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Introduction Andrew Goodwin is an Australian operatic/tenor and has been for almost 7 years, he began to study voice in Russia then decided to leave Australia and travel to Europe in 1999 to learn more about music. In 2006 he started a postgraduate diploma in vocal studies at the Royal Academy of Music and that’s when he became a regular soloist with the St Petersburg Symphony Orchestra and also an cultural ambassador for Australia on the global stage. Andrew Goodwin had quite good ideas about the structure of music and the way it is being presented. Andrew Goodwin said that in every music video to make it a professional and well known video you have to remember the key things.  A relationship between the lyrics and the video  A variety of close ups of the artist  Visual- Illustrates, amplify and contradicts the lyrics or even the music.  Voyeurism  Intertextual references  Star persona  Iconography Andrew Goodwin published his own book ‘dancing in the distraction factory’ which contained all his ideas/theories that he had about music videos.


Illustrating Illustrating in a music video is a video that specifically links to the lyrics or even the mood of the song/ what you hear in the music is exactly what you’ll see. Andrew Goodwin's made this one of his theories because it’s important to get across to the audience, with using this type of style for a music video makes it much easier for the audience to follow the video, because the lyrics is completely following the video so if the lyrics are saying ‘I lay in bed thinking’ in the music video the artist or the main vocalist will be shown them laying on a bed in silence with them having an expression showing the audience that they’re reflecting/thinking. Even if the artist decides to have the lyrics match the mood of the song allows the audience to feel the beat of the music because the lyrics are kind of telling them to do so which then automatically puts them into that mood if they are completely listening to the music, if an artist wanted a sad feeling that someone has maybe just left them then they could have them or the main vocalist saying “ I’m lost without you” and the beat of the music would be slow because a slow beat represents a sad or slow jam. This then will get the audience in a sad, low, reflecting mood because the lyrics are telling them to and the beat is making them become that.


Illustrating In this music video ‘burn’ by Usher the lyrics are about the memories that the artist has about the girl that he is in love with but has now left him, he wants the memories to burn away so he can forget about it. While he is singing these lyrics the imagery in the music video are of pictures burning away(2.46), the pool full of fire (1.21) and palm trees also start to burn(2.31). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t5XNWFw5HVw


Amplification Amplification in a music video is a video that has been created to exalt the style and the mood of the song. Andrew Goodwin describes this style as allowing the audience to see the imagery in the music video and get the feeling/emotion that you are supposed to get/ what the artist or record label wants you to get. This theory of his is a good way for the audience to grasp exactly what the artist is trying to do/ make you try and understand what they are doing and maybe why they are doing it. If there’s a music video about ‘gangs, the hood’, to show the audience this type of imagery then in the music video there will be ‘ big gangs, weapons, heavy chains around their necks, hard life’ and they will do this type of imagery because we know that, that’s the main stereotype that the ‘Hood’ has been giving and if they wanted to have a twist onto the style, they could also have it being a depressed feeling to it and there could be a gang war happening and someone could die, and that shows the audience exactly what the mood is in the song because there is imagery used to help get the message across properly.

In this music video ‘don’t stop the music’ by Rihanna the imagery is a club and people dancing, enjoying the music and the feeling. Which then shows the audience that this video is fun, enjoyable, has a good beat (1.37) which matches the mood of the song. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yd8jh9QYfEs


Contradict Contradict in a music video is where the video will purposely go against the lyrics and the mood of the song. Andrew Goodwin theory to this is well known in the music industry as most music now, the music video doesn’t flow with the lyrics or mood of the song. The reason that some artist choose to do this I because they want the whole music video to have a twist to it where the audience have to think about the video and why the lyrics and mood don’t match with the video itself, this is also a good way for the artist to get their music video remembered.

In this music video ‘Don’t feel like dancing’ by scissor sister, the lyrics do not match the video at all, the lyrics is saying he doesn’t feel like dancing, but in the video he is dancing throughout it and there’s a lot going on so it seems fun and creative, but when you see the title of the song you initially think that the song will be dull and slow with not much going on in the video. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4H5I6y1Qvz0


Iconography Iconography is the use of a particular of visual elements to alert the public of who they are and what represents them. Andrew Goodwin theory of this is quite effective especially in the music industry because it’s a competition to get yourself well known/noticed. The theory of this makes the artist get an object that will get people to remember them by, so that every time they see that object (whether it’s on the artist itself or on someone else) it will makes them remember who wore that or says that.

In this picture is Michael Jackson wearing the ‘White Glove’ that he always wore when he was performing on stage that got the audience knowing that the white glove represents him. Whenever you see a white glove it will automatically make you think of Michael Jackson, which is exactly what the artist wanted to do.

For example: Michael Jackson who is a well known singer for his voice and creativity, is also known for his ‘white glove’ and the ‘moon walk’.

In this picture Michael Jackson is doing the famous ‘Moon walk’ which was his signature move as he was the only person that could do it properly. This is also a type of iconography because he also did this move when he was performing live, and that also got people realizing that this move is his and when people see this move from him or anyone trying to do the same, they immediately relate it to Michael Jackson.


Close-ups

Record labels will always demand quite a lot of ‘close ups’ of the artist or even the vocalist. This is so that the audience can see the expressions and the emotions of the main singer in the music video. This allows the audience to feel the emotions that are given off, which makes you feel what the music is about. If the artist is happy then it bounces onto the music and has a brighter effect to it that we feel. Andrew Goodwin theory of close ups has been used massively over the music industry as it helps the record label get well known because of the different camera languages that they use for their music videos that are being created.

In this music video ‘mad’ by Neyo there’s a lot of close ups used. http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=sAYuOc7_TKg At 0.52 the camera language is close to the woman’s face, showing the audience her facial expression that explains to us what she is feeling and how it relates to the beat of the song and the lyrics.


Voyeurism What is voyeurism? Voyeurism is when the male or female is presented in a sexual way in a music video. Voyeurism is shown in a variety of music videos to get the audience grabbed into the lyrics as well as the music. This makes the audience have a jealous side to them which is what the record label and artist want to happen. Andrew Goodwin theory of voyeurism gets the artist or the main vocalist to become a sexual prize to the male or female gaze. Most music videos will have the female as the sexual prize for the male gaze, which makes them want to watch the music video (not exactly the lyrics), even if the male gender is in that position, it’ll be still for the male gaze because it’ll make the other male gender jealous of what they’re missing and what they want to have but can not.


Voyeurism In the music video ‘Single Ladies’ by Beyoncé it has a lot of ‘voyeurism’ used to capture the male gaze onto the main and backup vocalist. In the video Beyoncé is wearing a tight leotard which shows her curves and legs which is a sexual image for the male gander, it makes them see Beyoncé in a different spot light- not as the good vocalist, but instead a prize. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4m1EFMoRFvY At 0.57 to 1.00 Beyoncé is dancing in a very sexual way which also attracts the male’s attention to want to carry on watching the video and follow onto Beyoncé's other music.


Intertextual Intertextual is a part in a music video that refers to another media text (music video and cartoon). Andrew Goodwin theory of Intertextual is a well known thing in the media industry of referring to different media, but this theory is mainly used in films and cartoons, the music industry do not really use this type of style in their music video because it has a twist on the video. A few artists/record labels decides to do this style in their music video because they want to relate the theme to another media text, so that the audience can get a better idea of the message that the artist is trying to get across.

In the film ‘spider man’ he is upside down while kissing the girl that he loves. The film ‘Shrek’ also did the same scene, Shrek is upside down kissing the girl that he loves.

Andrew Goodwin's theory  

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