~QnUrpolnt

A parallel M contrasting element or theme in a narT3tlve or concept.

P ~

comparlsonorcontnst.

L. __ -------. t

~iDric~ A tenuous Valance malntalneJ In an artistic m retween opposl~ forces orele~t5. often causing anxiety or excttement.

I

P J

DDITTIDD DDDDDDO D_ i OUOD

,.alient

!

~r()('s~byskk.so.stopermtt

·. .0

0

concept.

i

The state or poSm,n of Delng placed close

0 §DDODD ODD ~ DOD 1

U

corresponJlng posltlons from an

I! -/.--'

....... - . . . 11[,

.

proGuce a more dynamic

Prominent or conspicuous.

I

U

,., caJlage

campJexity

satlent feature ofa narrative or

U

Amngement In or adjustment acccrdi,,~ to a stialqht nne.

~ motOtony The state or ~U411ity of lacKing variety.

~ I!14Jor idea, essential pa rt. or

I

The state or quality of belnq contlnuoi.!S. as a nne. ~e. or dlrectlon.

Uniformly or evenly formed or arranged.

'nt

tJ

canUnuity ;

~~~::l

inoNIy'

I

Ne3rT1es~ln place. order. or relatIOn

:.'

~~~~~====~I

Unlfonn In strtJcRlre throughout or composed of parts that are all of the sa me ~ture or kIM.

u

, cantndlctlon The state orcoodltlon of beln~ opposed. Inconsistent. or lc.:Jically Inwngruous.

.: ........ -................. :

, wo,

A 5~3te Of utw disorder or CDnfUSlon. •

~

I

~

r~ I I·

L

I 54

r

!


-.I

)PESIGN-'

-I 11

tt==:tC:~::Jt==n:~w.ulllilW liabnce'1

~~ri4m

A 5tJ~cfrestor!:ra!ance

Pa.....~ contr.lstlng ~~,,:;s cr opposing forces.

i., equipoise ;

o

li

. the-pleaSing or harmonious arrangement or proportion of parts or elements In a desIgn

o

or composItIon_

An e<lUJI distribution of weig;:. rdJUonshlp. or

fcxus.

~cc~~-$ ACO.Jn~lanclng weIght -I

orfw~

'-I "'-I I

41..c:S;::::::::~!

U

I

,r r3(1bl5ymmetryj~.. -----.-.-.--------Symmetry resultIng from the arrangemen ~ of similar. radiatIng parts a~ut a center ....,......---"--1.~......-point or central axis.

,~~ ..y.i50h~metryi; A straIght hne to WhIch I' An 1'"391I13ry hne al>Out which a elements In <I compositlon ~ure. body. or composltlon Is are referred for symmetrical.

L..,

i

measurement or symmetry. '--I

i

:-/

tI

'~ilf The au

~k:>r-3

路_-----_路_--t ~~!/j which

The act or prOcess of repeating formal elements or motifs In a desIgn_

rr.ovi~~~or~c ref~tothe

It ts di recu.d.:;"

"-, j

楼~~ A prOcessor change ta~lng place by kgm:s orthroogh <I series of gradual

concmnatioll Aseries of linked or Interconnected things or events.

successive stJges.

55


.

PE$I~N

: . eurythml

fro~, ; The COlny.,._e. proper, or h3rmonlous rel3tlon of DI" part to another or to the whole ",1Ut respea to In'gnltuae. quantity. oraegree.

,proportlca. :

,

Ha rmony of proportlOif

;

or mOvement.

.r\

%=9

The equality retwun two ratios In ' which the first of the four terms divldea Py ~ second equals the third

Fibonacci se~ .

divideJ Py tile fOIl rth.

The unending sequence of numbers where

I

the first two terms are 1and 1. and each succeeding term Is the sum of the. two l.mm~lately preceding. Also called ~cd ~uance. I

golden~llj

harmonCC~'

to the wholc:J ratio of approximately 0.618 to 1.000. Also c.lbf gpklerJ ~~{~ .,;.. '

A series In which the terms are In harmonic progression.

.;.

LJ

I

",hich form an arithmetic progression.

1J

B

B

~Ie

'.L ...................................... . II certain prof'OftIonate size, extent. or degree, uSlQly l~ed In relation to some ",

1tutIu" ~ale The size or proportion of a I7ullding e\c:r.c:ntor space, or an article of flnlture. rel.ltlve to the structural or fllllCtlonal dimensions of the human ~.----~,

-- -- --- -

................... -.---------.--=-':Io..---~---------

'"

.... -._\'t_-;\"--_>"<::- â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘ -

-I"-'''''-H~''--O mechanical scale The size or proportion of something relative to an accepted standard of measurement.

visUJI scale The size or proportton a ~ulfdlng element appears to have relative to other elements or components of ~nown or assumed sIze,

,

.'

56

j

I

harmonic 'p rog res 5 !on Asequence of numbers the reciprocals of

St3ndard or point of reference.

1

!

I

~.

1, '1.3.~. ~, ~

A

I

..I

VI, V2, 2;" 3/5, 5/8, 8113 ...

AprO~~n the two dimensions of a pl3ne figure or the two divisions of a nne, In which the ratio of the smaller to the I.lrger Is the same as the ratio of the la rger ~

j

1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13. 21...

\

-

I r-


fDESJGN ~gonomiG5

I r

I I

f'

I

l

! j

It

~5tructul4ll ~sion ArTy Ofthe-dimenslO;,softhe tiuman body and It 5 p-art5.

Art applledsclei1ce concerned with the clla ruterlstlcs of people that netd to Pc: consIdered In the design of devices 3 nJ systems In order that people an.:! things will Interact effectlvely and safely. Also called ~uman engCnurin4.·

"'-"""1" a~r~~I11~ . The measur'embTt and study of t~ size and proportions of the human rody.

I

Ra~ropoll10,rp~~ .f

To asc'rlbil humin furm orchmcterlstlcs to nonhuman things or I1elngs.

ffunctioM&imell5ion "- ... ----,-.·-.----.-.-i~ Arry of the dlrnenslonsdetermlnea by bodily posltlon ana movement, 35 reach, stride, or

l

!I:'-

f:

clea ranu..

,i, 11

J

....)

~".",.

f

!,~fiti The correspondence petween the size and posture of 3 human body aM a lnJi!dlng e!emcnt ~ artlcle of fuml~re.

~~ia.<

t The senSoYy ~f>erience of Podlly position,

presence, or mo."etrent k.-Ived chiefly from stlmu/.atlon of nerve endl~s In muscles, tendons, aM Jolnts.Also, k1na~$lai i ,.~esi5..'

~)13ptJc

i . Relatrng to or lr3sed on the sense of touch.

t olfutory'

ReI.a Clng to or &3sed on the sense of smelL

~." 'The i1bltfty~ frudom. or permission to approach. enter. or use. jVa~ Of or ~Inl~ to spaces. Ptllk:Il~s. and facntt:es fully access IpIe and usap!e by ali ~1e.1nclud1~ the physically

h:mdlc3ppd

f!~}

f>\'~~~ i' \:

;i~~i?'~

i: " '~

fl········· ...............

f j

P~r.!J~;! The Sfuay-bf the symtJol1c and communicatlve role of the spatlal separation Individuals malntJJn In varlous soc 13 Iand Interpersonal sltuat.,ns, how the n3ture kgru of this spattal arrangement re!Jtes toenvlronrnental ana cultural factors.

ana

ana

"""

r

I

]r;-' .

r

i

-, >

territoriality

pe~11315pace ~

The pat tern of ~havlor associated with defining and defer1ding a territory or

The Vlr!a!7le and su~lectlve dl5t.ance at which ooe person feels comfortable tal1:lng to 3~~her. Also called~! distance. :

domain

r, --,-

57


/,

DESIGN

1

.

~igll"

f 0 conulve, coof.rio.'e, or devise th~ form and structure of a bulldlng or other

I, ,

contrive-

constru~

foform In an artistic or Ingenious manner.

, Jesfgn f~";

,~.:

A purposefll actlvtty aimed at devising a

Tofonn'ln themlna ~ newcomplnatlons or applications of existing Ideas or principles.

plan for chafl!lng an exlstlng situation Into a future preferrea state, esp. th~ cycncal. IteraUv~ process comprising the following

phases................................ lr-in -n;-J3-'-tlO-'n--'=""="",---., ~~itp;e~~~-:---I PfO~S

.

fJ~tifying ; problem ;nJ Its. socia/' economic. and physical ~xt.

II systemailc seres of actions or operatlons le;ading or directed to a

. analysis 5~parattng

of a whole Into its constl:uent parts or elements. esp. as a method of studying the natur~ of the whole ana determining Its essentl3l features ana their relations.

partlcu~rc:ti

iph.i$e;· ~ . •A partlcubrsta¥ In a process of change or

~~yn,1;h~ls J " Comulnirig of separate, often dlve~ pa rts

deve~

}~~"lfor so.'Ilng a prol7lem, as a

.:~5~f~'~

/

statement~ forth the context,

conditions, requirements, and o~Ject!ves for a c:Its~n project.

_'\

.) ~in~ € The pattern of change, growth, or

~ /

r

~

•.. ,,_.._ ,/

;;:;:::~:::~::M~OO'

L develop;:

des~n project wtthln a speclfJea tlme.Also.tharttte.

To wolt but, expand. or realIZe the capaPilittes or posslpl!itles of so 3S to pring gradually to a fuller or mor~ adva ncea or effective state.

,tnodifyl

~icwttd 30 impIem~ solution In use ~ tk5p«ifieJ gozls and

J

g~

.~ inflectio n ' . A~nd.angle,orslmll;1rchang/::n the shape ofa configuration. ~ meons of which a changeofrelatlor.sI1lp to some context or condItion Is Indlc:ate.:i

o

n !

feeduack

, EVaIu3tlve Information a~out an action or process promptIng a return to;1 precealng phase for alteration or

of a definite pbn or procedur~.

traMformatlcn·' ~ process Oftha~9Jng In form or

structure through a series of dlscw~ permutatlons and manlpubtlons In ~ponse to a specific context or set of condltlons without a loss of identity or

correction.

~l&iitJon

concept.

Slmulztlng. testing, ~nd mod;{y(ng ~bIe :lternnlves ~CCCIf'Jlrig ~ specIffeJ goals ~nd criteria.

I

CO"""~ ;

·----·-·-·--·---·------t~#---- . ·- . -·~:---'------ . ----; ~!

To expre5S.canvey. or Interchange Ideas, Infonnatloll. or ~ lli:e by writing. speaking. or t$!~ a common system of signs or symrols.esp, Ina way that Is cleariyand readily understood. ..

, f"OPO'''

fo chooSe from a numl?er of alternatives ~ fitness or pref~rence. ~ judgment ~ : , ..;,,,,~~,.i T'lie mental a~!Iity to perceive distinctIons, comprehend relationships, or distinguIsh alternatlves.

The off~ of a pia n for consideration, acceptance, or action.

function: • The natural or proper actIon for which somethln~ Is Mslgnea, used, or exIsts. ~purpo~

~, '-?

• The reason for which something ~xlsts or Is done. maM, or used.

J~meniFY;

Arty featui'~ that provides or IlJ.Cr~ases comfort. convenience. or pleasure.

I

',..f

58

i

.

refine;

, f 0 Improv~ or elaborate In order ~ make more fln~ or precise.

CI'iterU.

To en~~ fulflnmentof ~ means

L L L L L @@ L

fochange the form, character. or quant1es of In oraer to glve a new orientation to or to serve a new end.

~!

~P~~I\

ILJ

~[gJ

fo asceruln or a55eSS the slgnlflcance. worth. or qu.lltyof, usuarly by careful appraisal and study.

~~n'

Astandard, 1'\111:, or prinCiple on wh!ch a Judgment or decision may ~e ~ased. J

dmlm-i

, An .ss~~. given. or otherwIse c:fetennlndd bct or proposition from which conclusions may I?e drawn or decisions mac:fe.

elnt~:

fii cri3td li:enes5 or model of someth log anticIpated for testing and evaluatbn. ~ model : . A';rifnfiture represent3tlon, USIJ.3 ny built to scali:. to show the appearance or construction of something.

jmoclc~up: .' AfuH-s!ziJ model of 3 Uulkllng or structure. bullt accurately to scale for study, testing. or teaching.

.U5t

;rasu!1jtct a system or process to such conditions or operations as will lead to

a critical evaluatlon of a!71 IIt!e 5 01' p~rform3nce .ind subsequent acceptance or rejection.

L L L

economy ._ ~refut. t~rifty. and efficient use and m3nageme nt of resources.

L


iDESIGN

._,

fa~ The pTay of the mind through which 'il$cns

~ .. !

The f#culty or power of compre~ Inferring. or thinking In orderiy.l'ltlonJl way. o }. 0 ) o-----~)

are summoned. esp. mentallnventC1s that are whimsical. playful. ana characteristically removed from re4nty.

,n

\

-e-nv-I-slc-n:-'-------~ \

---

,origiral~i

,,/

>>A rr.en61 representation of

future possibility.

/ sorr.ethlng previously perceived In the 3b~nce of the 0~lnalstlmulu5.

-

'-,

The creative ability to Imagine or express In an Independent and Individual manner.

irrt.l4~"

To rorintmental plctvre of a. •

i

The power of recombining former experiences In the creation of nell'

'. '.

IITt3ge5 directed at a speclf1c g031

~~Inthesolutlonofa'

--.-••• -

\ I

~Irty outside of the

mind.

~rtk:ular fom. sul;>stance. qUJl1ty. or distinction.

, To a'ir~theefforts or attention of. he~:

"."

, ~~pt

A'ri1entallmage or formulation of what somethIng Is orought to be. esp. an Idea generalized from partlcula r characteristIcs or Instances. des~n conceyt

Aconcept for tl1eform. structure. and fe3tures of a I1Ulldlng or otr.er construction. represented graphically Py diagrams. plans. or other drawings. ~~

, asp~) A way In which a thll19 may ~ viewed or re<jarded.

" To rttrut ana hold fast Py Influet\a or powu.

:;'l

~~

vieW~t A part'lcular manner or mode of Iocl:lng at or regardin~ something.

~a.dd~;

j

Kthoughtor notion resulting from mentalaW3reness. understanding. or

Th'e faculty-ofsetllng things In their tnJe relations or of evaluating their relative significance.

10 ~nlmate orper-rneate with a

I

\ \ IJ ~~ •.••• -~Q/,~:

~~~

I

~~~}

An un.::lerlylng org3nlzatlonal pattern

or structure for a des41n. --'~(_-l- ..

,

A~tr3ct thought or 5pecula~\cr. resultIng In a system of a5sumF~~5

explaining, or predicting phenorr~.a. arid prc~ or followed 3S the b-a%

~vfn9 ot>~e. ve;rtfuple. and Independent ros~. 3S op~ to ~1"i1 arttflclal or

Hlusory. I

,

I!

M object;acUvtty. or Idea used In place ci another to s~gest alikeness

ap~~

~rWeen

: ~hl~.wtthout rdereru to concrete re3l1ty or a p;irtlcuur Instance.

Rri~neJP~

f'

I

-~I

• A nu. of things r'e!JardeJ as forming a grotJp ry ~ of common attrll:rutes or

char.lCterls1lc.s. arc~-·····--·-·-···· .. ·-····-·-····· ..~.. . ;,V;n cW~~ or pattem on which all ~

~.~i

.' AreproJ'uctlooof3nofiginai.

~ prototype : An ~rly and typical example that exhl~tts

e

~

A similarity In some particulars ~ween things otherwise dissimilar. ~tf...1I0glcal Inference !rased on the ~mptlon that If two things are [lIOWT'Itoi1ealiktlnsomeres::uts.

r,eatlve processes. esp. as appl1ed to tile stating and solution of proPierns that Involves free use of ~phor and anJ10gy In Informal Interchange within a small group of diverse Individuals.

T

~ /lY'~ ..:'

- '-

._

.,- ..\ / / / .. '

LP : =~f3CUItYofknoWlng

tBDJ]w

w1thoot evident ratlonal thought and Inference.

f5~~, ~tIon orreftectlon on a subject or idea. resultln~ In a conclusion Inferred from Incomplete or Inconclusive evidence. . am~uity The state 0'7quality of pelng susceptlble to uncerta!nty of meaning or multiple Interpretation. ~renJiFity

the esse~J fe3 tu res of a class or group

t model '

Jlld.;

I

~

anJ on which bter st3qes are ~ased or eJ.

!

a-nltogy ( .

~ thl~s oftM ~me kinJ are copied or ~ased.

t

them.

=~ c

procedure. or amngement.

fI I

~ph!J.r;

of 2Ctlon.

Aftirld3'mental ana comprehensr.e ;,.,.. tnJth. or assumption gc"Yernlng x-;~.

r r

developed In detail In later studies.

or principles used in analyzing.

!

; 1'e<11 ,~

proia, The original scheme for a deslgn presented In the form of a sketch outlining Its spectflc char.1cter. to pe

~pnctU ;---~Efl------- ~r)', .A.c-tu3r~nu or application of principles. asd1stll19ulshed from theory.

:

""'_' _______

The act or power of antlcipatl~ that which will or may come to be.

h~~ some fmn of o~tlve

irrt3~in3ticn

The faculty of fontilng mental Images or concepts of wh3t Is not present to the senses or perceived In reality.

\.~

yro~;:;8

'" 'Toreg3fd'an Ide3 orconupt 3S

~

.

: ,:

_..~_ .. _~ ... _._ .... ,.. -......... 4-... --.-................ -... -...... .' .:t

r1

-

\. ...,

crutivity

I

, The aPillty'tO transcend traditional Ideas. patterns. or relationships and to Initiate meaningful new lkas. forms. or Interpretations.

An rumple serving 3S 3 patte~~ for Imitation or emulation In tr.e creation of something,

An 3pt!tudefor ma[1119 deslrable and unexpu-tecl discoveries I1y accident. ~klent,

A fortUitous circumstance. qU3!ity. or characteristic

59


DOME A vaufW structure having a circular plan and usually the form of a portion of. spnere, so constnJcW 2S to exert an equal thrust in all directWns.

._~ ..... -....... -

meridiana! line A CUllleJ hM aescrli:1lng a vertical section cut thro~h the axis of a rotatlort31 surface.

.""

,/

roo ................... hoop nne A circulAr line aescrl17lng a hOrizontal section cut perpendIcular to the axis of a rotational surface.

I

,

.-semicircular dome Adome havlng the form of a

t, !

hemlsp~re.

./ ... rr;ll$ItIon from merldiofl3l to hoop .-'

forces 0CCIJr5 atan angle of from 45"to 6Q' from the vertical axis for most load

conditJons.

hoop forc.e .~ .. -.----- ......- .. -.---.---~~' Aforce acting along a hoop line of a

/

dome structure, perpendlcu lar to me ridlon3 Iforces. Hoop forces, whIch rtstraln the out-of-plane movement of the meridional strips In the shell of a dome, 3rt compressive In the upper

zone ana ~sife In the lower zone.

meridianal force ~ ........ ---....... . A force acting along a meridional line of adome structure, always

compressive underfull vertical loadIng.

~ucerdcme

Adome ~ the form of a segment of a ~,lI'ftlIItS,cent.er I'd PeIcw the springing 11M Asaucer dome Is partlcula rIy salsItlve tc budhng uI'Jer 3n ~.ema Iloaa.

11 11 11

;.e~~io~~~ng

.IT" i the l7ase of il acme tc ! conb!n the outward components of ; .:

!

----lJ':.:>..----<">----'7"lIr+-

radl.aldome

5chwedler dome

A dome l1uilt with stu! or tlmPer trusses amn짜d In 3 raalalll".Jnner 3na connected Coy polygon .. I rings at various heights.

A steel dome having memPers which follow the lines of 1atit<Jde and longitude, and a third set of dla~nals completing the triangulation,

60

the rr.eridIonai forces. In 3 concrete dome, thIs ring Is thickened and rtlnforuJ tc ~ndle the ~ndlng stresses C3usea by the differing elastic deformations of the ring and shell

~ttiudome

. A stul dome structure havIng meml1ers which follow the circles of latltuae. and two sets of diagonals replaCIng the lines of longitude and formIng a series of Isosceles triangles.

great circle The cIrcle of greatest d13meter that can ~e drawn on a sphere.

geodesic dome A stul dome havIng members which follow thrte principal sets of 9rtat cIrcles Intersecting at ~ subdlvldlr.g the acme surface Into;l series of ~uil3teral spherical trlanqles.


DOME :.------------------------ -- - .. ----------

'I

.. -------.- .. -.. -... ~ oculu't

.{ A dlrC~iaropenlng. esp. one at the crown of a dame.

r·-tb.~cl

: :

semiaome, H3ff a dome formed by a vertical section.

A'superstructure crownIng a roof or dome havIng open or windowed walls to let In ltght andalr.

as (Nllr a sem1clrcular apse. cul-de-four ~ A semldome or:quarter-sphere vault. as O'IU an apse or nlc he.

, cupou A I1ght structure on a dome or roof. serving 35 a l:>elfry.1antern. or belvedere.

It.lml1our· 'The vertiCal part of a cupola.

pendentive .. ··~---llrrterdome . ,/

The space betJeen the Inner and outer shells of a dome.

~

'\

}-1~3rne 1 "

A dormer window In a roof or spire.

~)

\

\L, '.- .----. Whispering gallei'y\

~l

~

A spherlC.l1 triangle formIng the transition from the cIrcular plan of a dome to the poly~onal pLon of Its supportIng structure.

i ;1 I

----···--------'Iunette i An area In the plane of a wall framed by an arch or vault. containing a window. painting. or sculpture.

J. space or gallerJ ueneath " dome or

\ pe~tttive dome ~ . A spher1ca1 dome formed by removfng four ~gments SO that It merges with Its perJentlves and sIts on " square pLon.

vault In wh1ch low sounds produced at any of certain points are clearly audible at certain other dIstant olnts.

l 'l

~'L

l

/'

1

,

~Ulrn;rt~)

, An arch or cOrl:>el1ng pullt acroSs the upper Inside comer of a square tower to support the side of a superimposed octagonal structure,

band.age .:.. A strap. rIng. orchaln placed around a structure to secure and hold Its parts together. as around the springIng of a

aome,

61


DOOR A hinged, sliding. or folding Darner of wooa, ~l or glass for opening .nd closing an tntranu to a building. room, or c.1binet.

.

:'

.

.

.:

~

;::~ '. f' ...;.~ ,""':,'.: .:_: :.:. :":'::':."

.

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••• ' • . •

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sw~ing door

A000r ~ tunis on hinges or pivots aPout a vertical ~ wncn pushed or pulled.

-~ .

. . . . . . ._. ,- ~i:;g:~~~i~;~::s

I

I

that permit It to

swing In one direction only.

I

I

!

......... double-acting door A door hung on hinges that permit It to swing In either direction from a closed position.

double doors

I,

A pair of doors hung In the same doorframe.

~

!i .

A hinged or sliding section of a dOOr or shutter.

r-----ir----=....... j-

,.

.,'''-

...... .... ....

....... Inactive leaf

c1051 rtg.

The leaf of a pair of double doors to which the strike prate Is fastened to receive the latch or bolt of the active 1e3f, usuallyflxed In a closed position by bolts at the top and bottom of the door. Also called standing leaf.

allU)m.rt:ic door _ i_ _ _ . _ _ _ .

A door that opens automatically at the approach of a person or automobile.

pivoteQ door

door opener

AXcr ~rT1e4 on and 5Wln~ln~ about on a un~roroff~ plvot, asdlstln~ulshed from one hung on hinges.

A mech3nism that automatically opens a door .... hen actuated Vy a radio tr3nsmltter, electric eye, or other device.

./

/ .... astragal A molding attached to one or boUl meeting stiles of a pair of double doors to prevent drafts or the passage of light, nolse, or smoke. mullion

foWtngdoor A door IritJI hI~ ~ns that can be ~ fbt ~"Inst one another when

-f-l··-,H+···_ .... I-

~

, jill

j

ir 1 - - _.......I.J,...LJu.u.=ii.w'

r

l:rifolddoor

/

,- ,/

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I

,- /

~ ucordlon door

,

A multi leafed door that Is hung from an overhead track and opens by folding back In the manner of an accordion.

/

/

/ ,/

.....

.'

"

~'

.'

,/

....

' ................, \. \.

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I I

('f"'-"'" :

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:

I

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:

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- pocket door A door that slides Into and out of a recess In a doorway wall

I I

i

--.~-

rolling door A ~ge doorconslstlng of horizontal, ~~ metal sbts gUided Vy a tnd on eitherslcfe.~lng Vycolllng about4In ~ Ihm ~ the head of the door ~

DOD DDD

revolving door An entr3nce aoor for excluding dr.oft.s from the Interior of a i7ulldlng. COfI$lstlng of four leaves set In the form of a cross and rotatlng about a central vertbl pivot within a cylindrically shapedvestl~k:, Some revolving doors automatlc3llyfold I:r.Ick In the direction of ~ress when pressure Is applied. providing a'\eg41 passageway on roth sides of.Ihe door pivot.

...... -~ wIng

DDD

One of the leaves of a double or revolving door.

DOD

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62

....

/

rt-'-"Tl I :

I

i

51iJin9 door Adoor ~ open tes or moves Vy st1dlng on. tnGt. usu4I1Iy p3n~1 to. wall.

A slender vertical memPer dlvidlng the opening for a p.lr of double doors. sometimes removal7le to permit the passage of large oVjects••. -:;

A folding door that divides Into two parts. the Inner leaf of each part Pelng hung from an overhead tr3ck and the outer '~af pl.oted ~t the jam".

...........

~

i

II

active leaf The leaf of a pair of "oulne doors to which the latching or locking mechanism Is attached. Also called openIng leaf.

,-'

,/

.. , l1alanced door A p~oW door that Is partially courT"...erir.Ilancea for easier opening and

1! I

" ":'-""-Ieaf

sweep The flexible weatherstripping along the eages of a revolving door.

overhead door

air curtain

A large door constructed of one or sever31 !eaves. opening Vy swinging or roiling up to a horizontal position above the aooropenlng.

A stream ofcompressta air dlrec~ downward across" doorway 50 as ~ form a shield t;{l exclude drafts.

(

, \

Y


:1,

DOOR

I

1

rough opening ---------..,

r:·~·:~~~~~y .-,-c-~-7:'.c~--:-7::::7:~

doorframe

An opening In a wall Into which a doorframe or window frame 15 fitted.

" .

Theframe of a aoo11Y3Y, consisting of two Jambs and a head or lintel

' . .- ",i

">;':1

pmb

':J- head

Either of the vertlca I sides of an archway. doorway, or window opening. ~---+-+-- cased opening

mem~erof a doorframe

:0.1

The uppermost

.::.::1

or wi ndow frame.

.K. doorles.s opening finished with

. '.~-' doorjamb

trlmworl:.

..:

<j

'~------------~.~-----W~------------------

Either of the two sidepieces of a

doorframe.

"l-

'::1 stop :.~j

'. ':1

I :'::

The proj~lng part of a doorframe agaInst which a door closes. AlSo callej

doorstop.

r-"--"",,--,-..u..."~-4

casing ________ .___ L

__

pia nted 5tc P Astop fOf'lT'led by attaching a molding to a doorfra me or wi ndow fra me.

<.

The finished, often decorative mmewori: around a door or window openIng, esp. the portion parallel to the surroundIng surface and at ~ht angles to the Jaml>s.

I.

subca,i/19

i

blankpmb

A rough casing for a doorway or wlndol'!

I

I· t·

Adoorjamb having no stops. nor prepared to receive hardware.

rauueteJ stop

i I

opening. buc~

A stop formed Integrally by a ra bbetln a doorframe or window frame.

----.---.. -.... -.

Asubframe of wood or metal set In a partltlon to support the finish frame of a door or window. Also called door \1ud, rough puck. '-~-

r

sill The horizontal member beneath a door or wIndow opening.

j

r r I

! --'-------------

1

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r 711

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.~ .. --.- saddle .,/

...

~e:=~~·I·~I~~~,~~~;~-,·~··· .... -··· .. ·.. ·.. ·· .. --·

th~hold

The sill of a o.oorH'3y, covering the join t between twa flooring m3Url31s or provldlr.g weather protection at an exterior door.

~~~?i;::=,~;-;.\. ~: the fau of the loci: stile, usually an Inchnatlan of 'fa In. (32 mm) for each 2 In. (51rnm) of door thickness, allowing the door to swing free of the door frame.

r

--.--.- ..... -... -

doorcle4r311U ------.-.--.~. The cle3ral1Ce required to prevent \ _ _I~ Inndlng Detween 2 door and its II

Araised piece offtoorlng between the Jaml1s of a dool1Yay. to which a door fits closely SO as to prevent its binding

....

when oper.ed.

Maml

sectlan of woodwori: directly above a

do<xway. ua"~m

.-- ------ .---- fanlight

----------.---.-----------

Asem!clrcular or semleillptical window over a doorway or another window.

A crosspiece separating a doorway from a window orfanllght above it.

uan~cmwindow -----.----.-.-~/ A window aDove the transom of a doorway. Also calW transom,

. --

~kleli9ht

A window at the side of a door or

tr~n50m Il~ht.

another Window. Also calle.::! wfnglight

reYe411 ------------------- .. ---

The part of aJamb of a window or door opening that Is vIsIpk: pet-ween the outer wall surface and the Window or aoor frame.

splay

5wncheon The reveal of a window or door open:ng from the frame to the Innerface of the wall. Also. esconson. scunch~n

I~ ;1

'

-=U'===

A surface that makes an o\Vique angle with another, as where a window or door opening widens from the frame toward the face of the wa I\. ' . __ .. __ . __ ... ,' \,.'

• ~

, -. ~

\

::' .

I

,.I

Veneti3n door

--------_ ... _---

\~_t~~

~~\;

'."---.

A doorway having a form similar to that of a Palladian window.

i I • •1

63


DOOR .. --- .- ..• p3nel

paneled Door A doorhJvlng a framework of sUIes. rails.

A distinc;t ~~ or dlvlskln of a

ana ~ lI1untlns. filled with panels of a ;h Inlla' 1113 teriJt

wall c.elll~. or door. recessed

r3a

Arry of various horizontal memDers framing panels. as in a system of panenng. a paneb:l door. window

::~~c~~~~~~~:_~

_ _ _ _ _ //

IU

~

.'

,.-'

The uppermost r3il connectJng the

j

stlk:s c:i a p3~ door or winaow sa $It.

ico..=~~=Zx=-==d

The ,... of a doo- that meets the shutt1n4 stile n the level of the ~

i1ottom rail -------------- -----.----The lowest rail connecting the stiles of a pa~ door or wiRdow

--- stile Ar,y of various:: ?right memDers

I.

fr;;ming panels.;;5 In a system of paneling. a pane!ed door. window sash. or a ches~ vf drawers.

hi"¥stile

1 .:

The stile of a cloer Dy which it Is hung. Alsccalltd hangIng stile.

I.

IocIcrail ----------------------------

sa$lt.

below or raised 3bove the general level orenclosea by a frame.

1-------

--D

locI: stile The stile of adoor that closes against thefrar.-.e of the opening.

Also callea shlltting stile. muting stile ~_J stiles In;; pair of dou Die doors.

i u

Or~ of the a!nJtt.l~'-3

i

vision light

I

storm door AI1 outer or supplemeir'..3'j door. usua!1y glazed. for protecting an erTtr;;lnce :XNr from dr;;lfts. driving /din, or

Asmallli.aht In the upper portlon cf;; door glazed with clear g1355 for vlew~,~g.

Li

severe we3tr.er.

screen door A.1 exterior door hav in g r-ooJ or .. Iuminum sU!es ana r.lils that hold a wire or pI3S';l:: :nesh to .. dmit air I7Ut ~!ude

o

L

in~s.

french door

louvered door

louver --------~

ccmf,i~n

A door having rectangular gl3ss panes extenang throughout its length. and often hung In pairs. AlsoCJlled ca~mentdoOl".

A door having a louvered opening for the passage or circulation of air. Also C4l1ed Pllnd £1001"_

An ope-nlng fltW 'r'lith sl.'lnting. fixed or rncvaD!e slats to admit air Dut exclude r3ln ana snow or to pro0Je prlvacy. Also. louvre.

An exterior door having a frame into which arfferent types of panels can Doe in~rtea. 35 a screen for SlJmmer or st.onn sash for

door

winter.

l. L

D gra~"ocr A door of heat-strengthened or ~pered glass. \'tlth or without ra lis ex sUits. used prima rlly a5 an erTtrance door_

Dutchaoor

f,.tun door

Jip door

A door divided horizontally 50 that the upper or lower part can De opened or closed separately.

A door const~.ed of vertical l7oard5 hekl to~her Dy horizo:1cal lr.itter.s and

A door hinged ~ be flush with the wall on either skk and treat.eJ sa 35 to Doe Indisu;-niL>te when cbsed. Also. gl1:7 door.

diagonal Dracing.

L , L

i L

64


DOOR 1 i

I l

_.

flush door

aajll5table doorframe A doorfr4me h3vl~ a split had and J:Jmbs for InstJl13tlo11In various WJU thld::nesses.

1IIIIIt--

Adoor havl~ smooth-surfaced faces.

core

Awooden construction. as In a door. forming a lIacklng for face veneers.

cr05s(,anding The plywood or hard!loard veneer Immediately ~eath the face veneers of a flush door. Also. crossl1and.

docrskin

Asurface veneer of plywood. hardboard.

p13stlc 13mll13te. or medium density overlay. bonded to the crossbandlng or core of a flush door.

i I

.

:

!

prehung docr

sclkJ-ccre door

Adoor hu~ In a doorfume More Ittstall3tlon In a wall sometllr.es preflnishecJ and prefltted wtth all neces5Jr)' hardware

Awood flush door having a solid core of staved

aM casl~ ~m.

lum!1er. partlck: Doard. or a minerai composition.

i.-'

hollow-ccre door A wood flush door having a framework of stiles and ralls encasing an expanded honeycom!l core of corrugated fI!1erl1oard or a grid of Interlocking horlzontal a vertical wood strips.

throat rhe opening between the Dackbends of a metal doorframe.

t

acoustical door A door hJving • sound-&e3dening

cor-e. ~sketed ~ .lang ~

t....t' an.::! sides. and an autolTutic drop ~I along the bo«om. Also ca11ed SOOnd-iIl5ULrti~ doer. backbend/.... The fa~ at the oUter edge of a metal doorframe that returns to the wall surface.

hollowmetalfr;,ame A doorframe having a head andJamDs formed from a sl~le piece of metal.

k3~mein door

Adoor hJving astructural wood core cl3d with galvanized sheet metal.

~

~ ~ .'

hollow m~1 door A door luving face sheets of light-gauge steei PorJed to a steel channel frame, reinforced wtth channels.• kraft hontj'COm!1 structure. or 3 rigid p~stIc­ foam core.

----- krIockdownfume Amet3! doorirame

r----L- ____ _

composed of three or more ~~sforassem!llylnthe

.. _.- we!de.dfnme A met31 doorframe th3tls completely set up and welded at t~ factory.

cutQff :,-to p A stop having a closed end that terminates above th~ floor line

flu5hfraIM A ma.1 c:Ioormnne ks~ ned to be Installed durl~ the construCtion of a masonry or stud wan.

drywall frame

a 45° or 90° angle. Alsacalled

A knockdown frame having a dcullle-return backbend for Installation after a drywall

hospital stop. sanitary

partition Is finished.

stop. \"""

groute.:f frame

A metal doorframe completely fll~ with' plas tel' or mortar for structu ral rigidity and Increased fire resistance.

i

anchor Ar.y of var'.:,.. s :netal devices for ~r.a'l~

orc P3rt of a struckJre to arccher.

pase anchor A metal clip or device for securing t~ !;rase of a doorframe to the f.oor.

!lpat ~ .. ; A protect!ve lining, usually of stainless scul. at the !13~ of a doorfrarT1(:.

double egre!ltS frame A metal cIoorframe prepared to receive a pall' of single-acting doors that swing In opposite directionS.

65 'i


DRAWING The art, process, or technique of representi/19 an ol1ject, scene, or ide3 b:t me3ns of lines on a surface. technique A method or procedure for accompl1shl~ a deslrea aim or tas~. as that c:mpbyed Py an artist showing a high ~ru of skill or command of fu nda me nt3 ls.

F'EKCEIYlNG lMAGlNIHG

freehana drawing The art. process. or technique of drawing

-t.. I I

~ hand WIthout the aid of draftlng Instruments or mechanical devices. esp. for the representatlon of perceptions or the visualization of ideas.

I

DRAWING _.:..( ' ~----"--lZ. ' \ ~ ..

line A thin, continuous 1TI3r\: made on ~

centour drawing

I

Il ~ ,{' \.

\-

The technique of drawing lines to represent the contours of a subject, without shading or 1T1Oddi~ of form.

surfau with a pencil, Pe:'!. or ~rush;'?s distinguished from sha di~ or eolor:\

centour

outline

.

A line describing the outer boundary ofa. f\j ure or object. '.

The outnne of a two-dimensional shape or PoundIng edges of II three-dlmenslonal form.

profile An outline of a form or structure seen or represerrted from the side.

gesture drawing

c~,-cont.our ar3wi~

The technique of dra w1114 hoes to represent a ~ of cuts across the surface of II fonn rather than,tts edges. ~.

f

The technique of drawing a single or multlple lines freely and quldly as a subject Is scanneJ and percepUoos of volume. rn.oss. movement. and significant details a re projecW onto the drawing surface. In contrast to contour drawing, gesture drawing generally p~s from the whole to the p3 rts.

/

"g~ A 1r'CI'em...~ of the b arm. had. f.Ice. or ?t~=:F==i~="':::;:- body th3t expresses an Idea. opinion. or .,' c:motlon.

na.

movement The effect or Illusion of motlon conveyed by the relationship of structural elements In a (l~:::::::~:;::-;:;=;:=:~~~-deslgn or compositIon.

reg ulating line A o~ drawn to measure or- express a~.gnrrent. SC3le. or proportlon.

trace A line I~htly drawn to record ali~nment or Irasurerr.ent.

siuaifl9 The r:ndering of Ilght.nd dark V4lluesln ~ drll~ to Cre3te the Uluslon of threedimensionality. represent light arJ s-ha.1ow. or give the effect of color..

h.ttching Sh3dlng composed of flne "ncs drawn In

close proxlmlty. ~,h.ttchin9

ShadlI14 composed of two or more series of Intersecting parallel noes.

~~~ng Shadlng by means of a networl: of random. multldlrectlonallines.

stippling

.

,

Sh3dlng by means of dots, small spots. or short stroK es.

modeling

key

The technique of rendtrlng the illUSion of volume. depth. or solidity on a twodlmensloni/ S<Jrface Uy shading.

The dominant tonal value of a drawIng or palntlng.

grisaille MonoehrolT'.3 tic painting In shades of gray to produce 3 three路dlmenslonal effect.

66

high-key

low-key

Havir":l chiefly l1~ht tones with little ccntr.;st.

Having en iefty dart tones with nttle contrast.

L


DRAWING design drawing Any of the drawings made to aid In the vlsuaflzatlon. exploration. and evaluation of a concept In the design process.

,ketch A simply Of hJsUyexecuted drawing or palrrtll1g rep~ the essential ftatures of an ~ Of scene without the detJils. often I1Ude as a prellmlna ry study.

sway A drawing executed as an educational e~rcise, productd as a prelimina ry to a final wor1:. Of made to record ol7servatlons. ScmetImes referreJ to 35 3 referential dr.1wing.

r

conception A d~wing of so~lng Chat dees not yet exist.

drm A prelimlna!), s1:~ of a deslg n Of pia n. esp. one subject to revision.

es-quis5e A $l:etch showl~ the general feJtures of a design or plan.

t I

'

epure AflJrt-SQIe, ~ drawing done 0f1 3 wall. fbao.orother~sumce. from which are ~ the patterns forvarlous Dulidlng presentation drawing Any of a set of design drawings made to artlculate and communicate a design concept or proposal. as for exhibition. review. or puDllcatlon.

elar.ent5.

cartoon A flJ~-sca~dra~ of it motif(X'des~n. to ~ :.toInsfmed In preparation f.x a fresco. lI1OS.Oic. ort3~try. renderi~

rI

A.:Inwing. r:sp. a pers~ive. of a ~Iiding

I

intu\ol" spau.artlstlcalfy deHneatln~ 1T'.oI ~rl3Is. shades 3nJ shadows: USU3 Ify

â&#x20AC;˘

Of'"

done for tM pu~ of presen tatlon and ~U3S\ort

I

rI r L

mass A unlf'.ed area of Ilght. shade. or color that deflnes shape or form In general

.

$I:}

,(

r; ..

.', +.,6 ~~

~ ~~~. â&#x20AC;˘

~', ~~~~~~~

outhne rather than In detail.

"',

'\.\

passage An area. section. or detail of a work. esp. with respect to Its qualities of execut\cf1.

J..

M~I ?fE..~

analyti~ue

Adrawl~ Cf' painting In which objects are

An elevat\o!l drawing of a facade. surrounded by a dewratlve arrangement of drawings of Important details 3 nel somei:lmes a pl3 nor section of the fac3ae.

qU3rtt ies

/ 1-..--

V'

/Ah_

,//~

vignette Adrawing that Is shaded off gradually Into the surrounding paper so as to leave no definite line at the border.

tfom~roeil

rendered In extremely fine detail to emph3slze the Hiusior c' tactile 3-j sp3tlal

)?)~ 'I /? :P

67


DRAWING drafting Drawing done with the aid of such Instruments as T-squares. triangles. compasses. ana scales. esp. for the sys~tIc representation and dlmenslonal specification of archItectural and e~lneerlng structures. Also called muhanlcaf drawing.

o grid

A rectangular system of lines and coordInates serving as a reference for locating ana re1uiJtlng the elements of a plan.

o17jectline A solid line representing a contour of an oi>ject.

tUshed line

--------~=---+---+-!

A In-oken nne conslstl~ of short. closely spaced strokes. used esp. to represent object nnes that are hidden or removed from view.

dotUd line

---------H+-trH==--~1___l

A In-oken line conslstln!) of a series of closefy spaced Oots. sometimes used In place of a dashed line.

co",truction drawings The portlon of the contract doc umen ts snowl~ in ucurate graphic or pictorial fonn the ~lgn.lccatlon. dlmenslon5. and relatlonshlps of the elements of a projxt. Also C311ed COfTt.nct drawings. wori:fng

unUrline A Im*en nne consIstlng of relatIVely long

segments separated by sIngle dashes or dots. used to represent the axis of a sym metrlca I element or composition.

I

'l I

dr.iwi"4 s . ~I

An emrosslng stamp used l1y a licensed architect. engineer. or other design professlol13t on Wltract drawings ana spectftcatlons to show evidence of ~Istratlan In the: state wMre the work Is

to ~ perfonTltJ.

(

/~~ ~-'.

..... !

.

exten~ion line A hne e:xtendI~ from an edge or f e3tu re of an o~. to which a dlmenslon hne Is

drawn.

'. crowfoot A V-shaped mark.the apex of which Is a reference point.

leader A short line leading the r;ye from a note or dlmenslon to a reference point. nne. or area.

17reakline A I1roi:en line consisting of relatIVely long segments Joined by short zlgZ3g strokes. . used to cut off a portion of a drawing.

dime~lon line j A line terminated by arrows. snort sl3shes. or dots. lnalcatlng the extent or mag nltude of a part or the: whole. and along which measurements are scaled and Indicated.

L.

68


.,

DRAWING ~r1ptive teCmetry

projection

The theory of ","*Ing project1ons of three-

The process or technique of representlng 3 thru-d1menslonal o~ by projectlng an its points by str3lgh-e nnes. either parallel

dlmtl'l.Slonal o~ on a p~ne surface In order to deduce their geometric properties and relatlonshys.

or converging. to a picture plane.

orthcgraphic projection A method of projection In whlch a -ehreedimCf1slonal '*.!ect Is represented by projecting lines perpel1dlcul.3r to aplctu re pl.3ne. Also called orthogonal proJection.

r

I

1

I

~ '"'

!"I

<~I~

11===fF

plan An orthographic projection of the top or sectlon of an o~ect or 5truct<Jre on 3 horlzoa"t31 plane. usually drawn to scale. Also calle.d plan view.

".

XI

floor ptan

1~1====l1

···• •. ~1in9

~I

~dpl.1a

----~

A plan of 3 rOOm. suite. or entlre floor of a puildin~ as sun from above after a horlz0n"t31 sectlon ls cut and the upper portion remOr'ea. typlc.:ifly shewing the for:n and arrangement of interlor spaces and their enclosing walls. windows. and doors.

·... I~===ll

.....

A pI.; n of a room as seen from aw,re hit having its celhllf Sijrf3ces arld elements proj«ted dowr.ard upon It so that what would appear to1he right whc1 seen from ~ appears 011 the plan to the left. Also calbi ~ cef1l~ plln.

poche The walls. columns. and other sof41s of a l:tulldl~ that 3re cut !n 3 floor pl3n or sectlon drawlng. tnd1caw.J USl!3fly In plack or by hatching.

mmi~pUn

A pUn showing the pattern, elements, and CO!UIeCt1ons of die: structur.ll frame for a fu.;lr or roof of ~ butldJrtg, usl~;; system of symrols and draftIng nnewon.

c.ontcurline --------~P"TJ_+--:\"'"'T!

~:::::~;~~:p:::c

l

!

r(/,//('

c.ontc~'~------------~~~~~~~~II~~~f

The d!fferenu I. e!MtIon represented by t3Ch COI1tour l1neon 3 top::graphlc plan or

map.

rocfpL1n

gradi~ p~n

A plan showing the top view of a pulkllng. esp. the form of Its roof.

A ~ n showing ~ proposeJ ftnlsh contours arld emtlons cf the ground surface of a conWuctlon sI~

~iU pL1n

narth arrow

A plan showing the form.iocatlon ..and orientation of 3 l:tultding or group of 17ulldlngs on 3 site. uSU311y Includlng the

A graphic symbd ~ on plans and maps to In dlc ate the dlrectloo of north. ~a!e

dImensions. contours. IandSC3plng and other s19ntf1cant features of the plot. AI50 called plot plan.

A proportloo determining the relationship of 3 represtntatlCn to that ~lch It represents.

graphic ecale

1 !

1

area plan

----------f

A graduated hnear Par Indlcatlnq the proportion ~ a representation and that which It represents

'.

.

.~._ _ '. _ _ ~'~. _ _'l.. _

A plan showing the principal elements of a proj~t In the wider context of Its surrounding en"lron~er.t.

design

69


I

It

DRAWING Iongftudin415Ution An ortkoqraphlc projectIon of;l sectlon made Dy cuttl"1 through the \::Ingest ax!s of an ol1ject.

&tCtio1t An orthographic proJectlon of an object or structure ;lSft woold appear if cut through by an Intu~ plane to show Its In~1 configuration, usually drawn to

I

It

5Q~ L.

eros, S<':ction

"

An ort~raphlc projection of a sectIon rruk ~ cuttl~ transversely, esp. at right angles to the ~ axis of an object. Also

cai1ea mns.,.erse section.

III section line) A cerrterllne termInating In a perpenalCular ~rnent with an arrow, used to indIcate where ;I sectlon Is cut In a plan or elevaticn view and the direction In which the sectlon

lu

Is to be viewea.

Ii i

opliCiue $eCtion An orth~raphlc projection of a section made Dy cutting with a plane that Is neither para Ilei nor perpend1cular to the long axls of an object.

,

~

~oo

e:b7tWn An ort.hogr#phlc projection Of an object or struct<Jre 00 a vertical picture plane p3ratld to one of its sides, usually drawn to SC3~

. shades ana shaaows The casting and rendering of shades ;Ind

shadows, esp. In orthographic views, to conv~ li9ht,

surface, form, and depth.

shade _ ...... _...... _....................... The parts of a solid that receive no li9ht ~u~ they are tangent to or wmeJ away from a theoretical light SOIIrGe.

\~~

relief An apparent projection from a flat bacl:ground due to contrast, crt3tlng t~.e Illusion of three dimensions.

r-路lceal color

\. The naturlll color of a part~ular 09ject .s it \. would a~r In white tlght.

shadow

AdarHlgure cast upon a surface Dy an opaque body Intercepting the rlIYs from

a theoretical light source.

U !

Lj 70

I:


r1il

r

r

DRAWING p.1r.1line drawi~

.1xonometrlc projecticn

Arry ofv.ri:les slnglc-vk:w drawings

The orthographic projection of a threedimensional object Inclined to the picture pllne In such a WilY that its three principal

,hm~ by pml1ellnes rtmaln~ pml1el to e3Cb other rather tn.311 converging ~ In linear

axes are foreshortened.

perspective.

3xonometric A para line drawing of an axonome~ric projection. haVing all lines parallel to the thru principal axes drawn to scale Dut diagonal and curved lines distorted.

r r J

r

1

ph.1ntcm A part of" dr3wlng that Is made tn!1S~renttv permlt

reprtSelTt~

of detJ lis otherwise hidden fromrlew.

dimetric projection

isametric

is-ometrk: projection

An axonometrlc projectlon of a threedimensional object incnnea to the picture plane In such a way that two of Its principal axes a~ t'qual1y foreshortened and the third appears longer or shorter than the other two.

A par.lMne draw',~ cf an Isometric prdp:;tlon. h1vi~4 .!llInes pml!el to the princIpal axes .;l,":lt'ln to true leryth at the sa;r,e scale.

An axcnametrlc projection of a thrudimensional object having its princlp31 faces equally IncUned to the picture pI. ne so that Its three principal axes are equally foreshortened_

trimetric projection An axonometric projection of a three-d1mension31 object Inclined to the picture plane In such a way that all th clpal axes 're fo ata d'- en

f-

c~~

A dr;l~ or ,"ode! havi~ an ouw StCtlon relnO'leQ to

dispby tM ~ior.

exploded new opli'tue projection

A drawlng ~ shows eM Individual parts of a woctureor coostructlon separ.rt:dy M Ind~ their proper re1.atlonships to each other and to the whole. Also calW ~naed

A method of projectlon In which a threedimensional oOJect. having one princlPJI face parallel to the picture pf3M.ls.cepre5e1'lW D:i projecting parallel nnes at some angle other th3n 90° to the picture plane.

view. phantcm line A brol:en anc wnslstlr.~ of rela tively 10"9 ~rno'Its separa~ by two short dJs~or dots. used to represent a property IIne,;in alternative posltlcn of a part of an object. or the relativ~ po9t!on of J n

â&#x20AC;˘ ~ntPJrt.

cavalier drawing

c3Pinet drawing

oPliqLle

A parallne drawing of an oblique prOJection. having the receding lines perpendicular to the picture plane drawn to the same scale as the lines parallel to the picture plane.

A paranne dra .... :~:f an oblique proJection. h3Ylng 311 lines pra'iel to the picture plaM drawn to exact scale, and the recedlng I1nes perperdicular tc j,e picture pl3re reduced to h3:f sc3le.

A para line drawing of an oDlique projectlc;1. having all nnes and faces parallel to the picture pllne drawn to exact scale. and all reced1n~ nnes perpend1cullrto the picture plane sMWT13t any convenient angle othl!1" th3n 90~ sometlrT'es at a reduced scale to offset the appearance of distortion .

71


DRAWING perspective Ivry afV2.nouS ~hnlques for representlng th.ree-dlmenslonal objects ana spatlal rtutlonshlps on a two-dlmenslonalsurfact as they might appear to the eye.

pictorial space

The illusion of sp3U or ~pth deplcW on a two-dimensional sumce by various graphic means. as aerial perspective. contlnuity of

rn.

o",,,,,,al~tIc~ ,

X

continuity of outline

~

A f.Xhnlque for representIng depth or d1stance by emp/13stzlng the contlnulty of the contour of a shape perceived as "clng In front ana conceaNng a part of another Pehlnd It.

_

i, .

-_'

--

-

----->--

1--.... - ... -_ ... ,

~patUl

edge

An edge of an object or surface separated from Its bacl::ground by dn InU:r;a1 of space. denne3tea by a thlder fine or by a sharI ~ contrast In value or texture. ;::r '

___

liij

""':.:'<"f.:- t:;:

:;;;

~I perspective

vertlc~llocn:lon

A ~hnlque for rendering depth or dlstance !Iy muting ~ hue, tone. ana dlstlnctness of objects perceived as receding from the plcture·plane. Also called atmospheric

A ~hnlque for representlng depth or distance !rt placing dlst.nt objects h~her In the picture plane than otjects ~ed ;;as being closer.

hi

~ize perspective ... ~hnlque for representlng depth or

Uxture p~pectlve A~hnlque for representlng depth or distance by graaU311y IncreaslM4 the density of the texture of a sumce perceived as receding from the plctore pl4ne.

dist;;ance !rt reducing the size of objects pcruIved as receding from the picture plane.

perspective. linear perspective A mathem3tlcalsystem for representlng three-dlmenslonal oDjects and spatlal relationships on a two-almenslonalsurface loy means of perspective projectlon_ ~pectJve proFtion A mhoc:I of projection In which a three·

I

dlrnenslonalobject Is rtp~nte.d !rt projecting an Its points to a p!cture plane

r-

j

!Iy straight lines converging at an point representJ ng the eye of the vlewer_ ~rlly flxed

I

I

!

~;:~~I~·th~·I~-~~·~-·-·~~~~~~~~~ the centl'2l of the plcture I axis

vision and

!5'btionpoint .. -- •.•.••••••••••. -.... pbne hnearperspectlve. A flxt.dInpoint III spare representlng a slC'lg~eye dthe viewer In hnear perspectlve.

~~II~~llli,~Jlllii~~§~~=J''''' ,/

/ :'

/ •

-

picture pl4ne An Imaginary transparent plane. coexlstent wft:h the drawing surface. on whk;h the lma~ of a three-dimensional o!7je.ct Is projected. In Nnear persp-ectlve. arty line or pl4ne colnck:ltnt with the picture planec;an Ve drawn to exact scale.

~

i

P

Ap?lnttowardwhlchnualngpmllellines

vanishing point In llnedr perspective. appe3rtoconver~ 1oc3tea at the point where a slghtllr.e parallel to the set of lines Intersects the picture plane.

horizon line Ahn.e representlng th., intersection of the picture plane and a horizontal plane through the eye of the viewer In n~r perspective.

I

~ ground line Ahorizontal line representlng the Irrtersectlon of the ground pbne;;ana the picture plane In linear perspect~e. Also

called "'&aline. . - ground pl~n6

Ahorizontal plane of reference from which vertlc31 measurements can ~ taken In linear perspectlve. usually the ~ar.e . supporting the object depicted or on which the viewer stands.

ccne of vi~lon The field of vision I'2dlatlng outward from the eye of the viewer In nnear pers pectlve. deflnedby slghtllnes forming a lS°to:30° angle wft~ the central axis of vlslon. The cone of vision serves as a guJae In tkt.ermlnlng what ~n ~ drawn In hne;lr perspective wfthout the appearance of distortion.

72

-4 central.1xf~

of vf~ion

The slghtllne InalcatlM4 the direction In which the viewer Is looking In linear . perspectlve. perpendicular to the picture p!a~e.


· "I

DRAWING ccnvtrgence The apparent movemertt of parallel lines

towara "cammon v.nlshlng polrtt 3S they

reude. usea In linear ~lYe to convey an HkJsloo of space ana depth.

P"rallellines perpenJicul.1r t<J the picture pune tt{lIappe3r t<J ~nverge at the center of vision. ~-------1

Pmllel lines p;u-allel t<J the picturt pl.1neret31n their orien tatlon and Will net appear t<J con~ge.

I

.-

r

--~-.-.-

peNpectJve A arawlng of the perspective projectlon of an aDject or scene. characterlzed chlefty l1y convergence ana foreshorten In!!.

j - " - - .......•

wapparentcontractlon ordlstortlan of a represented line or shape that 15 not parallel to the picture plane. conveying an iIIuslon of exte~slon or projection In space.

diagonal vanishing point A V3nfshlrtg polnt for a set of horizontal hnes receding at a 45°~1e to the picture plane In hne"r pe~ Also called diagonal point. distance pOint. ---.--

foreshortening

horizon line

one-point per5pective A hnear perspective of a rectangular ODJect

or volume having a prinCipal face parallel with the picture plane. so that vertlc3lllnes

..' Par;lUellines rising upw3rd as they ~WiH3ppe3rt<JCOtTVerge' / sornewhert ~ the horizon line. /

.... ,.

V3n~hlng

trace

A Ilne along which all sets of receding p-JI'3/1ell1nes Iyfng In the same or parallel planes will appear to converge In linear perspective.

.,.c..--,-~~-~--I--+--1---=~-'~+-~~-:>"'---':"~J

Parallel lines which art hCriz0nt31 M not pe~dicul3r t<J the p~ plane WiU appear

mea,uring point A V3nlshlng point for a set of parallel lines used In transferring scaled measurements the picture plane to lines recedlM!J In linear Ive. '----'\

"'If

parallel to the p1cture plane remain vertlc3l, horizontal lines parallel to the picture p13ne remain horizontal. and horizontal lines perpendicular to the picture plane appe3r . to canverge at the center of vision.

to ~rrYf:rge somewh~ en t.~~ horizon /in~.

isocephalic Having the heads of all fi9ures at approximately the same level Also.

~phalor

lOt-~ two-point per5peaive A "near perspective of a rectangular aDject or volume havll14 two principal faces oblique ;.0 the picture pl3M. 50 th3t vertical nn~

f I

l.o.l

... I

fd.d IMs sloping dol+f1W1rd as they rmJe wffl appex tc ~nverge ~ere Pelow th~ horizon fine.

parallel to the picture pl3ne remain 'r'rn\c31 and two horIzo1TtaI sets of parallel lines ol7ilque to the p1cture plane appear to C011'r'erge at two vanishing points. 0I1~ to the left and the other to the right. diJg<'naf •. - .. -... -... --.-- .. -.----.... A straight line connectlng two . IlOrI3dpcen't angl.es of a rectangle. used .... 111 S1JpdMdlng a whole Into . propor..lonate parts or multiplying" '. ··~~Ic unit of measurement or space..

me3,urlng line ...--- ..--.~ Any nne colncldent with or parallel to the picture pl3ne. as the ground line... ' which can Pc used to take .. . measurements In "nea.~,~rs~~.

1 1

;'1

I t.~!

a n.3 morpho,ls A dlston:eJ 11r139t: that appe3r5 In n3tural fOl1l1 only wh~n '(IeweJ at a ~~I 3 "!! Ie or reflected from a cUr.'W mirror.

horizon line

graphiC

three-point ptr5pectlve

Of or relating to pictorial representation, esp. that which depfcts In a clear and effective

A linear perspective of a rectangular object or volume having all prinCipal faces o~nqu~ to the picture p13M. so th3t the thr~ principal sets of parallel nnes appear to converge at three different I'3nlshir,~

1T13nnu.

View 3t" shallow angle from this point

points.

73


'. I Ii

ELECTRICITY The sciena dealing with the physical pheno~ arising from the existence and interaction of electric

charges.

electric wrge The lntrinsW; property of lNtter giving rise to an electr1; phenomena, occurring in two forms arl1itnn1y given posttlve and negative alge~ralc ~ns and rr.easured in coulom~s. Opposite ~rges attract while li~e charges

electromotive force The energy per unIt avalla~1e for conversion from a chemical, mechanical, or other form of energy lllto electrical energy, or vice versa, In a conversion device as a ~attery, generator, or motor. A~h.: emf •.... "'.'.

charge

repel each oU1er.

potential difference

coulomp

The voltage difference Petween two points

The 51 unit of electric cfmge, t:qual to the qua ntlty of electricity tra nsferred across a woauctor loy :a current of one ampere In one second. Abk.: C

potential

( }:=~ ~)

I 'I

!

Y

E~~::~~:::~r~:~:: w /

~;;;~?f':~~:~'

~agt!iof

two or more cells connected together to produce electric current.

cell A device for converting chemical into erectric energy, usually consisting of a receptacle with electrodes in an electrolyte. Also called electric cell, galvanic voltaic cell.

cell,

electrolyte

I

Anonmetallic conducting medium In which

:":~::5:,~:::t:~~::::t"~~"'

::::~:ves

j

a nun metallic medium.

r_m--u~u .--..... ~,,:~~"~""r~rof'Pri~~,err~ i-----.o---t-----<).o-,~-~-..... llll.11 + -".'." .... , ~~~:Ive

(

~j I

terminal of a primal)' celf or

storage ~ttery.

voltage

I

f.ow: curnnt

j

L..• circuit

./

.__ . /

f'otentl31 difference or electromotive force expresStd In volts: analogous to pressure In water flow.

The complete path of an electric

volt

series •............................ _.. ' ..

The 5/ unit of potential difference and eIecWmotlve force, defined as the dlfferenu of eb=tric potentlall1etween two points of 2 conductor carrying a con~i1t curren't of one :ampere, when the power dlsslp2ted Pe'tween the points Is t:qua! to one W3tt. A~r.: V

An .rrangementofcomponents 1n;;:1 electric circuit In which the same current flows through each component In tum without pranchlng.

U I

current, including the SOurce of electriC energy.

parallel •.•......•..•. -. - ..... -..........•.

An arrangement of components In an electric circuit In which all positive terminals are connected to one conductor and a/l negative terminals are connected to oil second conductor, the same voltage Dtlng applied to each component.

w= VxA ----rpower

....l

The proaua of potential difference and CUi1"el1t Itt J direct-current circuit. In an atternatln§ current circuit. power 15 t:qUJI to t1le ~ of the effe:ctlve voltage, the effectlve Cll!'Tent. ana the cosine of the p~se 2f141e retwetn current 2na voltage.

wrtt The 51 unit of po-""er, eqUJI to one Joule per ~ortothe power ~ by a current of 0IIe ;I mpere flowing across a potential ctfference of one volt. APlir.: W ~e

An amount of power, esp. the power required to oper.rte an electrical device or applial1Ce, expressed in watts.

kilowatt A tIf1itofpower, equal to 1.000 watts. A~!7r.:

leW

lei !ow;rtt--J\o ur A unit ofene-rgy, equal to the energy transferred or expenkd by one kilowatt in one hoUr:;I common unit of electric power

GOnSIJmptlon. A~.: kWh

74

current •...•. ~ The rate of flow of electric charge In a circuit per unit time, measured in amperes.

More the rrmn gf eJectrlctty w.l5 fuDy ~,It ~S3SsumeJ th3t3 JlrtCt aJrmrt fJoweJ fi-onI; positive point ~ 3 neg3tlve one. ThIs convention Is stiff used tren though electrons flow in the opposite dfrectlcn, from n~tiY~ r;, positive. am~e

The ~asic 51 unit of electric current, t:quivalent to a flow of one couloml1 per second or to the steady current producea !Iy one volt applied across a resistance of one ohm. A~!n'.: A

amperage The strength of an electric current measured or expressed In amperes: analogous to the rate of water flow.

resist.1nce ~ .... .. j The opposition of a conductor to the flow of current. causing some of the electric ener~ to ~ transformed Into he4t 2nd usUi11y measure4ln ohms. A~Pr.:R

ohm The Sf unit of electrical resistance. t:qual to the resistance of a conductor In which a patentl31 difference of one volt produces a current of one ampere.

Syml7ol:0 Ohm's law •.... - ........ -... -................ The law that for any circuit the electric current Is directly proportional to the voltage and Inversely proportional to the resistance.

Joule's law The principle that the rate of production of heat by adirect Current is dlnectly proportional to the resistance of the circuit and to the squa re of the current.

resistivity The resistance per unit length of a sul>stan~ with a unit cr05s·sectlon.a1 area. Also called spec;i& reslst.an~.

ccnductMty A IT1e3sure of the auliltyof a sul>stance to conduct electric current, equal to the neclprocal of the resistivity of the sul>stance. Also called specific conductance.

I =VIR

P

I


ELECTRICITY

~di_wm~ An electric current flowing In one dIrection

¥Mra-tcr A mJChlM that converts mechanical e~rgy Into electrbl enertr:J.

~ ~ ~.

alttrtutor

.

only and having a magnitude that does not vary or varies only slightly. Abbr.: DC

time

A generator for producing alternating current.

.. alternating current An electric current that reverses directio~

r--------------------l

electric motor ---------:'i~ -

:

A macnine that converts electric power In to muha nlcal energy.

:

I

I

arl113ture ----_. ______ ._. __ .____ .l.. .. ___ The main cum:nt-canyfng winding of a

;=:::~7nhd~~d.

at regularly recurring Intervals, having magnitude that varies In a sinusoidal manner. Al:rbr.: AC

I

I

,

I

----- _. -

vott-ampere

I L~ ___ ~~,~·~~-----------J

1_

"

.,~'

r------------------- i

I

•.- ... ____ ~._ .. __ .. _-.......... . A ~ or carron conductor serving

core ----.------.----.-.- .. -- ... - .. -t-....

ta maintain electric contact !?etween fixed and mOvIng elelnents In a motor or

materIal In an electromagnet. Induction co!1. or transformer, 5erVlng to concentrate and Intensify the magnetlc ftekl resulting from a current

l1r~h

A mass of Iron or other ferrous

gen era t.?r.

3

I

l

I

I

l k- transformer l

I

I

In a surrounding coil. coil _________ ..... _ ... __ ... _... _ A conductor wound In a spiral form to

I

·······r :

I

L---------_________J

Introduce Inductance Into a circuit.

Aunit of electric measurement, equal t<J the product of one volt and one ampere, equivalent to one watt for dlrect·current systems and a unit of apparent power fer alternating·current systems. Abbr.: VA

An e!ectrlG device consIsting of two or more _J J .. L _ L whlLllngs wounCA on "fiCO same core, wldch employs the prinCiple of mutual Ind uct ton to convert vari3tlons of alternating current in a primary circuit Into vari3tlons cfvoltage and current In a secondary circuit.

step-up transformer

ill

high-voltage Operated on, powered by, or / transmitting high voltage.

r-

5u!lstation An auxiliary power station where electrical current Is converted. as from DC to AC, or where voltage Is s"'...epped up or down.

~rviu

/

The supplyi~ of uUlitles, as water, gas, and ~~Ity. ~ulred or demanded by the

(/~1

A transformer having fewer turns in the primary winding than In the secondary. senlng to transform low voltage to high

voltage.

step-down transformer Atransformer havln~ a greater numl7er of turns In the primary wlnJ1ng than In the secondary. serving to transform high

pu~\c..

voltaqe to low voltage.

line drop

line volt.1ge The voltage supplied b:t a power Mne, measured at the point of use.

The decre3S<lln voltage between two polnts 011 a power !Ine, usually cause.:! by res!st3T1ce or leabge alone the line.

5ervice CO nd uctor 5e"";~

--.J

entranuconductor _......... _.. _.... _

The portlon of 3 servu conducr.or ~ng~3~~~or~~u Ia~ral to the serke equipment of a

}--....... 5el"lice drop __ :=:-=-=::,;:-_------:!.l , __ -::. -::.-=..-::.:oo===:-=:-=-=-{""--=--- ==--- ,

buikflng.

r

i

'tIf<iItt-hour meter -..... --. A meter for rne;lS~ and recording the 'iuartmj' of eleGtric power consumed with respect to Clrne.

Arry of several conductors extending from 3 main power line or transformer to the service equIpment of a building.

The overhead portion of servIce conductors extending from the nearest utility pole to a bulkllng.

....... ~rviu l.rteral The un.de~~nd portJon of service condUC"tars extendlltjJ from a main power line or ~rtsformer to. bulkllng.

rr-=-=::::----=---

---------------~-

r-I r- --------------------l I5wft(;hg~r room ! tr.InsfonMfvault l I A room corTtalnlng tM service I Aflre-:rated I'0OI1 housing a I I I I I equipment for a large bulkllng. I ~nsfor1f1erandauxlharyequlpment I I for a I3rge building. usually located on '-rl'J.. ~raJe orPelow~round and ventilated V1 :L ___________________ dlrectly to the outside air. : I -1 :

i

I

I

I

I I

standby genaatcr A generator for providing emergency power during 3 power outage. Also c:J11ed emergency generator.

uninterruptil1le power supply An emergency system designed to provide power automatically and Instantaneously upon failure of the nomul power supply.

, ""1..-1 __1 - 1--' I I I I I I

I

I

II I

I

~l"Ilce

equipment

The equipment r.ecessary for controlling. metering. and protecting the electric power supply to a bulid1ng. located near the entrance of the service conr:!uctors and usually consisting of a main dlsconnect switch and secondary switches, fuses. and circuit breakers.

f~der

A'ny of the conductors extending from the service equipment to various dlStributlon points In a l7ulkllng.

unit substation A freestanding enclosure housing a disconnect SWitch, a stq1-down mounted switches. ovucurrent transformer, and SWitchgear for a devices, metering Instruments. and buses for controlling anr:! protecting a ~===::C num!lu of electric circuits. numl7er of electric circuits. Also called swiUhgear.

switch!?-oard

One or a group of panels on which are

I IL ______________________

I ~

75


I; ElECTRICllY pluse The fr3ctlona I pa rt of a per10d or cycle through which tlme has adv;i nced. measured from a specified reference point and often expressed 3S an angle.

:-~

live

i Electrically connected to a . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - , + - souru ofvo/t.age. or electrlc~11y chJrged SO;/S to

hJve.3 potential different from thJt of ~rth. Also. hot.

dead Not electrically conr,ected to ;J source of voltage.

ground --- ..•.... _...•..... -_ ... , ..• _.\ ~- neutral Aconducting connectlon ~tween an \. i. Not electrically char~ed. etectrlc circuit or device and the earth \t-------'-"'"'----'"t---.---t--"t-"'--~..:.--'---'-"-t'_-+_-_+_--+~ orotherpointofwopotentlaL 9 120V 208V 208V fauft • A 1oc31 failure In the Insulatlon one Ie 1C.:)V 120 V or continuity ofa conductor. 120V or In the functlonlng of an 2::'; 120V

120Y

electrical system.

single-phase ____ ._ .... _.L_....._.......... J Of or pertainIng to a circuit energized by an alternating current with one phase or with phases differing ~ 180°. two-phase Of or pertaining to a circuit energized by two alternatlng currents or

cycleorl20~

voltages differing In phase ~ OM quarter of a cycle or 9O~

/ t!

- - ------ .... ---.-----. _r-.... Themalndlsconr.ectforU!e I -'" .-•.J : entlre ~al system of a ruildlng.exceptfor.3ny : i· emergency power systems. I L.._ .__ ~!witch

I

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-1:' : / : .:

1/

I

--

--...;.-

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;. :..

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F= -.=--=-. =.-::: :-"-='====-'="""""'l ,:

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pandl7~rd. -=========4=~ll

"us ..... --.. _. '-'" .......... _ ...... A heao.'Y conductor. usua Ily In the form of a soIkI copper b3r. used for collecting. carrying. and dIstc1ht1ng brge eltctric

'""'"'t~ Also "lied ...s~".

I! "--'Ir" i

I I~

n /l

'.... Ii.!....

t --

grounded conductor -............ - -Any ccnductcr of an electrical Jl system IlTUntlanally connected

I:

to a ground ccnnectlon.

:1

c='t~ lr-.cTUptlng the cIrcuit. ~ . I

resistance Detween two points In an electric circuit. resuit1ng In a flow of excess current. Alsa called short.

plug~

rnwlem~1

"".')'ofvarious metal i!...')'s havIng 41 rrodtlng , p;;:rt ~eIow :3000 F ~" (:'7C). used as soldu ;;-j in various safety

short circuit

An a bnDrm3 I. usually accidental condition of ~w

shock The muscular spasms causta P:t an electric current passing through the body.

;. device ccntainlng 3 strip C'" I'Iire of fusible metal ;-.7; melts under the heat r Auced P:t exuss

A fuse hooslng " fuSl'c!e fink In a porcelain cupfltt.ed wfth a threadeJ metal base.

" .... _

~4'~.Alsccaned

A fuse havlng aont-Ume or renewable fuslv/e I1nl: enclo$ed man lnsuratlng fiber tuDe.

: ___ knife·!1lak fuse ./ i

A C3~ fuse having ;l nletal ~!ade at each end for makIng ccntact with the fusl~le fink withIn.

Afuse that klays opening to allow;i short· term ovedc3d to pass. 35 when starting a

~~

motor.

u

'I

~- ;1 :r-. 11

.•

...

~ ,-.:r----~ CIl"'Cuitm.ker-~ ~~ A$fofitch that 4Iutomatlcally Inttml~ an --:,- ~.rlc cIrcuIt to prevent excess current :1 fr..-, damaging apparaws In the cIrcuit or ~_._"_ ~ causing ~ fire. A circuit In'eaker I13Y Pc

:'

"..-..----+-

u

time-deL1y~

i

.

u

cartrWge fu5e ~

f~si~e alloy.

-- .....;.------~

swftches. fuses. and circuit

Pre3~ersforcontrolflng4lnd

f.;~

I I

--l -

~a=rd on which are mounted the

protectlng a num~erofslmllJr: ~nclt circuits. Installed 'n a : caPlnetand ACCeSslP!e from the I; front only. Aisocalled Ii

r'"

:'

-----1---1 I ;!

three-phase _..1 Of or pertainIng to acoml?lnatlon of three circuits energized !1y alternatlng currentS or voltages differing In phase I1y one third of a

rec'~ and reused witl10ut ~t of i"Y components. Also called ~Ur.

:1

:=:--;t~':I:--------------

ground fault A rnoment<iry. usually accldental. grounding of a conauctlng wire. .

ground·fault intempter Acircuit ~ker M 5C1SeS currents caused by groond fa ults Instantaneously shuts off ~r Pefure damage or InJury c.n occur.Al7!:>r.: §til

ana

:j

,---....------:0'1-------------:1

. ~.:..____:,~~-_------..__-----_-----

L~:==:~~~=~~~~~:~-:j -----r---------- ---1 grounding electrode A ccnductor. as a metal ground rod. ground plate. or cold·water pl~. flrmly embedded In the earth to est3l7lish a ground connectlon.

ground wire ~.--; Aconductor ccnneck.J electrlc eqUipment or aclrcu:t io a ground connec~.Alsocarlid ~f'oundlng

conductor.

! :

e r3

L____ J

l I

L ...

76


~.

. ,

I

ELECTRICITY lightnj~ rod .-----.--.---- ..---.- ......-... -----.--------" Arry of several conductl~ rods InstJl!eQ at \. the top of ;i struct;re;inJ grounded to \

dlvert I\ghtl1l~ aWirJ from the structure. Also called ;ilr Unnin3 L

load .... \.

lightning 3mster Adevice fO!" p~ng electnc equipment from damage I1y lightning or other hlgh-

-/

The power delivered I1y a genel'3tor or tr'3nsformer. or the power consumed by an appll3nce or device.

\

voltage currents. using span: gaps to carry the current to the 楼Ound wtthout f73sslng throogh the device..

maximum demand

The greatest load deliverea to an electrical system or circuit over a spectfled Interval

of time.

5pari: gap A space Petween two termllt3ls or

~- -I

ccnnecUd load The total load on an etea rica I system or circuit If all connected apparatus and eqUipment are energized simultaneously.

.

c:femana fKtor

t1.ectrodes. dCrosS whlch;i discharge of

The I'3tlo of the maximum demand to the connected load of an electrical system. used In estlmatlng the reqUired capacity of the system to account for the prolr.Jlrility that only a portion of the connected load

electrlctty may pass at a prescrlbeJ

voltage.

~-I

may be applled at any time.

c:fiversityfactor The I'3tlo of the sum of the maximum demands on the various parts of an electrical system to the maximum demand on the whole.

Io.ac:fflctor The I'3tlo of the average load on an

Dr3nch circuit

Li

The portlof1 of an electrical system extend1ng from the ftn.ol overcu rrent device

1 !

protectl~ a circuit to the outlets savea I1y the circuit.

I

electrical system over a speclflc perlocl of tlrne to the pe3k load occurring In that period.

L

g!ner.al purpo:se circuit Amnch circuit that supplies current to a number of outlets for IlghUng and

l

appll3nces.

[9]1

appliance circuit A mnch circuit that supplies current to one or IT'IOT'e outlets specifically intended for appl13nces.

Indlvk:hul cirr,uit A mnch circuit that supplies currerrt Oflly to a slng~ piece of elxtrlcal equipment.

'-I

distriMlon panel A pa nd for als;rlbutJ~ power to other panels or to rrctor-s and other heavy pc-wer-consumlnqlcads.

I

t

I

I ______ ...II L-.

law-voltage Of or pertaIning to a circuit In which alternating current ~elcw 50 volts Is supplied I1y a step-dewn transformer from the normal nne voltage. used In resIdential systems to CO!'Itro1 doom:lls. Intercoms. heating and cooling systems. and rerr.o'..e lighting fixtures. Low路vcttage clrcui:S do not reqUire a protect,ve raceway.

Tl


1 ELECTRICITY ~l7!e A single Insulated conauctoror a Paund or sheathed coml7lnaUon of conductors Insulated from one another.

conduct.?r

wire A pnable metallic strand or a twisted or woven assembly of such strands. often Insulated with a dlelectrlc material and used as a conductor of electricity..~

.. rmored caple

A substance. !:>ody. or device that Cv"nduct5 heat. sou nd. or electric Ity.

.' insulator

Electric calk consisting of two or more Insulated conductors protected by a flexible. helically wound metal wrapping. Also called 6X caiJle.

. A material that Is a poor conductor cf electricity. used for separating or supporting conductors to prevent tr.e undesired flow of current.

mineral-insulated caple

~reakdown

voltage

Electric caule consisting of a tul7ular copper she3th con'blnlng one or more cond~rs em~ In a highly compressed.lnsulatlng refractory mineral

The minimum applied voltage at which a given Insulator I1reaKS down and permits current to pass.

nonmebllk; 5~ caple Electric caPle conslstlng of two or more Insulated conduct«s enclosed In a nonmebilic. moisture-resistant. flame-

dielectric strength The maximum voltage trut can be applled to a given materi31 without ca using It to !;>red!; down. usually expressed in volts or I::i iovor-..s per unit of thlcl:ness.

retardant she3th. Also called Romex c;.a£,{e,

dielectric A nonconducting substance.

coawlcaple

l~

lJ

u

A caulefortransmlttlng h~h-frequency

telephone. digital. or television signals.

junction box

conslstlng of an Insulated conducting tul7e enclosing an Insulated conducting core.

An enclosure for housing and protect1ng electric wires or cables that are joined together In connecting or branchin~ ~Iectr'c circuits.

shielded caple An electric ca!Jle enclosed within a meta IIIc sheath In order to reduce the effects of extern.1 electric or magnetic ftelds.

...... _- Knockout .,' Apanel In a casing or box that can readily be removed. as by punching. hammerir~. ex cutting. to provide an opening Into the

11

I

u

Interior.

conduit A ~Pe. pipe. or duct for enclosln~ and

C'-'-T-_ _-=-l!{()

grommet A rul7ber or plastic washer Inserted in ;I hole In a metal part to prevent grounding cf" wire passing through the hole.

protecting ~Iectrlc wires or cal7le.

ri9id metal conduit

~-

........ -.--.......-., ..

He3'fj'-wafled. tul7Ular steel conduit Joined by 5C;ew!ng directly Into <l threaded huu with loci: nuts ana l7ushln3s.

f

=~.:Ia~~:::d~l~j~i~d~··1"'-_____--_--Jt

. Vushing An Insulating and protective Ilning for one

Q)"COoJOC"'" pm'"!

th"",!h' ho<.

compression or setscrew coo p/lngs. Al7k:

EMf

~!~~!I~;:~m~~'I'~~~-I~:"'-"~ used for connections ta motvrs or other vlln7tlng equipment. Also called Grunfleld

An enclosed runway for housing conductors orcal7les.

conduit.

Pu~duct

Arigid metal housing for a group of ~ses Insulated from each other and the eflclosure. Also called Pu5way. racewJy

~;:~~~SwlSlydeS~:edLtol hold and .•.•.• / r'V~."~W-""

res a'lQ calles.

......

&urface raceway _.... _..... _.../ A ra~ t:lesIg ned for exposed installation In dry. nonhazardous.

/

noncorrosN~ locations.

multi-outlet assemply _....... - .... ,-'/ Asurface-mounted r.tteeway designed to house the electrical wires for a circuit and a

L

series of receptacles.

underfloor raceway A raceway suitable for Installation under a floor. often used In offlu I1ulldings to allow for the flexlule placement of power. signal. and telephone ou~!ets. .

78

cable tray An open metal framewon: for supportln~ Insulated electrical conductors.

I. l ...


ElECTRI(ITY Jir switch

swiU:h

':--' bceplate \. A protective plate 5urrO\Jrtdin~ 3n electric \\, outlet or light swi"~h.

II switch 111 whlch tM Interruption of a circuit occurs In air.

A device for making. Drcaklng. or dlrectlng an electric current.

taggle switch

knife switch .... -- ----- ------------. II form of air swftch In which a "" hl~~ copper PI3~ Is placed " betwxh two co~tact cnps.

A switch In which a lever or knob. moving through a snnallarc. causes the contacts to open or close an electric circuit.

float switch A switch controlled by a conductor fuatl~

In a liquid

mercury switch An es~lally 't1Iiet Sl'fttch that

opens ,ma clcses anelectric circuit by shifting a sealed !:,Iass t.u ~ of mercury so as to u"coyer or CClVtr the conUcts.

--.i:;:'-~-'-

key,wftch II switch opel"3W O!lly by

r

J

r f

:

electric Ilght without appreciably affe.ctin.; spatl31 dlstributlon. Also rheostat

Aresistor for ~ulatlnq a current by me:ans of vartal>\e resistances.

i U I

!

d

~: ; .

,:i,

./

:

-+!,)+--Fe--l ~_~J_______~!~:>~

:!

:!:

four-wayswiU:h A swItch used In conjunction with two three-way SWitches to controlllqhts from

/

----:-:1>-,:_ _ _ _ _

three-way switch A Single-pole. doulne-throw swttch used In conjunction with another to control lights from two locations.

'I

I

r - - - -.. . . . .-+·...J I -" ___ .. ____ ._.l. ...

I

I

~

""&-+------------H:

~;~i~~i~::~;-····-··-··-··~ 0 ~ called dimmer switch.

I

~i: ~! !

three locations.

kncl7-.1nd-tu~ wiring

outlet

An obsolete wiring system conslstll11 of

A paInton a wiring system at which current ls taken to supply an electric device or apparatus.

5ln.g~.ln$u!ated conductors 5eCur~ to and suppor'..ed on porcd;lln knobs ana tubes.

Iccm

----- ... - outletl1ox AJunctlon box designed U, facIlitate connectlng an electric device or

A flexible. nonmetallic. fire-resistant tubing for conductors In I:nob·and·tube wiring.

0

receptacle to a wiring system.

1

(]

---. convenience outlet An outlet usually mourrted on a wall ana housIng one or more receptacles for porta!nelampsorappllances.

_~

"''--' __ ' --.--_.---. receptacle Afemale fitting connected to a power supply and eqUipped to receive a plug. Also called socket.

grounding outlet

leu! A flexlble.ln~ted conductor for ekctr.c4l1ycon~ an app3ratus to

another or to:.l circuit.

p~n A short. /'bIble cOMuctor used In CO\'tnecun~:.I statlor.ery termln31 with a termlr\41 havl~ 3 n~d range of motlon. urmil13l A condxtlve dement or device for estabr,sning an electric connection to an aFp3r:ltuS.

An outlet havlng an acldltlonal contact for a ground conne.ctlon.

A snna~l. flexl!ne. insilited ca~ie fitted with a plu:l to conroxt a port.#~ !amp orap(:3nce to a reap-tacle.

'.~-- .. - ..

plug

wire n\It Aplas>J.c connec".....'Vcontainln~ 3

A male fitting for making an electrical connection to a circuit by Insertion In a

threaud metal ftWr.q for 5C~""ing

receptacle.

onto the Intertwl~ ~ds of t ..Oor more CCflductors.

grounding plug

connector Any cfmlous de/a's for joini~~ tllO or more conductors ',,;:hout 3 pe~3~ent splice

@ ,. \

I!Jl

A plug haVIng a Dlade for a ground connection. J,

-~ polarized

Designed so that a plug and receptacle can fit together In only one way.

r=

79


ELEVATOR A m~ pLotfonn or cage for c..rryir.g passengers or freight from ~ levei of a uui14ing to anothu.

pulkhe3d A roxllke structure on a roof providing access to a stalrwen or an elevator shaft_

~~~~~~~~~~~~~ __ control panel

penthou~

rift 6ritIsh tern1 for elevator.

A structure housing elevator machinery on the roof of .. hulk/lng.

p;l'~r elct'rlor An emtor exclusively fer tne use of pas5el'l¥f'S.

A panel contain 1"4 SWitches, huttons, and other equipment for regulating electrical

devices.

top car cle..1rance The vertical alstance from the top of an

fre~ht elct'ator

el.evator c..r to the nearest overhead

An elevJ tor for ca rT)'ing r.e3Y)'cargo. 011 whleh t.~ operator ;arJ the perso~s neu5S4ry for unloading aM loading

obstructlon when the car platform Is with the top landing.

the freight are permftttJ to ride.

hoisting machinery

The machinery for raising and lowering an elevator car, consisting of a motorgenerator set, traction machine, speed governor, hrake. drive shaft. driving sheave. • ana gears, If used.

.1 driving ,heave

duml>w;after

A wheel or dis!: with a groovecJ rim. used as a

A snuU eb7tor for COI1veying food, dishes, or other m~ Is Detween tM floors of ;a UullJlng.

pulley for hoisting.

.... idle 5heave

pan~

hof,tw;ay ----- ------ --- ----- -------- --- -----------~-+----li-~__HI~

Arowofeb7tcrs In a hk3h-~ Uul1dln~ controlled by;a common operating S'jSt.em and responding to 3 slng~ ~~ Putton.

Avertical enclose<lspace for the travel of cne or more elevators. Also called elevatcr shaft.

A pulley for tightening and guiding the hoistIng cahles of an elevator system. Also called deflector she3ve_

lu

- machine beam One ohhe heavy steel Deams supporting the hoisting machinery for an elevator.

.~ hof5ting cable One of the wire caPles or ropes used for raising and 10 we rl ng an elevator car.

guider.. il .... ----- -- I4Inding .... - ------ -------- ----- ------, The portion of ~ floor adjacent to ~n i eIemor holstway, usea for the receJvlng ! ;and discharge of passengers or freight.

.-----_________________ _ A mechanical Mvlce for slowing aown and ~r~rsafety

~

.----------.--_.--------.-------

One of the vertlcal steel tracks centroiling

I~

the travel of an elevator car or counterwel!Jht.

IL. - traveling caple One of the electric cables connecting an elevator car to .. flxecf electrical outlet In the holstway.

stopping an elevator ~r In the event of ousslve ~ or free actuated by a governor and clamping the guide 1'3115 by a wedging action.

I'

hoi$tW~ door

IlA

t.n.

The v~1 aiStance tnr~ by ;an ~tar Qr from the bwes t to the h~kest larJings oft'" holstway. AI~

I~

Q/bltnvd-

---------------------- ------------------

A door ~ween ~ holstway ;and an elevator landing. no 1"11141 fly closed except when an

elM tor car Is stoppea;at the landing.

counterweight A weight halancl"9 ,mother weight. as the rectangular cast-Iron ulocks mounted In a steel frame to courtt.eri1alance the load placea on the holstlng machine by an

elevator WI r.

e!ectl'1c eIevrtc r ~.n

ebr3tor system conslstlng of a ~ Is InOUnWon gulde ralls, supporteJ by hoisting ~l1les. and Mven byeb;tric hoisting m-.::hlnery. Also called t.r3ctJon elevrtcr.

• limit 5witch

Qr

1 elevator pit ---- ---- ----.-._-----------------.-----.---------The portlon of ~ holstway extending from the level of the lowest landing to the floor of the holstway_ L~

l>ottom carck.1r~nce The vertical distance from the floor of an elMtor pit to the lowest part of an eleva tar car pl~tform when the car rests on fully compressed buffers.

80

A switch that automatically cuts off current to an electric motor when an object moved I1y It. as an elevator car. has passed a given point.

buffer A piston or spring device for a!lsorulng the Impact of a descending elevator car or counterweight at the extreme lower limit of

travel.

L ..


ELEVATOR

r !

L elevater car The foacl-carrylng unit of an e!e-{3~'Y. consisting of a car frame. platform. M~ht cnetal enclosure. and door or g3 te. •

---- carframe The structural steel frame of an e!evAtcr car to which are attached the pIJtfor.n, gulde shoes. elevator car safety, hoisting cables. and contrcl eqUipment.

--.- ---.~-~·~~·,:·::~-r --, ~ ~~:':sually --

!

building. that slgl13ls the apprcJcn of:.'1e

,

elevator,

i __ i._-.---

--. c.311 17uttcn

Aroom housl"9 the hoisting machlne1j'. control equlpmcmt. and $haves for .. ising ana

--

annunciator A signaling apparatus in an elev:l t:r W' cr at a landing that displays a VlsU31 \nd1catlo11 of floor landings.

machine room ;~

over the entranu to an

elevator on each floor of a multistory

~

A push l7utton for requesting a,i el~.1;.c-r. ~.

Ioweri"'3 an ~car.

door inter'Uk A saf~ Ibice for preventing the operatlon of an ele/ator car unle:s$ the hclstway doorls Icd::ed In the clostJ posltlon_

door cont.1ct

c

Asaf~ device for prevenUng t~.e

oper;ltlon of an elevate., car unless its a.x1' or gate Is fully cl~, Also cal!ed gJ~

contact.

hydraulic elevator An elevator system conslstlrtg of a car supported by ., piston that Is moved by or moves against a fluid under pressure_

1'4f'~

[.

,- newel

[Thehor!zontalsectionofraJlingJtt~e

J1. k\'\-- \,upp~orlowerendofanescaiJte.,..

~.---4-L

."co m17plate The tootneJ portion of the th res hold plate : at roth enas of an e5CJlator or mGVIng war\::. " des19ned to mesh with the grooved surface \ of the movl~ steps or treadway,

.• .J

/

~~t.tor

A power-driven stairway conslst!ng of steps attached to a continuously Circulating belt. u$tJ for JT\OIII~ passengers up and dcr'ln between flars. Also calfed moving staircase. mOYi"'3 stairway.

moving sidewalk inclined lift A chair or plJtform mounkd on a steel gulde rail and driven by an electric motor. used for raising or lowering., person or goods along a stairway. Alsocal!ed stair

J

lift.

A power-driven. continuously moving surf3Ctl. slmllJr to a conve:yor belt. usd ;:;r carrying pedestrians horizontally or akJq low Inclines.

people mover Any of various forms cf mass tr3nsi~. 3S movlng sk:lewal~s Or automaud drtv~5 vehicles. used for shuttling people 3rc"~ airports or In congesW urban 3reas


H~dingtogether or unitl~ two or mere parts or members. as by d.tm~ with a mechaniC31 fastener. ry ronding with an adhesive. or Dy

4J

6J

8d

10J

IV2'

2'

2V2'

3'

welding or 5OIderi~.

3{Jmm

51mm

64mm

76mm

20J - ....• penny

16d

12d

The deslqnateJ length of a nail, from twopenny to slxtypenny. Symbol: d

4'

102mm

83mm

shank

r.Jn ;, 5tr.Ii!ht. slender piece of metal having ~ ena pointed ana the other enlarged and

The straight. narrow part of a nail or bolt. between the head 3nd the pOint.

f~ for hammerl~ Into wood or other

b<Jildl~ I13terlals 35 a fastener.

l.

eightpenny nail A na1l21f2 Inches (64 mm) long.

'

six1:unpenny nail A nail 31f21nches (89 mm) long.

cllt nait A ~d Ur1~ a tapering rectangular shank witIt a Wunt point mac:le I1y cuttlng from a rcl1eJ sheet of Iron or steel

wire un

mae

A ~rt I1y cuttl~ and shaping a piece of round or elnptlcal wire.

ccmmonnan A rtlQIgvtn~ a slender shank. a flat hea.d. anJ a ~monJ point. ~uiI

A rtad having a fult heaJ ana a shank more ~th4n a common nail of the same ~ ~~lUa

A rta'luvIng a small ccnJca I hea d an.:! a s!gnt ~ ~ than a common nail of

spike

D==========:=:::::::l

~

n::::::::==========::bf>

~ ,,- . . .

O-llIl~I'~I!~I~'----------------~~

il

p

"

., J

· .· lUIll

r II

...

Pnd A ~flnlshlng rui!. doub(c-~ded na iI A113. used In ~I1dIng te-mpcr3 ry ~res. as scaffolding and formworc. ~ a ~ on Its shari to prevent it fran ~~ driven In an the way a-nd to 1e<Ive the he3d free for pumng. Also called form n.1I1. suffold nan.

driftl10lt A spike having a round shanl:. driven into predrilled holes to fasten heavy tim bas together. Also called driftpin.

st.1ple A U·shaped piece of metal or heavy wire with pointed ends. driven Into a surface to secure sheet material or to hold a hasp. pin. or bolt.

I

currug.rted fastener A fastener ccnslstlng of a piece of

bI

~\l ; o'.:'" " ':.:~~.,; ; , ; ;.~~~

diamond point

~. . -.. . '~'..

chi~lpoint

•••..••

'I

RUllI!!!

~..;;3

I

An acute. pyramidal point on a nail or 5pil:e. A polnt on a nail or spike formed I1y two lnclin--"A slaes meeting at a sharp angk:.

rut

11111'~I~'~~'r«! _ ............... face-nail To fas-:.en I7y nailing perpendicular to thP. face of the wo~.

roo

00_ . . . . . . ' , -

toen.1i1 . To secure bY nalll~ o\:1~uely to the surfaces ~eingJolned. Alternate nails mil)'

be driven at opposite angles to prcl't'lde

A ~ naM ~ng a fliMd or ~ shank a dbrnond point for halWleli~ Into concrete or masonry.1<Jso

IncreaseJ holdIng power.

ana

1.......................................

QlbInu SON')' IU iI.

end-nait To fasten I7y ruJll~ into the end of a board. parallel to the grain of the wood. End-na lling

~~ ~~

flooring na n

~____________ ._____________. ~::~"'.S,.""tcWlthdra..1.

A oUorfllstenlng floor roards. havl~ a

s.naI con~1 ~a. a mechanically defOl111ed

shant. and a !Iluntdbmond point.

To $.Xure I7y nallJ~ In such a way that

~hankrun

nailheads are not vlsl!71e on the face of the worl::. • .

0'

A hav1~ a series of concentric gl'OOl'es on ~ s~nk for Increased holding power.

:~ii=i~.~--- ~:;I.'k'

roofing nan

A~ having a 1rari1ed. thre3ded. or cementcoated shank and a ~ro3d. f'lJt head for osterling shlng~ or the like. A M4I fast.ener h3vi~ a hdlGally threaJeJ shac that can be driven with a hammer and relI"OIea with 3 screw driver. ~Iso called saewnai1.

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round point An acute, conical point on a nail or Spi(e

cc~lUii

drW$Crt;W

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corrugated sheet stu! with one wavy eaqe sharpeneJ. for unltlng two pieces of wood. 3S In a miter Jolnt. Also carted wiggle nail

Q-.e Si1I1e le:n§th. used In finish won: In whlGh

fictshing nan A l13.bvill4 a sleMershank and a s:nall, ~pea head that 1$ driven slightly ~the surf3ce and CCf~ with putty or thelk

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C'"1'1I

the head mzy remain vlslb1e.

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A heavy nail for fastening together heavy tlm!7er5.4to Min. (102 to 356 mm) long a~.d proportionally thicker than a COmmon nail

~'I!'\!i\#TC!jil~

..U."d sl.l.,h"

"tow 'h, "ri,,,

~~--======

with a naUset.

~

~!i:ure a nail or screw In position I7y

~

- ...............

namng strip Astrip of wood or other pa rtly yielding material attached to a hard surface. as of steel or concrete. so that oUJects may be fastened to the surface.

hammerln~ down the protrudlng point.

P L I L

I L

I

82

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J FASTENING, screw A metal fastener having a tapered. helically threaded shank and a slotted had. designed to I:>e driven Into wood or the like by turning. as with a screwdriver.

thread ----- --- ------ -- --------- ---,-

wood screw

The helleal or spiral ridge of a screw. nut. or ~t_

A screw having a slotted head and a threaded point that permits It to form its own mating threads when driven into wood with a screwdriver.

pitch ,--------- --- ---- --- -- ---- -- The dlstance I:>etween two corresponcl~ points on adjacent th reads of a screw. nut. or bolt_

---1 _

~~---~a

self-tapping screw

i

Acoarse-threaded screw designed to tap Its corresponding female thread as it Is driven. Also called tapping screw.

countersink .-----------------------~~ - -...: To enlarge the upper part of a drilled hole so that the head of screw or bolt will lie flush with or below the surface. pitothole

~

~~

~

~~

~~'\,~"

:::-."'" .-,,.,...,-,"-,-"

~--------------------足

screw. lag "oIt.

Aguldlng hole for a nail or screw. or for drllll~ a brger-slze hole.

machine screw

tap To cut screw threads Into an opening.

A metal fastener used with a nut or driven Into a tapped hole. having a straight. threaded shank and a slotted or Phillips head for tumlng with ;I screwdriver.

strip To te3ror darruge the threads on 3 bottorscrewbyapplylng too much foru.

"---

~~

A metal fastener for machine p3~. having a straight. threaded shank held ry threads tapped In the hole Into which It is screwed.

~ KIIII e futl~ad

sheet-metal screw A coarse-threaded screw for fastening sheet metal and other thin material.

setscrew A screw. often without a head. threaded through a hole In one part tlght~ upon or Into another part to prevent relative

movement.

-.-------------

A screw head having a flat upper surface and a conical bearing surf3ce_ e

I

cap screw

~~

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lag screw A heavy. coarse-threaded screw havl ng a square or hexagonal head driven by a wrench. used In are3S Inaccessible to the placement of a nut or where an exceptlcnally long bolt would be needed to penetrate ajoint fully. Also c311ed coach

thum\:1screw

OV31 head .----------

A screw having 3 flattened. knur.ed head designed to be tumed by the thumb and foreflnger.

A screw head ha"llng 3 Sh3l1ow. spneric31 shape with a conlcall1earing surf3ce.

screw eye A screw having a ring-shaped head. o

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slotted he3d A screw head having 3 single slot. driven by a fiat-tipped screwdriver.

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','---------

pan head . -. -----. --- -- -. ------. --.

Phillips head

A screw or rivet head having a cylindrical shape with Oil rounded shoulder.

A screw head having two partial slots crossIng at ~ht angles. driven by~a Phillips screwdriver.

nllisterhead ----.A cylindrical screw head having a slightly domed upper surface and a flat bearing surface.

Allen head

p~lehead

. -------------

A screw head having a flat uppe~ surbce and an underside shaped Ii".e the bdl of a bugle.

A screw head having an axial hexagonal recess. driven by an Allen wrench,

security head A screw head designed to resist remOTa I with a flat-tipped or Phillips screwdriver.

83


11

FASTENING" ~It

square head

A thre3ded metal pin or rod. usually h3vlng ;1 head at one end. des~ned to be Inserted through holes In assempled parts and secured fly a lTt3tlng nut.

A bolt or screw head having 3 5qua re sha pe designed to !?e tumed with a wrench. ~-.

i

carriage po It A bolt having a rounded head. a flat beJring surface. and a square shoukJer for preventing rotation, used where the head /Tt3j' ~ Inaccessible during tlghtenlng.

machine 170ft A bolt having a flat ~ring surface and a square or hexagonal head for tumlng with a wrtnCh.

... '"

~~

Thepartontheshankofaboltnextto the head. esp. when It has a speGlal fOI1!1-'"

© ~~~ Fi--I _ O ~UI+-,1l-_----"=.:..-JC!E~~'m~~~~~,~" .

~

hex head

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locl:nut

A nut speci3l~ constructed to prO'Y"\je

IL.

A nut having r3d1J1 slits onl1;s outer fJCe to Olilowa locking pin or wire to!?e Inser-..ea in ' b o t h the nut and a hole in lts bolt. Ats-J

db \l:J/

"

-',

nut

Asqum~orr.eX310nJlrre:"'lbloc.l: pm'or.lted wr.:h a threadd r.ole to f-: around arJ secure abort cr screw

~.. :t<~:::WU'M,"d,~re<o,

~

A bolt or screw head having a hexagonal sha pe designed to ~e tumea with a wrench.

,,~,:

,\.:

neck

:

>_.

~ .

:~:stle nut.

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A nut i1Jvlng a hexa90nal base <lnd ,dcmed tcp to co<er the threaded tr,d of 3 screw. Also called ac..om nut.

"'" """ ""'" ~ ,jJ ~:~t~:;~

two flat P"'J«tl'g pl=s t"-'t

provide agrip for tightening wtth the thumb and forefinger. Also called thumlmut..

0---.~~~ted

~

"fi) m?

&W

~.

@~

dis( of metal rubt>er, or piJstlc. used ur'krthe he3d ofa nut or bort or at aJoint to c!stribute p-ressure. prevent IeJI:"':le. or rerle1e friction.

lockwashu

A washer speciJlly constructed to p~ent a nut from sh4klng loose. 103J·lndicm~ washer A W3Sher havlng small proJect1ons which are' ~ressfvely futtened as a Dolt 15 ~htened. the,ap !?etwe.en tr.e he3d or nut ana the washer Indicating the te;lslori ill the

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Dott.

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ccun+...erPore To locraSoe the d~meter of 3 portion cf the ~gth of a drilled hole to receive the he;;id or nut cf a Dolt or screw.

row spacing The center-tc-center distance ~tween two or more rows of bolts,

exp.an,lon 170 It

n

.... _

•• _

;" ".

.

......

_~

rraaeman: for.a Pr.lnd of expansion bolt h2v1~ ;I

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+

+I ..... end distanu

An anchor bolt havl~ a spnt casing that expands mechanically to engage the sides of. hole drilled In -nusonry or concrete.

Melly .. __ .. ____________ .... __

II

-$- __ •

spilt. sleeveltl:e shea th threadeJ so

The dlstance ~een tne end of • ~ "oJ the center of the ~rest bolt !IoIe. :.. ........... _.. -.. edge d15tan.ce The dlstance from the ~e of a tlmbeT • rod the center of the ne3rest bolt ho~

th.t wmlng the bolt draws the ends of the s~th together and spreads the sides to enga¥;I hole drltblln masonry or the Inner sumce of a hollow wall.

exp.an,lon 'hiekf -.- .-----. -'--' ---- ... -.- -- -"'-'-- '--' A It3d or pbstlc sme Inserted Into a predrliled ho~ and expancled ~ driving a bolt orscrtW Into It. Also cal~d expansion

Iewi5 ~It

togglel1olt·· .. ··-····· __ ··-···- .. -····- .. ···· -~

An anchor bolt i1Jvlng a ~-shapea end ~round which coocrete or Ie3d Is poured ';0 hola It.

An anchor ~olt havlng two hinged wings that close against a spring when passing through;l prearilled hole and open as th0' emerge to engage the Inner surface of ..

An anchor bolt i1Jvlng a split tnd to re:c.e:ve a foxtail wedge as It Is scrtwed Into a Hind hole.

sleeve.

hollow wan.

fox~lt

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FASTENING .---- .-.----.----- ---------- --- :- --. framin9 anchor /' i Any of various sheet-metal connectors for

tull¥'

A,~ of varous lHhaped II1etaI mckets for

joining light wood framing members. using special nails which are loaded laterally rather than In withdrawal.

/

Soi..r~I"'§ ~ end of a beam,Jolst. purlin.

/

or tl'uS5 Jt 2 §Irder or wa II. The supported ~ tnnsfers Its re3CUon to the ~~r t:hrough ~ring.l>ut load transfer t.:; ,:!-,e s~ member Is through shear b ';:'e ~ rtilils securing the hanger.

: _ ..-' ..... ---- --.-----.. hurricane anchor A framing anchor for tying a rafter or truss to a wall plate and securing It against lateral and uplifting wind and seismic forces. Also called hurricane tle .

.---------------- jolstanchor A metal tie strap for securing the joists of a floor or roof dlaphrag m to a concrete or masonry wall In order to transmit lateral wind or seismic forces.

--- floor anchor A metal tie strap for restraining a floor of a fight wood frame structure against uplifting wind or seismic forces_ ~illanchor

A framing anchor for securing a sill plate to a concrete slab or fouMatlon wall.

haWown A metal devtce for restraining a wood frame structure against upllftlng wind or seismic forces, consisting of a sttffened steel angle I10ftea to a wall stud and secured Py a threaded rod to a concretefounJatlon.

~j

tim\7er connector

.--------------_._-----------

a.

A C)tmJr'd pm fttUng snugly Irrto holes b tlooO ~ pieces to prevent their s1.prUlg or to them. Also called

dcwdpirt.

A metal ring. plate, or grid for transferring shear l1etween the faces of two timrer meml:oess, used with a single 110ft that serves to restrain and clamp the assemDly to¥ther. llml:oer connectors are more efficient than I10Its or lag screws useJ alone since they enlarge the area of wood over which a loaJ Is dlstrlputed.

~pbte

A $-~-rret.'li pbte punched to produce ,. • cCsdy ~ §lid of protrodlng teeth. t::d ~s 3 sp&ce pbte In the IT13nufacture C"p.;frtwood~

~piU

grlJ

A fIr. or ~ CtlrYed grid of spikes for ~~ havytwt~. held III piau Py a :;;''"''!l~ Pdt. ~ re-5lJ~joInt Is ~... rrt :0 Iocsenlng due to vlbratlon.

Ir.pct. uid ~ lateral Ioods.

'1

5~rp~te A tlm~r connector consisting of a round plate of malleaule iron inserted Into a corresponding groove, flush with the face of a tlm!1er, and he'd In place Py 3 single I1olt. Shear plates are used In bac~-to~ck pairs to develop shear resistance In demounta171e wood·to-wood connections, or sl"91y in a wood-to-metal connection.

", ~plit'rln9 A tlml:oer connector consisting of a metal ring Inserted Into corresponding grooves cut Into the faces of the Joining members and held In place Py a slngte Dolt. The tongue-anel-groove spht In the ring penn Its It to deform slightly under loading and malnt3ln !lea ring at all surfaces. white the ~eled cross section eases Insutlon and ensures a tlght-flttlng Join t after the ring Is fully seated In the grooves.


FASTENING $O'kr

braze

To unite two pleus of ~I !1y applylng any of various nonferrous

To unite two pieces of metal ~ applying any of various nonferrous solders. usually a copper-zInc alloy. at a temperature a!love 800'f (427't).

solders, USU311y a~In-~ .Iloy, at a tempmture "'low MO'f (427't). solder Any of various fus/VIe albys applied In a molten state to the jollTt l:>etween two metal parts to unite them without he3ting the pa~ to the melting poIn~ The JI10Iten sokler flows Into aJoint !1y caplttary mtactton.

l

filler metal The metal that Is added during a welding. Imzing. or soldering process, haVing a melting point either approximately the same as or

\1ase metal

,~J

section joining t~ surf3ces that meet In an Interior right angle. - -----

A continuous deposit of fused metal. Also called wela ~d. welding rod A wire or rod of filler Iretal used In gas-welding and mzing processes. and In these arcwekllng processes In i'l'hleh the electrode does not rJmish the ftller metal

.--------- toe .,/

o

Thejunctton Detween the I7ase metal and the face of a wekl.

,/ //

--, root The point at which the Pad: or rottom of .. weld !nUts

lap weld A weld made along the seams of two overlapplng pleu:s of metal

--~~-.:...-----~~~-""-~""--'.>.....>.>-"'>-/-

-'-" -',

~, ....... " i

.-/"

The dlstance from the root of weIGl to the f3ce of the Pase

3

M'1e"t3l

A method of arc wekilng In I'Ih~n the wekl.rea Is shielded !Iy ~ corrtlnuOlls flow of an inert gas from an external source. the filler metal being SlJpprled l7y a consumalne metal electrode or by .. sep-a ra te weIJi ng rod.

welding

Amethod of arc welding using a tutruiar stu! electrode conta Inlng a core of vaporlzJn~ flux that forms a g4~s shlelJ around the wela area

submergea arc welding A method of arc wekilng In which the welclarea Is shielded by a !7!an~et of

Wttweld A weld between two p~s of /I'1eb1 ~u.ea~.

fusi~.

l..

PJrtial-pen~atlon weld

full-penetratio nweld

A Putt weld h~ adepth less than ~ thickness of the sma lIu of ~ two meriet's being .JoIned.

A ~tt I~d having a depth equal to the thickness of th~ smaller of the two memDers Delng joined. f -----.--:--- .. ---

I

.~-.

----,,

puddle weld --·-·-----·------I-'-\) A weld made Py truml~ a hole In h~~5~~~~__.,.:__J a piece of sheet metal arJ filling with a small pool of molten rretal.

double-bevel weld

l5ingle-vu weld

douule--;u weld

A groove weWln which the eclge of one abutting memller Is !?eveled from both sides.

A groove weld In which the edge of each abutting meml1er Is !?eveled from the same side.

Agroove wela In whk;h P-.e edge

rmt Ametal pin having a ht4d at one end, used for uniting two or more plates!ly passlng the sham: thro~h a hole In exh piece and hamrrering down the plain eM to form a ~d head.

drift A rourJ, tapering piece of metal for enlarging or angnlng holes to receive rivets or Dolts. Also called drlftp!n. aligning punch A drift for Drlnging holes In line to receive a rivet or bolt.

86

JI

A sulistance, as rosin. 3pplled to. remove oxldes from • rJ prevent further cx!datlon of 1T'.et.a1 surfaces to I7e joined ~ wek:Ilng, !lrazlng. or soldering. _

throat

memw

of each ab-vttlng Is !leveled from Doth sk:ks.

granular metal that n-.elts to form.1 ~ of protectl\o e sla ~ Tl~ filler:netal may I7e suppl1ed !1y a consum3ble dectrode or by a separate l'Ieldl~ rod.

rtSi,t.1 nee welding Any of,jJ group of welding processes uttrlziT'9 the heat generated by resist4nce to tbe pass~e of .. e!ectnc current_

-groove weld A weld made In a preformed Indentation retween two alMtlng pleces of met..tl.

.-... pneumatic riveter A pneumztlc hammer used with a riret set to form the second head of a rivet. rivet~

A tool for shaping the second head of a rivet.

dolly A tool for receiving and holding the head of a rivet while the other end is I7elng headed.

L1

-. inert-gas shielded .arc welding

1-- .-- flLlX-cc~ arc

flux

the Ir.ise metal.

utinzlng the heat of an arc between an electrode 3nd ~he b3se metal.

---.---. shielJed metal arc weldi~ A method of ~rc welding usi~ a consumable metal electrode that .' relases an Inert g4S to form. shield around the arc. This shield protects the wela area from oxygen anJ nitrogen In the iilr that woula cause ra pia oxidatlon of the flquld metal

"'bead

The principal met31 to lie welded, Dl'3Zed. soldered. or cut, as distinguished from ftller metal.

.arc welding Any of a 9roup of welJ1ng processes

---'--- arc A sustained luminous discharge of electricity across a gap Iii;; c!rcuit or between two electrodes_ Also called electric arc.

~:17Jhatofth' motaI, Ucl~ "c~+fiJ~{!r~~:;

fillet we 14 A wek:f with a triangular cross

I5lng\Hevei weL:f A~roove weld 1ft which the ed¥ofoneal7utt~ IneIT1rer Is ~ from one side.

gas wetaing Any of;l group of welding pr~sses utilIZing the heat produced by the comDustlon of a oxygen and a fuel gas. as acety\el1e.

weld To unite or fuse two pieces of metal by heating aM allowing t.~e met3ls to few together. sometimes y,;th pressure .n.:.! the addition of an Interme-diate or fllb- rr.et31.

explosive rivet Arivet for .. joint 3CCtsslble from or.e side only. having an explosive·filleJ shank th;lt is detonated ~ striking the head with a hammer to expand tr.e sh3n~ on the far side of the hole.

I

Y

Ilj1


FIREPLACE A framed opening made in a chimney to hold an open fire.

Ponnet A corer for ~n open flrepl3ce, or J cowL hood, or wind cap to Increase

~~~ii;~;~~s;;;········~velitliJtor.

.

5park arrester _ .. -- ----- ----A device, ccnslstlng of wire netting or ~ lixe, used to step or deflect sparts or emDers thrown from an op~ flreplace or chlmney_ prefa~ricrted flue

.

AcyHndricalpipeofearthenwareor ../t metal, fitted on top of a chimney to ,// j Increase draft and disperse smoke.

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A curretTt of air In any enclosed space. as In a room, chimney. or stove. caused by the dlfference In temperature or pressure.

ITt3de parts.

smoke aome .----------------------

A downward current of air In a chimney or flue, often carrying smoke with It. K"''''r'''-.-..;"",,"-

fire screen

screen placed In front of a fireplace to prevent sparks Or _ embers from enterll'g the room.

1Tt4nt.e1

m;mteltree

A ~stnJCtlon fr.Imin4 the opening of 3 flrepbce and usually coverlnq part of the chimney b-re~st In a <kcor3tlve ITt3nner. Also called m.1nUIplece.

A stor.e or wooden lintel (Ner a fireplace opening, or a m3sonry arch used in place of such a lintel.

chimney mast A part of a chimney orflrepl3ce that projects out from a wall, usually Inside a ~Ikl!ng.

chimney arch An arch over a fireplace opening, supporting the breast.

-===============+==++==============::::;Jchimney par A steel lintel for carrying the ma sonry aDove tM firepl3Cc opening. Also c311ea camper P3r, tumlng par. ----.....----..,

I I I I

I

,

/r- -- --------"\'. /1

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....-----r--.flue lining

fPiiiiiiiii~hl

downdraft

hood ---- ------------------------. A metal cover or canopy for a stoTe. fireplace, chimney, or ventiLJtcr.

~

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draft;

The smol::e chamber coverinq of Ii prefabricated metal fireplace unt!o

f

/'/ .... ,'('X-- chi.rnney pot ./

.------- ---- - -------

A me~1 vetTt forfuel-flrtd equipment, assemUlea from factory-

r

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A pipe for the e5Cape of the smoke or gases of combustion.

'I'

A raised covu for a chimney, usually In the form of 3 sla b or cornice.

/

smoke5ta<:k

i

I

~chimneycap

chimney Avertl<:al. Incom~stlb!e structure containing aflue through which the smoke and gase5 of a fire or fumace are carried off to the out51de and by means of which a draft Is created. esp. the part of such a structure that rises above a roof_

\\ ~\

"

./ chimney cheek .

"-....

The sides of a flrepl;;ce opening supportlng the mantel.

A smooth-surfaced unit of heatreslsta lit fire clJy or nghtwelght concrete, having 3 ~uare, rectangulJr, or oval sectlon, used for lining the flue of 3 chimney.

flue

pargeting

An Incombustible passage or

A smooth ~ning of mortar or pia 5 ter for a chimney flue. Alsc, parget.

d,CtfOC,mOkA''''·

dr-rt A devrce for regul3tlng the current of 3irln a stov~ orflrepllce_

damper A movable plate for regulating the draft in a firep13ce, stove, Or furnace. sm(ike cha mper An enl3rged area Petween the throat of a fireplace 3nd the flue of a chimney.

smoke shelf A ledge at the bottom of 3 smoke chamPer, so made as to deflect or break the downdrafts from the chimne:i-

throzt The narrow optnll19 ~ a flreplace anJ Its flue smoke chamPer, often closed wtr.h a d3mper.

or

firepox The chamrercontalnlng the fire of a flreplace.

pack hearth The part of the hearth tis ---""'-"" contained within the flreplace Itself. Also called Inner hearth.

!

l

b

front hearth The part of the hearth that projects Into the room. Also called outuhearth.

trimmer arch An arch, usually of bricl: anQln theform of haft of 3 segmental arch, !1etween a chimney and 3 header in a floor structure to support a hearth. ashpit A receptacle In the bottom of a fireplace or flreDax for the collection and remOV31 of ashes_

ashpit aoor i~lenook

A comer or rwoI: nar 3 lJ rge, open flr~pIJce_ 1J5U311y provlded .... lth se3ting ",Iso called chimney corner

A cast-I/"()(l door providing access to an ashpit for removing ashes. or to;l chimney fer removing SCOG.

87


r

i

FIRE SAFElY

I

fire hazard

The measures taken to prevent fire or minimiu the loss of life or property resutting from a fire. including limiting fire loads and hazards. confining the spread of fire with fire-resIstant constructlon. the use of fire deuction and extinguishing systems. the establishment of adequate firefighting services. ana the training of building occupants in fire safety and evacuation procedures.

Any condition that Increases the likelihood of a fire. o~structs access to ftreflghtlng equipment. or del3ys the egress of occupants In the event of fire.

t.

I

fire load The amount of com~ustlble material In a ~ulldlng. measured In pounds per square foot of floor area.

L.

,

combustil1le Of or pertaining to a material capable of igniting and bumlng.

Q... ............................................................... _..... _..... } time ~nition

flash point

point

The lowest temperature at which a substanu will undergo spontaneous comtoustJan and continue to!:oum without additloM31 appl1c3 tIo nof ixte rrull hea t.

The lowest temperature at which a combustll:ne Ilqukl will give off suffic~~ vapor to ignite momentarily when ex~ to flame.

tunnelu5t

fire-rated Notmg or pe~lnlng to a material. assemL>!y. 01' construction having a flreAlso. reslstanu rating required by Its

1200

j

fire-nslstlve.

1000

~!--i---+::;;~....;.--...;--.:........----;---7--..;

use.

Atest measuring the time It takes for" controlled fIa me to spread across the bee of a test specimen. the amount of fuel the material contributes to the fire. and t.f:e denslty'of the smoke developed by the fire. Also called 5Ulner tunnel test.

flre-reslsunce rating The time In hours a material or assem~1y can be ~ Ul withstand exposure Ul fire without collapsing. developing any openings whlch ~nnlt the passage of fIa me or hot

~

800

on the slde aw;ayfrom the fire. determined by S\lbjectl~ J full-size specimen to ~res according to J standard tlme-temperature curve. -_._-_ .. _. _. __ ..... -"--

flame-spread rating A rating of how qUickly a fire can spre:ad

!

along the surface of an Interiorflnlsh material Reel oak flOOring has a flamespre3d ratlng of 100 white a cementasbestos roard has a rating of O.

.

~

d ~ 600

~ases. 01' exceed1ng a specified temperature

1 (:J!+ - - - ; - - i - - - - ; . - - - i - - - ' - - - - i - - - . . . . . . . . ; - - - i

~

i ~~;~-T--7-~--~--~--7--+---;

fud-GcntriPutlan rating

200~;--~--~~--~--r--7--~~

A ratlng of the altlOtllTt of com!:oustl~ sUUstances an Interior finish mater!3i c.sn contrl!nIte to a fire.

o o

2

-~ ..

U~;hou"

f:?·~+~:·,.

6

8

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.

~ []I " . ' . . [LJ '.:. . '. :. J .]c. ::. [ZID ".

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A rating of the amount of sm'*e an InW.or finish IT'.aterial can produce when It 1nJrns. Materials having a srnol:e-clevelo~ rat:ng aDOI"e450 are not permitted to De ~ Inside lnJilalngs.

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fumeret3rd.ant A compound used to raise the Ignitlon p0,nt

of a flammable material. thus makln~ It more resistant to ftre.

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smoke-developed rati~

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metal lath and plaster

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'pray-on fireproofing

A mixture of minerai fll>ers and'an Inorganic ~Inder. applied by air pressure with a spray gun to provide a thermal varrler Ul the he3t ofa ftre.

fireproofing Any of various materials. as concrete. gypsum. 01' minerai flber. used In making a structlJral memver or system resistant to dam~e or destruction by fire.

88

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intumescent paint

l~ukJ-filled column

A coating that. when exposed to the heat of a fire. swells to form a thICK Insulating layer of Inert gas ~utoDles that retards flame spread ana comvustlon.

A hollow structural-steel column filled with water to Increase Its fire resistance. If exposeJ Ul flame. the water al?sorVs heat. rises by convection to remove the heat. and Is replaced with cooler water from a stcrage tank or a city watu main.

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FIRE SAFETY

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firezofl('!

fire separation

A zone of~cttywlthln which cutaln construction ~ ~re prohl~lted ~useofflrelm3rds present In the zone.

Arry floor. wall. or roof-ceiling construction

fire~reak

A vertical or horizontal construction having the required flre-reslstance rating to prevent the spread of ftre from one occupancy to anotherln a mixed· occupancy Dulldlng.

fire area An _rea of a Duildlng ~nc!osed by fire· rated constructloi1 capal1le of confining the spread of fire.

having the required flre'reslstance ratlng to confine the spread of fire.

occupancy separation _._ .. _.._--".--_._-..;..

An open sp.uestabllsned to prevent the spread of fire from a Dulidlng. a 9roup of \7uiIdJ~. ex a n area of a city to another.

I

firewaU Awall luvfng the reqUired fire· resistance ratlng to prevent the spread of fire from one part of a D<Jltaing to "nother, extending from the found3ticx1 u> a parapet above the roof and having an openings restricted to a certain percentage of the wall length and protected Py a self·closlng or autcrr.atlc·closlng fire assemDIy. Exh portlon of a bUlkling separated Dy one or mere flre walls rruy ~ C<>Ilsklered .iI ~p3rate pulidlng when calculating the floor area and height allowed by a I1UIla'lr~

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distance separatlon 1M separation required Petween an exterior wall of a pulidlng and a property nne. the center hne of an adjacent street or public space, or the exterior wall of an adjacent I1Ulldlng. all measured at right angles to the exterior wall. -1

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drntstop A flre-ratea parlltlon dlvklll19 an enclc5ed attle space of comDustl~le construction, or the concea led space l?etween a ~d Ceiling and a wood· fr3 me floor arove.

fire assembly ~ .. -.. -- ..................... protected opening _ .....• '··-0'" The assemDly of 3 fire door. fire window. An opening In a wall. floor. or roofor fire damper.lndudil19 all required ceiling construction that Is fitted Mardware. anchorage. frames. and 51115. with a flre assemlily having the ~1f-c1o,11W fire a'~m'-lu ___ •. _ •.• , reqUired flre'reslstance rating for ''";lI ."J "Its location and use. Aftrt asseaWly ~t 15 normally kept In "', a clos&:! posltIoII and 15 equlppeJ with ....--,-----.. ".'~ an '?~ device to Insure closll19 ~ ;arJ latchl~ a&r having Peen opened for use. ~

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,1L[t()m.rtk-cIo'i~ fi~ a~~mbly

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Afire assemlnythat may remaIn In an ~ posltlon and wiU close ~ utomatlcally If suPjected to an ~se In temperature or actuated by 4Smo(e~.

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UL laPel _ .. -.. - ...... _.......... - ................, AlaDeI affixed to 1I11Ulkling maUrlal. component, or devlce with the authorization of Underwriters'

LaPora-torles. Inc.. Ind'.catlng that the product (a) has 1I ratlng vased on performance tests of such product.s; (l1) Is from a productlon lot fotmd I1y

exJmlttrtlon to ~ maae from materials and Py ~ses essentially taerrtlcal to those of representative products which have ~ subjected to appropriate flre. electrlcal hazard. or oth~ tests for safety; lind (c) 15 suPj«t to the reexamination $ervlce of UL

fire door A door ~l>ly.lnclud1ng all requ~ hardw3re.lInchorage, frames and sills. havfl19 the reqUired flre-reslstance ratln~ for Its 1oc1tlon and use.

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Awindow ~~Iy.Inc"ldlng all required hardware. anchorag~ frarntS and sl!ls. havi"4 the reqUired fire· reslst;ru mtng for Its location an.:!

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labeled Of or pertaining to a vulkllng materfal or

a flre·reslstance ratlng certtfW by Underwriters' Laroratorles. Inc. or other recognized testing

as~mply having

13~aratory.

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" firetUmpu

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Adamp!rt),atc!osesanalrduct autorrut!cJIIy In the event of ftre to restrict the passage of fire and smo(e. required whae a duct penetrates a fire

wan. ftre·rJt.ec/ shaft. or other fire $ep3rJ~n.

/ fu,ilk finK II hr,k rr3~ of a fusible metal. When exposed ~ the heat of a fire. the nn~ mel:s ,"" cau~s a fire door. ftr!! d3rnpe~.

cr the Ii~e to close.

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FIRE SAFElY sprinkler ,ystem Apparatus for autornatlcally extlngulshing fires In a building. conslstlng of a system of pipes In or l1e1ow the ulllngs. connected to a suitable water supply. and supptJed with valves or sprinkler heaas maae to open automatically at a certain temperature.

flre-2L1rm system An electrical system Installed In a l?uildln4 to automatically sound an alarm when actuma I7y a fire-

tkttctlon system. fire-~n

symm

Asystem of thermostats or other approved sensors for detectlnq the

sprinklered Of or pertaining to. building or building area that has or Is protected by a properly

preStllce of flre and automatlcally 5~nall~ an abrm.

maintained sprinkler system.

5moke deUctor

stlrinkler head

An ek:ctronlc fire alarm that Is actlv3ted l7y the presence of smoke.

A'nozzle In 3 Sprinkler system for dispersing 3 stream or spray of water. usu311y controllea I1y 3 fusible linl: that rr.elts at a predetermined temperature.

automatic fire-extingui'hing 5ystem A system of devices and equipment which 3utomatlcally detects a fire and disch3rges an approved flre-extlngulshlng agent onto or In the area of a fire. 5tandpi~ . A w;lter pipe extending vertlcally thl'OU:9h a ~lkfIng to supplyflre hoses at every floor. wets~ndpipe

wet路plpesystem

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----... -----.--.-------- -- .... ---

A stantJplpe containing water under pressurt: a~ fmed with fire hoses for emergency use I7y I1ulldlng occupants_

A sprinkler system containing water at sufficient pressure to provide an Immediate. contlnuous disch3rge throuqh sprinkler heads that opet1 automatically In the event of fire.

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dry-pipe system A sprinkler system ccnt3lnl"!'l pressurized air th3t Is rele3scJ whtn a Sprinkler head opens In the event of fire, allowfng water to flow throu~h the piping a~ out the opened nozzle. Dry-pipe systern5 are used wh~ tM piping Is sulject to freezing.

dry5tlndpfpe --------------.---- ---.-- --- . -.--1I A standpipe COITt2lnlng no water a~ used v.t the flre tJepart~ to connect flre hoses to a flre hydr.llrt or pu mper

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preactlon system

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/-'fire pump

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A pump th3t provides the rea.ulred W3Ur pressure In a standpipe or sprinkler system when the pre55u~e In W system drops ~Iow. 3 preselectM I'3lue.

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A dry-pipe sprinkler system through which water flow Is controlled I1y a I'3lve operated I1y fIre-detection devices mor~ serl$ltlve than those In th~ sprlnlltr heads. Preactlon systems are usea when an accidental discharge would damage Vdluable M'13UriaIs. delu~ ')"tem A sprinkler system having sprinkler heads open ata!! times. through which ~flow Is controlled by a valve operated D:i 3 heat-. smoke-. orflame-senslng devlce.

siamese A plpe fitting Insblled c~ to the ground on the exterior of a building. providing two or more connections through which the flre department can pump water to a standpipe or sprinkler system.

cbs, Afire A flre Involving ordinary wmbustll>lt materials. as wood. pa ~ :md cloth. on which the quenching or cooling effect of water Is of primary Importance.

c\a,,6fire waUrmafrl

A fire Involving flammap\e liquids. 35 gasoline. 011 and grease. whlch.must ~e extinguished by txeludill9 air and Inh 1!:>Iting the release of combusUI7Ie vapors.

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cla55 Cflre A flre Involving live electrk:31 equipment, which requires a nOflconductlng extinguishing medium.

fire extinguisher A porta Die apparatus for putting out a small fin I1y ejecting pressurized water or special chemicals. classifled according to the type of fire It fs able to extinguish.

90

cb" Dfire A flre Involving certain combustible rr.etals. as magneSium or sodium. which rt<tulres a nonreactive, heat路al:>sortnng extinguishing medium.

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FIRE SAFETY me3ns of~ress A contlnuous path of travel from any point In" pulkllng to the outside at ground level.

exitacce55

he r 1ul nta I exit Apassage through or around a wall ccnstructed as re<:tulred fer an occu pancy separation, protected by an ~utomatic-closing fire door, and leadin~ tv an area of refuge In the same puildin~ 01C1l approxilT13tely the same level In aapcerT't pUltdIng. -':

That portlOn of a means of egress that k:ads to an exit. Bulkllng codes spectfy tne maximum distance of travel to an exit and the minimum distance between exits when two or more are required. ~_"

exit An enclosed and protected path of escape for the occupants of a pulkllng In the event of fire, leading from an exit access to an exit discharge.

.- smokeproofenclosure The enc1osl"9 of anexit sta Irway I1y wa lis of flre-~Istlve construction, accessl~ by ii vestl!7tJ1e or by an open exterior balcony. ana venul3ted I7y natural or mechanical means to nmlt the penetration of smoke and he3t. Bulkli~ codes usually reqUire one or more of the exit stalr;v;;ys for a high-rise buildIng ~ protected I1y a smo~proof enclosure.

well A shaft for dlir, ngh t, stairs. or an elevator. extendlng vertically the floors of a ~uilding.

-. exit stairway A stJlrway leading to an exit passageway, an extt court, or pupllc way, enclosed by fire-reslstive construction with self-closing flre doors th3t swing In the dlrectlon of exit

exit ~rrUlor ..-' A j13ssageway serving as a required &..

exit light nlumlnatea slg:1ldenttfylng a required exit.

,1.1

emerger.cy lighting Ahghti"9 s~ designed to SlJpply the alumlnatlon required for SJfe egres5 from a building In the event of .. pcwer failure.

travel

enclosed by walts of fire-resistive constroctlon. 8ulldlng codes hmlt the length of dead-end corridors.

exit door A door providing access to a means of egress, swing 1"9 In the direction of ~ travel and usually e<:tulppea wtth a panic

Par.

,

exterior exit balcony A landing or porch projectlng from the wall of a !7tJi1d1ng and serving as a re<:tulred

1 means of egress. fjre~pe

An exit stairway dewn an ootslde wall of a building. 'constructed to the same sta:ubrds as an interior exit stairway.

.. ' exterior exft exit passageway A means of egress cor.neetlng a l'e<\ulreJ

An extt door opening directly to an exIt court or pu!;llc way.

exit Of' exit court with a publ1c way, having

no openIngs other than required exits ;ilrJ

enclosed by fire-resistive constnlctlon "s ~ulred for the walls, fuors. and ceiling of the !nJlkilng served ..........

occupant load

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The wu! number of persons that may occupy a I1vikllng or portion thereof at anyone tltne. Mtermlned by dividing the floor area ass4)ned to a particular use I7y the square feet per occupant permitted In that use. Bulkllng codes use occupant load to establish the required number arid width of exits for :1 pAJ!ng.

91


FLOOR The level. (,ase surface of a room or hall upon which one stands or walks.

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y flni5h floor The wearing SUmc.e of .. floor. USU.HIy bid (Net .. sulrlloor. Also. fWshtd &01".

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~3rds. plywood. or other structu ral she3thln~ bid over and ftxe.d to the floor joists. A sulrl\:lor Is often used as a wo~ln~ platform ~ ~n and may also act as II struc'tUral dlaph~m to tra nsfer bUralloaas to ~rwalls. Also called

~Jnc:I fWor./'OUfh flM-.

floor framil\9 The act. proc:ess. or manna- of constructing the structural frame eX .. floor.

-.----------.::>- rimJolst '-...-'-----......""'-

----------.---------------.- ________ _ Atrj of .. ser\¢S eX 5m3" parallel ~ams for supportlni floors. cetnngs. or flat roofs.

jo~t

header •. I Afram~ member~andsupportlng the eMs ofjoists. studs. or rafters. so as ,:

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AJolst set on wpofthe sill and forming the perimeter of a wood-framed fuor, Also c;illled he3aer.

"-'-Imdglng An arrangement of IH-aces or PIoctlng

totr2nsfert:kew~httc paralleljolsts.• /

studs. or 17fters.

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trimmer ~---------A~m.joIst. or rafter supporting one end of a heakr lit the edge of an opening In a floor or roof mme. ~ilpiece

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A rela-tl\le!y short i1eam.jolst. or rafter supported by a wall at one end and by 3 hea~r lit the other. Also called stringer.

l7etween joists Or rafters to prevent their rotation or lateral dlsplacement. esp. when their depth-to-wktth ratio exceeds 6. Bridging may not ~ requll'tJ when ~ ends of the meml1ers are flxed against rotation and their eJges are held In line by suWlooring orshe:athlng.

solid I1rtaglng

roaras

Bridging consisting of short fixed vertically I1etwun floor or roofJoists.

cro"l7rldging Bridging composed of dlagonallmlces set In pairs Pe'tween floor or roofJoists.

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FlOOR

i1e31T1 fig

deck

Mattrbl as m3S011ry or concrete. for flIllng the sp~ t;.awtenJolsts or Peams In or on

The structural surface to whleh flooring or roofing Is applied.

top of a m3S011ry wall. stiffening the memrers. and provldl~ Increased fire reslst4ra:. AIso.l:>e3m filling. ~ ________ _

_.----. decking Self-supporting units of wood. metal. or concrete capable of spanning beams. JOists. rafters. or purllns and serving as a base for flooring or roofing.

beam pccket---.------------- _____ _ An opening In the vertical face of a -'structunl !T1aT1rer to receive a beam .

...

_--

An angul3rcut at the end of aJolst or beam whe~ It enters a masonry

wall. allowing the mem!1er to fan without damaging the wall h' It /roms through somewhere along Its Ie~th.

-------~-------~..".,..,..,==--"7--c:-'.".. --.-_,--..,..---- - -- .-.-

metal decking Sheet steel strengthened for use as floor or roof aecklng by coW-roiling a series of rips or flutes Into It. and usually galvanized forcorroslon ~Istance. The spanning capaPillty of metal decking depends on the thlclness of the steel sheet and the depth of the corrugations.

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form duking

composiU decking .,./

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Metal deckl~ servlng.as permanent fOrM1worX and tensile reinforcement for a concrete slap 11on<kd to It by a deformed or dovetail rib pattern.

dectlng servl~ as permanent

fonnworl: for.a reinforced concrete sla b und ~ stlb C3n support Itself.

shear stud I, steel pin welded to t.he topftange of a steel ream or girder .and em~ In a concrete slab so liS to cause the beam and the concrete to act as a structural unit.

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.1cou~tk

duking

Metal ~Ing ccntainlng glass fiber ~n the perf0!'3tea wel1s of ribbed

kcl::lng Of" In the perforated cells of cellular tkci:lng. used as a sound-al1sorblng ceIling.

cellular decking ..... --/ .â&#x20AC;˘ Metal decking 1113 nufactu red by welding a corrugated steel sheet to a flat steel $hut. forming a series of raceways fo!, electrical wires and c.bles. â&#x20AC;˘ .

floor panels supported on adjustable pedestals or stringers to allow free access to the space beneath. Also called raised floOf"lng sysUm.

93


FLOOR fin~h floori~

M4ter13/ u~ for the ~ring surface of a flOOr. as ~ rdwood. temz:zo. or floor We. woodfloori~

Anl$h ~ in the fonn of wood strips. ptlnks. or ~s.

strip floorin9 .-.... -_ .. - --.-.-- -.. -._ ..... flooring composed of~. narrow wood s~'ips. usu~lti side· and end· matched.

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thanstripftoorl~usu~lyslde-and

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sleeper .----.------------

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Afloor composed of short strips or 17!ocks of wood forming 3 pa~m. sometimes with Inlays of other woods or other materials.

Anyofa numberofwooaen strips laid upon aconcrete slap to provlde a means of attaching a sulrl'loor or flooring.

par'luetly

solid plock flooring ------.. -.. ----------long-wearing flooring composed of sond wood I7locks set In adhesive with their grain oriented vertlcally.

Mosaic won: of wood used for floors and wainscoting.

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P-Iock floorirog FWing composed of square units r'.4ssem~ at the mill and usually ms t.311ed w!th n-gstlc (]Ier a wood $;; bf'.::or or cor.crete sb P.

hollow-uackea afer pertaining to a wood or stone piece h3vlng a pack face hollowed out so that It ca nfit more tlg htly against an irregular surface.

unit bfc.ck

laminated plock

slatl7lock

A flooring ~Iod made \;!y Joining short len~ths of strip flooring edgewise. usually ~ued on two adjoining sides and grooved on the other two to ensure proper aIlgnmertt In setting.

Aflooring U10ck made \;!y ronding three or more wood venxrs with a molstureresistant adhesive. usually tongued on two opposing sides and groovea on the other two to ensure proper altgnment In setting.

Aflooring plod m~e \;!y assembltn!l narrow slats orflngers of hardwood Into larger units.

='''''"p",,,rompos<dol Ij~~iii :!~::~';;;-;;'~~h;p;~;;;u--_ _ _ ~;:';·'~I::=="PPI'.dl=tly otr.er

:narble or stone chips. set In a cen-.tntltlous or resinous matrix and

:t ~~':'~4f!l~

umentltlous or resinous matrix

;~~ ..'~~ that produus a terrazzo surface. ~~ndwhendty. ~~~~11.~. bondingagent ~------------- __ . ;:~ .~... ~;c -....~~~~~~~~~,;;.;~ o ~:..~ ~~........... Achemical sul1stance appnea to a st.awrd terrazzo -_ .... -. -- -- ---...!i.~ ~ ~~ substrate to create a Pond

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Aground and ~ temzzo flnlsh ~. ~~~ ....... '. ~een It and a succeeding layer. consisting lItlinlyof~vely slT13l1 i:~~' ~...t.l.' as between a terrazzo topping stone chlps.

Veneti..1n temzzo .. -- .. -----A gl"OlJnd and fdshe4terrazzo finish cooslstln~ ~~ ofbrge stone chips. wfth 5lT13f1er chips flfflng tilt spaces Pe-tween.

rustic terrazzo A ur.iformly textured terrazzo finish proJucea by l't'3shln!l the matrix prior to ~Ing so as to expose the chips. I'<-hich are not ground. Palladi..1n.1 II rrosalc terrazzo finish consisting of cut ~ frac~rtd marVle slal:1s set \;!y h3 d in the desircJ pattern. with smilu chips Mlng the spaus ~t . . een.

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D .!/f) . and a subfloor.

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The mortar Ir.ise on which a •••. -., ••••••/:•. :,-;.;,/.:-; r·"I:\.:-:·.•• ~ !.~'.;... ; ':

terrazzo topping Is applied.

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resInous matrix

A latex. polyester. or epoxy Pinder comPined with stone chips to from a terrazzo topping especially resistant to chemicals and apr3slon.

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over a sound wood. mrul. or concrete sulrl'loor.

monollthicternz:zo-

Aterrazzo toppln!llnstalled dlrect~ over a rough-flnlshed concrete slaD. Achemical Pondlng agent Is used If the concrete surface Is too smooth fora mechanical

rondo bonded terrazzo A terrazzo topping Installed over a mortar undert;.eQ that Is bonded to a rough-flnlshed concrete stab.

.4-' .

~~~5.~~I~~;ieand-cu5hion urrazzo ~ A terrazzo system for cantrolling crackln~ when structural movement Is expected. consisting of a terr.lZZO topping Installed over a reinforced mortar unaeroed that Is . separated from the subfloor \;!y an lsolatk>n ~~~~~~~~~~~ '. memDrane and a thin layer of sand.

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FLOOR linoltum

resilie nt flooring

A resl1len t floor covering formed ry roaUn4 1?urbp or canvas wtth heated lInseeJ oil powdered con:. rosln. and addln4 pigmalts to achieve the desired colors and patterns. linoleum shook! Pe used only on a suUfloor suspended al:oove grade.

Any of various floor coverlnqs capable of springIng bac~ to the original fonn after Pelng Pent or compressed. available In either tHe or sheet form and set In mastic CNer a suttable underlayment.

ana

floor covering Material. esp. a nonfabric material as v!nyl or cera mlc tile. used to cover a fleer.

vinyl sheet A resilient floor covering composed prlnclp.iy of poIytlnyt chloride In comblnatlon wtth mineral fillers. p~ment.s. and a fiber. fett. or foam !:rackIng.

vinylt& A resilient floor tHe ccmposed prf nclp3 ~ of poIyvl nyt ch 10 ride In combltUtlon wtth mIneral fillers and

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p4Jments.

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corku'le A resilient floor tile composed of granulated cor\: and synthetic resIn blnclers. finished wttha protective coat of wax or a film of clear polyvinyl chloride. can: Uk: should Pe used only on a suWloor 5lJspended above grade.

Any of various pasty substances used as a sealant. adhesive. or protective coating.

underl3yment A material. as plywood or hardboard. laid CNer a suUfloor to provide a smooth. even base for resilient flooring. carpet. or other nonstructural flooring.

ru1?1?erti1e A resilient floor tile composed of natural or synthetic rubber with mineral fillers.

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carpet Aheavy WCNen. ~nlttec.f. needle-tufted. or

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Interweaving the backing

ana pile ~

5qU3t"e yard.

yarnsonaloont

p~~ity

tufUa carpet •.. -. -- .----- -- ---- -~

The welg ht of pile yam per unit volume of carpet. stated In ounces per cubic yard.

Carpet made by mechanically stitching pile yam thrwgh a primary faPrIc backing and bonded with latex to a secondary backing.

§it~i~~~(6~liliiiii~ gauge - -.. -- .. __ .. _______ ._____ ._____ ..

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~;~ ~~~~ s~~·~~~~~·~~~-----rll~\'!~mW---·· f~upright tufts of yarn forming the

pi~w~ht ~ avera9/: weight of pile yam ~rpet. st3ted In oonus per

felted fabric forccverlng a floor.

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surface of a carpet or fabric.

_----... -.---.--------. - 10op pi'1e

.

A carpet texture created by weaving. -... tufting. orknlttlng the pile yarn Into ". loops.

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cut pile

knit~C3rpet ·········-- .. -------IrmiWl·· ... '. ~rpet made by looping the . backing. stitching. and pile yarns with three sets of needles. -=.-.A<->OL'_ _~'--":L-....:=--.IO

A carpet texture created ry cutting each loop of pile yam. producing a range of textures from Infomt31 shags to short. dense velvets.

\ -

fuslon-uondedcarpet ·-- .. --.----.gDB~

The 5p3C1n~ of~s across the

Carpet made ry heat-fuslng face yarns to a vinyl pac~lng supporteJ by other materials.

width of. tufted or knitted ~rpet. expressed In fr3ctlons of an Inch..

. . ---.

f1uW carpet --····-.. ---·-·--·~H1Jlmqn~mnlT[Illijnlnnn= Carpet m3de by propelling short stra nJs of pile fiber electrostatically against an 3dheslve-coatedbacklng.

1

r ill

.ru!llI.l!lll!!.lUL_.BHill~

~~. -- __ ---

neealepunched carpet .- -. -- .. --~ -~ .

I.

iiiit-·-

Carpet I113ck by punching carpet flPers back and forth through a WCNen polypropylene sheet with Da rbed needles to form afelted flPermat.

~

;;::-------=

~

uacklng Thefounaatlon material securing the plley'amsofa carpet and providing It with stiffness. strength, anJ dimensional stability.

carpetpad

A pad of cellular rubberorfelted animal hair. CNer which carpet Is Installed to Increase resilience, Improve dltr3blltty. ana reduce Impact sound transmission. Also called carpet cushion.

carpet A flooringtile tile made of carpeting material.

95


,~

FORCE An influence on a body producing or tending to produce a change In shape

~,

ormovem~.

vector A 'luantlty possessing both magnitude and dlrectlon. ~ ~ an arrow whose ._ length Is proportlon4l to the magnitude ~ •. - .... , and whose orientation In space represents the direction..

"'.

~~ '-.

.. ..

.

. ......... - ",m""" f,,",,, Concul1"e1'Ttforcesn~lngth~sameh~of

'

,~.

" "

line of actio1I .-...... - .................... .

actbn. ~ vector sum of which Is the algcPralc sum of the IT13gnltudes of the forus. ~ctlng ak:lr.q the same Nne of actlon.

'~ .

........

")I

A line of Indeflnlte length of which a force vector Is a ~lnent. Aforce acting on a rigid body rruy ~ I"e9rdeJ as actlng anywhere aloatt Its line of ~Ion without

wpl.1nar forus Forces ..hat o~ In a Single plane.

..... wncurrent forces Forces h.av1ng nnes of action Intersect~ at a commoo polnt. tM vector sum of wnlch can bt found Dy applyIng the para"lleIogram law.

altering ther;mmal effectofthefo~;.•.• •···• .--. ---.

component6of J force •.. _.-....•.......... 0E==:b=======i>. Two or II'IOre COII(;Urrtnt forces Into which a sln91e forc:e Ni I1c resolved and having a net effect on a rigkJ body t:l\ulvalent to that of the Initial force. For conven fenu In structural anafysls. these are usually the rect3ngular orCarUslan components of the Initial fOfU.

- p;malle!.ogram Ltw The profOSltlon that the vector sum of two concu mnt forces Cd n ~e de5C1'ibed by the dlagor131 of a parallelogram having adjacent vectors ~I~ addea. A slngle vector equ~lent to and produCing the sa~ meet on a body as the application of two or more given vectors. Also caf1ed resultant.

~.

moment ---... -.-.-.---

...• tri.1"9 Ie method

The tendency of a furc.e to produce rotation

A 9raphk: technique forflndtng the vect« sum of t1'I'O concurrent forces ~ dls~ng one force YeCtor p;a ra JleI to Itself until Its taU coincides l't'It:k the he3a of the other and completJ~ the tnangle with 2 vect.?r that represents the result3 nt force.

of a body a~.a poIrrt or nne. equa lin magnitude to the product of the force and the moment ann .and acting In a clockwIse

or counterclockwise alrectlol!. mornentcenter -.- .. -...... ---- ....•- - . The poInt .twhlch the axis of a moment ~ the ria ne of th:: forces causing the moment.

•. polygon method A graphic technique for flndlng the vector sum of a coplarl4r system of several concurrent fOfUS Py dnwlng to scale each force vector In 5ucusslon. with the tall of each at the head of the one preced1ng It. and com p!etJng ~ polygon with a vector

moment'Mft ~.-----.-.-.-.- ... -----.....- - . 'The perpendicular distance from the hne of action of a force to the point orn~ .a rout wnlch a InOme<It OCClJrs. Aiso calleJ force arm.

that ~nt5 the result3nt force. extendIng from ~ ~tl of the flrst to the head of ,;h~ last yector.

couple -.--.. --........ -....... -- .......... -; Aforce SYSt.21 of 'twO equal. para lief forces : :

produce rota1lon Put not translation. The moment of a couple Is equal I" IT12gnltudeto the product of one of the forces and the perpenarcular disbnu ~etween the two

forctS.

---.

r'

M.1f SlJ~ ai; ~Is point. the body would /'tIN1" In equilibrium In arry posltIon: coInclknt l't'lth the unt.er of mass In a uniform gnvftJtlondll field. Aforce whose nne of action p;a5SeS ~~h the center of gravity of a boJy aff~ only Its translational equl!lDrium; the l>ody remains

-

In rot.ltlonJl equJllDrlum.

rtU"

__ m " "

--~-- ~ .. j parallelforc~s

'-:

.... , ~ -., ..... center of ••• Th~ point at which the entln?mass Of 3 Pody mzy ~ conslJered concentratea such

rout any line through the

that the II"IOmtnt a point Is zero.

Nonconcurrent forces having parallel lines of action.

untrold The cem:a- of. or.:. or two-dlmenslonal flgure. aDout which the sum of the displacements of.1I polnts In the Agure Is

nonca ncurrent force, Forces "3".1ng lines of action that do not Intersect at a common point. the vector sum of which Is a sl~1e force that would cause the same translation and rotation of a rody as the set of original forces.

96

unter of gravity The point ~ which the entire welght of a Pody may ~ c.:J~ wnuntratea so

---~

{11111l ~J

1

u

L

slJes which represent th~ two force '--. vector ,um

~1n9 In ~ directions 2nJ tending to

I

u

1--_ _ _ _ _ ... _ _ _ _ _ _--1

zero.

L L


F)

!

r-···-

FORCE Newto~'s first law at moticn The physlcallaw that a body remains at rest or In motion with a constant ve!oclty unless an external force acts on the I1odY.AI50calleJlawoflnertia.

1

r

~ ..

statically equivalent Haying the same translatlooal

tn n5Lrt.ic n

aM rotational effect on a L>ocly. ""

~ tmiforin motion of a Pocly In a straight line,

wttnaut rotatlon or angular dlsplaument.

. fIj ~

Lh..

inertia

··tsl . _. . -.. .-.

I

The tendency of a rody at rost to rort13ln at rost or of a body In motion to rotaln Its velocity along a straight line unless acted upon by an external force.

.•

:

f

1

f

1

.!

;

Theforcerequlreatobrl~asetof.

concurrent forces Into equl!lllrlun'1, equal In magnitude l7ut opposite In dlreGtlon to the resultant of the concurrent force system and actlng along the same line of action.

.' ,.! i

~ ,~

Q

" '''''-,,-,

roUtion The c!rcuLY rnotlon of a Dody aL>out an axis.

'p

. .. --.-........-.•........ - equilil1rium Astate of l7alanu or rest resulting from the equal action of opposing forces. For a rigid Poay to I7e In equlhlnium, two conditions are

lever •. -------.- ... -... -'-'" ----.---A ri..;iJ element that pivots about a fulcn;m to e:xert;l pressure Of sustain

a ~ht at a second polnt by a force

necessaij.

appr~ at a third.

fulcrum •. _.-_.-.. The point Of" support aDout wn Ie h a

~ujlil1rant

I

!

LM.lwtc

=px Q- (7:t3) + (Ix 0) - (Ix 0)

=

First. the vector sum of all forces acting on It must equal zero. ensuring . translational equflllnium: LFx= O;LF)'= 0; LFz = O. Second. the a/ge17ra1c sum of all moments of the fortes arout any polnt or line must ~ual zero, ensuring rotatlonal ~ullllnium: LM=o.

0

b'ert<Jrns. ~lunic31 advantage

The mlo of output force to the Input force applltd to a ~hanlsm.

1

llllllllll+

~wton's,~orullawatmotion

The physle31law that the sum of the forces actlng on a \7ody 15 equ31 to the product of the mass of the \7ody and the acce"'ratlon produced Py the force. with motion In the dlrectlon of the resultant of the forces.

F

m force (F) = /TI3SS (m) )( lcceJ~tlon (l) m;lSs (m) =F/~ =weight ('11)1 plt4tJonllforce (I)

r~ I

3 mechanics

.~

I

I

The !:>r.iInch of physics that d&lls WIth ~ effects of forces on Dodles or rrt4terbl systems, comprised of st.1tlc s ;I nd dyn3 mIcs. StlUc5 The ~n,h of mechanics that deals with ';~ rei3tlons of forces prcJvdn.g equilibrium among bodies or m...~1 systems. ~mics The h~.ch of mech;uuc5 that deals 'Nlth :~~ motlcn and equlllDrlum of bod:es or m3tertll systems under the ~C':'<J<I of fcrus.

~wton', third law of motion The pnysicallaw that for every force actlng on 3Poay, the I70dy exerts a force having equal m3gnltude 3na the opposite direction along the same hne of action as the original force. AI50 C3neJ the law of ..etlan and r!actlon.

applied force An external foru actlng directly on a Pody.

reactive force An external force generated Py the action of one lIody on another.

97


FORTIFICATION A defensive military work

coostructed for the purpose of strengthening a position. circumvallate

Surrounded ry or as If ry a rampart.

....

.'~- ~ally port A gateway In a forUf1catlon permrttln~ 4 14rge number of tmJps to move npla'1y from the besieged position and attacl:: the Deslegers.

em.rt.e A vault or ch3 mber In a rampart. i13vlng embrasures for artllkry. C.1 5

\

bastion --··-·-·- ..-·---·-...... ---... A projectlll4 part of a rampart or other

j

.... --. --------------.. curtain

---.aa.,. .tII~~=::;:!;:~

An enclosing wall connutlng two lr.istlons or towers.

L

fort!fbtlon. typically forming an Irregular pentagon attached at the Ir.lse to the maIn

/---.---....... gorge

wort.

The rear ~ss.1geW3y Into a bastloo or slmllarotItwon.

.. ""

/.,

./

--.• terreplein The top platform or horizontal surf3ce of 3 rampart where guns are mounted.

/

-_.. ---- funic The part of a D3Stlon that extends from the curtain to theface .

.... .. --... shculder The angle be-tween the face 3nd the fun\: of

I

a Ir.lstlon. ·-.f;au EIther of *'e two outer s!des th3t form tM sallent angle of a pastlol'l

l'2Velin A V-5ha~ outwork outside the maIn dltch of a fortress. covering the wort5 ~ two bastions.

outwork A II'Iinor kfenslve position

eSClrp T'~ Inner slope or wall of the ditch

~

SlJl"I"olJnding a rampart. Also C4i1ed scarp. - ............... ~:,.

~bc~

~untet'5WIrp

esb~sr.ed ~nd a main fort~

A slo~ ex-"..en.:i1ng downward In front of a fortlfbtkln In such a way that It PM"9S ad-m~clng enemy soldler5 Into the most line of fire. ,... \

....... , parapet -.-.-- -

n-~ exterior slope or wall of the

d'r-..ch surrounding a rampart. _ .. :::

cardon A proJecUng course of stones pelcw the parapetofa rampart.

i

"rect

/

Adefensl\le W4l11 or elevauan of ea rU1 or stone prot.ectlng sota1ers from enemy flre.

1 :r:=

"

- ...- .... -- Perm A ~ ~n the exterior slope of;J

~ moat of a forth'\c;Jtlol'l

L--_____

J

.....- .•

r r

I

r

~

~:J:~~ln,*ment of ~rth ~ as 3 fortlflcatlon around a ~ and usaa/ly surmounted by a pal"3pet.

,' ... --- ..• motU

;'

Asteep mound of earth S\lrrounde.d ry a ditch and sunnounted by a t:lmboer stocbJe and tower.

.. l1alley The outer wall of a castle or the caurtyard enclosed by It. motte and pailey A Norman ~stle of the 10th through 12th Ul'IWrics. consIstIng of a motte pl3ced withIn a Dailey.

... _.. -.-.. palfsade -_....

Afence of pales set firmly in th~ ground for enclosure or defense.

pale A poInted stlck or stJl:~.

98


FORTI FICATI ON castle A fortified group of Uulkflngs usually domlnatlng the surrounding country and held Py a prince or nol:>le In feudal times.

cast~, used as a place of residence, esp. In times of siege. Also called

turret -------------------A slTl3n towa-forming part of a ~rger stroctu'e, frequently ~Innlng ~alstance above the ground. Also CJf1eJ tourdk. 路~

keep The Innermost and strongest structure or tower of a medieval donjen. ~ .... ---.. -:

chapel Asubordinate or private place of

citadel

worship or prayer within a larger

A fortress In a commanding posltlon In or neara city, used In the control of the Inhabitants and In defense during attack ar siege.

complex.

'.

l7artrun

A sm.all o.'~ll9lng turret on a wan or tower. often at a comer ar I\eJ r a gl te',qy. :::tVf"(-'-1::-::z:::::::::':::==~' --.

A lady's pM~ chamPer In 3 l!1ed1en1 CJ stle. ~um

----.--- ... - barbican

---.. -----.. --

An outwork on the approach to a castle or towil. esp. a watchtower at the gate

A slTl3I1 re.or door or glte to a fart arcast~.

or drawbridge. Also. l1arilacan.

-. enceinte

necessarium .----- ...... ---. The privy of;l medieval castle/ or 1TI()1I;b~. Also called /

gardero::'e,

przttU _._. _____ .__

ward An open space within or between the walls of a castle.

Power

A fortified wall enclrchng a CJstle or town, or the place so

enclosed.

,

1.. ______ ."

A te mpon ry l'\OOden fartif'.c3 tlo n In med'tevalardrltecture. erected at the top of a lfJlI during:. siege.

'

battlement Aparapet haVing a regular alterr13t1on of merlo/ls and crenels, originally for defense Irot later used as a decorative motif, Also called eml1attlement.

c he min-de- ronde Acootlnoous 9"!lW3Y prov!dl~ a Jne3n5 of comnmlCJtlon Denina the: rampart ofa forUfled l'follL ---:

,---... -----. merlen Ont: of tht: solia parts between the crenels of a ~attlt:merrt.

,/ ...

,------- cl'eMI .

of the opt:n spaces alternating with the merfons of a battlement.

:. I

'~.

machicolatWn

~mbr~~ure

A pro~ng gallery or par.lpet at the top of a CJstle wall, supported by corVeled arches and having openings In tht: floor throU9h which stones, molten Ie3d, or rolhng oU could De cast upon 3n enemy Deneath.

An opening, 3S;;l loophole or crenel, throU9h whlGh missIles may De dlscharged.

I

IT

+

-. loophole A small or lI3rrow openl~ In ;;I wall of fortification for the d1scharge of

;;I

mlsslles.

eyelet A small aperture In the wall ofa medieval castle used as a window or Ioophoie. Also, omet, aye/te.

'"

.

dr~~ridge

Alnidge that can De raised, let down, drawn ask:lc to prevent access or to passage Dene3th it.

portculli~

dungeon A d.. rt, ~..en undergrour.a prison or cell, as In. ineJIev-31 castle. oubliette -----.-----A ~~ ;Ln楼OO having an opallr":J CJr1"; !n theuiOng. through ..,htch pri5Cf'trS were drOFPed

A strong gr.ltlng of Iron or tlmPer hung (Nt:( the gateway of a fortH'led place In such a way ~3t it could De lowered quickly to prevent passage.

moat ' A Droad. deep dItch, usually filled with water, surrounding the rampart of a fortified town, fortress, or castle as protection against assault.

." 99


FOUNDATION The lowest dMsion of a building or other coostruct1on. partly or wholly ~efow the surbu of the ground. designed to support and anchor the superstructure and transmit its loads directly U:l the earth.

~ !

! _1

i

I

l

I

I'

I

f---····-----·-··-···J"~'::::::::.~~ '...

~~"".

...t_. _nonuniform 9J{/ pressure CjUsM by

~.. passive e..1rth pressure The horizontJl component of resistance developed by a soli mass against the horizontal movement of a

shallow fourubtlon A found1t:k:m system placed directly Pelow the lowest pa~ of .iI su~tructure and tnnsfming building loads directly to the supportJn~ solllly v~1 pressure.

DDDDD

' ..

Utml forces

5he3rr~$W1cc provided by friction Utwun footings ;ndsot1

vertlc.alstruct.Jre through the solL

utive e..1rtn pressure The horlzontJl component of pressure th.at a soli ~S5 exerts on 3 vertical rrolnlng stroct.ure.

~

The gr.od-.I3l Su~lJ1ng of.il structure as the soli ~ Its founa.atlon consolldates

i

r __L

- - - - - - - - -- - -

;.IlIowa~1e be.-aring pressure The maximum unit pressure a foundation Is

soU pressure The actual pressure t:leveloped between ;.I footlng and the supporting soli mass. equal t~ the quotient of the magnitude of the forces t<.l nsmftted and the area

------------------------------;

-t

urJerlo.adin~

permitted to Im~ vertically or I3ter.;1ly

on a supportl~ soillT13ss. Allowal7le ~ring pressu res for va roOlJ 5 solI claS5if1c3tlons are conservative v;llues permitted ~ PuIId1~ codes In the absence of ~hnlcallnvestlg3tlon and testing of the sot!. AISIJ C3IW .1llowal7le l1ealing capacft)'. allc .....abk $C/l pressure.

ccnso IWtion The graau:;;l reauctlon In the volume of a soli mass ~1tJ1If from the .application of a ~t.;I~ Io4d and 3n Increase In ~5ttess.

pf'im3 ry c.ol15OlldrtIon A reJuctlon In vvlurne of .iI soli mass under the .action ~.a sust.;lned load. due chiefly to.a squeal~ out of wawfrom the voids I't'ftIIln the IlUSS.and.a tr.nsfer of the load from the soli wafer ~ the soli salkis. Also caib:l ~ry compression.

- A =ccnt:3ct Jre3 of f~

5eCCrWry~n

~1~(q}=P/A

A reauctlon In volume of;.l soli mass under the actlon of.a ~Ined load. due chiefly to ;.It!ustr.etTt d the Internal structure of the soIlln355 after ~t of the load has Peen tr3nsfemJ from the soli water to the soIlsotld:s.

r" frost.line 1 The maximum depth at which soli Is frozen ~rost per.etntes the ground.

i diffuenti.1I5ett!ement

frost he,we

The relitlve lI10Vement of different parts of ;I structure caused IIy uneven settlement

An upltft In scl C3used tr.Y the freezl~ of Internal molsturt.

or failure of Its fou.wt01.

fro$t ~on

f

2rching n..""nsf.. of ",," f<om' y"r,n"" P'" of;.l soil mass to adjoining. less y!ekilng or restrained parts of the mass.

7r~,~~ .

softenlng of soU resulting from the

'~thaWlng of frozen groundwater.

0.5'1

)

02'1

/ .

/

100


r;

!

I

FOUNDATION

~;:t.!':;~.;;;,;;,; ik;;;:~;~;t ~U"" grak. des~ to support and anchor the

r I' r I

I

I I

rI rl r !

sp~d footing

I· "".

A concrete footing extended I. tera Ily to dlstrf~ the foun,13tlon load CNer' a wtde enough area that the allow3!71e ~arlng capacity of the supportl~ soil Is not

L .- - - - - - -

"" .••.=<::.~~~=-_____

superstro<:1:lrre.

exceeded.

ground sl# Aconcrete sbl:> placed CNer' a dense or compacted \73se and supported directly l7y th~ ground. iI:SlJally reinforced with welded wire fJ~ en grid of relnforclng lra rs to ~~~ control anya'3Cklng caused I1y drying I~\~ ~ s-hrlnbge orlhermal str~~.~~parate or ',; ~ -Integral f~s art required for heavy or ~ ",@ concentrated leads. Over prol1lem soils. the ~~ sla I:> must t;.c, designed as a nut or raft ~ foonaatloo. N:so called slab on grade. ~ .._ .. -'S/'o\.l'''~==__ . ___ .... __ :.:

• -- critJc.;J{ 5tCtJon assumed for she3r

- ~{p.inchlng she3r

-- ..

~

l:r41~COUrse

A bytrof COiiJrStgranul3r m2terbls placed ! and compacted on undisturbed soil or prepared flO ~ prevent th~ capil!3ry rise of moisture toa concrete ground stal:>. _._. __ ...... _._. _" ______ .. _... _________ : 5 Ub-str3tucn

r

,/

.... - .. ·· --.--- -

- - - - - - - - - - . ------ . . . -

foundation wall

.

Something thoIt underlies or serves as 3 !:rase or four'4btlon. Also c.alled su!lstrate.

~ifo()tig:

Th; ~~~~~s~pread footing of a

.,./r~- ~~;:;r"~' .----... ---./

r-

./ .'

tonti~uotijf~;v' A relrTfoffiJ iOncrete footing extended to support a rowofcolumns.

9~~~1'

Arefrrf~'Col1Grete ream SlJP~1I9 3 superstructure at or neargrouna leYel.nJ tnnsfem~ the Io3a ~Jsa~~ footl~s, pic:rs. or piles. Also C3ltld~~~o; -..

.'

~~~.W~.~,·., ArefnforUa COncrete footing connected !:>y a tie beam to .mother fOOUn~ In order to !7a!3ncean asymmetrlGallylmpJsed load. as at the perimeter of a ~Ildlng s~. Also called strap foothtg.

-~.' :r~'

'~-'-"Co~f~ng~~:: AreWoiuj conc~ footing for a perln-eter column or foundation wa n o;Undea to support 3n Intercr cclumn k::3J. To ;wid rot'4tion or differential ~ COfTtJnuoIJs 1(4/ C3nt1lever~ n

p-oportJoneJ t<1 ge:n~ uniform >:J~ ~SIn

raft

m.1t

A rr.at providing a footing on yielding soil u5IJally for an entire ~ulkllng. placed so that the we~htofthe displaced soli mews the weight of the construction.

A th~. sla!:>fi:e footing of relnfOf'Ce.d concrete supporting 3 num~r of co/umflS or 3n entire !:>u11d1~.

np17ta mat

r"

A ITI3t foundation reinforced l7y. gfJ of . ribs abc>.'e or below the sial:>.

)F.

:'..:.t

. U '.1 I I'nii flcatlng founJ.1tion A foundation ~ In y!eldln~ soil. having for tts footIng 3 r1ft placed dup enough that the weLjht of ~ excavated soli Is equal to or grea ~r th.M tM wdght of the construction s-upported

grillage Aframewon: of crossIng ~eams for spreadIng heavy loads over large areas.

ullularmat A composl~ structure of relnforceJ coocre~ slal:>s and lra51ment W3i1S SlT">'.,~

Also called grid.

35 3

mat foundation.

101


FOUNDATION dup founcUtlcn A fou~sy.;tem t:hJt extends do.w11 _ th~h un~17Ie soli to transfer uullalng k:laJs to a nn appropriate l7earing stratum ~ kIow ~ superstructure.

anvil The component of a pile hammer, located just relow the ra m, that transfers the driving force to the pile head.

pi1efourWtion A system ofpks, pile C3pS, and tie ueams fer transferrfftg uulidlng loads dewn to a sult.a~ ~ st,.t;Jm, used esp. when the soil rNSS directly ~Iow the c.on~ Is not sultaule for the direct

cushion Acap for protectlng a pile head as well as the pile hammer durl"1 a driving operation. Also caned

Pe3~of~s.

I

J

cushion 17loGk. cushion head. ~ring

stntum

A~mof50norrockon which a footll14 ~ or to wIllch a Irolldlng load Is tn~ I7y a pile or caisson.

pile driver

batter pile

drive band

A pile driven at aspecified angle to the vertlc3lln order to

A steel ~and enGlrcling the head of 3 tlml7er pile to prevent It from splitting when driven. Also called plfe ring.

provlJe resistance against lateral forces.

f

Amachine for driving piles, usually composed of a ta II fra meworl: supporting machinery for Ilftlng 3 pile

J

In position !7efo", drM~, 3 drM~ hammer, and vertical ralls or Ie2ds for guiding the hammer.

pile A ~ sitna:r column of wood, steel. or reinforced QlftCrete, driven or hammered~ical1y Into the earth to form part of afoundation system. end-~e.a"-9 pile - - - - - - - - - - f t o : ' ! ! I Ap~ ~g prinCipally on the ~"!1 reslsbnu of soli or rock ~neath ~s b:it for support. The SUITlXl~ soil rruss ?rovides a ~ree ofbCa-alsta~lityforthe long ~ l1eml>er. Also called

timber pile A log driven usually as a friction pite, often fttted with a steel shoe and a drive !nnd to prevent It from spllWng or shattering.

'-- .â&#x20AC;˘ shoe

point-!>~ pile.

The hard, polrUd or rounded foot of a pile or caisson for piercing underlyIng soli. Also called drive &hoe.

~!low3LoIe pt'1e Io~d

The II\3XlnII'I axb! and bteralloads pennfU.eJ on a pile, as c:feterrnl~ by a

e!'\

V

~all1lc plefonnub,a static load ~ test,:;r a ,m.ech nlca I Investigation of , /

the fourW1lon soil

.'

/-

~~. preca,t cOncrete pile

H

A precast, often prestressed concrete cclumn, havIng a round. s-tuare, or polygonal section and sa~tlmt.5 an open core, drivpl Into the earth by 3 pIle driver until it meets the requIred resistance.

\., "

pile ~ity _._-_ .. -., The ~t:IoI of;1 pile from Its pia n wUoo the vertQl, ~sultll1g In" reductkrl of Its aJlowable load.

f.

arm

pile to lmrIce froe p'rrnlUed devl3tlon of a pile frcm the v~ fOf' which a reduction In 3~PIe klad Is net ~ulred.

1-

pipe p~ ... -.. :-.-----------

H-pile - ...

ccmpo,1U pj~

A havy steel pipe driven with the lower end etther open or closed by a heavy steel plate or point and filled with concrete. An openeMed pipe pile ~ul~s Inspection and excavatlon !1efo", i7elng fliled with concrete.

A steel H-sect!on driven as a pile, sometimes encased In concrete to a point l:>elow the water tal71e to prevent corrosion. H'sectIons can be welded ~ether In the drivln9 process to form a fT'j length of pile.

A pile constructed of two rruterla Is, as a tlmuer pile havl~ a concrete upper SC1Ctlon to prevent the portion of the pile auove the water taule from deterloratl~.

:'IN ~:!.~=~~

~wn~ ----------------~

Apllt depOloing principally 011 the frictlon31 resl:stanu of 5urroundln9 t3 rth for SIip'f'<rt

by.h"h th'

"-, ~

allowable ax!4llload on a pile can be

:. -;.~' . I ~~;;:::~~:

,lift frictiHI The frY;t1ol JevelopeJ ~tween the ~ of ~ pfe and the son Into which the pile Is ;;"en, .m!ted !?y the ~Ion d soM to the pile sides and the snarstrength of the surrounding SOIIlI1ass.

~::.:

load on a single pIle, usually a fraction of the load requlr~to reach a ylelJ poInt, a point of reslstanu, or a point of refusal

i

.:\;:;: . 1. . ;::... 1

~frictSon

.~:

.::::.:

An ~I bad on a pile resulting from ~ of fln, which tends to d~ the pie down~rd Into the soil.

'..J.

?~..

: f'¡.... t

~

~

point of re,~nu . The point at which a pile load ca uses a specified net St"tttement after Delng applied continuously for aspeclfled period of time.

.

I ""l..

I'~

\ I \, I

_ _ _ _ _ _ _'~,"

f

I. I.I L I

~

point of rem,ai The point at which no additional settlement takes place after a pile has Peen loaded continuously for a specified period of time.

\ yield point i.. .... _

i,obar A line connectln~ points of equal pressure.

The point at wn!ch an Incre35e In pile load prod~ a dlsproportlonate Increase In settlement.

I 102

L


FOUNDATION·

- pile cap -------.....-.-.--...... ' .. . A reinforced concrete slab Of mat the heads of a cluster of plies to; 1<: distribute the load from ;I cclumn or ;.grade Pe<im equally am01l4 tr.e piles.

Jalnl~

ex3mplts ofpile 13Y0utS

-~ In. o o °

c~5t·ln·place co~rete

tiep~m

t::3 0

Areinforced concrete pe3m dlstrlputlng the harizont.1 forces from an eccentric311y khided pile cap or spread footlngto other

oli}O

o

pile caps orfootlngs.

0

pile

A pl!e constructed !Iy placing concrete Inta a shaft In the ground.

cas.ed pile -..... - ... - ......... --.... Aconcrete pile coostl"UCUd by driving a steel pipe or casl~ Into the ground

.;•.•

--.+ ..

un-tll It meets the required resistance

;ina then ftlnng It with concrete.

i

c ..~I"9 -......... - ..... _... - ........ - .... --: .... A cyl1ndrlc31 steel section. sometimes . ~ or taperea for Incre:asea

...!.-.• pulP A bu~e C<lst u formed at the l10ttam of a j i cast·ln·piau concrete pile to enl3rge Its ! 1 Pearl~ area ar.a strengthen the rearing stratum !Iy ccmpression.

f:

s ~s. driven or dropped In place ta as a form for a cast·ln·p!Jce coocme pile. $eI')'(:

m~n.drel

.. -----_ .. _--_.-

ped~1 pile

A cast·ln-place concrete pile having an enl3rged foot to Increase Its Pe<irlng area and strengthen the l1earlng stratum by compression, formed !Iy forclng concrete out at the Pottom of the casing Into the surrounding soil

I

//'

A ha-Iy stu! tul>e or core th3t Is Inserted Into a thln-wal1ed casing to ~t It from coll3pslng In tM driving process. and then withdrawn Priore concrete Is pl3ced In the casing.

r

pile

pier - .... -.-.... --.- ... -..... -.. -... -..... A cast·ln·place concl'eU foundation formed!ly Poring with a larg~ 3uguor ~vatlng !Iy hand a shaft In the earth to a suitable Paring stratum and filling the shaft with concrete.

i

I

f

J

Unc.3~

Aconcrete ~ CO!1struc'..t.d ~ driving 3 c;on.cme pl~ Ir.'.o the gro'.J-nd along wit.' • ~ casli1g unullt meets ~~ reqUired ~nce. and then r.;:r.tr'lir.g cancw~ L.,..-..o p~ as the casJng Is wtU-.:hwn.

I

,1

~I~~n

A pler. esp. when the roring Is 2 ft. (610 mm) or larger In atameter to permit Inspection of the rottom. ~II

- .... --............ --........ --.... -' . .

The \;1ase of 3 caisson enl3rged Ul lnuease Its bearing area.

'

bdl17ucket ~I

An attachment to an earth auger having expanding I1lades for D:c3vatlng a Pell at the rottom of a caisson shaft.

~(;~Cai5~n

, ........... 1

A caisson that Is drilled InUl a str3tum of solld rod rather than belled.

rocl:~i5~n

A s.x~tted cat=scn having 3 steel H'sectlon ",Ithln 3 c.:n:.-ete·fll'eJ pipe casing

c-=~

103


FRAME A skeletalstrocture of relatively slender memf,~ designea to give shape and support to a ~uilding or

otJ1er construction.

I

..1

pL1stic hinge

"raced frame A·structural fume whose resistance to lateral forces Is pf't1Vlded by diagonal or other type of k-ac1t\4

A vlrtu.ol hillg/l that develops when an fJ,ers are fully yielded at across section Of a stroct<Jral member. ~'1

I

-1

-rigidmme Astructural frame of linear memrers ~ldly conr.ectea at theirjoints. Appllea loads produr.e axial ~ and shear forces In all meml>ers of the frame since the ~Id joints restrain the eMs of the meml7ers from rotatl~ freely. In aaaltion. vertlcal waS C4use a rigid fr;1me to develop ~I thnIsts at Its lr.Ise. Arigid fr.ame Is st3Uca/1y indeterminate and rigid only In Its plane. Also Col Ilea moment~"4 fr.1me.

....... fixed frame

r•

A rigid frame connected to Its supports with fixed joints. A flxed frame Is more reslsta nt to deflection tha n a hinged fra me put also more sensitive to support settlements and thermal expansion aM

f1

contractlon.

s Ides way The later.lf dlsplacement produced In a r'.3k:1 fralT16l7y lateral loads Or asymmetrbl v~31Ioadlr~

I. J. hinged frame A rigid fr3me connected to Its supports with pin joints. The pin Joints prevent high !lCndin4 stresses from developlnBby a~ u",frame to rotate as a unit when stnlned Loy SlIpport settlements. and to flex ~htly when stressed by changes In

temperature.

• L1

three-hi~ fume

A structul'llfas5ell1!11y of two rlgta sections

connectea toeacfl other and to Its supports wltfl pi" joints. While more sensltlve to~n than either the fixed or hl"¥d frame. the thru-hlngea frame Is Ie.ost rlfect&i by support settlements and thtnl'tllstresses. The three pin Joints also permit the frame to lJe analyzed as a stat:lcally de1ermlnate structure.

104

A-frame A !nJlldlng constructed with a steep triangular frame resting directly on ..

foundation.


~' r;r' ""'!

FRAME knee Thejur.ctlcn of the tap ana either of tne uprights of a bent.

10000000-0

0101010101001011 ,un

pent A braced or ~Id frame deslgnea to carry vertlcal and lateral loads transverse to the length of a framed structure:.

portal A rigid frame of two co{umns and a .ream defining a Single bay. Also called slngte-l1ay frame.

IO]DID]ODlDiDiol

V-terenJ~1 ~5

A framed ~ stroctore h~l~ vertlc31 web mem!1ers ~idIy connecte.d to parallel top and ~ chords. A '{:trendeel truss ~ not a true ,",SS slnu Its members are subject to I'lOII2xtal ~ forces. Also

~-. multi.toryf""",

A vertical series of superimposed r1~ld , frames.

called V1~ ~lrder,

transfer column A discontinuous column In a multiStory frame. supported at some Intermealate level where Its load Is transferred to aajacent columns. - ,

I'

I p<lrt.1I~

f'" 1 j

A method for a~lyzlng a mutt...tstory frame .15 a C3l1t11ew:r ~te.d ~ shear rackIng. 1M portal methcJ assumes tn3t a point of InfIectloIt occurs it the mkl~ of all rnemDer$ In the frame. and that the acts :.lS2 ~ of~ portals to which the tobl t.ter.ll shar:.lt each level Is distribuW 1ft propoI'tlon to the floor:.ilre3 ~h wlumn ~s. ~!M4 ry pin .lolrrts C2n ~ lnsute.d 3t e;;ch point of Inflectlon. Nkl~ ~ ~:.l st4t:b11:i dekrmlnate

\ ~

mme

stnlCture.

DOt]

1\\

DODD DDDD DDDD

I i

I

I

t

~

~rrt&ver~

A Ir1ethod for J!t:.llyzlng a lT1uttlstory frame ~ 2 C3ntllever $U~t to Pe:1dl~. The C3rTtllever method :.l5Surnes th.-t:.il point of Inflection OC~ it the 1l'1!d~ngth of an II"alPers In ~ fralre. and wt tM axidl fOf"Ce In ~h WuIM of a st.:ry ~ proportlonal;o ~ tIortz:ontal distance from the centroid oI3a the columns 0f1 tn3t level. Imaginary pin joints c.1n ~ Inserted at each point of ~ Iftlk~ the frame a

tran,-fergiraer ~-.- .. --: A girder supportl~ a tnlnsfer c;clumn.

statlcally ~1n:.iIt.e WJ<-'"tUI"e.

moment ~trip1ltlcn methcd A method for mlyzl~ an IrJetermlnate str'uCt1Jre ~h :.iIo'1Iter:.ltN/: pr-ouss of fixing a r19ki jo!rTt In splU. ~termlnl~ the fIxed·enJ I1'\OII'1CTt.s at the Jolnt. then ~sI~ the joint to allow It to rotate. and studyln4 the ~nsftrence of moments and rot3tlons to £Mer joints

r

1

r

InkUrmil'\;1'U

deUrmllJrte

Of or perta In Ir.q to a structure havl~ more than the minimum number of

Of or pertaining to a structure able to ~ analyzed completely by means of the principles of statics. ./

members. corm~tlons. or supports needed for staDil1ty. resulUng In more unknown forces than there are static equ.aUons for solution. d~ru of iru:!eUrmlnacy ~ dlfferenu

petween the number of unknown forces In an Indeterminate structure and w number of static equ3tions 3'.'ah,le for solur:cn,

degreeoffr~m

•....

The number of members l"e<\ulred to stabilize 3 collapse mech3nlsm.

redund.Jncy •.. , ....... ,.. A strvctural member. connection. or support not required for a statically Wb!T1lnate structure. degree of reduMancy The number of members Deyond that re.:lulred for the statrillty of a st;:cally determinate structure.

105


FRAME

l .~

froilmlng

light frame constructlcn

The ut. proceS5. or manneroffittlng and joining together relatively slender members to give shape and support to a structure.

A system of construction utlllzlng closely spa~ and sheathed memPers of dimension lumreror lIght-gauge metal to fonn the structural elements of a 11ulldlng.

froilmeworic

balloon fr;;me

I

fIoorfr3minq

L

platform fr3me

J

roof fr3minq

A skeletal structure of parts fitted and joined to짜ther In order to support. define. or enclose.

J,

skeleton construction A system of construction utilizing a framewort of columns and !leams to transmit !lullding loads down to the foundation.

I

j

!

I 11

,1 plank-oiInd-l:Ieam constructlon - . - .. -- .--.... , ............... Floor or roof constructlon utilizing a framewort oftlml1cr \;Ieams to support wood planks or decking.

.... ./ .../ ...

,r_ .... principal ueam Any large !leam In a structur.ll frame that supports secondal)' beams or JOists. Also called primal)' ~m.

r"'"''

J

secondary ue.am Any beam that transmits Its load to a principal ~eam.

/

terttary ueam Any beam that transmits Its load to a

seconml)' ~eam.

\ \ ..- girder A large principal beam designed to support concentrated Io;Ids at IsoI;rte.d points along its length.

arc~te

Of or pert3lnlng to a 5yS tern of constructlon employing arches or arched fonns. AIso. arcu.tt&i

i

I

poie construction A sys~mofconstructlon employIng a vertical structure of pressure-treateJ wood poles whlch are firmly emPedded In the ground 3sa pier foundation.

pole MUse A hou~ of pole construction. pole A long. cylindrical. often s~nder p~ of wood or metal. ..

stilt One of seve-ral p!~ or posts for supporUng a stnx:ture arove the surface of land or water.

106


FRAME praced fra me A ~ulldlng frame employl~ a he3Yj1.ln-acea framework of solid girts mortised Into soltd posts the full h~1Tt of the frame. WIth studs one story high filling the interstices. Also called full frame.

principal ~fter _.. -.--.-_.--- .........._........ __ .\

str3ining plect _.... _._-._ ..... __ ... _ .. ___ .. _\\.

-.... --.-.----.-.... -.. -.~...,..

queen post

summer - .......... -- --------- .. -. -... ------.--.. ", A heJ;)' Umber serving as a """ principal beam or girder. Also ' C3 Hed summer-tru.

-post .- girt A horizontal timber connecting the posts of a In-aceJ frame at an Intennealate level abo,re the ground floor. "-_ .. _...â&#x20AC;˘ 5tiJd

Ineast5ummer _ ... _.... _ ... __ ..i A sum,'T1er supporting a wan o,rer an Also called Ureast beam.

ope~:ng.

"'--- raiseagirt

tr3Ye _ ..... - ... _--.. - ..... ---" .--.-.-._- .......i

A girt parallel to and level with the floor joists. Also called flush girt.

A crossbeam or a l73y formed ~ crossbea ms.

--.-..-~ dropped girt i A girt set lielow the floor Joists It su pports.

17if\der ---.----.--............-... -.A prllIclpai ream supportlng the ends of t:io-o sets of floor jolsts_ Also Cd lied t>indin~ P-e.1m.

half-timl1er H3v1ng a ~mber framework with the spaces fliled wtth masonry 01" plaster. Also. halftlml1ered.

open-timl1ered Iol./'r'i:r .--- ........ -- .. --- .. -- .... At:. ntern building or turret on theslatted roof of a rnealCal having a~..;Jres for the escape of smoke and admission of air.

~~~~~~~~~ _

thJtch _... --..... --.... -- ...........-.-._ .... -..... A mr..eml foreaverlng a roof. as straw. rv~. or palm leaves. fastened to..3~her so as to shed water and 5O~~s to provide thertT131 Insut..t1on. Also. ~hrn9.

pan A major vertical division of a wall, esp. a noggedpanel of haff-tlm~er construction. .- -..- .. - - - - - - i

'f"

wattle and aaul1 A form of wall construction. consisting of wattles covered and plastered with clay or mud. Also. wattle and dau.

~

~.j

'-..._----- -'-

wattle A framework of rods or poles Interwo,ren with thin ~ranches. twigs. and reeas. used In the construction of walls and fences.

no~ 'One of a number of short wooden pieces Inserted between the principal members of ahaff¡tlmbered wall to 5tr~gthen the frame and retain the brick Inflli. Also.

;;;~:,~~~;; f;;r;~;~;;,,~- --11111 ~etween the

members of a timber frame.

107


GEOMETRY A branch of mathematics that deals with the properties, measurement, and relationships of points,lines, angles, and solids, deduud from tneirdefining a>nditions Dy means of urt.1in assumed properties of

/1 1/

_.' a17scissa Acoordlna~ detennlnea !1y measuring parallel to the x-axis.

spau.

Also called x-coordlnau. .

point

/

A dimensionless geometric element that h3s no propertY!lut Ioc3tlon. as the rn~rsectIon of two hnes.

y-axis - ....... _._ ... _ ............... The 3x1s along which o;d1nates or y. V3lues are ~sured In a Cartesian coordln4U system. Also called axi s ofordfuUs.

I

.I

Itn-! il

!

.", radius vector A straight line segment that JOins 3 V3rla~ point to ~he fixed

I I

c.aJ1:.es~n caordinate

pobr angle

AIry of the coordlnates for locatIng a point on a plane Py Its dlstana from each of two Intersectln~ hnes, or In ~ !1y Its distance from each of three planes Intersecting at a point.

The angle fortned !1y the polar

A coordlnzte determl !1y ~surlng parallel to

thez·axls.

'/: \

AIry of a set of numms that serve to s~1fy the location of a point on a nnt, 5U mce. or In space !1y referenct to a ftxed figure or system of hnes.

z-coordinate

z-axis _........ -.. ---. . The axis 310ng whk:h z-V3lues are

postulates of Eucnd, esp. the postulJte that only one Mne may pe drawn throu~h a given point parallel to a given line.

l; caordinate

iii :

Euclidean geometry Geometly based upon the

l"'4 ....-.j .. --: ....- ordinate .........-"-'.-"'-c-..l.'-;--;.:..,..--f----H-+--+

measurea In a three-dimensiOnal Ca~ian coordinate sys~m.

origin of a polar coordinate

I

system.

I

J

axis and a radius vector In a

polar coordinate system.

polar axis The reference axis from which the polJr angle Is measured In a polar coordinate system. '\

Acoordinate aetennlnea !1y ~rlng pal.i~1 to the y-axis. A!:so calle<l y-coordlnm.

. __ .___f __ rutangu~r coo rd ilU'te system AC4rtesbn coordinate system In which the axes orcoordinzte planes are perpendlculdr.

x-axis --_.' T}.e axis aloog which abscls53s or x-values are I!1e3$Ure.:I In 3 C3rtesian coor&nate system. Also calLed axis of .1~ssas.

pobr coordinau system A system for locating a point on a plane

!1y Its radius vector and polar angie.

ver"..ical

paralld

f~~iartot:he

Extending In the same direction. eq!Jldlstant at alf pOints. and never converging or diverging.

p!3neof~

horizon.

,

skew lines Any lines In space that are neither parallel nor Intersecting.

line A ~ element generated !1y a moving point 3nel ~vlng extension wlthOllt breadth or thickness.

o

horizonbl faraneltoorope,..tlr~

Ina plane

para Ilei t.o the horizon.

0 a~le The space l1etween two lines dlvergl~ from a com.mon point. or within two planes diverging from a common hne: the figure so fonnea.

--.- vertex The point at which the sides of an lIng!e 1nterseG't.

angle The amount of rot3tIon neeaea to lning one nne or plane Into coincidence with another. mea sured in radla ns or In degrees. minutes. and seconas. radiln

A unit of angular measure equal to the central3ngle subtendlng an arc equal In length to the radius: ~/21t or approx. 57:3°.

degree Aunit of angular measure. equal to 'J~th of 3 complete angle or tum. or of the circUMferenCe of a

.--+----- right angle l .

Anang1eofWf~!1ythe perpena1cular Intersection of two straight lines.

"--. 3Cute JnSIe

An angle less than OO~

'. -. -. -" ---- -.-.-.-. o~u!Je Jngle

circle. minute

The 60th Dart of a aearee of angular ~asure. ~ccnd

The 60th part of a minute of angular measure.

An angle grea~r than 9O~ Uut less than 100°.

108 1 _

i


·'"t.

GEOMETRY he~ht

:...... vertex

plane geometry

Extent ex distance

\, \,

The pranch of geometry th.tde3ls WIth

upward from • glven level

The point opposite to and farthest from the Pase of a plane figure.

pl3ne~ures.

to;; fIxtd point.

."" altitude

past!: - ... - .. -................... , The nne or surface forming the part of a ¥Ometric ~ure that Is most ~rly oorlzo11tal or on whlGh ~ Is supposed to stand. from which ;an altitude ~n pe

./ ./ ,.

plane A surface generated l1y. straight line moving at a constant velocity with resp~t to a flxed point. such that. straight lineJoining any two of Its points lies wholly In the surface.

The perpendicular distance from the pase of a geometric figure to the opposite vertex. parallel side. or parallel surface.

C011Str1.C.e.d.

reentrant

figure

Reentering or pointing Inward. as an Interior angle of a polygon that Is greater than

A complnation of geometric elements disposed In a partlcularform o~ shape.

150~ --'•.••

~~

".

triangle Apolygon having three

.~--------l,.-

.... -.... polygon A closed plane figure havlngthru or more straight sides.

q,uadribteral

~

Apolygon having four sides and four angles.

sides and three angles.

rectilinear Forming. formed l1y. or characterized l1y stralght lines.

Havl"!l t1000 sides of equal length. acuU - . -.......... - ............ . Composed only of acute angles.

Lsalient An outward projecting angle or

obtuse --................... - .. Havlng. n :;1;rtuse angle.

I

~1eM

.1-....

-.---...-...... -

Having ~ite unequalsk:les.

I

coincideJTt

1

Occu~

tM same place In

I part. ...... .j---- exterior angle I The angle form&! petween any I

! ----"'~~

spaceort:~,

CO"9/"tlCft _ •.. - .. - _ ... -.. CoInc~ 3t all points

- .. -----... - ........ -H.3ving ccrrespondlng sides ~.41 and cor.espondlng angles e:q-.:.JL II--_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _........o¥.

..

... interior a"9le The angle form&! Inside a polygon!:>etween arty two adjacent sides.

"'-...

"'-...

r-

'-t:-..

~_ _ _ _ _ _ _...:.\_.'-...,--=

rectangle

aspect ratlc . In any rectangularconflguratlon. the ratio of the longer dimension to the shorter.

...

Apmllelogral1ihavlngfour --...• dIagonal right angles. esp. one with sides A hne connecting two nonadjacent r-:;:r.... of unequaller!gths. angles or vertlces of.3 polygon or v polyhedron.

An ol7l1que hne or surface. as one formed l1y cutting off the corner of a square or cuPe.

u-Ig~etry

ri9ht tria ng Ie

The I7nrci of l713thematlcs that deals with t~ ~les of kiangles and trI9O~..rlc functions, and of their .3ppfk7'..cf!$.

A triangle having a right angle.

'::'" hypoUnuse

........ square Aregular polygon having four equal sides and fou r rig ht angles.

/ I····

G

&iN!

~~:~~~7h"J"" roth p" .. aI ~~lteS~~~to~~~

... -.~ trapezoid

Q _.' -.' _.' _- .... , -

~-+--:""~+----t'

The ~rr.etrlc function deflned 3S the 1'3~ of the side oppostui a given angle to ~ hypotenu~.

n.

/ .

... The side of a right tri3ngle that ;'. Is opposIte the right an~le.

u-~funcUon A fuoctb1 of 3n 3rl9Ie, as sine or coslM. ~ 35 the ratio of tr.e s~ of a~ht triangle.

rectangular Having edges. surfaces. or faces that meet at right angles.

1:..... "'-....."'-.....

cant - .............. -...... ---..:'.-

when

$U~rI~ ~jmibr

side of a polygon and an extendea adjacent side.

"-..'-.,

A quadrilateral having only two sides parallel.

trapezium

Aquadrilateral having no two $Ides parallel

c05ine The ~~ functlon deftn&! as the ra~ of the side adjacent to a given a ngle to the hypoten use.

"---... pentagon

tangent

A polygon having flve sides and flve angles.

The tro9""'O~trIG functlon deftned as the rat:o of the side opposite a given

- ... -... -.-- .. hexagon

angle to ~ side adjacent to the angle. ~carrt

The ~rlc functlon defln&! as ratio of ~ hypotenuse to the side adj3Ce:1> to 3 given angle. C05eCarrt

The the

~"""lOmetrlc

function deflned as of the hypotenuse to the side opposr-~ ~ ~Iven angl.e. 1'3~

cot.J~ T~

tr'..,r.."<'CJT1etr!c functlon deflned as the 1'3".: :;i the sIde opposite a given angle:.: :.'---: side adj3cent to the angie

A polygon having six sides and six· angles.

Pythagorean theorem The theorem that the sqU.3 re of the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle equals the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides. C' Ci 2 I b-:

./

regular ........... - .. :....... . Having all sides equal (equllJttral) and an angles equal (equlangulJr)

-

. octagon A polygon having elght sides and eight angles.

~ apothem A pc:rpend1cular from the center cf a regular polygon to one of Its sides.

109


GEOMETRY - ..... eccentric

circle A closed pl3ne curve every point of

Not having the same center Or center

.'----.-.-- arc

which 15 eq~1Tt from aflxed point within the curve.

:'

r-'''--''-'

1111r:

line.

Any ,P3rt of the clrcumferenu of a circle.

.../: .... /

off-center

raalus A stra~ ht hne extendl~ from the center:f ill circle or sphere to the circumference or Poundmg surface.

Not centered or at the center point.

_----------.. , concentric Having a common center. as clrc~s or spheres.

.... - .. sector A ptar.t figure rounded by tliO radii and t~.! Includ.e.d arc of a Circle.

. _ - - centerline figure.

___________.

end. '.~ .. -- -

cenUr The pcint within a circle or sphere equally d1sta ITt from 311 ~nts of the clrcumferer.::t or surf.ice. or the point within 3 regular

circumference __ J

(t

polygon tqU311y dlstant from the vertices..

The roundary hne of a closed curvilinear 'flgure, esp. the perimeter-of a circle.

pi The sym~ol Jt aef'(Jtlng tM ratio retween the circumference of 3 circle and Its diameter, a ccnstolrrt equ~ to 3.14159+,

cherd -------- .... ------------.-, The straight nne segment ~~ two points on • ~lven curve.

"'>'"

,',/ .., ......" ; ./ I. -..g-.---+----r.~-

~.

\,

..~------

I

An arc of 9O~ or any of the four a,uarterslnto which a plane figure Is dM:Jed by two perpendlcutar lines, numrered counterclockwise from the upper right.

~UC:, "o, 1y

b"J,", """. wlth",t

angles.

--------- ~?'~~:slng

----------- inflection \

through the tn'ofocl of an

eUl~

__----'--I__-.-e{Jj~

q,~rant

~--- ________ .. _____ .. --. -------. concave ~ Curved Inward like the Interior of a circular arc or hollow sphere.

"

i

,

An Imaginary line that plsects. plane

\------ .. - --- di3meter A straight line extending through the cen~ of a circle or sphere.na meetlng ~ circumference or Poundl~ surface at eacb

, -,-------- minor axis The axis of an ellipse that Is perpendicular to the :T".3jar axis ata point eq~!dlstant from the foci.

A closed pbne curve generated by a point ~ In such a W7"j th.t the sums of Its dlst.nces from tl'lC flxed points, the fOCi. Is

a constant.

! I i

i

spiral.··-- .. -.... -..... ------- I A plane curve ~t3tea by .. point moving around a fixed point while const4ntly recea:."oJ from or appl'03chl11g It.

.. ------. evolute fhe locus of the centers of curvature of. or the envelope of the nortTUts to. another curve.

..-.-.. ---- Involute Acurve traced by a point on;a string as It Is l:ept taut and unwound from a stationary cylinder.

.,---- asymptote

Astralglr; One nmiting a curve such that the perpenalCular d1s~nce from the curve to the n~ approaches zero.s the curve Is extenkd to Inflnlty_

..... --------.- .. -----.--. helix A three' dimensional curve tr3Ced on a

cylinder or cone Py the rota'tlon of-a point crossing Its right ~tlo"S at a constanto!:>llque angle.

hyper~ol.

cycloId

A pl.ne curve 9tnerated by 3 point so ~ th~ the difference of the distances (rom two flx&f points In the pl3ne remains constant.

Acurve generated by a pOint on the circumference of a circle 3S It rolls along a straight line.

110


GEOMETRY selid gee rMtry The bra nen of gX'!l'.etry that dais with sofld figures and three-dimensional spau.

&pherokf A solid geomttrlc3l ~ure similAr In shape to;a sphere. 3S an ellipsoid.

prolate sphuoid

ellipsoid A solkl f1qure all plJne sections of .mth are ell1pses.

oblate spheroid Aspheroid gener.rted by rotating an e!l1pseabout Its mlnoraxls.

Aspheroid generated by rot3tlng an ellipse about Its

major axis.

sphere

Asoild ger.erated by ~ revolution of a :-emic:rc1e about Its diameter. whose ~rface Is at all points ~. equidistant from the center..

oblate Flattened at the poles.

prolate

Eklngated along the po~r diameter.

cyiinkr -_ .... _.. _............... - .........

selid

poly41ron

A solid I10unded by two parallel plJnes and asurface generated by a stra~ht hne moving parallel to <1 ftxe.::Istra~ht line

Ageometric f1qure having the three dimensions of Iength.l:Ireadth. and thickness. Also called l7ody.

AsoIkI ge.cmetrlc fl9ure bounded by p13nd3ces.

volume The extent of a three-dimensional object or the amount of space that It occupies. measured In cubic units.

H.'lvir.g all faus congruent regular poly~ and all solid angles congr~

and Intersectlng a c!oseJ plane curve In one of the planes. ~ht circuL1r cyiinaer

_....

A cylinder genera ted by a rectangle aboot one of Its

surface Arry figure having only two dimensions. as a plane or curved two-dimensional l<Jcus of points deftning the boundary of a solid.

skies.

r~ular

prramid A po~t.edrcn havln9 a polygonallr.lse and t,";';;:"-3'JlJrfaces mutlng at a common pelnt or ver-..ex.

',,-_.-

-~

tet.nhearon A regubr polyhedron ~nded by four pbnef3us.

cuP-e Asor.d rot:~ded by SiX equal square slks. t1-~ angk: ~ween lrry two adJac..,--r.t fates being 3 ri9ht angle.

generator An element th:lt generates a gtOlT'.etrlc fi9ure. esp. a straight I1ne that generates a surface by movln9 In a sPeGffl~ fasnlon. Also called

cone ...... _...... _ ...- ....... .. A salk! whose surfau Is !lener<lt.ed by a straight line. the gentra0". passing throug h a ftxtd pclnt. the vertex. and

-- hex. hUron A requbr pclyhedron having sIx f3us.

generatrlx.

pri~m

/ ... - directrix .

moving a~ the Intersectlon wtth a closeJ plAne curve. the

A fixed fine used In the descrlptlQn of a curve Of'surfau.

A po~hearcn havlng ends that are para~el. congruent polygor;s <lna sides that are parallelograms.

directnx.

right circuur cone -A cooe ¥nerated by rotating a right tria "9 Ie arout one of Its

center .. '

Pl.iU1nic so~ One of t.1e flve re.gul3r polyhedrons:

Th~ point within a regulJr polygon equally dls~nt from thevertlces.

dodec3 hearon. Of' Ic054 heel ron.

legs.

ed.g.e ........... _...... _ ......._ ... _ .... _.-_ ...-_ .. . A nne at which a surface termlnaus or at which two surfaces of a solkl meet. .. - .. --

te;raheaml. hex3hedron. octahedr:;n.

\---.. --~ oct.a~rcn A regular polyheJron h2v!~ ~~ht faces.

vuux ... ---.... -----_

A point In a geometric solid common to thr~ Of' more sides.

uuncmJ ,'- fru,tum Havl"9 the apex. vertex. or end \. The portion of a ccn1calsolld cut off by a rane. esp. by one parallel to the base. _..

':. left aftercuttlng offtM top :. with. pl3ne parallel to the

co nic 5eCtio n A plane curve formed by the Intersection of a ri9ht Circular con~ with a pl3ne. •· ..·· ..1

-

~ do<b;a~ron

A regu br p<llyheJron having 12 faces.

:,base.

ellip~ A conic sectlon formed by the Intersectlcn of a ~htclrcul3r cone with ;I pbne that cuts through both the a)(ls and the surface of t~ cone.

paraPob A conic section formed by the Intersection of a right circular cone with a plJne parallel to a generator of the cone.

hyperbob . A conic section formed by the Intersectk)O of a rl:Jht Circular cone with a pl3ne that makes a greater an9te with the base than dc-es the generator of the cone.

',_.- .. ~ ico~a~dron A re~\hr pclyhedron having 20 faus.

111


I

<

GLASS A lurd.lniWe. usually transparent or tranSlucent suf1stance. produced Pi' fusing sita together with a flux and ~ sbl1t11ur Into a mass th3t cools to a rigkJ condItion without

anne.a1ed g1a5~ Glass t~3tTs cwtea slowly to reHeve Internalstres5es.

.ht3t~enqthenedglas$ Annealed glass that Is partl3lly ~mpered Dy a proctss of reheating sudden

c!,),staIJizJtion.

ana

cooling. Heat·strengthened glass has apout twice the strength of annealed glass of the same thlc~ness.

crown glass An old fonn of wfndow glass formed Dy plowl"1 and wftlr!l~ a hollow sphere of g13 ss Into ~ fbt. Circular dis£: with a center IuI1p left Vy the wori:er's rod.

si~~strength gla55

pmllc:l resultln41n some dlstcrtlon of

5~ glass h3Y1ng a thickness of 3/YlIn. (2.4 mm).

vision.

plate 5laS5

-'·~~·-::~~=ll-j ~;~"::!~~ftrt9IaSSDoncWUnder

dcuble-st.ren¢l glas5

A flat. soda-ltme-sl1lca glass formed Dy

5f-at glass l!3yjng a thickness of '/~ In. (32 mm).

roinng molten glass Into a pla~ (rotled glass) that IssuDse'luently ground and

I

float glass .----.--.-.•..... Afut. soda-h~sll1cJ glass that Is ....... . ewemc:ly smooth and nearly dlstcrtlon· free. NllIbctured by pouring mol~n glass ooto a surface of molten tin and a~ It to cool slowly, Float glass Is the successor to plate glas5 and accounts for the 1113jorIty of flat-g lass proJuctlon.

,

I

heat and pressure to Interlayers of polyvinyl Dutyral resin that retains the .fr39~.nts If the g135s is Drcten. Also called

I

pons,W ~coonng.

i

, i

rsat~!!,~~;;

I

!

I ,i'~~g~~~

.... ",

13mlnated glass havlng exceptional tensile and Impact strength. consIsting of multIple piles of glass Ponded under he3t ~nd

pressure to InWlayers of polyvlnyf I:>utyral resin.

r~u~lgb"

.:':~

·.;u&~!l~~: Aglass unltconststlng of two or

13mlnated or InsiJktlng glass used for

sou nd control -t-

more s-heets of glass sepal'3ted by henretblly-seaied alrspaus.

!

i

-r1 i

hermetlc -- .. _-.-._ ............ .

I

Staling.

1

heat ~nd Ight t1ut strike It. Iron oxide gives the !lass ~ pale ~-~~_ ~t; ££~It ~~ IInf'3I'ts a~h.~Il;; sdenkm Infuses a ~ tlnt Also called

Flat or pattemed gtass having a so,uare or diamond wl~ mesh eml7edded within It to

T

prevent shattering In the event of ~bge or excesslv~ heat. Wire glass Is wnsldered a safety glazing IT!3terl4l

I

1

-

.~

I

~VsorV a portion of the rad~nt

vIs~

1

ill J

Glass biiig'a thin. translucent met.:; IIIc ~ toondeJ to ,he exterior or Interor sllf'bce kI reflea J portion of the IIg ht ",lid radiant heat th3t strike It.

---.--... -..... -. -. I "'-'"

~sofradlant heat. produced Dy

1

II IL

hUt-~Rf ,lass.

~~""'~--"---"""'--"h_""_""'"

1"--...........

\Wire9ra,~

1

i

I

LL 1T

'"~t.~~: Glass ~ achem~1 admixture tc

:~~~Wt~:; Glass ~i-tnftSinitS~117Ie light while ~ re&a!ng the longer

J

na

shutgbss A ft3t, scda-Ibnc-~ glass fa prlcaW Dy drawing the InOIten gbss from a fum~ «<aMI glass). or Dyfonnlng a cylinder. tJIvIdIng It lengthwise. and futtenl"! It (cyffnder ,lass). The flrepolished ~ are not perfe.ctly

~ airtlght by fusing or

I

~tempered gtas, I' Annealed glass that Is reheated to just l>elow the softening point 3 then 1'3 pldly cootea tc Induce compressive streS~ In the SUrf3~S and edges of the glass and tensile stresses In the Interior. TempereJ glass has three toflve times the reslstance of annealed glass to Impact and thennal stresses Put cannot De a~red afterfaPrlcatlon. When fracturtd,1t In-e3ks Intc relatively h3rmless particles.

+A·····~ :

=

~~:~ular slJ/face pattern

formed In the rontng process tc obscure vision or tc diffuse fight, AIS<? called

fl§ured I~SS.

;?o~~j~ Glass ~lng one or roth sides acld-etched or sand!llas~ to wscu revlslon.

~'~~~$j

An o~~ glass 'f~ c.onceanng the structural elements In curtain wan construction. produced by fusing a ceramic frit to the Interior surface of "tempered or heat-strengthened glass.

""'-,

~alow-emlsslvftycoatlng •... --J._._ .. __ .. _ ...__ either ~ the glass Itseff or over a transparent plastic film suspended In the i summer

!

~~~~~~nSUla~ng glass. Also

I'

em~

The ~ alIdlty of a surface tc emit radi3nt ~t.lI1easured 3galnst a placl:

~ at the same temperature.

sh~di~~lent

The r.iI~ of solar heat tr.insmlssion thro~h:l partJcubr glass to the solar h~3t tranS«1lsslon thf"'OUgh dool7le-strength c!earguss.

112

,

I II

~

==

__.-.:..!_ _

~~j~~~~~I~ ~j.~!~l~~· . A tf.lnstucent. hoilow

bfoc~ of glass wIth clear. textured. Of' patterned faces. made Vy fUSing two h3lves together with a parUal vacuum Inslk and used for glazing openings.

;5~.5.;~k

~son,l.lmpaci-reslstant glass plock unit, sometimes haVing an Insert or coated to reduce solar heat transmission.

~. J

r~

, I

1.

I


GLASS

.,

t.Jcegl.uing

doul:Jle gl3zing

The seWng of a glass paM In a rabbeted frame, hakllng It In pbce with glnler's points, and seaang It IIIlth a beveled bead of putty or glazing compound.

gl.~zing

The Installation of two parallel panes of glass with a sealed aIr space between to reduce the transmission of heat and sound.

The panes or sheets of glass or other transparent material made to De set In frames. as In windows. doars. or mirrors.

fAce putty .------------------- ------.--.----.----- -, The putty or glazll\1 compound formed on . I:

=~rio~:~ 01 '_,1,,5F:"'_____,

A thin layer of putty or glazing compound

111

-----------.--.---.----- , -.--. glazing tape

I'il

\.

lata In eM rabl>e-tofa window sash to give II paM of glass an mn I7acklng.

wet glazing The setting of glass In a window frame with glazing tape or a liqUid sealant.

\ •

I

glazier's point ---------.--.- .. -.-' ... A Sm3n. pointed piece of sheet metal for hol.dlng a glass P"~ In a wood sash until the tau putty has hardened. Also called gl..azJng Urad. s~.

glass and frame.

--- .. -.- cap stalant An adhesive liqUid of synthetic rubDer Injected Into the joint between a glass pane or unit and a window frame. curing to fonn a watertight seal. Also called cap l:>ead.

putty Acompound of whltlng and linseed oil. of

'-,,----_ glazing ~d

doug hfl:e consistency when fresh. used In secur!l1g windowpare5 or. patching

woodwork defects.

hull:Je3d .....--.. :

glazir~ compound

An adhesive liquid of synthetlc rubber Injected between a glass pane or unit and a glazing Dead. curing to form anaIrtlg ht sea I.

An adh~sNe compound used as putty. formuiJted so as not to become brittle with age.

~~~~a;lass~~~·~~;~~~d·f~;----·

A wood molding or metal section secured against the edge of a glass pane or unit to hold It In place. Also catted glazing stop.

dry glazing

.. \ .... --.--.

The setting of glass In ~ window frame with compression gasket Instead of glazing t3peor a hquld sealant.

gLnlng 3n opening. allowing for adequate eJ¥ c\e:aranus. Also called gl.a:zrng size.

;I

unit'.eJ inches The sum of one ~ and one width of a recta~ular glass

C<lmpression ga~ket A prefonned strip of synthetic rubber or plastic compressed bawe.en a glJss pane or unit and a Window frame to fonn a watertJght Sail and cushion for the glass.

pM or unit. measured In

tnches.. ~e p~ck

--.. --.-.... -- .. -... -----.-----' .•

One of the SlT13n l7locks of synthet\c rJb~ pl3ced l7etween the side ~es of a glJss f13~ or unit and i.1 frame to unter It. malntJln a uniform width of Sailant.

--_ .. -- .... Iockstrip gasket

",

arJnmft13ttral~t~usea~ II

~Itdlry 'Ilt>ratlons ortherlT13l expansion or contraction. Also calIea centerrng shim. spaur. TheotStanul>e-t~thef3Uofaglass

pa~orun!tandthenearcs-tfaceoflts fra me" stop. ~surea n~31 to th~ plane eft the glass.

A prefonned gaske-t of synthetlc ru;ber for securing 3 glass pa~ or unit In a window frame or opening. held In compression by forcing a keyed lock I1\1 strip Into a groove In the gasket.

....~

sating block .. -: .. -.. ~-.,' One of the Sm311 Uiocl::s of lead or synthetic rul711er placed unaer the lower eJge of a glass pane or unit to support It within a frame.

f.lce c!elr~n.ce _.. ---. -_. ------ -.. -----~._,

l:Jite

.

Aprefonned ribDon of synthetlc rubber haVing adhesive properties and use.4 In glazing to form a watertlght seall7etween

:

r"'::- - .--.-"'-

... -.---.----.---------.. -- .. The .mount of OYeNp between the edge of, glass p:lMe or unit and a window fra me. stop. cr Icd-strip gasket. ~.-

'. '.

~..

ii'

!I :

!ll

'.-" I

.

'.~

flush glazing Aglazlr.g system In which the framIng members art: set entlrely behind the gla S5 panes or units to form aflush exterIo!' surfau, the glJss ~ng to the framing with a structural silicone sealant.

.-.- structural Se3l.ant A high-strength sl1k:oM Sailant capable of ;ldherln~ glass to a supporting frame.

edgeck.1rance -------------- .. ------...

The dlst.anu bet~ the edge of a glass

p-ane or unit and. wi11dowframe. IT1e3surtd In the plane of the glass.

~X~t~if~~~~~~·~----··-·-··tempertd glass are suspended from speclJl clamps. stJbll1zed by pe~ndlcular stiffeners of tempered glass. ancl Joined by;l structlJral silicone ~larrt and sometimes l7y ~I patch plates

... l:Jutt-joint glazif19 A glazing system In which the glass panes or units are supported at the head and sill In a conventional manner. with their vertical edges being Joined with a structural silicone sealant without mullions.

113


HARDWARE The metal tools, fastenings, and

fittings usea in construction. ~h hardware . Bor"...s. screws. nails. and other metal fI~s that are COI1ct3led In a flnlshed

c.onstructlon.

finish hardware

doorclo~r

overhead conce.3 ttd cfcser

A hydraulic or pneumatic device for controlling the closing of adoor and preventlng It from slamming. Also called doo.ch«;k. _._/

AcIocrcloserconu;;!eJ In the he3d of a doorfra me. ~ac~~ck A tlevIu In a hydra!;!"" door closer for

sloWing the speed i'o~i which a door may be opened.

Ex~ hardware serving a decorative as;;eilas a utilitarian purpose. as the lod:s. hinges. other accessories for doers. windows. 01 nd C4lnnetwOrl:. Also C31~ architectural hardware.

ana

knocl:er -.--.. --- ...... -- .... -/. .'

DfI

A hlngej ring. Dar. cr I::nol1 on a door for use In knccl:ir-3.

door h.1rdware The fu1ish hardware requlrea for ha~ing and operating a door.

doorptrt.e .... -'

A sm~Q identifying plate on the outside door of ;J house or room, !?earing the OCCuF3nt'S name, the house Or apartment num~. or the IlI::e. push plate - ---- .--- .-- ----------.--- --- - A protective pl3te of metal or plastic mcu~...ea vertlcally on the lock stile of a __ ... - ' door. . _.---.-.•.--.- ./..

door pull ~ ....-.-... A ~~!e for opening a door.

............ _ ... -

...... judas

···········,·········:fI.·, .

pun par _...... - .. -.............../

A pt:t:Fho!e. as In an entr.i11C6 door or the door cf 3 prison cell. Also calledJudas hole.

I

' . ...

~

.

A Ir.l r flxed acl"O$s a glazed cIoor, used for ~lng or closl~ the door and prov1dl~ p~ for the glass.

~-

I J

....... ..

"- ·1--

kick pL:rte ---.--.-... -.. - ........•.

door cluin Ashort chain with a remov:;!?Ie slide fitting that C3n be attached between the InAA of ;; door and the doo~amb to prevent the door from I1eIng opened more th.n a few Inches wfthaut the chain l7elng removed.

mails!ot A smail ~Ing In an exterlordoor or war.. often i'fith a hinged closer, through which mail Is denve,ed. Also called letter slo1:..

Ii

A ~lve metal pIm fastened to the XttaTn of 3 door to resist I110ws anJ scrnches. -.--..

floor closer --:. A door closer Instat~ in a recess In the

.'~

floor.

--.--- automatic door Pottom

~ ..-.---:::--.-....

A horlzonta IIr.l i- at the rottom of 3 door that drops automatically when the door Is

--

closed In order to seal the threshold and reduce noise transmission.

.

doo~p

A device for hotdlng • door open, as a wedge ex- small weight.

.". l1umper A~~ rim, gU3rd. pad, or diS«: for al1sor71r~ shock or preventing damage from t>vmplng.

hand The position of the hinges of a door, In terms of right OIna left, when seen from the ~~rlor of the l1ulldlng or room to

left-hand

right-luna

Having the hinges on the left of an Inward opening door when seen from the exterior of the Irolldlng or room to which

which t.ie doorwIIY leads.

the doorway leads.

Having ~ hinges on the right of an Inward C¥nlng door when seen from the exterior of the Irol!dlng or room to which the door"ay leads.

Fl~)

I

L/

L

I

L _________ ._. ___ -.-..1 left-hand reverse Having the hinges on the left of an outward opening door when seen from the exterior of the ~ulldlng or room to which the doorway leads.

114

I

right-hand reverse Having t-he hinges on the right of an outward Cf'?llng door when seen from the exterior of the building or room to which t!--e doorway leads.

L L


HARDWARE hinge A jointed device. uSUJl1y conslstlng of two leaves Jolnea together lJy 3 pin. on which a door. ga~. or shutter swings. turns, Or moves.

mortise hi~ ~----------------------­ A Pun hinge I10rtLsed Into the aMtln~ sur-f.las of a door and doojam!7_

leaf

~ah~;~~:oh~"6t;';;I~;d~~~-----I: ---'.\ th~ tdge of the door

5 urf~- moofTk.d on

ana the other

:

A hinged. sliding. or otherwise mevable part of a door. hinge, or tabletop.

...

-. gain

.L---,='==-t~~

the doorfra me.

A notch cut Into 3 surface to reuive a leaf of a hln~. Also called sInkIng.

half-suriacdinge .. ---------- -A hin..3~ hJvi~ one!af mortised Into the doorfrarneana the other surfacemoul1won the face of the door.

-.------- ---- knuckle .~ .

The cylindrical. proJecting joint of a hinge through whIch the pin passes. .

flap billge ------------------,

A h~ 1uvI~ mo le3ves surfacemounteJ to tile adpcent faces of a door ana do<rlrarne. Also called

".

-'" htthinge

l7acl:fup hl,,¥, fun-surface hinge.

templ1te hinge

~--

A hinge com posed of two pf3tes secu red

to the auuttlng surfaces of a door and aoo1amu. Also called Putt.

________ . ___ ,.

A mortise hlr'¥ rnanufa<;turea to fit the rea:5S and match the arrangement of hck5 of hc&w metal doors and fran-.es. 17afl-P~Jring

hinge

~----- -. --- -.- ---

.r----. strap hinge o

_.--- (£5

A hinge having two long !eaves for securing to the adpeent faces of 3 door

and doorjamu.

A hir-¥ eqUipped with!r.lll loearlngs bet~n the klltJdles to reduce friction and ensure e:35e of ~ratlon.

.'----. -- --'" cross-garnet Ar-shaped strap hinge with the crosspiece as the stationary 1!1emPa- and the long stem loeing the mava!7!e rat. Also called T-h1"9/!:.

.'

b:rt-pin hi"¥ II hl~e having a nonremovaule pin.

.- .-------- dovetail hl~e

Iocs-e-pin hinge -------------------.--. ..

A strap hinge having ~es which are narrower at theirJunctlon than it ~ei;-

"

A h~e bvlng;l reroovable pin so thilt a door can be unhuf11 P:i separ.ltlng the

,

~

t.¥o~;l"es_

ather extremities.

~

.------ -- ------- .-- "--'" parliament hinge An H·shaped hinge h4vfng a protrua'1ng knuckle so tllata door~n stand .. ~ from the wall when My opened.

Iocs-e-joint hinge ------- -- -- -------'. A hinge hJving 3 knudle formecl from half of e3ch bf, wlth the upper haff remon ~ from the pin. Also called liftcff nl~e.

---

pintle --.---- ------- ---- ---- -- - --. A pin CW' rolt on which something turns, as tI-~ gudqeon of a hingt.

pau~lIe

A hinge having .. single, plvatl~joi.rTt.

--.-.

gudge.on II socl:et for the pintle of a hinge.

------.\j

I

~l

tlpring hinge

~.--- .. -------- .. --------- -~-

A hinge co~ a coiled spring In Its VarTel for closing a door automatically.

·Y·~

10

~ :!)

aou17te-acti"!'l hinge A hinge pumlttlng 3 door to swing In either direction. uSUJIly fitted with sprln gs to mng the doof to a c Iosea poslt1cn

olive knuckle hinge A paumelle having an MI-shaped knuckle. Also called olive hinge.

r·····

after opening.

invi,/lIle hinge

piano hinge II long. narrow hinge that runs the full length of the two surfaces to which Its

pnd Also called con ti rHiOtJ 5 hin¥ ~aves ~re

A hinge consisting of 3 num!7er of flat plates rotating arout a central pin, with shouklers mortised Into the door edge and doorframe so as to concealed when cloSed. Also called conualeJ hlf14e.

0

0

D

®

0

gravity hinge

®

,......---,

A hinge that closes automatically by means of gravity. I"r--

®

rI'lng hinge A gravity hinge causing a door to riSt slightly when ope~d.

0

'----

® .. 1

115


~

1 1

HARDWARE Imh

lock A ~ for securing a door. drawer. or lid il posftloll when closed. consisting of a bc4 fX com~atlon of ro!ts propelled and wtthJrawn l1y a key- fX comDlnatlon-

An asseml:ily of parts lT13Klng up .. complete locking system.lncfuair<;l ~nc;.s. plates and a locking mect\3nlsm.

cylindu A cylindrical device for retaining the polt of a locI:: unUI the tumDlers have been pushed out of Its way.

A de.. 'a for hoiding 3 door c~, ccnsistlng essent13l~ b:;~ that falls or $ilks Intc A ~roove or hole.

of ..

//",·.u..mM

opern:ed ~h3 nisin.

An o~tructlng part In a Iod: that prevents a polt from relng propelled or wIthdrawn unUilt 15 movea by the action of a Key.

Mnr M:·-----------.. ---.. ----.--. ~.-~.I

kd

A' f3~~ the f3a of a door. as opposed U> one l7Uilt ilto Its edge.

to

I

(eyer'til.mbJer, .

~~wtUtil two ~Ies

A fut meta! tUmpler having a pivoting motion actuated Dy the turning of a ~ey.

specL;:!y c~ tc fit Intc a lad

and :r"",'e its ~.

roreJ at right angles to euh other. one t&tough ~ face of a door and the adler In the door edg~ ---- _____ _

_pit::--·--·---···---····--··/ .~.-

One cf *~ projecUn~ bl.3~ cut to; ~.gage with ana actuate elt.he·r::f roth the Pelt aM the tumr:~ of a lock.

cam·

Adlsk or cylinder having an Irregu I.ar form that rotates or stJdes U> Impa rt motion to a roller moving against Its edge or to a pln free to move In a groove on ltsface.

....

.J

'... -_._ .. _} 'i.GjW-;y~ ~

-.

&mit~~'

jA ~. t,i~ within a ~~ular notch cut Into the edge of a door. ..-___

A slOt In a lock for receiving and guk:llng a key. .

"(fOcdiUilt -------.---'. Thef.~b:;h .. peahandle ry which .. door 15

.

o~orc~eJ

war-If:;

: A proj~lng ridge of metal In a lad or \:eyhole that prevents the Insert10n of any key that does not have a corresponding

~

~~ ~---:.~--:-:.,.-::::::~ ,.'t)

A1IOte frta loci: case or esc utcheon for In ser-..;ng a ~ey.

~'-t~

.---..~ __ l

~~:.~. The ~e plate or surface throogh which the Pelt of a lock

An onurrental plate surrourJ1ng the sh..f; of a doori:nol1 at the face of a door. .~Jdtt"~ J

l ~nj&&7withfn a rnortJse c~ Into

pas~. Alsocall&t~f!1~

~~~ A ~I !r.;r or rod In the

~;f~~,h

i~~" A~~eor

mechanism of a lock that 15 propelled or withdrawn. as Dy turning a knob or ~ey.

The'!iOrlZont.-I dlstar.u frem the

onu :r.e:rtal plate. as face of ~ Oc~ through ,.';',ich the arO'J rJ a ~eyhole. Pelt passes to the ~dJM of ___ doortoob. dr.lwer pulL the ~nob stem. keyhc~. Of locI: '_ or r'9ht swluh. Also. cylinder.

a doer ~ so ~ the led mech.. nlsm Is ~ on ~oth5~""_

notch.

"',

~}t;~

II K:>&~ having a ~uare heat.l that Is into posltlon !r,; the turning of 3 knob or key rather than Dy spring

rrcrea

-'sc~ecn'1

3Ct1.on. Also called~; ;'".:1omB~ ·>,-'_7'.'.":;::-,,,.:f

revel'5i!11e lock A led having .. latchpolt th3t can be rev~rse.d for Installation In either a ~ht·h3nd or Ieft·hznd door.

1-

pevel Th~ cplique '.

;:

end of a latch bolt

th;;t hits a strl~ plate.

&p~ -~-·----·l•• \<~:~) Ii:,

The liar or shaft that C3nie5 the

Koman" actuates the latch orl1oltofa Iocl:.

;\ -

::

;

::

•. ---- .---- ---.. -.• .'

~.

"~

\ ."-~6riiDi1tatliandle for operaUng the Pelt of a Ioc~.

\~. ~.--"' .• , '~-=--==:-",.~---.--' --~--.

A metal plate 0.. a doorjaml1 havfng a hole for receMng the end of a lock l101t when the door Is closed, Also called stn~ piaU:.

lip ,~ ... "':'.--"'--"-----"- .-.pani;br

A horiz""tar~ar that spans the Intero- of;ln emer~ricy exit door at waist ~ht and M opens the I3teh when pressure 15 applied. Also called panic bolt. paniC h3rdW3re_

116

The prC¥Ctlng edg~ or rim of a strl~e.

pox striKe A metal Pox recessed into a doorJarrb to receive the end of a lod bo!: ... hen the door is closed.

regu~r

b>evd

ron

The l1evel of a or lock on a door openl~ 1nU> ~ L>ultdlng or room to which the &oorw;ry leads.

.., .. -- ..... reverse bevel The Devtl of., Dolt or loci: on a door openl"g outward from the pulidlng or room to which the doorw3'j leads. a !leveled head that Is Into position Dy a spring except when retracted ry a &oorI:noI7, or when pushed aga In st the lip of the strike plate as the &oor 15 closed,

-y....~lng V~~~.'

The side of a lock facing In the

same direction as the !level at the tTld of the I3tchrolt.

movea

'\;i"f.I. a aoor.

with the face or edge of

\.'~iQift;.o~,;·--'·--"-··-'·-·-'···"-~·

, .(fl~sh'boit&ieilnto a mortise In a

aoor. sliding Into a socket In the head or th~

silL

; cOQJ~i~!C_~,-:;

~ dtVfCefor'ens'uring that th~ Inactive leaf of a pair of doors 15 permitted to

close before the active leaf.

,L L L L L f I

L

...... .i


HEAT A form of energy a550C~ with ~ random motlOfl of atoms 01' morecules. capaine of i:Jei"'3 transmitted ~ convection, conduction, Of' radiation and causi"'3 substances to rise in temperature, ruse, expand: or evaporate.

kelvin The b:ase Sl unit of temperature equal to Vm.l6 of the tr:ple point of v.7ter. 5ym~oI: I(

triple point The particular te:nperature a:'J pressure at which the hqliid. g3seous. a~J sola pha~ of a substance can exist In l4,;iijbrlum .

calorie .. -'

.--

A unit of heat ~U31 to the quantity of heat r~ulrea to raise the um~tureofoM gram of water l°e at a pressure of one atmosp~. ~ulv3tent to 4.186 joIJtes. AQl,r.: c.al. Also caW gram ~.alorle.

Fahrenh~itSC3le

Celslu5~le

Atemperature SC3le In

Atemperature scale divided Into 100 degrees, In whIch O°C represents the freezIng point and 1000 ethe boiling point of water under standard atmospherlc pressure. Also called ~ntlgrade scale.

which :32°F represents the freezing poInt and 212°Fthe roiling point of water under

standard atmospheric pressure.

snt311 C3lcrle.

Kelvin $C3~ An absolute scale of temperature havlng a zero point of -273.16°e. ~!7s0lute ~are

A temperature scale !1ased on absolute zero with scale units equalln m3gnltuae to centigrade

ki10cJ lerie

degrees.

A unitofheat~U3ltothe qU3n".lty of heat required to raise the temperature of one kl~ ra mof W3ter 1"(; at a pressure of one aUr.ospnere. equlv3tent to 1000 SfT14IIf calorles. Abw.: ~l Also calW kilogram calo~,lArge c.a!ork:.

When you know deqrees Fahm:heit. fft$ subcnct 32 and t!-~ multiply by ~9 to find deg~Cdslus.

.a l?solute zero

When you know degrees

The hypothetlC3llowest limit of phystcal temperature characterized by complete

Celsius, first multiply by9f5 and then add 32 to find tkgrus Fahrenheit.

absence of heat. equal to -27.3.16°C or -459.67"F.

.al?solute temperature Tempe~ture as measured on a absolute scale.

,.. 1

'r<A

1

j

hatC3pacity ----------.------~ The ql!3ntlty of ~.eat required to r;alse the temperature of a suustance by one degree.

epecific heat Heat C3p3City per unit mass of a su!:>stance: the num~r of Btu ~ulred to raise the temperature of one pouiJa of 3 sul:rst3nce 1°F, or the number of C310ries per gram per degr-o.-e untlgr'3M.

;

.

125lI IC<J

I

r------r-------------'

"'*~~_=;.~---__I1--~""r_--------___;------I1 .. - latent hut ~ 75 tl '----·-----L-----~·- ..The'tUJrrtlty of hat 3bsorred or rdeasea ". _. _. 1: by a sU~5t3nce during a chJi"L¥ in phase at ~ const;"ttem~tureaMpressure.

-.-.... ----.-.-

:

I

}: - - r - - - , r · - - - - -.. -·· ;:;~:~I~hata!lSOrredorreleasea :

tlm~

~ \

f

I

I

l

I

by a substJnu during a chJr\¥ In temperature wttlo,c1Jt 3 char\¥!n phase.

}j)J ;/.

117


HEAT co nducti;, n The ti.lnsfer of heat from the warmer to the cooltr partlcles of a medium or of two !ladles In direct contact, occurring without perceptiDle displacement of the prtlcles themselves. - --\

1 [

convection .. ~-----.--- ------------The transfer of heat Py the clrcuL-.tory :r.otlon of the ~tea parts of ~ lk1ulcl or ~3S owl"9 to ~ varbtlon In density 3na u,e actlon of gmlty.

1 I

lJ

J I

~

j~ j

radbtion _J The process In which energy In the form of l'I3ves or particles Is emitted by one body, p~~ through an Intervening mecllum or space, and a~sorrea by another roay.

I I

oM

o

I

.--- ------------. -----------1 The t:lIM I'3te of heat flow th ~h .;!Unit : ~ofa ~Iven mterlaf of unit thlci:ness ' ~ the temperature difference across the thIcl:ness Is OM un It of temperatu reo thetm.1lcc~

tnerm.a'

ccMucbnce TheUme rate of hat flow through a unit ~ of J given rgtertal when the ~tlIre difference across a speclflecl dllctness of the materl311s or.e unit of t.empmtllre. "'~:.= ·~~~E(

----------------.. .

..• thermal re~i5tance The reclpl'OC3l of thermal conaucta nee, expressed as the temperature difference required to C3use heat to flow through a unit area of a material of given thldness at the i.l~ of one ~eat unit per unit time.

thermal tr.ansmittance The time i.lte of ~ flow through .. unit area of a l7ulldlng component or assem~1y when the difference lIetween the air temperatures on the two sides of the component or aSS<:m bly Is one unit of temperature. Also called coefflcJent of heat transfer.

R-value Ameasure of thermal reslstance of a given ;-··U-value materl3/. used esp. to specify the , Ameasure of the thermal transmittance of performance of thennallnsulatlon. The a l7ulldlng component or assembly, equal ta ~I R-value for a ~ullcl1ng component or the reciprocal of the total R-value of the assem~ Is the sum of the R-values for eaGh layer In the component or assem~ly. component or assembly.

I/R(t0t3I)

=U•

1,

I

f

tnermall7r~k __ . ___ ... L_ .... ---(---.. -.. --'- .-. Art e!ement of low thermal

. conductMty pbce<l In .. nassem~ tao reduce the flow of heat ~etween highly. conductlve In3 tula Is. Also callecl tMrmal pamer.

118

---\=--

--~--~-----

Infiltration ....~ The flow of outside air Inta an Interior space through cracks around windows and doors or other openings In the envelope of a building.

we3ther strip - ..... Astrip of metal. felt. vinyl. orfoam rubber. placed l:>etween a door or window 535" and Its frame to provlJe a seal against wlna~lown rain ana air infiltration. Also, weather strippIng.


., H~AT .... ~ airway The pasS3geway required fer the clrculatlon of air petween ~tt lnsul3tlon and roof sheat.~lng.

mineral woel

Arry of YJrlous ~htwelght.1norg3nlG. fi,rous :n.;3~1s used esp. for thermal

thermal insulation A ITUterI3l providing high resistance to heat flow. as mineraI wool. vermlcullte. Or foamed plastic. fallrlc3ted In the form of l1atts. lIlanKets. Poards. or loose flll

.aM sound Insolatlon. 3S glass wool and

roct 1¥OC4.

gllss wool Spun ~lJss fibers resembling weal and useJ f:x thenrul :n5<JL.tlon and air ftlws. fi~ergll55 A I'r.3 ta\;l1 cons!stl n.g of extremely fine

ftl3marts of gbss. WGVen Intofabrlc. ITUssed for use 35 a thermal ;11'1.1 .awJ5tlcallnsubt.or. or em~ to reirTforce 1fJn?us lTtlterlals.

fi\;ltrgL1s TradcTtul: for.a ~na of fibergl3ss.

lIatt in~uLrtion -.... . fibrous thermallnsulatlon of gbss or m!r.eralwool. made In YJrIous thlc~r~ ana lengths and In 16·!n. (406111111) or 24-1n. (610 mm) widths to flt ~WI studs. Joists. ana rafters!n flght wood frame constructlon. scmetlrr.es faced with a vapor marder of kr7ft p3 per. metal fall. or pl3stlc sheet. 8m Insulation Is also as a compooent In souna-lnsul3tlng constructlan. Also C31'ed I1tanket In $uLrticn..

kraft paper _......... . A strong. usualti ~rown paper. processed from wood pulp and sized with resin.

rock wool MIMr.l1 wool ~ by blowing steam or aIr th~h I1"oOI-ta1 slaq or rod:. --.J

pllstic

f03med

fus:c, 3S po~r~hJM or poiy5~T"eM. ~

rl.jht and cellular by tl-..e lrrtroductlo!l of pockets of g3 s or atr and used 2$ thmT13llnsulatlon. Also ~rw expanded pUstlc. pUstJc fo<1m.

polyilrrlhal1e fo.am A r.gtJ expanJed ~mh<lM havlnq a closed-ull stru;tu re 3 na used .. s the~l:nsu~

mckW polystyrene A ;-\g'J polys~ f04m hJVIng an open-cdl stnJcture .ina used 3S ~llnsu~

weatherize To make a house or ~ulk:l1ng secure against cold or stormy weather. as by adding thermallnsul3tlon or storm windows. or by sealing JOints.

Flexi~I.e.

rigid ~:ua insul.rtion _ ....... -._ ....... _-_ ..

.... fil7erl7oard An Insulating l70ard made of wood or cane

A p-refor.r-.ea. nonstnJCturallnsulatlng board of roamed plastic or cellular glass. Utular gl3sslnsulatlon Is fire· resl$t4lTt. Impervious to mc!sture. ana dlrnenslcr;ally sta~. M tt.s a lower the-r.r.al-reslstance value than foamed plast~ ir6u\atlons. whleh .are fummatr~ and must \1e protecteJ by a the~l ~rrIer when used on the Inter'.x 5'Jrfaus of a t>ulldl~. ~Id In5U~ fuvl~ closed-cell s tf'.JCi-IJl"!S, as extnJata ro Iystyr!:r.e and cenl.itJ r glass. are moisture' resl5'"~rrt arJ may ~e used In contact with the earth.

fJ~ers compressed and cemented Into

rIfIld sheets. used as an Inexpensive watt finish or as celllng tiles. .....:

fil7erboard sheathing Insulating fiPerVoara treat:ea or Impregnated with asphalt for w.t.er resistance and used primarily for she3thlngllght wood frame walls.

~~tyrene

A ~<J po~ foam h3Ving J closc:J-u1l structure ana used as the~.;;;1

ir.su!4u.,

Styrofo<1m T~r\: for 1I bra rJ of foamed pl4 ~~ rr.ao.e from polystyrene.

rc.am gL1ss Ulubrglass Irt<Ide b:ifoa~ ~.....~

gLJss 3rJ moIdlnq It Into

Po.J ras or blccis for ~ 3S thermal insuLit.lon.

foamea-in-pL1u ~ul;tion The~1

ir.sul3tlon in the formofa

f03rr~ p-I3stlc. as polyurethane. th3t

Is $j7¥ or Injected Irrtc a cavtty wh~ It adheres to the SUITOllnd1ng surfaces.

insulrtlon -_ ........... __ ........ . the form of mlnml 'I'rOOI fJ\1ers. granular vermlcuhte

Ioc~fitt

The~f lnsul3tlon In

or ~r!ite. or t:"eatea cellubslc fibers. poured ~ fund or Plown through a nozzle irrto a c.avtty or r:Ner a suppcrtlr.g memPT"aM.

wood wool ~ lOOOd shavlf'.,Js. u5U311y of pine or chem~11y ~tea wood fl~. used as

an Insu 1a';j11.3 materIJl. 3S aUinder In plaster. 41M f:x FJdl~ Al:so called exulslcr.

r~ye

insul.ation .- .......... .

emissivity The alltllty of a surface to emit heat by radiation. equal to the ratlo of the radiant energy emitted to that • emltt:ea by a lIlack Pody at the S3me temperature.

Ther.r.. llnsul3tlon In the form of a materi;;lof high rt&ctlvlty and low emlss.v1ty. 41S paper-lr.lcked aluminum fOil IX fo~·b3Cked gypsum Poord. used In corj"J~~lon with 3 dead'air space to reauu tr.e transfer of heat by rad;3:cn

dead-.air 'pace ~., .. An unvet1tiLJted air space In which the air ~s not circulate.

119


HEAT tWnul comfort' HUlTI3n ccmfort as ~lned Py the 3PUlty of the rody to dlsslpate the he3t and moisture It produces Py

effective temperature

)

A temptr3ture representlng the comvined of 3m~nt temperature, relative hu,,,ldlty, and air movement on the 5ef1satlon of warmth or cold felt Py the human !my. equivalent to the dry-vulp temperature of still air at 50~ relative humidity which Induces an identical sensation. _ ----- --.------- -----------'"

meta ronc action.

meet

wet-pulp temperature --~-.. The temperature rec.orded Py tM '-,wet-!:>ull7 thermometer In a

r \\

..... "

\ \

" ~\ \

psychrometer.

--t:--r--+---t 120 \.

dew point ~--- ---- --- -------- ---- - 'y-'- - -- - ---- --------70\ The temperature at which air vecomes saturated with water vapor. Also called tkw-polnt temperature.

comfortzane

~--.---.-----------.

\.

---~'-'- humidityratio The ratio of the /1'1355 of water ... .r--+-->,-~po..,o=-i~-,.4--+--\-+---+ vapor to the mass of dry air In a \. mlxtu re of air and water va par. ' Also called mixing l7tJo. ~~--~~~~~~~~--~~~--~

psychrometli<: ciurt A chart ~t!.'Ig ~he we'Hull:> and dry-PtiII7 readIngs from a psychrcrroe:ter to relative humk:l1ty. ai1solute humla'"r;y. and dew point_

\ .r--.I'---.,,,..-4--+\--+-~F---'1'"=---'~~~

\

50

~

.'.l ary-l7ull1umperature -""'~-~--- ------The tempe:-ature recorded by the dryDuf17 thermometer In a psychrometer. ~ychrometer

An instrument for measuring at~herlc humidity. cor.slStlrog of two thermometers. the Pulp of one I7elng dry and the-j,ulll of the other belr.g ~pt moist and ventllaW so that the cooling that results from Cia poratlon ITI3KeS It register a lower temperature than the dry one, with the difference Petween tM I'C3dlngs I7elng a me3sure ofi'tll'1c5pher1c humldlty.

70

90

relatNe humidity ---------j The ratlo of the alTlount of water vapor actually present In the air to the maximli m amount that the aIr could hold at the same temperature. expressed as a percentaqe_

AUl7r.:m

'pecific humidity The ratloofthe ITI3SS ofW3ter vapor In air

I

tothetcbl masscfthe mlxtureofalrand water vapor.

hygrometer

radilnt te1t1perrture

:--enthalpy : A measu re of the total he;; t co~lned In a su\7st3~ eqtl4l/ to the 1nterTt31 en~~ of the suDsi:.ance plus the product of Its volume and pressure. The entha Ipy of air Is equal to the sensible he3toftM ak and the water vapor present In the air plus the latent ke3tofthe W3ter va par. expressea In Btu pe:r pound ('t:ilojoules per kilogram) of dry alr_ Alsocai!e.::l hutccnUnt.

.1b-50lute humidity The mass of water va par present In a un It volume of air.

Any ofvariouslnstrurnents for measuring the humidity of the atmosphere.

! adL1Ua~~

A ~ to temper.ture occuni04 wtthout the 3ddltlon or removal of heat. as when excess W3~V;lpor In the air condenses arid the I3t.ent heat of va porizatlon of the W3"ter va pot" Is COI1Y~ to senslDie he3t In the 31r,

The sum of the temperatu res of the surrounding W311s. floor. and ceiling of a room. ~hted aoo>rdlng to the solid angle su/7tende.d by each at the point of measurement. Mean radiant temperature Is Important to thermal comfort since the hU/l'l3i1 body receives radiant heat from or loses heat by radiation to the surrounding surfaces if their mean radlant temperature Is s~n1flcantly higher or lower than the air temperature.

0~---~ ;

:

evaporative ~ling radiant ht.at -------------- ---, He3t ener~ transmitted Py the radiation , of ~tromagnetlc waves In contrast to heat transmitted I7yconductton or

convection. 120

J

-------_. ____________ --- ------.------------ -- ,,--

The range of dry-!:>ull7 tempra ture. re!a Uve hum ldity. mean radiant temperature. and air movement judged to be comfortalXe by a /l'l3Jority of Americ3ns and ~nadlans tesu.d. This comfort zone varies wtth cIllTI3te, the ~SO!1 of the year, the ~ of clothing worn, and the activity leve! of the lMvidU3llJso called ~ envdope.

~n

I

\

A drop in kmpenture occurrlng wtthaut the addltlon or re:t1OV3l of heat. as when W3ta eva por.itcs and the senslple heat of the t1quld Is converted to latent heat In the vapor, Alsa called adlapatic caoll"9.


HEAT --

III

thbsWle ----------------_,. A protective slee.'e of shec:t mebI passing throu~h the wall of .a chlm~. for holding the end of a stovepipe.

t-

r

stovepipe ---------- .. -.---

.. -

mechanical5ysum Arty of the systems that provide essential sertlces to 2 bulldln~. as water supply. sewage disposal. electric power. heating. ventilation. air-conditionIng. vertIcal tnnsportatlon. or flre fighting.

- f-'''---'''

Apipe. usually of sheet metal.

-i

seMng as a steve chimney or connecting a stove with a chlmeyflue.

D

<1-

Franklin stove Acast,iron stove resembling an open flreplace but having enclosed sides. back. top. and I1ottom and a front completely

-'''' ~?:;\:;:~~~ to be

I

I

c/o;&! with doo<'$

vent --- ---.-.------- ---- -- ------- .. --- .... --. -.- .--.-- .... -. -.. --

/ I

A pipe by which prodLJaS of combustion are carried from a fumact or other appl13nce to the outside.

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

space heating The heating of a limIted area. as a room. esp. by means of a heat source located within the space.

r--- central heating

I

A mechanical system that supplies heat to an entIre building from a single source through a netwon: of ducts or pipes.

/

heating medium A fluid su~tance. as warm air. hot water. or steam. capable of convc:ylng heat from 3 source to the space being heated.