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AISES 2011 NATIONAL CONFERENCE STUDENT RESEARCH ABSTRACTS


THE 2011 AISES GRADUATE STUDENT POSTER AND ORAL SESSIONS Sponsor: USDA Agricultural Research Service

Distribution of Uranium in Drainages Related to Reclaimed Uranium Mines in Cove Wash, Navajo Nation, Arizona, Terri Lameman Austin

Can A Geographic Information System (GIS) Suitability Analysis Be Useful in Predicting Spring Locations in Serpentinites? Alexandrea Bowman

Weed Suppression in Organic Tomato Production with Cover Crops, RaeLynn Butler

High Contrast, High Intensity Short Pulse Ion Acceleration at the HERCULES Laser Facility, Franklin Dollar

HF Oblique Incident Sounding for Calibration of an Over-The-Horizon Radar System, Zachary Dunn

Ecology and Management of Oak Woodlands on Tejon Ranch: Recommendations for Conserving a Valuable California Ecosystem, Serra Hoagland

Investigation of Uranium Accumulation in Mice Organs, Venessa Jim

Seneca Language Revitalization Project, Robert Jimerson

Functional and Structural Relationships of Proteins in the Ribulose-Phosphate Binding Barrel Joslynn S. Lee

The Effects of Length and Sequence Order on Self-Assembling Amphipathic Peptides, Naomi Lee

Development of an Enhanced Statistical Downscaling Method to Predict Daily Precipitation and Temperature in a Semi-Arid Environment, Sonya R Lopez

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Sustainability Attitudes: A Comparison of Native Americans and Non-Native Scientists, Adam Murry Puquios of Nasca: Pre-Incan Groundwater Technology of Southern Peru Experimental Planning and Current Developments, Vanessa Ni単o-Tapia

Network-Analytic Explorations of Species Criticality in Terrestrial and Aquatic Food Webs, Benjamin Parker

Cultural and Geological Connections at Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico, Darryl Reano

48.8mW Solid State Power Amplifier for 220GHz Applications, Thomas Reed

Identification of synergistic pathways with Retinoic Acid in high-risk Neuroblastoma, Lauren Richards

Iron & Manganese Depositing Cold-Seeps: Mineral Formation Along A Freshwater To Marine Ecosystem At Soda Bay, Alaska, Wendy F. Smythe

Graphic Organizers Applied to Secondary Algebra Instruction for Native American Students Elese Washines

Chemical and Rheological Properties of Dextran: Hydroxyapatite as Injectable Colloidal Gels for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds, Martin J. Wind

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Presentation Title: Distribution of Uranium in Drainages Related to Reclaimed Uranium Mines in Cove Wash, Navajo Nation, Arizona Discipline: Hydrology and Geochemistry School: University of New Mexico Student Level: Masters Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Distribution of Uranium in Drainages Related to Reclaimed Uranium Mines in Cove Wash, Navajo Nation, Arizona Terri Lameman Austin, University of New Mexico

This study will examine the distribution of uranium within Cove Watershed in northeastern Arizona. The mobilization of uranium-bearing constituents from reclaimed mine sites on the Navajo Nation is not well studied in soils, sediment, and water. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Cove mining region produced significant amounts of uranium and vanadium from ore deposits. Legacy uranium mines in Cove Wash were reclaimed in phases between 1995 and 1998. Following reclamation, however, in 1999, elevated concentrations of uranium (51.3 – 879 ď€ g/L) were detected in seeps and surface water drainages located at the mine site and downstream of the mine sites, respectively, which are above the EPA’s Maximum Contaminant Level (30 ug/L). The study hypothesizes that concentrations of uranium in surface water runoff remain elevated and are derived from leaching of mine waste rock. In August 2011, solid (sediment, soil, and uranium mine waste rock), and water (surface and ground) samples were collected down drainage from reclaimed Mine 312 and in background areas to determine the distribution and character of uranium and other trace metals. In addition, radiometric surveys were determined in the study drainage area (1.7 mi2). Surface and ground water samples were analyzed for trace metals, 18 alkalinity, major cations and anions, deuterium, O and U isotopes. Solid samples were analyzed to determine trace metal elemental composition. The results of laboratory analysis are pending. The research aims to assist the Navajo Nation to better understand the distribution of uranium in their environment, particularly in drainages downstream of reclaimed uranium mines.

Presenter: Terri Lameman Austin Tribe: Navajo Primary Email: rockspire@gmail.com Biography Terri Lameman Austin member of the Navajo Nation, and graduate student in the Water Resources Program at UNM. Her background is groundwater hydrology and geology. Mrs. Austin belongs to the Red running into water clan (Ta'chii'nii) and born for the Folded Arms clan (Bit'aahni). She is originally from Shiprock, NM where she continues to uphold the family farm. She is married to a supportive husband, LeAndrew Austin, and they have a five year old son, Tamarron.

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Presentation Title: Can A Geographic Information System (GIS) Suitability Analysis Be Useful in Predicting Spring Locations in Serpentinites? Discipline: Geology School: University of Rhode Island Student Level: Masters Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Can A Geographic Information System (GIS) Suitability Analysis Be Useful in Predicting Spring Locations in Serpentinites? Alexandrea Bowman* and Dawn Cardace, University of Rhode Island, Department of Geosciences, 9 East Alumni Avenue, Kingston, RI 02881-2019, abowman@my.uri.edu, cardace@mail.uri.edu *Corresponding author

Planning successful geology field campaigns is necessarily constrained by available data for mineralogy, geochemistry, hydrogeology, topography, mapped formation boundaries, etc., particularly for remote settings. Profoundly difficult access issues accompany the search for rocks from Earth’s mantle: fortuitous exposures are either in situ on the seafloor, or in ophiolites (i.e., tectonically uplifted blocks of the oceanfloor). Very high pH, gas-rich springs from these rocks serve as windows into Earth’s deep biosphere and subsurface geochemistry, sharpening interest in these localities. A GIS site suitability analysis, conducted using Arc GIS Software, is “the determination of the ‘useful’ or ‘non-useful’ locations based on a set of criteria” (Shellito,2011, P. 157), and may be appropriate for predicting locations of ophiolite springs. We will model spring distribution for two field localities: (1) the Olivine Range and associated rocks of the South Island, New Zealand, and (2) the New York area serpentinite cluster. The New York serpentinites are exposed at four locations, (1) Westchester, (2) Hoboken, (3) Port Chester and (4) Staten Island (the largest of the 4 exposures, heavily mined for asbestos). Given sufficient geo-referenced and digitized data sources, we show that GIS Suitability Analyses can make field geology more efficient. Shellito, 2011, Introduction to Geospatial Technologies, W.H. Freeman and Company, ISBN-13: 978-14292-5528-8. Keywords: Serpentinites, GIS

Presenter: Alexandrea Bowman Primary Email: AlexandreaBowman@aol.com Biography Alexandrea Bowman graduate from Queens College, CUNY with a BA in English and Geology in May of 2010. Currently she is pursuing a MS in Geology at URI. She is a CUNY Pipeline, MSPHD's, (Cohort V), Greenfield and NOAA Hollings Scholar. She is a member of AISES and has appeared on the NOVA webseries "Inside the Secret Lives of Scientists and Engineers". Additionally, she dance with Red Storm Drum and Dance Troupe, and intertribal educational Native American dance troupe based out of Staten Island, NY.

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Presentation Title: Weed Suppression in Organic Tomato Production with Cover Crops Discipline: Botany and Plant Pathology School: Purdue University Student Level: Masters Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: Weed Suppression in Organic Tomato Production with Cover Crops 1 2 1 1 Butler , R. A., Brouder , S. M., Johnson , W. G. and K. D. Gibson 2 1 Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Department of Agronomy, Purdue University

In fresh market systems, tomatoes are typically transplanted into widely-spaced rows and weeds are controlled during a critical period (CP) to protect yields. Weeds that emerge after this period produce seed that may substantially increase the soil seed bank and lead to increased weed problems in subsequent years. We hypothesized that living and killed cover crops could be used to reduce lateseason weed densities without reducing tomato yields. Four treatments were examined under field conditions in 2010: 1) tomatoes transplanted into plastic beds (ORG); 2) tomatoes transplanted into plastic beds plus clover sown between crop rows after the CP (ICROP); 3) tomatoes transplanted in no-till roller-crimped rye beds (RYE); 4) tomatoes transplanted in no-till roller-crimped rye beds plus clover sown between crop rows (MIX). Tomato yields in 2010 were not significantly different between the ORG and ICROP treatments. At the end of the season, dry weight of weed biomass was significantly lower in 2 2 2 ICROP (139 g/m +/- 46.0 s.e.) compared to ORG (266 g/m +/- 60.6 s.e) and MIX (635 g/m +/- 69.3 s.e) treatments. Weed densities in the RYE treatment were considerably high and the treatment was terminated mid-season. Initial results suggest that rye is a poor substitute for plastic mulch but intercropping red clover between crop rows can reduce weed biomass without reducing tomato yields.

Presenter: RaeLynn Butler Tribe: Muscogee (Creek) Nation Primary Email: rabutler@purdue.edu Biography I am RaeLynn Butler from Tulsa, Oklahoma and tribal member of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation. I received my B.S degree in Environmental Science from Haskell Indian Nations University in 2009. I am currently a Master’s student in the Department of Botany & Plant Pathology at Purdue University and study Weed Science with Dr. Kevin Gibson. In the future I want to work in Indian Country and develop agriculture programs that increase sustainability and reduce the need for commodity distributed food. Ultimately, I would like to help bring culture back into agriculture by growing and preserving traditional foods.

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Presentation Title: High Contrast, High Intensity Short Pulse Ion Acceleration at the HERCULES Laser Facility Discipline: Physics School: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Student Level: Ph.D. Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: High Contrast, High Intensity Short Pulse Ion Acceleration at the HERCULES Laser Facility F. Dollar, C. Zulick, V. Chvykov, G. Kalinchenko, T. Matsuoka, C. Mcguffey, L. Willingale, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, A. Thomas, K. Krushelnick; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor G. Petrov, J. Davis; Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC

Particle accelerators have many applications that can impact society ranging from nuclear medicine, inertial confinement fusion, to physics studies. However, the size and cost of conventional facilities prevents these tools from being commonplace. Laser based ion accelerators, however, have the potential to be extremely compact and can be built utilizing inexpensive components. The field is still very young, and the physics is still not very well understood. Recently, at the HERCULES laser facility, using a 300 Terawatt 30 femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser system, several novel acceleration mechanisms of proton and ion acceleration were studied. Pulse shaping was utilized to generate narrow energy spread (25-60 %) protons and light ions. Proton acceleration from circular polarization was also studied where we observed enhanced maximum proton energy for a particular set of target parameters. In addition to changing laser parameters, the effect of target composition was studied. Trends of proton acceleration as a function of target composition will be presented. Numerical modeling of the primary interaction were performed at experimental conditions with a variety of methods. While the parameters of laser based ion beams are not quite at the levels necessary for applications, much has been learned about the interactions producing these beams to move the field forward.

Presenter: Franklin Dollar Tribe: Dry Creek Band of Pomo Indians Primary Email: fjdollar@umich.edu Biography Franklin is from the Dry Creek Rancheria in Geyserville, Ca, where he is a member of the Dry Creek Band of Pomo Indians. Since leaving Geyserville, he has obtained his BS in Engineering Physics from UC Berkeley, his MSE in Electrical Engineering from Michigan, and is in his fifth year of a doctorate in Applied Physics also at University of Michigan. As an undergrad, he was the regional representative of region 2 in AISES, and remains active in recruiting and retaining underrepresented students in higher education.

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Presentation Title: HF Oblique Incident Sounding for Calibration of an Over-The-Horizon Radar System Discipline: Electrical Engineering School: University of Oklahoma Student Level: Masters Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: HF Oblique Incident Sounding for Calibration of an Over-The-Horizon Radar System Z. Dunn and M. Yeary University of Oklahoma, College of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Over the horizon radar (OTHR) systems have recently garnered increased attention as cost-effective surveillance systems. OTHR systems operate by transmitting a radar signal in the HF range (3 MHz - 30 MHz) which bounces off the ionosphere, encounters a target, reflects back to the ionosphere, bounces off the ionosphere again, and returns to the OTHR's receiver. Due to the continuously changing state of the ionosphere, the exact frequency that can be reliably transmitted is continually changing. To operate an OTHR reliably, calibration must take place at regular intervals during operation. The proposed method for calibration is to use HF oblique incident sounding to find the exact frequencies that are reliably being transmitted and received at the time of broadcast. HF oblique incident sounding will broadcast a stepfunction of narrowband signals throughout the HF range, and the frequency range that returns to the receiver with the greatest amplitude will be used by the OTHR as the broadcast and monitoring frequency. The University of Oklahoma College of Electrical and Computer Engineering has experience building step-function based radar transmitter and receiver circuits which have had their operation confirmed through testing for delta-function presence in the frequency domain caused by near targets, matching the mathematical derivation of this effect. A plot of measured data with explanation and a picture of the outdoor test setup will be provided. After adapting the existing OU circuit design, a circuit that can be used for HF oblique incident sounding in a low-cost OTHR system will be constructed.

Presenter: Zachary Dunn Tribe: Citizen Potawatomi Nation Primary Email: Zachary.T.Dunn-1@ou.edu Biography Zachary Dunn attained a Bachelor of Science in Engineering Physics with a focus on Aerospace Engineering from the University of Oklahoma in May 2011. Throughout his undergraduate degree, he remained active in OU AISES, serving as webmaster for 3 years and AISES Gives Back Chair for another. As of Fall 2011, Zachary is currently serving as Treasurer and AISES Give Back Chair for OU AISES while pursuing a Master of Science Degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Oklahoma, with a focus on radar systems.

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Presentation Title: Ecology and Management of Oak Woodlands on Tejon Ranch: Recommendations for Conserving a Valuable California Ecosystem Discipline: Environmental Science & Management School: University of California, Santa Barbara Student Level: Masters Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: Ecology and Management of Oak Woodlands on Tejon Ranch: Recommendations for Conserving a Valuable California Ecosystem Serra Hoagland, Andrew Krieger, Shannon Moy, and Anderson Shepard; University of California, Santa Barbara

Tejon Ranch is the largest contiguous private property in California and is home to many rare and endemic species including some of the most intact oak woodlands remaining in California. Through a combination of field data collection, analyses, and computer modeling this project provided the Tejon Ranch Conservancy with specific recommendations to guide the creation of an oak woodland management plan. Previous research focused on three focal oak species (blue, valley and black oaks) and found that they were currently in good condition; oak stands are well-stocked and larger in comparison to other oak stands in California. New evidence from a historical photo analysis showed that blue, valley and black oak populations are very slowly declining. New research also used MaxEnt species distribution models and found that climate change threatens blue, valley and black oak populations on the Ranch, with significant losses of suitable habitat predicted by mid-century, particularly for blue oaks. Current management on Tejon lacks the active oak restoration practices found on nearby conservation properties but with the slow population decline and impacts from climate change, our most critical recommendation that we provided to the Conservancy was to protect existing seedlings and saplings in predicted future ranges where the climate will be suitable over the next 50 years. This project successfully established a comprehensive set of baseline data that can be referenced and updated as efforts to understand Tejon Ranch’s oak ecosystems evolve.

Presenter: Serra Hoagland Tribe: Laguna Pueblo Primary Email: serrahoagland@gmail.com Biography Serra (Laguna Pueblo) is a recent graduate from the Bren School of Environmental Science & Management at UCSB and is now pursuing her PhD at Northern Arizona University. She was recognized as a Doris Duke Conservation Fellow in 2010 and co-founded the AISES and The Wildlife Society student chapters at UCSB. She has worked with many threatened and endangered species and has worked with the US Forest Service at the Southern Research Station in Asheville, NC as well as at the Lincoln National Forest in New Mexico.

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Presentation Title: Investigation of Uranium Accumulation in Mice Organs Discipline: Chemistry School: Northern Arizona University Student Level: Masters Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: Investigation of Uranium Accumulation in Mice Organs Venessa Jim, Jani C. Ingram, PhD Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University Margaret M. Briehl, PhD Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona

Uranium is a toxic heavy metal and is prevalent in certain areas of the Southwest, more specifically the Navajo reservation. In these communities the risk of exposure is high due to past uranium mining activity; in addition, most sites have not been properly remediated. The aim of this project is to better understand where uranium deposits in certain organs of mice, specifically observing the liver and kidney. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS: UP -213 Newman Research Laser Ablation System and VG Axiom MC) was used to determine levels of uranium-238 in specific locations of the liver and kidney. The experimental model simulates Navajo communities who are exposed daily to uranium in their drinking water and was done in collaboration with the University of Arizona. The samples were obtained from two different mice groups; one group was exposed for six months to specific concentrations of uranium in their drinking water, whereas the other was the control group. The organ samples were mounted in optimum cutting temperature compound (OCT) and then frozen sectioned via cryostat. Samples with thicknesses ranging from 5-10 Âľm were then analyzed by LA-ICPMS. In kidney samples, the concentration of uranium was compared between the cortical and medullar regions; and for the liver, the center and the edge of the samples were compared. Initial results show that different organs as well as the areas within the organs have different concentrations of uranium.

Presenter: Venessa Jim Tribe: Navajo Primary Email: vqj@nau.edu Biography Venessa Jim is currently a graduate student at Northern Arizona University working on a master's degree in chemistry & biochemistry. Venessa graduated from NAU in summer 2009. Venessa is a member of the Navajo Nation, and is orginally from Fruitland, NM. Venessa is in the process of applying to PhD schools in biochemistry and plans to begin her studies in fall 2012.

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Presentation Title: Seneca Language Revitalization Project Discipline: IT/Computer Science School: Rochester Institute of Technology Student Level: Masters Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: Seneca Language Revitalization Project Robert Jimerson, Rochester Institute of Technology

The Seneca Language Revitalization Project is an online English to Seneca dictionary. Once completed this will be used in the revitalization of the Seneca Language within the Seneca Nation community which are located in Western New York. The Seneca Language like many native languages is spoken fluently only by the elders of the community. This project will compliment many of the other language initiatives that are taking place within the community. Once completed this will be an intranet site within the Seneca Nation. A user will input in English the desired word. They will then be presented by various choices regarding who, when, etc. Below is the link. As it is still in development only a few words are in productions. You may use the word "sing" to get the full effect of the site. http://slrp.webfactional.com/

Presenter: Robert Jimerson Tribe: Seneca Nation Primary Email: rcj2772@rit.edu Biography I was born and raised on the Cattaraugus Indian Reservation in Western New York, which is about 30 miles south of Buffalo. This is one of 3 reservations that Senecas reside on. I have a Bachelors degree in Science with Majors in Computer Science and Business Administration. I am currently attending RIT, pursuing my Masters in IT. I work extensively with my grandfather and great uncle learning the Seneca language and traditional speeches that are a part of our culture.

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Presentation Title: Functional and Structural Relationships of Proteins in the Ribulose-Phosphate Binding Barrel Superfamily Discipline: Chemistry School: Northeastern University Student Level: Ph.D. Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: Functional and Structural Relationships of Proteins in the Ribulose-Phosphate Binding Barrel Superfamily Joslynn S. Lee, Prof. Mary Jo Ondrechen, Northeastern University

The ability to predict the function of a protein from its 3D structure is an important goal. My work tests the hypothesis that, using computational tools to identify functionally important portions of a protein structure, its function can be predicted. Superfamilies are defined as a group of evolutionarily related proteins with similar 3D structures. Although the proteins within a given superfamily all have similar structures, there can be enormous functional diversity within a superfamily. The ribulose-phosphate binding barrel (RPBB) superfamily consists of eight subclasses, each subclasse representing a different type of biochemical function. Using our computational approach, we are able to sort this superfamily into functional subgroups based on a local structural analysis at the interaction sites of the individual proteins. First, Theoretical Microscopic Titration Curves (THEMATICS) and Information-theoretic Tree Traversal for Protein Functional Site Identification (INTREPID) are combined with Partial Order Optimum Likelihood (POOL) to predict the residues involved in catalysis and/or ligand binding for each protein structure in the superfamily. The predicted active residues create patterns that enable the RPBB superfamily to be sorted into functional subclasses. Applications to Structural Genomics (SG) proteins of unknown or uncertain function are reported. The functions of the SG proteins are determined using our chemical similarity scoring function on the residues in the spatial region of the predicted functional site. The computational results for three SG proteins show that they have been corrected annotated. I conclude that this computational approach is a viable method for the prediction of protein function.

Acknowledgements: Supported by NSF-GRF and NSF-MCB-0843603.

Presenter: Joslynn S. Lee Tribe: Laguna Pueblo Primary Email: lee.jos@husky.neu.edu Biography Joslynn S. Lee (Acoma Pueblo, Laguna Pueblo, Navajo) received her Bachelor of Science degree in Biochemistry from Fort Lewis College in Durango, Colorado. Currently she is a doctoral candidate in Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Northeastern University in Boston, MA. She is the recipient of a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship.

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Presentation Title: The Effects of Length and Sequence Order on Self-Assembling Amphipathic Peptides Discipline: Chemistry School: University of Rochester Student Level: Ph.D. Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: The Effects of Length and Sequence Order on Self-Assembling Amphipathic Peptides Naomi R. Lee, Charles J. Bowerman, Bradley L. Nilsson University of Rochester

Molecular self-assembly is a natural phenomena notorious for its role in many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), Creutzfeldt-Jackob, and Parkinson’s disease. However, Nature has utilized self-assembly advantageously, for instance, in the formation of spider silk and collagen structure. In recent years, short peptides capable of self-assembly have been used to generate new biomaterials by exploiting noncovalent forces such as hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic, and aromatic pi-pi interactions. The (FKFE)2 peptide is an amphipathic sequence that self-assembles into soluble bilayer beta sheets fibrils. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of length and amino acid order in (FKFE)2 self-assembly. Experiments involved truncation of (FKFE)2 by removal of either the N- or C-terminal amino acids and rearranging the sequence order of the constituent residues in (FKFE)2. The self-assembly properties of these peptides were assessed compared to (FKFE)2. The results indicate that removal of the C-terminal glutamic acid drastically affects the self-assembly of the peptide versus its fulllength counterpart at acidic and neutral pH. Additionally, sequence orientation has a significant influence on peptide self-assembly; certain orientations were mildly affected by the rearrangement while other sequences failed to self-assemble. Therefore, it was concluded that length and sequence orientation have a critical effect on the self-assembly of amphipathic peptides.

Presenter: Naomi Lee Tribe: Seneca Primary Email: nlee5@mail.rochester.edu Biography My childhood was spent on the Seneca Cattaraugus Indian Reservation located south of Buffalo, NY, until attending Rochester Institute of Technology in Rochester, NY. I received a BS in biochemistry in 2005 then began studying chemistry at the University of Rochester. After completing my MS in 2006, I remained to pursue a PhD in chemistry under the guidance of Dr. Bradley Nilsson. While I was in graduate school, I decided to serve my country so I am currently a full-time graduate student as well as a logistics officer in the United States Army.

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Presentation Title: Development of an Enhanced Statistical Downscaling Method to Predict Daily Precipitation and Temperature in a Semi-Arid Environment Discipline: Civil & Environmental Engineering School: University of California-Los Angeles Student Level: Ph.D. Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: Development of an Enhanced Statistical Downscaling Method to Predict Daily Precipitation and Temperature in a Semi-Arid Environment Sonya R. Lopez(*), Flora Zepeda Torres, and Dr. Terri S. Hogue University of California-Los Angeles

Global climate models (GCMs) are used to generate historical and future large-scale circulation patterns 2 at a coarse resolution (typical order of 50,000 km ) and fail to capture local climate variability due to surface influences (i.e topography, marine, layer, land cover, etc). Their inability to accurately resolve these processes led to the development of ‘downscaling’ techniques. The goal of this study is to enhance statistical downscaling of daily precipitation and temperature for the Southern California semi-arid region. Our analysis was divided into historical (1961-2000) and contemporary (1980-2000) periods and tested sixteen predictand combinations from four GCMs (GFDL-CM2.0, GFDL-CM2.1, CNRM-CM3 and MRICGCM2 3.2) on five Southern California counties: Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, Orange and San Diego. Principle component analysis (PCA) was performed on ground-based observations to reduce the number of redundant gauges, minimize dimensionality and cluster “like” gauges that behave statistically similarly. We then extensively tested predictor-predictand relationships using our developed enhanced canonical correlation analysis (ECCA). The optimal predictand sets for each county/model were obtained for ECCA using daily and monthly overall statistics. Results show all models maintain mean annual and monthly behavior within each county and daily statistics are improved. The level of improvement highly depends on the vegetation extent and the land-to-ocean ratio within the GCM spatial grid. The validated ECCA technique is being applied to future climate scenarios in order to provide forcing data for regional hydrologic models used to ascertain future water resources.

Presenter: Sonya R Lopez Primary Email: slopez.bruin@gmail.com Biography Sonya R. Lopez is a first-generation Mexican-American obtaining her Ph.D in Water Resources Engineering from UCLA. She has won several awards (UCLA Vice Provost Service, Graduate Division Diversity Travel Award and Distinguished Senior) and fellowships (Eugene Cota Robles, NSF GRFP, Ford Dissertation Honorable Mention and NSF SEE-LA GK-12). She dedicates much of her time offering local Los Angeles middle and high school students beyond the classroom science demos, talks and experiences through several on-going outreach programs. Her career goals are to obtain a teaching position at a research institution and encourage minorities to pursue advanced degrees in the sciences.

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Presentation Title: Sustainability and Science Attitudes: A Comparison of Native Americans and NonNative Scientist Discipline: Industrial-Organizational Psychology School: Portland State University Student Level: Ph.D. Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract:

Sustainability Attitudes: A Comparison of Native Americans and Non-Native Scientists Adam Murry, Portland State University

Since sustainability science is opening new doors for indigenous participation in national agendas, underrepresentation of Natives in science is a problem that has received much attention in the social science literature. Underrepresentation is attributed to a host of causes; however, quantitative data is rather scant in advancing the discussion beyond speculation. This project attempted to quantitatively evaluate differences in perceptions of science between Native American community members and tribal leaders from the Pacific Northwest with scientists, educators, and workers in government and private industry involved in environmental, economic, and community development. Native non-scientists with Non-Native scientists and males with females (N=63) were compared across eight (8) beliefs about science and technology using a 2x2 multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Preliminary results show Natives significantly differ from scientists in their beliefs that science and technology cause social and environmental damage and the preference for traditional ways of solving problems, where Natives view science as more damaging and show more preference for traditional ways. No effect was found for gender or the interaction of gender on Native/Scientist. Context, background, and implications are discussed.

Presenter: Adam Murry Tribe: Apache of Oklahoma Primary Email: adam5@pdx.edu Biography Adam Murry is a doctoral student at Portland State University in Industrial-Organizational psychology. In 2010 he was awarded fellowship in the National Science Foundation’s Graduate Research Fellowship Program. His interests include sustainable economic development of Native communities and organizations, inclusion of Native American/First Nations/Alaskan Natives in science, technology, engineering, and math fields, and creating culturally inclusive educational/occupational pathways with academic and professional institutions.

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Presentation Title: Puquios of Nasca: Pre-Incan Groundwater Technology of Southern Peru Experimental Planning and Current Developments Discipline: Civil Engineering - Water Resources School: University of California, Davis Student Level: Masters Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Puquios of Nasca: Pre-Incan Groundwater Technology of Southern Peru Experimental Planning and Current Developments Vanessa Niño-Tapia, University of California, Davis

In 400 AD the Nasca people built numerous aqueducts known today as "puquios” (Quetchua language, meaning “source of water”). These are located within the arid environment of the Nasca Valley of Southern Peru. Modern societies are becoming increasingly dependent on the groundwater that these pre-Columbian aqueducts have continued to bring to the surface due to effects of climate change and population growth. It has been recognized that puquios can be utilized to be relative indicators of the intensity of the environmental impact of both climate change and urban expansion. However, the puquios are threatened by modern developments that affect groundwater levels within the valley, and an engineering study such as described here is very timely. An understanding of this innovative indigenous technology from a modern day Water Resources Engineering perspective is being pursued. To date, no quantitative analysis of hydrology of this system of water supply has ever been performed. A hydrological model of the Nasca puquio system will be constructed in order to estimate water conditions within the Nasca desert. Archaeologists and historians that have studied the puquios acknowledge that perspectives supplied by a modern Water Resource Engineer are needed. An expedition to Nasca is also being planned to evaluate the condition of the puquio system today, collect data to construct the groundwater model of the Nasca aquifer, explore as a modern day engineer this indigenous technology, advocate for the protection and maintenance of the puquios through interdisciplinary collaborations, and better understand the different frameworks surrounding the puquios today.

Presenter: Vanessa Niño-Tapia Tribe: Yoeme (Yaqui) Primary Email: vmnino@ucdavis.edu Biography Vanessa Niño-Tapia is a 3rd-year Master's student in Civil Engineering-Water Resources at the University of California at Davis. She is Yoeme (Yaqui Indian), self-identifies as Chicana, and is the first in her family to attend college. Growing up in Stockton, CA, she realized at a very young age that there is a great need for our society to recognize resources such as water as our "relatives." She hopes to bridge her cultural self with her technical self in her professional and personal work to acknowledge indigenous ingenuity and scientific methodolgies in collaboration with modern day engineering practices.

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Presentation Title: Network-Analytic Explorations of Species Criticality in Terrestrial and Aquatic Food Webs Discipline: Applied and Computational Mathematics School: Rochester Institute of Technology Student Level: Masters Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: Network-Analytic Explorations of Species Criticality in Terrestrial and Aquatic Food Webs Benjamin Parker (Mathematics), Dhrubo Jyoti (Mathematics & Physics) Instructor: Professor Daniel Rockmore, Department of Mathematics, Dartmouth College

The research set forth here uses network-analytic tools and the Ecopath software package to offer insight into two ecosystems the Puget Sound Central Basin and the Florida Cypress Wetlands. Taking advantage of the availability of complete dietary information, each ecosystem is modeled as a weighted, directed network. The relative importance of species in a given food web is determined via several established centrality measures, as well as a new measure, node criticality. Each food web is formulated as a Markov chain, where expected commute-time distances are calculated between species. A combination of commute-time embedding and trophic-level calculations are used to produce visualizations of the food-webs, color-coded to show the node criticality of the species. Finally, time-series simulations are run for the Puget Sound Central Basin ecosystem using Ecopath, where comparisons are drawn through the impact of perturbing critical functional groups versus non-critical functional groups on the entire ecosystem. The simulations seem to agree closely with our node criticality scores when determining important functional groups.

Presenter: Benjamin Parker Tribe: Squaxin, Turtle Mountain Anishinaabe, Cree Primary Email: bqp3342@g.rit.edu Biography My name is Benjamin Quanah Parker, and I am Squaxin, Turtle Mountain Anishinaabe, and Cree. I recently graduated from Dartmouth College with a B.A. in Mathematics. I am currently a first-year graduate student at Rochester Institute of Technology, where I will be obtaining my M.S. in Applied and Computational Mathematics.

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Presentation Title: Cultural and Geological Connections at Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico Discipline: Geology School: Purdue University Student Level: Masters Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Cultural and Geological Connections at Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico Darryl Reano & Ken Ridgway, Purdue University

Geologic materials derived from rock formations are used by the Acoma people for cultural purposes (building homes, making pottery, and choosing where to plant crops). The goal of this project is to describe the environments that deposited these formations, millions of years ago, in order to help Native communities better link traditional, cultural knowledge with Western scientific knowledge and bring about a wider understanding of how natural earth processes influence the resources on their reservations. Uranium-Lead (U-Pb) dating and measuring stratigraphic sections were used to analyze where the sediments that formed these culturally important rocks were eroded from, when they were transported, and in what type of environments they were deposited. Preliminary results show a strong contribution of sediment derived from the Appalachian orogen, which is over 1500 miles away from Acoma Pueblo. Sediments were also derived from igneous rocks both westward and southward of Acoma Pueblo. Common depositional environments include aeolian dune fields, fluvial systems, and shallow marine systems. These environments provided the geologic materials that the Acoma people now use to create pottery. A broader application of this project will be to create a lesson plan that emphasizes the link between traditional, cultural knowledge and Western scientific knowledge that can be used in K-12 classrooms as well as the community to enhance their appreciation of the geologic framework that is a part of their daily lives.

Presenter: Darryl Reano Tribe: Acoma Pueblo Primary Email: dreano@purdue.edu Biography Darryl Reano is a second year graduate student pursuing a Master of Science degree in geology at Purdue University. Growing up on the Acoma Pueblo reservation he realized that he wanted to share his passion for learning with his community. His research interests are heavily focused on linking traditional, Native American cultural knowledge with modern Western scientific knowledge. His career goals are to work with tribal governments and to encourage the addition of culturally relevant science curricula into schools located within Native American reservations.

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Presentation Title: 48.8mW Solid State Power Amplifier for 220GHz Applications Discipline: Electrical Engineering School: University of California, Santa Barbara Student Level: Ph.D. Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: 48.8mW Solid State Power Amplifier for 220GHz Applications Thomas Reed, Mark Rodwell, Zach Griffith, Miguel Urteaga, Petra Rowell, Mark Field University of California, Santa Barbara; Teledyne Scientific Company

What if RADAR systems had 10x greater resolution? What if digital communications were 50x faster? Providing electrical power at frequency’s frontier—100GHz to 1THz—is crucial for creating a viable new generation of high resolution imaging and high bitrate communications. Today’s smaller, faster transistors have enabled circuit design over 100 GHz, but can’t produce as much power as larger devices. Also with increased frequency, systems require more power to transmit over the same distance. Using creative power combining techniques, 220 GHz amplifiers have been designed to provide high output power and maintain good high frequency performance. Medium-power amplifier cells were designed at 220GHz using 250nm Indium Phosphide(InP) Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors(HBTs). An experiment was designed to combine power from four amplifier cells in a single integrated circuit to generate greater total power. Amplifier components and power combiners were modeled using an electromagnetic simulator. Amplifier gain was measured by comparing input and output signals versus frequency on a Vector Network Analyzer. Maximum output power was measured by incrementally increasing the power of a 220GHz source and detecting the resulting output power. The 4-cell amplifier had 10.2dB gain at 220GHz and 48.8mW of maximum output power. This result is a 6x increase in output power over the previous record for an InP HBT power amplifier operating near 220GHz.

Presenter: Thomas Reed Tribe: Hopi Primary Email: treed314@gmail.com Biography Thomas Reed is a member of the Hopi Tribe and a 4th year Ph.D. Student at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). In 2008, Thomas received his Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering from Brigham Young University in Provo, UT. He received his Master of Science in Electrical Engineering from UCSB in 2009. His research, under Professor Mark Rodwell, is focused on integrated circuit design for high power in the 100’s of GHz frequency range. Thomas has been an active member of AISES for four years and an officer for AISES at UCSB. He is engaged to Sarah Jenks.

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Presentation Title: Identification of synergistic pathways with Retinoic Acid in high-risk Neuroblastoma. Discipline: Molecular and Cellular Biology School: University of Washington Student Level: Ph.D. Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Identification of Synergistic Pathways with Retinoic Acid in High-risk Neuroblastoma. 1,2 4 3 1,41 Lauren Richard , James Annis , Julie Park , Carla Grandori Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research 2 3 Center; University of Washington Molecular and Cellular Biology Program; Seattle Children’s Hospital; 4 Quellos High Throughput Screening Core, Institute for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, University of Washington, School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extra-cranial pediatric solid tumor. Despite advances in treatment, less than 40% of patients with high-risk NB survive long-term. Retinoic acid (RA) is currently used in the consolidation phase of Neuroblastoma therapy to treat minimal residual disease. RA induces differentiation and prevents proliferation of sensitive NB cells. However, many patients develop resistance to RA and suffer a relapse. The goal of this study is to find genes that work synergistically with RA to increase the sensitivity of NB cells to RA-induced differentiation and cell death. Working with both RAsensitive and insensitive cell lines, cells were treated with RA and knocked-down genes using siRNA targeting the human kinome. Based on the outcomes of this screen, one gene was chosen for additional study. The effects of RA treatment and knockdown of this gene has been determined on protein and RNA levels. In vitro experiments have shown a synergistic decrease in cell viability when treated with RA and two FDA approved drugs that target this gene. This data indicates that this may be a viable treatment option for Neuroblastoma in the clinical setting.

Presenter: Lauren Richards Tribe: Western Abenaki, St.Francis/Sokoki Band Primary Email: laurenlrichard@gmail.com Biography Although I grew up in Northern Virginia, my roots lie in Vermont, which is where my parents were born and raised and where my large extended family continues to reside. In high school I captained the varsity Volleyball team and graduated as Salutatorian and Science Award winner. I then attended the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia where I earned a BS in Biology in 2008. Directly out of college I enrolled at the University of Washington. There I joined Dr. Carla Grandori's lab, where I focus on the identification of new therapeutic targets for high-risk Neuroblastoma.

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Presentation Title: Iron- and Manganese-Depositing Cold-Seeps: Mineral Formation Along A Freshwater To Marine Ecosystem at Soda Bay, Alaska Discipline: Environmental Science: Geomicrobiology School: Oregon Health & Science University Student Level: Ph.D. Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: Iron & Manganese Depositing Cold-Seeps: Mineral Formation Along A Freshwater To Marine Ecosystem At Soda Bay, Alaska 1,2 1 3 1 3 2 Wendy F. Smythe , Melanie Kadake , Sean McAllister , Richard Davis , Craig Moyer & Bradley Tebo . 1 2 3 OHSU-CMOP, OHSU-IEH, Western Washington University.

Soda Bay is a pristine low-temperature iron and manganese-depositing ecosystem in Southeast Alaska. Groundwater fluids, supersaturated with dissolved minerals, are transported through fissures of a massive limestone deposit. These fluids are discharged from cold-seeps at the surface forming large mounds. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) mapping shows that seeps are dynamic carbonate rich environments where both reduced and oxidized forms of iron and manganese minerals coexist. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis indicates that seep fluids are enriched in both CO2 and high concentrations of dissolved Fe (> 1mM) and Mn (> 100ÂľM). These reduced metals may provide fuel for metal-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophic microbes. As fluids flow from their sources, CO2 is out gassed, pH rises, and metal oxidation becomes more thermodynamically favorable, increasing the potential for abiotic oxidation and making it more difficult for microbes to compete with chemical reactions for chemical energy. Preliminary evidence from molecular analyses indicates an abundance of metal-oxidizing microbes and the potential for chemolithoautotrophy within microbial communities. Ultra high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (UHR-SEM) shows close microbe-mineral associations and suggests microbial dissolution of carbonate minerals. Our goal is to better understand the diversity of metal oxidizers, their contribution to overall mineral formation, and geochemical controls dictating why Feoxides dominate in the high flow system while Mn-oxides dominate in the low flow system.

Presenter: Wendy F. Smythe Tribe: Haida Primary Email: smythew@ebs.ogi.edu Biography Wendy Smythe, an Alaskan Native of the Haida Nation, is a PhD candidate at OHSU-CMOP; she is also an NSF Graduate Research Fellow. Her research focuses on bacteriogenic manganese mineral formation in extreme environments. She studies manganese minerals and associated microbial communities from a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, a submarine volcano at Loihi Seamount, and cold-seeps along Soda Bay River. She is also the Co-I of two NSF funded Geoscience Education Proposals focusing on incorporating traditional ecological knowledge into geoscience education.

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Presentation Title: Graphic Organizers Applied to Secondary Algebra Instruction for Native American Students Discipline: Mathematics School: Oregon State University Student Level: Ph.D. Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Graphic Organizers Applied to Secondary Algebra Instruction for Native American Students Elese Washines, Central Washington University

There have been many approaches taken to teach students to solve systems of equations. One instructional method is the use of graphic organizers. In mathematics the graphic organizer features are intended to indicate relationships between mathematical symbols, expressions, and equations by representing them graphically. Solving systems of equations in secondary mathematics is less dependent on following rote, procedural steps, and more dependent on identifying the key steps needed to isolate a variable and deciding what methods should be applied. Graphic organizers enable students to analyze and solve systems of equations better than other instructional methods because they help students remember general problem solving steps and learn how to recognize information within the problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mixed ability, Native American secondary students who were taught to solve systems of equations with graphic organizers would perform better on related skill and concept measures than students instructed on the same material without graphic organizers. The study took place in a state-accredited tribal school. The students in the study were in grades 9-12 and enrolled in one of two Algebra courses. A two-group comparison quasi-experimental design was used to investigate the effectiveness of using a graphic organizer to teach students to solve systems of linear equations. Results indicate graphic organizers are most effective when applied to higher level mathematics requiring students to remember general problem solving steps.

Presenter: Elese Washines Tribe: Yakama/Cree/Skokomish Primary Email: elese.washines@gmail.com Biography Elese Washines, Yakama/Cree/Skokomish, is a doctoral candidate in Oregon State University's Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Presentation Title: Chemical and Rheological Properties of Dextran/Hydroxyapatite as Injectable Colloidal Gels for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Discipline: Bioengineering

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School: The University of Kansas Student Level: Masters Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Chemical and Rheological Properties of Dextran: Hydroxyapatite as Injectable Colloidal Gels for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Martin Wind and Connor Dennis, The University of Kansas Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

Dextran (DX) and Dextran derivative polymers were combined with Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles in order to create malleable colloidal gels capable of being extruded into irregular bone defects while maintaining structural integrity and promoting bone regeneration. HAp nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical precipitation using a combination of 0.1M CaCl2 and 0.003M Na2HPO4. Dextran (DX) and Dextran derivative polymers were added to the HAp nanoparticles in order to form a colloidal mixture stabilized by electrostatic interactions. Rheological tests were conducted on each gel sample with a constant amount of DX polymer and varying amounts of HAp in order to see at which DX:HAp ratio could evidence of shear thinning and yield stress first be observed. Because of the positively charged calcium ions in HAp and the negatively charged poly-anionic Dextran Sulfate (DXS) and Carboxylmethyl Dextran (CMDX) the molecular interactions should provide better rheological properties than when combined with the poly-cationic Diethylaminoethyl-Dextran (DEAE) or the neutral Dextran polymer. Results actually show better rheological properties for the neutral DX and poly-cationic DEAE. For all DX:HAp gels, evidence of sheer thinning and yield stress are first seen at a [2:1] and then a [1:1] ratio. The data analyzed are in terms of shear stress versus shear rate, and optimal results are with DEAE and DX at a [1:1] ratio [DX polymer:HAp]. Temperature, pH, salinity are other factors to consider when testing rheological properties of these gels.

Presenter: Martin J. Wind Tribe: Muscogee (Creek) Nation Primary Email: martinwind85@hotmail.com Biography The Environmental Science baccalaureate program here at Haskell University has given me a much needed foundation in academia, while providing the opportunity to meet exceptional colleagues and faculty. Kansas University has been a prime choice of mine for continuing my education because of the high emphasis in the molecular and developmental biology fields. After attending the K-INBRE symposium in January in Kansas City, I knew I wanted to someday present detailed and interesting presentations like those I saw there. Biology and engineering have been a strong interest of mine for some time as well as Geology. The PREP Program here at the University of Kansas has allowed me to prepare for graduate school while doing in lab research. My goal is to make through graduate school and then proceed on to a doctoral program. Then maybe work for a petroleum company.

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2011 Undergraduate Student Poster and Oral Sessions Sponsors: All Nations Louis Stokes AMP (ANLSAMP) and Merck

EV 360: A Different Kind of Vehicle, Christopher Ahuna Development of New Antibacterial Dendrimers, Devin American Horse At Sea Level - Yup'ik People and Salmon Living Through Change, Rita A. Asgeirsson

Identification of Heparan Sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase 1 Using Proteomics Approach, Raquel Auwae Investigating Virulence Factor Duplications in Mycobacterium marinum, Kekaihalai J. Avilez, An Investigation into the Presence of Mercury in the Waters of Reservoir Sakakawea, Destiny Baker Prescribe Fire Effects on Selected Grasses in the Mixed Grass Prairie, Noel S. Baker Clogging Microchannels with Micro Gel Particles, Joshua Begay Evaluating Sampling Protocols on the Little Big Horn River, Adrienne C. Bird Conversion of Primary Forest Residue to Biochar with a Mobile Pyrolysis Blanket, Burdette J. Birdinground Uranium Removal of Contaminated Soils Using Rhamnolipid Coupled with Sequential Extraction Marsha Bitsui Investigation of Sources of Metal Contamination on the Turtle Mountain Chippewa Reservation Elizabeth Bluestone Determining Levels of Dissolved Oxygen Along Various Sites of Smugglers Slough, Lance Brockie Using Diatoms to Reconstruct a Healthy Growing Environment for Wild Rice (Zizania palustris ) of the Fond du Lac Chippewa Reservation in Northern Minnesota, Cristina Bunch The Impact of Persulfate ISCO on Soil Organic Matter, Jaliza Burwell The Hydrologic Impact of Antecedent Soil Water Content and Straw Mulch on a Burned Area, Fourmile Canyon Wildfire Near Boulder, Colorado, Carnicle, Melissa

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Wind and Solar Power (WASP) – Solutions for a Sustainable Hawai`i, L.M. Caspillo Aalona Surface Soil Sampling From Re-Claimed Abandoned Uranium Mines - Tsetah Abandoned Mine Land Site, Ernest Charley Distance to Uncontrollability with Hermitian matrices, Cody Eugene Wildlife Linkages, Breana Dorame Binding of CD47 and VEGFR2 Associated with Angiogenesis, Rachelle Eddie Hypoxic Zone of the Bellingham Bay, Vincent Feliciano Low Cost Cathode Catalysis for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, Delilah Friedlander Geometric Optimization of a 2-D Heaving Body for Power Absorption, Nelson Fernandez Development of Paper Accelerometers for Cheap Applications, Brendon Lee Gobert Detection of Phage DNA in the Hosts Genome During Lysogeny, Loretta Grey Cloud Synthesis of Palladium-Tungsten Nanoparticles for Fuel Cell Electrocatalysis, Jordan Gurneau Male-male Aggressive Interactions in the Emerald Glass Frog (Espadarana prosoblepon) Hayden Hedman Binding of CD47 and VEGFR2 Associated with Angiogenesis, Nathaniel Jim The Effect of Sensory Pollution on Animal Reproductive Behavior, Christina H. Johnson Platform Design for a Next Generation Adaptive Optics Laser Infrastructure on the W.M. Keck II Telescope, Sean R. Jones Automated Calculation of Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Parameter Correction Exponents, Caitlin Kavanaugh Solids Handling Modifications: Grand Forks Wastewater Treatment Plant, Anthony LaFontain Survey of Amphibian and Reptile Blood Parasites; Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana, Gary Lesser Mating System Evolution: Correlations Between Seed Set and Physiology, Anthony Linarez Investigating Schooling Behavior in the Cavefish Astyanax mexicanus, Zack McDonald Expression Analysis of Genes Encoding Members of a Ciliary Central Pair Protein Complex Taylor Maier Application of Artificial Neural Networks for Forecasting Groundwater Levels Following a Dam Removal, Milltown Montana Ashley M. Marks

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Empowering the Community in Participatory Research towards Restoring Blueberries on the Lac Courte Oreilles Reservation, Carla Miller Cultivation and Characterization of Novel Extremophilic Algae for Biofuel Production, Athalia Rose Morrsion Quantification of the Human SMN Spliced Variant by qPCR, Alexandra Myhal A Minority of the Minority: Native Americans and STEM Outreach Programs, Tanner Newcomb The Future in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technology, Kaleo Norman A Drosophila Model of Glaucoma, James C Oxendine How Does Prozac Really Work? The Use of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) in Testing Fluoxetine Drug Actions. Sarah Oxendine The Preservation of the Historical Veteran’s Memorial Wall, Lester Richards Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) On The Davis Mountain Preserve In the Davis Mountains of Texas, David Rumbelow Test Format Affecting Psychometric Reliability, Zachary D. Ryan Origin of the Pipestone Unit of Sioux Quartzite, Kelsey Scareshawk PCR to Distinguish Diploid and Triploid forms of Butomus umbellatus, Amy Stiffarm Fire Risk Probability Method Using Soil Moisture and Other Parameters, Cody Natoni Sifford The Effect of Diversity on Sin Nombre Virus Within Deer Mice Populations, Ashleigh Thompson The Application of Statistical Downscaling to the Southern California Region, Flora Zepeda Torres Investigation of the [4Fe-4S]

2+

Cluster in the DNA Glycosylase AfUDG, Aisha True

Determining Crop Management Factor (C-factor) for Four Natural Land Covers, Travis Voeller

Morphology and Soot Size in Canola Methyl Ester and Diesel Air-Flames, Henry Ware A Palynological Reconstruction of the Late Holocene Flora and Climate Change from Three Minnesota Lakes, Matthew S. Weingart Comparing Ex-situ and In-situ Cuttings of Hibiscus arnottianus to Establish Best Use Propagation Method, Kamuela K. Werner Alcohol and Other Drug Use Among Northern Plains Indians, Melissa Wheeler Measurement of Alkali-Labile Sites in Plasmid DNA Exposed to Uranyl Acetate, Janice Wilson The Use of Biochar in Corn Hill Agriculture, Robyn Wilson

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Presentation Title: EV 360: A Different Kind of Vehicle Discipline: Mechanical Engineering School: University of Hawaii at Manoa Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: EV 360: A Different Kind of Vehicle Christopher Ahuna, Russell Chang, Hienie Davis Mentors: Dr. Mehrdad Nejhad, Michael Menendez University of Hawaii at Mnoa College of Engineering, Honolulu, HI

The word utility is defined as the state or quality of being useful. In this specific instance, we wanted a utility vehicle (UTV) to fit the task at hand. Specifically, a farmer required a vehicle that could navigate hilly and muddy terrain while being constricted by design requirements such as environmental impact, safety, size and weight, and power. To conclude our design phase, we decided on an electrical motor vehicle. Inevitably, the world is going to run out of fossil fuels. Thus, we need to reduce our dependence if not completely eliminate our need for fossil fuels. Through a combination of SolidWorks and Finite Element Analysis (FEA), we conceptualized a vehicle that would be safe and relatively lightweight. Normal vehicle frame types didn’t suit our needs, so building a full-tubular 4130 Chromoly (a steel alloy) frame was the logical choice primarily because of the large strength-to-weight ratio Chromoly provides. Trials arose throughout such as remodeling various portions of the frame and installing essentials like the motor, the controller, and the batteries, but ultimately we reached our goal of creating a UTV which we have called the EV 360. Throughout this project, my group members and I learned about engineering processes and their conflicts. Eventually, our hard work and persistence paid off, while learning valuable life lessons as well.

Presenter: Christopher Ahuna Tribe: Native Hawaiian Primary Email: chrisahuna@gmail.com Alternate Email: cahuna@hawaii.edu Biography Christopher Ahuna is a Native Hawaiian who graduated from Kamehameha High School, Class of 2009. He is currently a junior studying at the College of Engineering at the University of Hawaii at Manoa striving to attain a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering. He enjoys putting hard work into the things he finds most important such as forming and maintaining relationships with those around him. He is proud man who loves to talk about his achievements, but always acknowledges his faults and accepts constructive criticism graciously.

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Presentation Title: Development of New Antibacterial Dendrimers Discipline: BioChemistry School: Little Big Horn College - MSU-Bozeman Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Development of New Antibacterial Dendrimers Department of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Little Big Horn College & BioChemistry Montana State University - Bozeman

The purpose of this research is to determine if common bacteria can evolve resistance to the new multivalent quaternary ammonium antibacterial dendrimers that have been developed in the Cloninger research group. A multistep resistance selection study involving a broth macrodilution method with serial daily passages is being performed. The two strains of bacteria under investigation are Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. Because the development of bacterial strains that are resistant to currently available antimicrobial agents is a significant health threat, the development of new antibacterial agents is critically important. Pathways for which bacteria can develop resistance to multivalent quaternary ammonium antibacterial dendrimers are difficult to envision, and the research reported here addresses this issue.

Presenter: Devin American Horse Tribe: Crow Primary Email: Devin.A.H.1989@hotmail.com Biography Devin American Horse is a biochemistry major at Montana State University – Bozeman.

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Presentation Title: At Sea Level - Yup'ik People and Salmon Living Through Change Discipline: Native Environmental Science School: Northwest Indian College Presentation Type: Oral & Poster Presentations Abstract: At Sea Level - Yup'ik People and Salmon Living Through Change Rita A. Asgeirsson, Northwest Indian College

Yup’ik Eskimo people have lived on the Yukon River estuary, at the edge of the Bering Sea, for many thousands of years. The people in the present-day community of Kotlik, Alaska, relocated from their seasonal and familial living areas in the 1950’s. Today the families of these communities have embraced modern technologies to continue their traditional ways of living. Food gathering, harvest and storage of available food items from the Yukon Delta and Norton Sound is still practiced and relied upon by the residents of these communities. Traditional food from the Yukon Delta estuary, namely salmon, is an integral defining feature of the Yup’ik Eskimo way of life still in existence today. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship Yup’ik people have with their environment and how changes to their environment may impact their lives. Living, working, traveling, and harvesting food with the members of one community for one month identified salmon as a major economic and primary cultural food source. An extensive range of salmon harvest sites in the intertidal zone of the Yukon Delta reflected that sea level rise may impact the ability of the residents to gather salmon in traditional harvest sites.

Presenter: Rita A. Asgeirsson Tribe: Native Village of Kotlik (Yup'ik Eskimo) Primary Email: rita.asgeirsson@yahoo.com Biography My immediate and extended family continues to reside in the Yukon Delta and Norton Sound area surrounding Kotlik, Alaska, my Yup’ik Eskimo home. After two years furthering my higher education, eight of working professionally for Yukon Delta partner organizations, and two years of full-time mothering, I decided to complete my Native Environmental Science, B.S. at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham, Washington. My area of focus is concentrated on an analysis of tribal sovereignty in relation to Yukon Delta salmon management.

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Presentation Title: Identification of Heparan Sulfate 3-O-Sulfotransferase Using Proteomics Approach Discipline: Bioengineering School: University of Hawaii at Manoa. Research done at the Renssalear Polytechnic Institute. Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Identification of Heparan Sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase 1 Using Proteomics Approach Raquel Auwae Mentor: Dr. Lingyun Li Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Peptide Mass Fingerprinting (PMF) is an analytical technique used to understand the identity of a protein by breaking the protein down to the peptide level. These masses of peptides can be compared to a database containing known protein sequences. The database statistically analyzes the unknown protein to find the best match with a theoretical protein sequence. Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase isoform1 (3-OST1) was the unknown protein used in this experiment to be analyzed by a protein sequence database. Results from the database yielded a highly confident match with the 3-OST1 found in a cloned mouse.

Presenter: Raquel Auwae Primary Email: rauwae2@hawaii.edu Biography Raquel Auwae is a sophomore studying Engineering at the University of Hawai`i at Manoa. She is apart of several Native Hawaiian organizations such as the Native Hawaiian Science & Engineering Mentorship Program and the new American Indian Science & Engineering Society chapter in Hawai`i. Her interests are in sustainability and biotechnology. She hopes to further her studies so that she may help save the environment.

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Presentation Title: Investigating Virulence Factor Duplications in Mycobacterium marinum Discipline: Biology School: University of Hawaii at Manoa Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Investigating Virulence Factor Duplications in Mycobacterium marinum Kekaihalai J. Avilez, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Pathogenic mycobacteria pose a serious burden to global health. One-third of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacteria tuberculosis (M. tb), the causative agent of Tuberculosis (TB). Over 9 million people become sick each year and an average of 2 million people die each year from TB. We understand very little about how mycobacteria cause disease at the molecular level. CFP-10 is a major mycobacterial virulence factor, which is secreted by the ESX-1 secretion system. Interestingly, Mycobacterium marinum, an established model for M. tuberculosis, has two identical copies of the gene that encodes for CFP-10 (esxB). We previously found that M. marinum secretes both CFP-10 proteins. However, the duplicate copy (CFP-10_1) is secreted in the absence of the ESX-1 secretion machine. We seek to better understand the secretion of both CFP-10's from M. marinum. M. tb uses the ESX-1 secretion system to export its CFP-10 protein, which differs from M. marinum by three amino acids. Using this difference, we introduced the TB CFP-10 into M. marinum lacking CFP-10, creating a strain that has two distinct, detectable copies of CFP-10. The goal is to verify if the duplicate CFP-10 is secreted from M. marinum in an ESX-1 independent manner. We will develop a CFP-10 diploid strain that will allow us to distinguish between the CFP-10 proteins that M. marinum produces and exports.

Presenter: Kekaihalai J. Avilez Tribe: Native Hawaiian Primary Email: avilez@hawaii.edu Biography Kekai is a Native Hawaiian from Pauoa, Oahu, Hawaii, and a senior at the University of Hawaii at Manoa majoring in Molecular Cell Biology and Hawaiian Language. His interests lie in the areas of biomedical sciences and medicine, hula, hawaiian chant, music and lei making.

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Presentation Title: An Investigation into the Presence of Mercury in the Waters of Reservoir Sakakawea Discipline: Environmental Science School: Fort Berthold Community College Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: An Investigation into the Presence of Mercury in the Waters of Reservoir Sakakawea Destiny Baker, Fort Berthold Community College

Mercury has been well known as an environmental pollutant for several decades. As early as the 1950’s it was established that emissions of mercury to the environment could have serious effects on human health. Early studies have demonstrated that fish in most surface waters in North Dakota commonly contain unacceptable levels of mercury. Evidence also indicates that one of the major sources of mercury contamination is the combustion of fossil fuels. Reservoir Sakakawea is surrounded by coal fired power plants and other coal fired industries. The purpose of this study is to provide updated data of mercury contaminations in the waters of the reservoir. Water samples will be taken at various sites around Reservoir Sakakawea with the assistance of the Environmental Division of the Three Affiliated Tribes. Samples will be sent to a water quality lab at the University of North Dakota for analysis. Samples will be collected, stored, and analyzed according to the Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste Water. Preliminary results have not indicated to the presence or non presence of mercury in the waters of the reservoir. Final results will be supplied to the Three Affiliated Tribes and other jurisdictions to be used in the determination for the need of further analysis.

Presenter: Destiny Baker Tribe: Three Affliated Tribes Primary Email: destiny.baker@fortbertholdcc.edu Biography My name is Destiny Baker. I live in New Town, ND and attend Fort Berthold Community College. I am currently a senior majoring in Environmental Science. I have two daughters and all my hard work in school is to better their lives.

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Presentation Title: Prescribe Fire Effects on Selected Grasses in the Mixed Grass Prairie Discipline: Environmental Science School: Fort Berthold Community College Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Prescribe Fire Effects on Selected Grasses in the Mixed Grass Prairie Noel S. Baker, Fort Berthold College Mentor: Dr. Kerry Hartman

Native Americans of the Missouri River basin have been using fire to entice game, enhance soil, ward off enemies and clear land for agriculture before recorded time. Recently a paradigm shift has occurred against the suppression of wildfire to utilize prescribed burning to restore diversity to the prairie and remove hazardous fuel buildup. Not only is fire restored to the ecosystem where it has been absent but we are finding native grasses are returning where invasive and undesirable grasses are displacing native flora. With the collaboration of three agencies; Student Conservation Association, Bureau of Indian Affairs Great Plains Region-Wildland Fire Management Division, and the Three Affiliated Tribes-Fire Management Program of Fort Berthold in North Dakota; a program was introduced which studied the effects of fire or FIRMON as it known, on burned areas on reservations in the Great Plains Region. Burn units were then given study plots and inventorying all floras within a quadrant. These units were then burned utilizing prescribed fire. These same plots were again inventoried using the same quadrants by Student Conservation Association crews. Results were than given to the BIA Regional Office and distributed to the respective reservations within the region. Results of the study show prescribe fire has an impact on the ecosystem of the prairie. More studies are needed to determine fire frequency needed to return an area to Native Prairie.

Presenter: Noel S. Baker Tribe: Three Affiliated Tribes Primary Email: noelsbaker@yahoo.com Biography Noel S. Baker is an enrolled member of the Three Affiliated Tribes and a lifelong resident of the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation. He is a senior pursuing a Bachelors of Science Degree in Environmental Science and works for the Three Affiliated Tribes Fire Management Program. He is married with a son and daughter and is also the current President of the FBCC-AISES Chapter.

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Presentation Title: Clogging Microchannels with Micro Gel Particles Discipline: Mechanical Engineering School: Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: Clogging Microchannels with Micro Gel Particles Joshua Begay, Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute

Major filtration companies would like to make better filters but can’t because clogging is not well understood. Filters work by preventing contaminates from entering through clogging. To make better filters, we must understand clogging. We use soft lithography to fabricate microfluidic devices in PDMS for making emulsion and microchannels that are used for clogging. Gel particles are made using a two phase micro emulsion process, and then polymerized. We then clog microchannels with these gel particles. We find that to create a clog, the needed number of poly dispersed gel particles are more than mono dispersed hard particles.

Presenter: Joshua Begay Tribe: Navajo Primary Email: begay_joshua@yahoo.com Biography Joshua is currently a Mechanical Engineering student at Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI). During his stay at SIPI, he has held the position as Student Treasure, an active AISES Member, and an intern for projects including Argonne National Laboratory Renewable Energy Challenge and the University of New Mexico. After winning the National Challenge, Joshua attended Harvard for an undergrad research experience program. When he is completed with his curriculum at SIPI, Joshua plans on attending UNM where he plans to earn a B.S. and continue to a M.S.

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Presentation Title: Evaluating Sampling Protocols on the Little Big Horn River Discipline: Hydrology School: Little Big Horn College Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Evaluating Sampling Protocols on the Little Big Horn River Adrienne C. Bird, Little Big Horn College

Student water quality research at Little Big Horn College has for the past four years included monitoring of the Little Big Horn River on the Apsaalooke (Crow) Reservation in Montana to establish baseline data on both physical and biological parameters to support future inquires related to public health. Eight specific sites on the Little Big Horn River have been the collection points of these parameters over the past four years. Extreme flooding during May 2011 and high waters during June 2011 made it impossible to access one of the sites and as a result this site was moved to a bridge downstream from the original point. The loss of access to a site therefore made possible comparison with past data questionable. Hypothesis: Changing site of collection approximately two hundred feet significantly influences the results of parameter measurements. The physical parameters of pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and temperature were measured at 5 different points at and between the old sampling site and the new sampling site on the Little Big Horn River using a Professional Plus series YSI probe. Biological parameters, coliform and Escherichia coli counts, were collected as grab samples and analyzed using mColiBlue24速 Broth.

Presenter: Adrienne C. Bird Tribe: Crow Primary Email: Chaddy_23bird@hotmail.com Biography Adrienne C. Bird is a student at Little Big Horn College.

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Presentation Title: Conversion of Primary Forest Residue to Biochar with a Mobile Pyrolysis Blanket. Discipline: Chemical Engineering School: University of Washington Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Conversion of Primary Forest Residue to Biochar with a Mobile Pyrolysis Blanket Burdette J. Birdinground±, Jeffrey J. Richards±, Gregory M. Newbloom±, Ikechukwu N. Nwaneshiudu± and Daniel T. Schwartz* Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Box 351750, Seattle, Washington 98195-1750, United States ± These authors contributed equally to this work, * Corresponding Author (e-mail: burdettebirdinground@student.skc.edu)

A novel low-tech mobile pyrolysis blanket has been developed for effective on-site conversion of woody biomass in slash piles to biochar. Slash is constantly cut and piled as part of forest management efforts, and often left in the forest to degrade, or is burned to decrease fire risk and insect outbreaks. Primary forest residues are the key amendment to soil fertilization. Slash represents a sizable and sustainable feedstock for the application of biochar as a soil amendment. Integral to the utilization of this material is the development of inexpensive technologies which can produce biochar. Demonstrated here is a laminated blanket material that integrates multiple functionalities in order to mimic traditional biochar kilns. This system is flexible and portable making it easy to work with and suited to reach the dispersed slash piles. The functionality of this technology, namely producing biochar and controlling the temperature inside the blanket with the altered inlet/outlet system, is demonstrated on a pile of dimensional lumber. The biochar was analyzed and the percentage of biomass converted was graphed demonstrating the blankets functionalities and results.

Presenter: Burdette Birdinground Tribe: Crow Primary Email: bbirdinground@yahoo.com Biography I am Burdette Birdinground a Crow Tribal member from Garryowen, MT. My cultural name is "Hawaatish Ba Chia Akchawaacheesh" translating to "Prays in the War". I am currently a junior in the environmental science and terrestrial land resources program at Salish Kootenai College. I will graduate in June 2013 and plan on attending graduate school in ecology. I am currently the AIHEC Student Congress President 2011-2012 and am a member of the Native Youth Leadership Alliance.

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Presentation Title: Uranium Removal of Contaminated Soils Using Rhamnolipid Coupled with Sequential Extraction Discipline: Chemistry School: Northern Arizona University Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Uranium Removal of Contaminated Soils Using Rhamnolipid Coupled with Sequential Extraction Marsha Bitsui, Sara Asselin, Jani C. Ingram, PhD Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University

During the 1940’s through the 1970’s uranium was in demand. Its uses were desired for nuclear warfare. Deposits of uranium were found and mined on the Navajo Reservation. Remains of open pit mining resulted in contaminated soil, water, and food resources. Rhamnolipid, a biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruguinosa, is known to chelate metals (Maier, R. M. 2000. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology). In this study, soil samples were collected from the southwest region of the Navajo Reservation near Cameron, AZ, a known mining site, and Leupp, AZ, where no mining occurred. A seven step sequential leaching extraction was paired with a rhamnolipid extraction to determine the amount of uranium removed. The leaching process sequentially extracts hydrosoluble salts, exchangeable cations, carbonates, reducible phases, HCl soluble compounds, oxidizable phases, and insoluble residues from the soil (Quejido, A.J., 2005. Applied Geochemistry). Extracts from untreated soil is compared to extracts from rhamnolipid treated soil, any differences in uranium concentration is assumed to be the result of interactions of the rhamnolipid in the soil. Trace metal analysis is performed using an Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometer. The sequential leaching procedure showed that the majority of uranium in the soil from Cameron was removed in step three (66%); while the majority of uranium removed in the soil from Leupp was removed in step five (48%). The results suggest a different intercalation of the uranium in the two soils which suggests differences in leaching behavior.

Presenter: Marsha Bitsui Tribe: Navajo Primary Email: mlb364@nau.edu Biography My name is Marsha Bitsui, I am attending Northern Arizona University as an undergraduate majoring in Biomedical Sciences and obtaining a minor in chemistry. I am Navajo and grew up in Steamboat Canyon, AZ. My clans are Black Streaked Wood, born for the Mexican clan and maternal clan is Red Running Into the Water and my paternal clan is Water's Edge. My future goals are to obtain a masters and doctors degree in chemistry and to keep doing research.

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Presentation Title: Investigation of Sources of Metal Contamination on the Turtle Mountain Chippewa Reservation Discipline: Environmental Science School: Fort Berthold Community College Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Investigation of Sources of Metal Contamination on the Turtle Mountain Chippewa Reservation Elizabeth Bluestone, Audrey LaVallie faculty of Turtle Mountain Community College Fort Berthold Community College

Funded by an NSF undergraduate research grant (REU), college students investigated metal contamination sources on the Turtle Mountain Chippewa Reservation. The sources of possible contamination included two separate media- open soil and wetland sediment. Wetland sediments were tested primarily for lead contamination when Dr. Debra Hunter, a leech research project investigator at TMCC, found that extensive leeching with leech traps weighted with lead weights had been ongoing for years in numerous sloughs on the reservation. Samples were crushed mildly if needed, and baked at 110 C for 30 minutes for thorough drying. Samples were digested first by acid and peroxide treatment in the hood and then further digested in an Ethos Milestone microwave by ramping to 180 C over 5.5 minutes and maintained at this temperature for another 4.4 minutes. Samples were diluted to a specified volume by %5 HNO3 with a small percentage of lanthanum suppressants present. Standards curves for Pb, Ni, Cr, Ag, Cd and Fe were calculated for a Buck 200A atomic absorption spectrometer, and field samples were then evaluated for these metals. Results showed that Pb, Ag, and Cd were not high (above limit of detection) in any open soil samples, according to EPA soil screening generic levels for ingestion. Slough sediment lead levels were determined to be under the EPA generic soil screening limit of 400 ppm in all samples, although lead was elevated in some sloughs compared to others, suggesting some additions to various bodies of water by some source, possibly leeching.

Presenter: Elizabeth Bluestone Tribe: Three Affiliated Tribes Primary Email: elizabeth.bluestone@fortbertholdcc.edu Biography I am currently a twenty year old full time senior at Fort Berthold Community College located in New Town, North Dakota. In Fall of 2009 I received my Associates Degree in Liberal Arts and Science, and spring of 2010 I received my Associates degree in Environmental Science. Summer of 2010 I interned in Belcourt, North Dakota at Turtle Mountain Community College and worked on Investigation of Sources of Metal Contimination of the Turtle Mountain Chippewa Reservation. May 2012 I will be graduating with a bachelor degree in Environmental Science at Fort Berthold Community College.

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Presentation Title: Determining Levels of Dissolved Oxygen Along Various Sites of Smugglers Slough Discipline: Native Environmental Science School: Northwest Indian College Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Determining Levels of Dissolved Oxygen Along Various Sites of Smugglers Slough Lance Brockie, Northwest Indian College

Reconnecting Smugglers Slough with the Nooksack River is of great interest to me as a science student here at Northwest Indian College as well as to the Lummi Nation Natural Resource Department. Evidence suggests that the reconnection of Smugglers Slough to the Nooksack River would allow greater opportunity for juvenile salmon to acclimatize before their journey out into the Pacific Ocean. The following is what I am hoping to find throughout this study. Are the levels of dissolved oxygen high enough to sustain a healthy ecosystem for juvenile salmon as well as other fish that might inhabit this particular body of water? Such a study should give insight into what conservation steps might need to be taken to ensure that the quality of the water is healthy enough to sustain such a culturally important animal as the salmon. Optimal dissolved oxygen levels for salmon are 7-9mg/L, while levels 3.5-6mg/L are considered poor. Levels that drop below 3.5mg/L are considered fatal to salmon.

Presenter: Lance Brockie Tribe: Gros Ventre Primary Email: lnbrockie@hotmail.com Biography I would first like to start by introducing myself. My name is Lance Brockie; I’m an enrolled member of the Gros Ventre tribe from north central Montana. I am married and the father of two wonderful children, Sydney age 9 and Brodie age 2. I am currently studying at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham, WA pursuing a bachelor’s degree in Native Environmental Science. Currently I am enrolled in my upper level science courses, which I must say are challenging but very rewarding. At this moment I am on schedule to hopefully graduate after the 2011 fall quarter.

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Presentation Title: Using Diatoms to Reconstruct a Healthy Growing Environment for Wild Rice ( Zizania palustris) of the Fond du Lac Chippewa Reservation in Northern Minnesota Discipline: Climate studies, Diatoms, Hydrobiology, Hydrology/water resources and Lake Profile School: Northeastern State University Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Using Diatoms to Reconstruct a Healthy Growing Environment for Wild Rice (Zizania palustris ) of the Fond du Lac Chippewa Reservation in Northern Minnesota Cristina Bunch, B.S., Department of Natural Sciences, Wildlife and Fisheries Program, Northeastern State University , Tahlequah, OK ,Phillip Woods B.S., Department of Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Biology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis and Amy Myrbo, PhD, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

Diatoms are aquatic organisms, using them to analyze the history of a lake can provide essential information on lake chemistry, nutrient availability, and ecosystem succession. Sediment cores were taken from three lakes, Dead Fish, Perch and Rice Portage located in northeastern Minnesota on the Fond Du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation. Subsamples were taken from the sediment cores and processed for diatoms, phytoliths, pollen and macrofossils. The focus of this study was to provide a lake level reconstruction of trophic state and habitat changes over the period of transition to benthic-dominated diatom communities from 1000-3000 years ago. The findings will help us better understand how productivity of the lake and abundance of wild rice is linked to changes in the diatom communities. Wild rice is an important link to the past in the Chippewa culture, as well as a food source. In recent years, the lakes that have historically produced an abundance of wild rice have declined. The reasons for the decline are unknown, however, anthropologic land use change in close proximity to these lakes and diminishing water quality are believed to play a major role in this decline. This study established the foundation of known diatom community for further and more detailed research of the changes in lake level, increased sedimentation rate, and terrestrial ecosystem change between 1000-3000 years ago on the reservation.

Presenter: Cristina Bunch Tribe: Cherokee Nation Primary Email: cristina.bunch@gmail.com Biography Cristina is mastering the art of cupcake baking while finishing her bachelor’s degree. She is always looking for inspiration to reject apathy in the world and would like to go on one mission trip before she is thirty. She would love a career in natural resource management and teaching. Her major goal after perusing a Ph.D. is to teach native youth and inspire a new generation of environmentalist that hold fast and use their culture as a bridge to the future.

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Presentation Title: The Impact of Persulfate ISCO on Soil Organic Matter Discipline: Environmental Science School: Clarkson University Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: The Impact of Persulfate ISCO on Soil Organic Matter Jaliza Burwell, Clarkson University

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a remediation method using oxidants to treat hazardous waste site contaminants in the subsurface. Persulfate is one oxidant used for ISCO and it requires activation to generate free radicals that are able to react with and destroy the contaminants. Iron, iron with a chelating agent (EDTA), or alkaline pH are all capable of activating persulfate. Activated persulfate not only destroys the contaminants, but also has the potential to alter soil organic matter (SOM), creating dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM may enhance post-ISCO and/or downgradient bioactivity by providing a carbon source for the microorganisms that then can be used for contaminant biodegradation Experimental studies were conducted to investigate the extent and nature of DOM generated using different persulfate activation approaches with three different porous media types. Standard methods were used to quantify total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand COD). Results indicate that COD generated varies with the type of persulfate activation approaches and using alkaline pH as an activation method had the greatest impacts on two of the soils. It has also been found that persulfate alone does not have an impact on the organic matter. Results will enhance our ability to design more sustainable coupled ISCO and bioremediation treatment systems.

Presenter: Jaliza Burwell Primary Email: burwelja@clarkson.edu Biography I am a junior at Clarkson University in the process of gaining a bachelor’s degree in bio-molecular sciences. Over the summer I worked in Dr. Michelle Crimi’s lab at Clarkson doing environmental research on the effects of activated persulfate on soil organic matter. Going into the fall semester, I continue to work in her lab to gain lab experience. I hope to go to a graduate school and gain my PhD in cancer pathology and prevention because I hope to work in a research lab doing cancer related research.

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Presentation Title: The Hydrologic Impact of Antecedent Soil Water Content and Straw Mulch on a Burned Area, Fourmile Canyon Wildfire Near Boulder, Colorado Discipline: Hydrology School: University of Minnesota Morris Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: The Hydrologic Impact of Antecedent Soil Water Content and Straw Mulch on a Burned Area, Fourmile Canyon Wildfire Near Boulder, Colorado 1 3 2 Carnicle, Melissa, M. , Ahlstrom, Anna K. , Moody, John A. th University of Minnesota Morris and RESESS internship at UNAVCO, 600 East 4 Street, Morris, MN 56267, carn0083@morris.umn.edu; Texas A&M University, Department of Geology & Geophysics, High Alpine and Arctic Research Program (HAARP), College Station, TX 77840 annakahlstrom@gmail.com; U.S. Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St. Suite E-127, Boulder, CO 80303, jamoody@usgs.gov

th

On September 6 , 2010, the Fourmile Canyon wildfire started to burn in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado. Areas burned by wildfires can be expected to have a different hydrologic response to rainfall (as a result of changes in the soil), than before the fire. Boulder County, in an effort to minimize the risk of flash floods in the canyon, aerially applied straw mulch on high-risk areas selected primarily by burn severity and slope (Fourmile Emergency Stabilization Team, 2010). The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of antecedent soil moisture and impact of straw on the hydrologic response, specifically runoff, of a burned area. Rainfall, runoff, soil water content, and straw runoff were investigated. Straw runoff was defined as the amount of rain that was not absorbed by the straw mulch. Paired plots were used to determine the magnitude of change (in runoff) induced by the addition of straw mulch on the scorched hillside. Volumetric soil water content and storm runoff were measured from two sets of bounded, paired plots (two control and two experimental plots). These plots were calibrated for 35 days starting in June, 2011.

Presenter: Melissa Carnicle Tribe: Oneida Nation of Wisconsin Primary Email: carn0083@morris.umn.edu Biography I am a junior at the University of Minnesota Morris studying Chemistry/Geology/Environmental Science. I am the co-chair of the American Indian Science and Engineering Society club and the student coordinator for the North Star STEM Alliance on campus.

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Presentation Title: Wind and Solar Power (WASP) – Solutions for a Sustainable Hawai`i Discipline: Engineering School: University of Hawai`i at Mnoa, College of Engineering Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Wind and Solar Power (WASP) – Solutions for a Sustainable Hawai`i L.M. Caspillo Aalona, K. Lopez, K. Ruiz, A. Macadamia, L. Nakamura, R. Olaguera, D. Russell, J. Tagal, R. Estrella, A. Hokoana, E. Mahaulu, C. Wilson Mentors: Dr. Mehrdad Nejhad, Michael Menendez University of Hawai`i at Mnoa, College of Engineering, Honolulu, HI

As the most fossil fuel dependent state in the nation, it is crucial to consider for Hawai`i alternate means of energy. The use of wind and solar power has proven to be an effective and readily available method of harnessing natural energy. The WASP system has been developed specifically for the purpose of capturing and utilizing the power of wind and solar energy, establishing the foundation for a clean, renewable energy infrastructure. The system utilizes a wind turbine and photovoltaic array for a completely independent source of naturally generated electric power. The stored energy can be used for multiple applications including agricultural operations, security systems, or even as emergency backup. To operate at optimal efficiency, the orientation and location of the array was determined through analysis of the available wind and sunlight in the target environment. For the storage of the harvested energy, the power storage system has been selected exclusively to collect, store, and provide in excess 3kWh-5kWh. To reduce the dependency of imported fossil fuels and orient towards a cleaner and more energy efficient future, developing the technology to effectively harness natural resources and establishing a greater level of self-sustainability is essential for Hawai`i.

Presenter: Leisha Marie Caspillo Aalona Primary Email: caspillo@hawaii.edu Biography Leisha Marie Caspillo Aalona is a Native Hawaiian undergraduate currently attending the College of Enginnering at the University of Hawai`i at Mnoa, pursuing her Bachelor's of Science Degree in Civil and Environmental Engineering. She is from Ho`olehua, Moloka`i, an island whose population is less than 10,000, and comes from a fishing and hunting `ohana (family).

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Presentation Title: Surface Soil Sampling From Re-Claimed Abandoned Uranium Mines - Tsetah Abandoned Mine Land Site Discipline: Environmental Science School: Dine School Shiprock, NM Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: Surface Soil Sampling From Re-Claimed Abandoned Uranium Mines - Tsetah Abandoned Mine Land Site Ernest Charley, Dine School Shiprock, NM

The impact of uranium mining reaches far beyond those affected by radioactivity - it is about land that may be impacted for future use. There are increased concerns of possible contaminates from heavy metals and radionuclide associated from abandoned uranium mines - they pose from serious public health to environmental concerns. Tsetah, a small community about 15 miles SW of the Four Corners, was mined from the early 1940's to 1970's. Though reclaimed in the 1990's, some are noted to still have problems due to erosion. The study's intention is to obtain soil samples from areas that many continue to be contaminated by uranium mining, deterioration of lands reclaimed, interaction between soil contamination and unregulated water sources and water quality, and to gain an increased knowledge and understanding of methods and equipment used to test soil. Results indicate alkalinic soil and, although results for heavy metals and radionuclide are still pending, it is evident that soil from an infected area is being used as cement aggregate for residential and community structures. In addition, radioactive materials are being introduced into main Tsetah wash and its tributaries. Concerned residents urge the continuation of the research.

Presenter: Ernest Charley Tribe: Navajo Primary Email: echarley@dinecollege.edu Biography Ernest is the first child to go to college in his family. Has lived on the Navajo Reservation most of life and would like to work for the tribe when he graduates.

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Presentation Title: Distance to Uncontrollability with Hermitian matrices Discipline: Mathematics School: University of Kansas Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: Distance to Uncontrollability with Hermitian matrices Cody Eugene, University of Kansas, Department of Mathematics

Controllability is a concept that plays a fundamental role in systems and control. If a system, (A, b), where A is a square matrix and b is a column vector, is controllable, how large a perturbation is necessary so that the resulting system is uncontrollable? This can algebraically be expressed by the distance to uncontrollability, which is a minimization problem over the complex field. We consider the distance problem with a special case when the matrix A is Hermitian. In this case, the system (A, b) is reduced the pair (ď€ƒ, z), where ď€ƒ is a real diagonal matrix. By using the real diagonal matrix structure we prove that when A is Hermitian, the search field for the minimization problem of the distance to uncontrollability is reduced to the real field. We observe the behavior of the secular equation and study the relationship between ď€ƒ and z to determine the minimizer using a combination of two methods.

Presenter: Eugene D. Cody Tribe: Hopi Primary Email: gene.cody@gmail.com Biography A native of Phoenix, Arizona, Eugene D. Cody found his interest in mathematics after completing a REU at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute in Berkeley, CA. As a math major at the University of Kansas (KU), Cody was able to conduct in-depth undergraduate research and extensively explore the theories of applied linear algebra and numerical analysis. Cody's current math research is aggressively combined with engineering in the topic of control and systems theory. Cody hopes to continue his research and plans to apply to a Ph.D program in Applied Mathematics.

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Presentation Title: Wildlife Linkages Discipline: Biology School: University of California Santa Barbara Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Wildlife Linkages Breana Dorame, UC Santa Barbara

Thousands of acres of open space surround UC Santa Barbara's campus and even though much effort has helped protect open spaces and promote conservation, habitat fragmentation still threatens the region's biodiversity. Currently there has been no comprehensive research conducted on the connectivity among the open spaces in the areas that surround UC Santa Barbara. This research established a georeferenced database of wildlife use of these areas over time, promoted road kill monitoring and increased public participation by having volunteers adopt and monitor priority roads to document road kill incidences, assessed current barrier crossings and identified areas where wildlife crossings could be improved. Fifty-six wildlife crossings (i.e. pipe culverts, bridge underpasses, etc.) were located and assessed. Over 300 museum specimens, primarily mammals, reptiles and amphibians were georeferenced and entered into ArcGIS for analysis. Community and student volunteers documented road kill incidences and preliminary results indicate several "road kill hotspots" within our study region. These "road kill hotspots" connect suitable habitat but wildlife-friendly crossings are missing. Additional data collection and analysis will continue and restoration projects will focus on improving areas that were identified. Maintaining or enhancing current wildlife linkages and creating new linkages where they are needed will improve the value of existing protected areas, reduce the risk of extinctions and help maintain regional biodiversity by connecting coastal habitat to the larger natural areas that surround Santa Barbara.

Presenter: Breana Dorame Tribe: Gabrielino/Tongva Primary Email: bdorame@umail.ucsb.edu Biography I am a third year undergraduate student at UC Santa Barbara. I am majoring in Biology with an emphasis in Zoology as well as minoring in American Indian and Indigenous Studies. I am affiliated with the Gabrielino/Tongva tribe of the Los Angeles area. I am hoping to attend graduate school and further my knowledge about wildlife biology.

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Presentation Title: Binding of CD47 and VEGFR2 Associated with Angiogenesis Discipline: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry School: Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Binding of CD47 and VEGFR2 Associated with Angiogenesis Rachelle Eddie, Nathaniel Jim, Sarah Young and Matthew Gage Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ

Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is key for developmental angiogenesis and a major drug target for inhibiting angiogenesis in cancer. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) was the first identified endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, but the mechanism underlying this activity is still unclear. TSP1 was recently discovered to inhibit NO signaling through a mechanism involving binding to receptor CD47, which constitutively binds VEGFR, the VEGF-A receptor, in an interaction that is disrupted upon binding of TSP1, rendering VEGFR inactive. Thus, TSP1 represents an outstanding new target for intervention in angiogenesis-dependent cancer proliferation, as well as for cardiovascular disease and wound healing abnormalities, but little is known about how it functions. The focus of this project is to identify the amino acids critical to this interaction using a FRET analysis system designed by the David Robert’s group. Mutations will be generated in the CD47 gene and their ability to disrupt the FRET signal will be used to determine critical amino acids involved in the interaction between CD47 and VEGFR2. It is hypothesized that this interaction is mediated by the extracellular Ig domain in CD47, which is the focus of this study. Preliminary data of 3T3 cells transfected with CD47-eGFP exhibits increased florescence at 520 nm. Further research is needed in discovering the functions and processes of CD47.

Presenter: Rachelle Eddie Tribe: Navajo Primary Email: rde8@nau.edu Biography My name is Rachelle Eddie. I attend Northern Arizona University, at Flagstaff, AZ as a junior. My major is chemistry with pre-health emphasis, and I will be obtaining a minor in Biology.

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Presentation Title: Hypoxic Zone of the Bellingham Bay Discipline: Native Environmental Science School: Northwest Indian College Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: Hypoxic Zone of the Bellingham Bay Vincent Feliciano, Northwest Indian College 2011 Summer Internship, Geosciences/Water Quality

This summer internship had two focal points; for the Geosciences we were to do a video production on the Tribal Canoe Journey, for the Water Quality we tested our local Bellingham Bay and the water ways of the San Juan Islands. In order to better understand the hypoxic zones of the Bellingham Bay and the ecology of the Salish Sea, we went out this summer on a research vessel to test these waters to develop a clearer understanding of what is happening in our local water ways. We tested the water for several different parameters: dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, and chlorophyll, testing these parameters are very vital to the status of the ecology of the Salish Sea and help us to develop a clearer picture. Our Geosciences was going to be video footage of Tribal Canoe Journey and interviews with indigenous elders who are leaders in their community. The focus was to achieve traditional knowledge of the Salish People on the environment and ecology of their ancestral territories. We wanted to bring into light also the continuation of culture through the youth and The Tribal Canoe Journey’s today.

Presenter: Vincent Feliciano Primary Email: vfeliciano@stu.nwic.edu Biography Vincent Feliciano is a native environmental science major at Northwest Indian College.

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Presentation Title: Low Cost Cathode Catalysis for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells. Discipline: Chemical Engineering School: University of Montana Presentation Type: Oral and Poster Presentations Abstract: Low Cost Cathode Catalysis for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells. Delilah Friedlander Dr. Di-Jia Liu Argonne National Laboratories.

Along with many other sustainable energy research groups at Argonne National Laboratories one group is currently researching proton exchange membrane fuel cells in hydrogen storage and catalysis. At present time one could run a car engine with the platinum based catalysts, but the automobile would market for around a million dollars. My research efforts primarily focused on finding lower cost catalysts that work as effectively as platinum based ones in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. My team at Argonne National Laboratories is currently investigating non-precious group metal catalysts. The catalysts are synthesized at Argonne then activated using diverse techniques such as acid treatments as well as heating under different temperatures, under different gasses and at different pressures. After the catalysts are synthesized and activated they are tested with Rotating Ring Disk electrodes instrumentation. Recent tests have proven some non-precious group metal catalysts effective and nearing the efficiency of that as platinum based catalysts. Repeated RDE tests have shown the number of electrons transferred, mass activity, and efficiency of these non-precious metal catalysts to start to mimic the platinum catalysts. Further research is imperative in this area of physical chemistry/engineering so that fuel cells can someday contribute to new forms of sustainable energy.

Presenter: Delilah Friedlander Tribe: Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes Primary Email: delilah.friedlander@umconnect.umt.edu Biography I grew up on the Flathead reservation in northwestern Montana. I will have completed my second bachelor's of science degree this winter, and hope to apply to graduate school soon. I definitely found a calling in research by working three consecutive summers with Argonne National Laboratories and hope that I can do research as a grad student in either fuel cell chemistry or batteries.

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Presentation Title: Geometric Optimization of a 2-D Heaving Body for Power Absorption Discipline: Mechanical Engineering School: University of Hawaii at Manoa Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Geometric Optimization of a 2-D Heaving Body for Power Absorption 1 1 1 R.E. Hager ; M. Teng, PhD ; and N. Fernandez 1 University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii The focus of this research is to advance the work related to optimizing the geometry of two-dimensional wave-buoy interactions. This was done through measuring wave excitation force on the buoy models and radiated wave amplitudes at infinity along the length of a wave flume. Unique from previous studies, this project utilizes an alternative method to measure power absorption efficiency. The experimental tests are based on the following equations derived from the potential wave theory: Equation 1.  

  

Equation 2.   

 

     

 

Currently, three of 8 different buoys have been tested under various wave conditions, which satisfy linear potential theory. The excitation force on the fixed buoy from an incident wave was measured in a flume with a load cell to calculate the radiated wave’s amplitude at positive infinity along the length. Rotating the buoy model 180 degrees yielded the radiated wave’s amplitude at negative infinity. Thus, power absorption efficiency was be calculated based on the measured excitation force data. Since the buoy’s geometry is the varying parameter, the added mass, damping, and spring coefficients were kept constant. This was attained by fixing the draft, waterline cross-sectional area, and wave conditions. Of the three tested shapes, the concave face was the most efficient at the experimental depths, 10.5 and 11 in. Further research would include testing a three-dimensional buoy with a larger wave flume. Rather than rotating the buoy 180 degrees, it would be rotated incrementally 360 degrees.

Presenter: Nelson Fernandez Tribe: Native Hawaiian Primary Email: nelsonif@hawaii.edu Biography Nelson Fernandez was born and raised in Hawaii. With paradise as his home it was no wonder that science fascinated him and even from an early age he showed a particular curiosity and predisposition for the world around him. Nelson’s college career has helped him focus his passions as a mechanical engineering undergraduate student. Engineering coupled with his love of the Hawaiian culture has helped him to live in both worlds. He is a member of the Native Hawaiian Science and Engineering Mentorship Program, SACNAS, and AISES. He plans to give back to these programs for the help and guidance.

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Presentation Title: Development of Paper Accelerometers for Cheap Applications Discipline: Mechanical Devices School: Blackfeet Community College Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Development of Paper Accelerometers for Cheap Applications Brendon Lee Gobert, Blackfeet Community College

The purpose of this project was to explore the use of paper as a micro electro-mechanical sensing device. A paper accelerometer was fabricated using a piezoresistive carbon ink and a conductive silver ink. Sensors were fabricated out of both bamboo and cellulose paper. The overall sensitivity of these micro electro-mechanical (MEMS) devices is approximately 120uN compared to a silicon accelerometer which is typically 80uN. Silicon MEMS devices are more time consuming and expensive to produce. The paper MEMS are cheap and easy to fabricate, often in less than one hour. Such MEMS devices can be easily employed in less developed countries.

Presenter: Brendon Lee Gobert Tribe: Blackfeet Primary Email: brendongobert@yahoo.com Biography Oki (Hello) my name is Brendon Gobert and my Indian name is Natopitdokomii (Two Eagle Thunder). I am from the Blackfeet tribe in Browning Montana, I am currently majoring in math and science at Blackfeet Community College. I was born and raised in Browning, Montana. I Was raised by my grandparents, until I was 12 years of age and then raised by my father. I graduated from Browning High School in the Class of 2009.

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Presentation Title: Detection of Phage DNA in the Hosts Genome During Lysogeny Discipline: Molecular Biology School: Salish Kootenai College Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Detection of Phage DNA in the Hosts Genome During Lysogeny Loretta Grey Cloud, Salish Kootenai College

Mycobacteriophages (phage) are viruses that need a bacterial host cell to reproduce. They infect the cell with its genome and then use the host’s machinery to carry out its life cycle. Interestingly some phages can enter a stage of life where it coexists within the host and is defined as lysogeny. The phage Sedona was discovered in 2008 at Salish Kootenai College and has not been previously characterized. The focus of this research is on the genetic characteristics of the Sedona lysogen. A growth curve shows that the Sedona lysogen grows very rapidly after an initial delay, as compared to 2 2 non-lysogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis mc 155 (M.s. mc 155). DNA was isolated from the lysogen and lytic phage. Primers were designed around the phage attP integration site based on other phages. Positive results were seen via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR); indicates detection of the attP site in 2 Sedona phage genome is possible. Primers were also designed around the M.s. mc 155 attB integration 2 site and detection of this site in its genome was also observed. Purification of the PCR products M.s. mc 155 attB and attP sites have been done and sent off for sequencing. Future work entails mixing primers to detect the integration site in the lysogen genome. After verification of Sedona integration into the hosts genome, it will be subjected to different stressful conditions to find out what will make the virus return to the lytic life cycle.

Presenter: Loretta Grey Cloud Tribe: Crow Creek Sioux Primary Email: lorettagreycloud@student.skc.edu Biography Han, A Wica Hde Pi Win, Loretta Grey Cloud Emakiyapi Ye. (Hello my name is “Brings Them Home Woman” or Loretta Grey Cloud) I am of Hunkpati Dakota Sioux and Kul Wicasa Sioux Blood. I am an enrolled member of the (Hunkpati) Crow Creek Sioux Tribe. I am also the young mother of two beautiful children. My daughter is 27 months and my son who is the baby is 16 months. I am a second year Life Science Major at Salish Kootenai College. My ultimate goal is to finish at SKC with my B.S. and get into Dental School.

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Presentation Title: Synthesis of Palladium-Tungsten Nanoparticles for Fuel Cell Electrocatalysis Discipline: Chemical Sciences & Engineering School: Argonne National Laboratory - Harry S. Truman College Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: Synthesis of Palladium-Tungsten Nanoparticles for Fuel Cell Electrocatalysis Jordan Gurneau, Argonne National Laboratory - Harry S. Truman College

Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) at the cathode electrode is one of the most important reactions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Platinum (Pt) and platinum alloys are the most studied electrocatalysts with high ORR catalytic activity and stability. However, the cost of platinum is very high and also the natural reserves are limited. Therefore, many efforts have focused on the development of less expensive alternatives to platinum with comparable or enhanced oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalytic activity. One approach is to replace platinum with other catalytically-active noble metals and to alloy the noble metals with base metals to both enhance their activity, through modification of their electronic structure, and to reduce the overall catalyst cost. Palladium (Pd) alloyed with base metals such as tungsten (W) have been predicted, through theoretical calculations, to modify the electronic structure of palladium leading to enhancement of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and catalyst stability. Colloidal preparation methods that utilize organic capping agents offer an attractive approach to prepare catalyst nanoparticles with controlled particle size and shape and or morphology. Palladium acetate (Pd(OAc)2) and tungsten-hexacarbonyl (W(CO)6) were the metal precursors, oleylamine and oleic acid were the capping agents, and ortho-xylene was the solvent. Formation of Pd-W o alloy particles was achieved at relatively low temperatures highest at 135 C. The resulting alloy particles were supported on carbon black using simple solution mixing and solvent removal, followed by heat treatment to remove the organic capping and activate the catalyst particles for fuel cell reactions.

Presenter: Jordan Gurneau Tribe: St. Croix Chippewa Primary Email: jlgurneau@gmail.com Biography Jordan Gurneau is a 21 yr old Ojibwe enrolled in the St. Croix Chippewas of Wisconsin and is also a descendant of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians. He is a student at Harry S. Truman College studying Mechanical Engineering, Jordan plans to pursue a PhD. Being born and raised in Chicago, Jordan is part of the urban Native American community. He finished his second year at an internship at Argonne National Laboratory in the Fuel Cells group, his work from the previous year is being continued in the second year of research.


Presentation Title: Male-male Aggressive Interactions in the Emerald Glass Frog (Espadarana prosoblepon) Discipline: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology School: University of Colorado at Boulder Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: Male-male Aggressive Interactions in the Emerald Glass Frog (Espadarana prosoblepon) 1 2 Hayden Hedman University of Colorado at Boulder, Dr. Myra Hughey Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Determining the factors influencing the outcome of male-male aggressive interactions increases our understanding of their likelihood of achieving reproductive success. Male-male aggressive behavior in the emerald glass frog (Espadarana prosoblepon) and its underlying causes were studied at Las Cruces Biological Station, Costa Rica, during July 2011. Male E. prosoblepon have a structure called a humeral hook, which is a bony spine projecting from the humerus, which may act as a weapon during male-male combat. In this study, we (1) surveyed male abundance nightly for approximately 3 weeks, (2) quantified variation in male body size and humeral hook size, and (3) assessed fighting behavior of males placed in an experimental arena. We investigated how size of the humeral hook and male body size influenced the outcome of aggressive interactions. Male abundance varied nightly, as did the likelihood that males placed together would fight. Aggressive interactions ranged from calling to extended wrestling bouts. Male abundance and fighting may be correlated with daily weather patterns. Male body size and the size of the humeral spine varied considerably between individuals; however, additional data are needed to understand the relationship between these traits and fighting ability. This research is pertinent for understanding the influence of male traits on the reproductive success of E. prosoblepon and its overall natural history.

Key words: Anura, Sexual secondary characteristics, male-male combat, humeral spine

Presenter: Hayden Hedman Tribe: Cherokee Nation Primary Email: hayden.hedman@colorado.edu Biography Hayden Hedman is a junior studying ecology and evolutionary biology at University of Colorado at Boulder. His interests vary from hiking, punk concerts, and playing with his turtles. Hayden’s interest in ecology has sent him all over the Caribbean and recently, Costa Rica. Hayden was a member of the 2011 Native American and Pacific Islander Research Experience (NAPIRE). The program not only offered Hayden the opportunity to study amphibian behavior but also visit indigenous territories. As a Native ecologist, Hayden aspires to decrease the gap between ecological research and indigenous communities.

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Presentation Title: Binding of CD47 and VEGFR2 Associated with Angiogenesis Discipline: Biology School: ¹Department of Biology, San Juan College, Farmington NM, ²Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract:

Binding of CD47 and VEGFR2 Associated with Angiogenesis 1 2 Nathaniel Jim , Matthew J. Gage , Ph.D. ¹Department of Biology, San Juan College, Farmington NM, ²Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ

Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is key for developmental angiogenesis and a major drug target for inhibiting angiogenesis in cancer. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) was the first identified endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, but the mechanism underlying this activity is still unclear. TSP1 was recently discovered to inhibit NO signaling through a mechanism involving binding to receptor CD47, which constitutively binds VEGFR, the VEGF-A receptor, in an interaction that is disrupted upon binding of TSP1, rendering VEGFR inactive. Thus, TSP1 represents an outstanding new target for intervention in angiogenesis-dependent cancer proliferation, as well as for cardiovascular disease and wound healing abnormalities, but little is known about how it functions. The focus of this project is to identify the amino acids critical to this interaction using a FRET analysis system designed by the David Robert’s group. Mutations will be generated in the CD47 gene and their ability to disrupt the FRET signal will be used to determine critical amino acids involved in the interaction between CD47 and VEGFR2. It is hypothesized that this interaction is mediated by the extracellular Ig domain in CD47, which is the focus of this study. Preliminary data of 3T3 cells transfected with CD47-eGFP exhibits increased florescence at 520 nm. Further research is needed in discovering the functions and processes of CD47.

Presenter: Nathaniel Jim Tribe: Navajo Primary Email: nathanieljim@yahoo.com Biography Greetings I am Nathaniel Jim. I am majoring in biology at San Juan College a two year institution in Farmington, NM. I intend on transferring to a four-year university where I will earn a bachelor’s of science in Biology, then continue to graduate school to earn my medical doctor’s degree. My career plans are to work as a biochemist researching cancers and viruses. Furthermore I have been obligated to experience the Native American Cancer Prevention (NACP) internship researching the processes by which viruses and diseases are organized and studied. I am working toward a protein based cancer research occupation.

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Presentation Title: The Effect of Sensory Pollution on Animal Reproductive Behavior Discipline: Biology - Behavioral Ecology School: Augustana College Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: The Effect of Sensory Pollution on Animal Reproductive Behavior Christina H. Johnson, Courtney L. Moore, Daniel R. Howard, Carrie L. Hall; Augustana College Department of Biology

Wind turbines are becoming increasingly common throughout the U.S. as sources of alternative energy, and are known to produce substrate-borne (seismic) vibrations due to the motion of the rotors. The American burying beetle is an endangered beetle species that uses vertebrate carrion as its main food and breeding source. Adults of this species are thought to communicate with the larvae through stridulatory vibrations, and thus, a noisy subsoil environment could affect parent-offspring communication. We investigated the following questions: (1) do wind turbine-induced seismic vibrations influence the choice to breed on a carrion source? (2) do these low frequency vibrations influence carrion burial latency? and (3) do wind turbine-induced vibrations influence fecundity? We hypothesized that seismic noise would interfere with reproduction in the species, and would result in reduced fecundity and increased latency to breed. We used laser doppler vibrometry to record the vibrations produced by a representative wind turbine, and produced playbacks through an electromagnetic driver attached to a breeding chamber. Our results show that while parental beetles continue to mate and reproduce in the presence of vibrational noise, they take significantly longer to do so. No effect on fecundity was detected, however. We conclude that vibrational noise produced by wind turbines may in some cases constrain reproduction in this species.

Presenter: Christina Johnson Tribe: Sault St. Marie Ojibwe Primary Email: chjohnson09@ole.augie.edu Biography My name is Christina Johnson, and I am a junior biology major at Augustana College in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. I am interested in ecology and hope to attend graduate school after graduation. I am currently working on a research project in integrative animal behavior. I am performing this research voluntarily with other undergraduate students under the supervision of Dr. Daniel R. Howard, an assistant biology professor at Augustana College. We are examining the influence of vibrational noise on the reproductive behavior of an endangered insect species. I look forward to presenting my research at the 2011 AISES National Conference.

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Presentation Title: Platform Design for a Next Generation Adaptive Optics Laser Infrastructure on the W.M. Keck II Telescope Discipline: Mechanical Engineering School: University of Hawaii at Manoa Presentation Type: Oral & Poster Presentations Abstract: Platform Design for a Next Generation Adaptive Optics Laser Infrastructure on the W.M. Keck II Telescope Sean R. Jones, University of Hawai’i at Manoa W.M. Keck Observatory Mentors: Shawn Callahan, Jason Chin, Bill Randolph

The W.M. Keck Observatory, a pair of 10-meter telescopes atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii, is developing a Next Generation Adaptive Optics (NGAO) System. NGAO instruments, such as lasers, provide sharper images and viewing of fainter objects. The goal of this project is to design a sub-platform under the Right Nasmyth deck of the Keck II telescope to support components for NGAO. These include three laser electronics cabinets and a dedicated heat exchanger to cool the electronics. The platform location, size, shape, and component placement must accommodate numerous design constraints. For instance, the platform must support the weight of the components, all components must be accessible by at least one meter of clearance for maintenance plus have an installation plan, and the laser electronics enclosures must be less than 6.0 meters away from the telescope’s cable-wrap. Furthermore, the sub-platform and components must be able to withstand seismic activities on Mauna Kea, adhere to all OSHA requirements and International Building Codes. Multiple design iterations were modeled using 3-D computer-aided design software, and a final optimal design was selected. A support frame and its connections to the telescope frame were designed, followed by safety railings and cable trays. The design was analyzed for deflections and structural integrity using finite element analysis software, and the platform support frame was found to have a factor of safety of 5.87. This platform design will support the Keck Observatory in the development of NGAO, keeping Keck as a leader in astronomical research and discoveries.

Presenter: Sean Jones Tribe: Seminole Primary Email: jonessr@hawaii.edu Biography Sean Jones is a senior in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Hawai‘i at Mnoa and a member of the Native Hawaiian Science Engineering Mentorship Program (NHSEMP). While attending college, he works part-time as a lifeguard and is certified by the American Red Cross in lifesaving, first aid, and CPR. Sean received a 2010 Malolo award in academic achievement for maintaining a semester GPA of 3.0 and made the Dean’s List for the Spring 2011 semester. He is a four-year regional champion in in-line hockey and lives in Mililani, Hawai‘i, with his family.

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Presentation Title: Automated Calculation of Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Parameter Correction Exponents Discipline: Mechanical Engineering/ Computer Science School: Rochester Institute of Technology Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: Automated Calculation of Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Parameter Correction Exponents Caitlin Kavanaugh, Rochester Institute of Technology

Aircraft gas turbine engines are air-breathing, and their aero-thermodynamic performance is heavily affected by inlet total temperature and pressure conditions. In order to compare engine performance data obtained from different operating points, ambient conditions need to be taken into account. This is typically done by applying parameter correction, in which each engine performance measurement is adjusted by defined scale factors based on the ratio between current ambient conditions and defined baseline ambient conditions. These ratios, and corresponding exponent adjustments, produce the correction factors applied to relate engine data collected at any operating point to the baseline operating condition. This reduces variance in engine measurement data, thus enabling more accurate comparison. It also helps to simplify engine controls and performance analysis algorithms. Often, parameter correction is performed by using defined standard parameter correction exponents, which does not always provide the ideal correction for each individual engine model. The motivation behind this project was to develop and apply a technique to automatically calculate the ideal parameter correction exponent values for individual gas turbine engines. This is a data-driven approach, and the calculated exponents are based on user-provided data sets. Results from the application of this technique to three different engine models will be presented. As a comparison, the correction exponents calculated by the developed approach are compared to the conventional parameter correction exponents to assess their relative accuracy.

Presenter: Caitlin Kavanaugh Tribe: Kahnawake Mohawk Primary Email: cnk9482@rit.edu Biography I am a junior honors student at RIT. I have made Dean's List 4/6 quarters I have been at RIT, and I work for the Future Stewards Program, which works to assist the Native American population on campus. This past summer I worked on a NASA research project, programming in Python and MATLAB. I'm Vice President of the Rochester Institute Technology chapter of AISES, and I'm also President of the RIT Native American Student Association.

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Presentation Title: Solids Handling Modifications: Grand Forks Wastewater Treatment Plant Discipline: Civil Engineering School: North Dakota State University Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: Solids Handling Modifications: Grand Forks Wastewater Treatment Plant Anthony LaFontain, North Dakota State University

In the summer of 2003, the City of Grand Forks, North Dakota opened the Grand Forks Waste Water Treatment Facility (WWTF). Located in northeastern North Dakota, the facility serves the city of Grand Forks and surrounding areas, treating approximately seven million gallons per day (of which a large amount stemming from major food industries). The Grand Forks WWTF is classified as a high-level activated sludge (HLAS) plant. Currently, the Waste Activated Sludge is being pumped to an onsite lagoon, and with the addition of twenty-percent of the plant’s raw wastewater, the lagoon is classified as a treatment process. Without this bypass, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would classify the lagoon as a surface disposal site and would require extensive environmental monitoring. With the bypass, the lagoon accumulates and excess of solids leading to operational difficulties. Neither option is a long term solution for the facility. Due to this temporary nature of the plant’s current WAS process, a permanent solution is needed. To meet this challenge, the North Dakota State University WEFTEC design team is prepared to provide the City of Grand Forks, ND with a solution to their solids handling problem.

Presenter: Anthony LaFontain Tribe: Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Primary Email: anthony.lafontain@gmail.com Biography Anthony LaFontain is from a small town in North Dakota. Growing up in rural ND bequeathed great work ethic, while his parents exposed him to various places and people to expand his understanding and view of the world around him. Presently he is a Civil Engineering student at NDSU, focusing on water resources and environmental, while working 25 or more hours a week as a prep cook at the local Olive Garden. He is an active member of the following student organizations: ASCE, Native American Student Association, and President of the AISES, and former Secretary of AWWA/WEF.

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Presentation Title: Survey of Amphibian and Reptile Blood Parasites; Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana Discipline: Environmental Science School: Salish Kootenai College Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Survey of Amphibian and Reptile Blood Parasites; Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana Gary Lesser, Salish Kootenai College

Knowledge of amphibian and reptile diseases has become increasingly important in the face of catastrophic die-offs, declining populations, dwindling habitat, and the introduction of exotic pathogens. The most notable is the chytrid fungus infections which are responsible for various declines worldwide. The disappearance of the Northern Leopard Frog in western Montana in the 1970’s and 1980’s may well be due to this pathogen. In many instances, pathogens appear to be interacting with other environmental factors such as herbicides and pesticides to lower the animal’s immune system making them more susceptible to die-offs. Although catastrophic die-offs have been most associated with fungal and viral infections, trematodes are the causative agent in amphibian limb deformities including those observed in Montana. The protozoan blood parasites are one group of organisms that have received little attention among parasitologists/herpetologists in Montana. A 3 year project began in 2011 to collect blood samples from approximately 350 amphibians and reptiles covering most areas of the state to survey for hematozoan parasites (Hemogregarine and Trypanosome). Initial findings from xx number of amphibians and xx number of reptiles have shown no parasites present within the samples collected on the Flathead Indian Reservation in North Western Montana

Presenter: Gary Lesser Tribe: Colville Primary Email: garylesser@student.skc.edu Biography Gary Lesser is a junior in the Environmental science program at Salish Kootenai College. He is the secretary of the AISES chapter at SKC.

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Presentation Title: Mating System Evolution: Correlation Between Seed Set and Physiology Discipline: Ecology and Evolution School: University of California, Santa Barbara Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Mating System Evolution: Correlations Between Seed Set and Physiology Anthony Linarez, Dr. Susan Mazer, Dr. Leah Dudley

In wild plant species, there are few studies that have directly linked physiological rates to fitness. Here, we explore relationships between plant physiology and plant fitness in two wild annual species in the family Clarkia, Clarkia unguiculata and Clarkia xantiana. Because fruits are carbon sinks, we expect that plants that are photosynthesizing at higher rates would have higher fitness. In addition, because there is a morphological constraint in which stoma that control carbon uptake also permits water loss, plants that have higher photosynthetic rates are expected to have higher transpiration rates. Therefore, higher transpiration rates should also be correlated with higher fitness. The ratio of carbon gain to water loss is an indicator of how efficient plants are with their water (WUEi). WUE is a little more difficult to predict because there are two plausible scenarios. The first being that plants with high WUE could have higher fitness because they are more water efficient in a water-limited environment. On the other hand, plants with low WUE may be taking advantage of water resources available early in the season. Plant fitness was estimated using seed set, measured from one fruit per plant. For C. xantiana, transpiration was positively correlated with seed set; plants with higher transpiration rates had higher seed set. Then, for C. unguiculata, WUE was positively correlated with seed set. Future work in which we control for position at which the fruit was formed, may decrease ontogenetic noise and thus reveal patterns hidden in the present study.

Presenter: Anthony Linarez Tribe: Mono Primary Email: alinarez12@yahoo.com Biography I am a fourth year Ecology and Evolution major at the University of California, Santa Barbara. It is my second year as president of our AISES chapter. I am Mono Indian from North Fork Rancheria in California. I am the oldest of five and the first to go straight into a four-year university in my family. My research deals with looking at the correlations between physiology and fitness in two wild annual flower species, Clarkia xantiana ssp. xantiana and Clarkia unguiculata, but it is only part of a larger project looking at the evolution of self-pollination in these species.

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Presentation Title: Investigating Schooling Behavior in the Cavefish Astyanax mexicanus Discipline: Genetics School: Harvard Medical School Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Investigating Schooling Behavior in the Cavefish Astyanax mexicanus Zack McDonald, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK Mentors: Nicholas Rohner, PhD; Cliff Tabin, PhD Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Our study seeks to investigate the ability to swim in a school in the blind cavefish species Astyanax mexicanus using QTL analysis in a F2 incross of a surface and a cave fish. As eye size and the ability to see vary in the hybrids, it is critical to address the vision capacity in the F2 population under study. We transferred single fish of the F2 progeny into a tank and recorded for five minutes using a camera mounted directly above the tank. We analyzed the videos afterward and recorded the period of time that each fish spent in the light region of the tank versus the dark. The assay was successful in identifying and quantifying the F2 progeny that can see. We found that approximately 50% of the fish preferred the dark region of the tank. A number of fish spent between 40% and 60% of their time in the dark. By determining which fish exhibit a scototaxic response to light exposure, we now know which fish to include in future studies. It is the population that has functional vision but that did not school according to previously collected data that will be used in QTL analysis. This project is aimed at locating the chromosomal site of mutation responsible for the loss of schooling behavior in the cave morph.

Presenter: Zack McDonald Tribe: Choctaw Primary Email: zackmcdonald@ou.edu Biography McDonald is a sophomore zoology and international studies double major at the University of Oklahoma pursuing a career as a physician. His research took place in the Department of Genetics at Harvard Medical School in the summer of 2011 where he represented the Choctaw Nation in the Four Directions Summer Research Program. His medical interests include American Indian health disparities and international public health. At OU, Zack is an Honors Undergraduate Research Assistant, regularly volunteers at Manos Juntas, a free clinic for the uninsured, and has traveled on a medical mission trip to Honduras with OU Global Medical Brigades.

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Presentation Title: Expression Analysis of Genes Encoding Members of a Ciliary Central Pair Protein Complex Discipline: Reproductive and Cellular Biology School: Augustana College Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Expression Analysis of Genes Encoding Members of a Ciliary Central Pair Protein Complex Taylor Maier1,2, Casey McKenzie3, Andrew Cardillo3and Lance Lee3 1Department of Biology, Augustana College, Sioux Falls, SD 57197; 2Sanford Program for Undergraduate Research (SPUR), Sanford Research USD, Sioux Falls, SD 57104; 3Sanford Children’s Health Research Center, Sanford Research USD, Sioux Falls, SD 57104

Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by the dysfunction of motile cilia motility. It was discovered that three proteins that associate with the central pair complex were regulating cilia beating in the single-cell organism Chlamydomonas. The homologous genes to these were previously uncharacterized in mammals. Thus, the research featured in this poster was the first characterization of these genes, in their murine homologs. The goal of this experiment was to analyze expression levels of these genes in mice, one group of which were mutants who had a PCD phenotype and the other a wild-type control group. To examine expression levels qPCR, Taqman approach, was recorded on seven different tissues from each mouse. The tissues were selected to give a sampling of both motile ciliated and non-ciliated tissues. Preliminary data taken has suggested that the murine homologs do in fact play an important role in motile cilia beating. This could have major implications because it is likely that if these genes play a role in ciliated tissue of mice then they will also be important in mammalian motile ciliated tissues as a whole.

Presenter: Taylor Maier Tribe: Rosebud Sioux Tribe Primary Email: tmmaier09@ole.augie.edu Biography My name is Taylor M. Maier and I am a junior at Augustana College in Sioux Falls, SD. I am a biology (pre-dentistry) major and hope to attend dental school after graduating from Augustana in 2013. I was born and attened high school in Pierre, SD. I am a member of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe here in South Dakota and hope to practice dentistry on my reservation someday.

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Presentation Title: Application of Artificial Neural Networks for Forecasting Groundwater Levels Following a Dam Removal, Milltown Montana Discipline: Hydrology School: Salish Kootenai College Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Application of Artificial Neural Networks for Forecasting Groundwater Levels Following a Dam Removal, Milltown Montana Ashley M. Marks, Salish Kootenai College

Fifty percent of the world’s population depends upon groundwater as their main source of drinking water. One quarter of the world’s people live in areas characterized by physical water scarcity, making competition for water resources. Scarcity of groundwater affects the entire world. Tools that forecast groundwater levels have been progressively developed over time, from the Boussinesq equation in 1871 to present day. However, complex 3D numerical flow models are the standard for determining groundwater behavior in most settings and often require excessive fieldwork, data collection, expense, and computational expertise. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been successfully used in other disciplines as a more practical and cost effective alternative for predicting outcomes dependent on multiple, complex, varying inputs. This research investigates the utility of ANNs to forecast groundwater levels from common data acquired on national databases. Groundwater derived domestic water supplies were recently affected by the removal of the 28 ft Milltown Dam in Montana. A temporary 12 ft drawdown resulted in the drying of many wells. This prompted a one million dollar well replacement response by the EPA to proactively protect water supplies in the 500+ domestic wells proximal to the reservoir. ANN’s can be an invaluable tool for forecasting groundwater behavior and this study has successfully applied them to predict groundwater levels with the same accuracy as standard 3D modeling. This research shows managers that an effective strategy to forecast groundwater wells following a dam removal would be to initially use a planned drawdown in combination with an ANN.

Presenter: Ashley M. Marks Tribe: Choctaw Primary Email: ashleymarks@student.skc.edu Biography Ashley Marks is a junior in the Hydrology Program at SKC. Ashley is also the president of the newly reestablished AISES chapter at SKC, she hopes to start the chapter back up and keep it going for future students. Ashley has worked on her project now for over a year and a half and is very proud of her work.

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Presentation Title: Empowering the Community in Participatory Research towards Restoring Blueberries on the Lac Courte Oreilles Reservation Discipline: Biological Science School: Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwa Community College Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Empowering the Community in Participatory Research towards Restoring Blueberries on the Lac Courte Oreilles Reservation Carla Miller, Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwa Community College

The overall project assists student research interest and community participation. The project gives students the opportunity to focus on research projects within the thematic direction of blueberries. Many people in the community are culturally sensitive to the survival of this plant. Due to the decline in blueberry population this research study is well needed; being that it is used in ceremonies, a healthynatural food, and has been the main staple of the Ojibwe diet in the past. This project utilizes Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) which provides opportunity research for students. With the assistance of the elders in our community we are able to gather knowledge on the habitat these plants needed to survive. Voluntarily information was provided by community members on various locations of blueberry plants and how large areas were maintained in the past. By focusing on scientific education and given the opportunity to develop research skills as a student I expect to enhance my understanding of scientific inquiry as well as bringing awareness to the community.

Presenter: Carla Miller Tribe: Lac Courte Oreilles Primary Email: millcarl9821@lco.edu Biography Carla Miller was raised on the Lac Courte Oreilles Reservation near Hayward, WI. She has noticed a decline/or rapid change in the environment and chose to attend Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwa Community College (LCOOCC). She is majoring in Agriculture/Natural Resource Management with an emphasis in Renewable Energy and will graduate in May 2012. Carla worked as a biological technician student intern for LCOOCC during the summer of 2011; which has brought her more awareness and she will continue a blueberry research project during fall/spring semesters 2011-2012.

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Presentation Title: Cultivation and Characterization of Novel Extremophilic Algae for Biofuel Production Discipline: Science School: Little Big Horn College - MSU-Bozeman Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Cultivation and Characterization of Novel Extremophilic Algae for Biofuel Production Athalia Rose Morrsion , Little Big Horn College - MSU-Bozeman

The use of microalgae for the production of biofuels is in the spotlight due to a reputation for high photosynthetic efficiency, rapid growth rates, high oil productivity and potential for growth in saline or brackish waters in landscapes not suited for crop production. Research and engineering efforts are now focused on overcoming a variety of hurdles to reduce production costs to attain economic viability. Extremophilic algae have unique attributes that can potentially be used to overcome some of the problems associated with biofuel production. The objectives of this research were to characterize three novel alkaliphilic algal strains that have been isolated from Yellowstone National Park. Of the three strains examined, PGV-8 showed the most promise for scaled-up biofuel production based on growth rate and oil production as measured by Nile Red fluorescent staining.

Presenter: Athalia Rose Morrsion Tribe: Crow Primary Email: arrockabove@yahoo.com

Biography My name is Athalia Rose Morrison and my parents are Harry and Maggie Rock Above. I graduated from Plenty Coups High School from Pryor, Montana. I come from a prominent lineage such as Chief Pretty Eagle and Chief Plenty Coup and Pretty Shield. I am a Ties In The Bundle Clan and Child of the Big Lodge System. I have two other siblings that are educated as well. I am happily married with five wonderful children. I lived in Pryor my whole life until I got married and moved on. I will be getting my Associates in Natural Resources/Environment Science by the end of this spring. In the future I will be pursuing my education in Missoula in Natural Resource Management.

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Presentation Title: Quantification of the Human SMN Spliced Variant by qPCR Discipline: Molecular Biology School: Iowa State University Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: Quantification of the Human SMN Spliced Variant by qPCR 1 2 2 Alexandra Myhal , Eric Ottesen , and Dr. Ravindra Singh 1 University of Minnesota, Morris and Biomedical Science Division of the College of Veterinary Medicine, 2 Iowa State University

This experiment was undertaken to determine the relative abundance of several spliced isoforms of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene. We focused on skipping of exon 7, which is associated with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). The SMN gene is present in two copies, SMN1 and SMN2, which are differentially spliced. SMA occurs when SMN2 is the only gene present, as it cannot compensate for the loss of SMN1 due to increased skipping of exon 7. Spliced isoforms were studied in neuronal SHSY-5Y cells treated with PBS, and cells treated with paraquat. Previous research has shown that cells exposed to paraquat exhibit conditions of oxidative stress. We isolated the RNA from each of the cell types and conducted assays using it as a template. Each assay used a specific primer set designed to anneal to particular exon-exon junctions to distinguish certain isoforms. We performed RT-PCR on neuronal SHSY5Y cells to estimate isoform quantity. We ran multiple qPCR assays for each isoform and determined the relative quantity and absolute quantity for each assay. Results showed increased skipping of exon 7, exon 5, and exons 5 and 7 together under conditions of oxidative stress. Our findings underscore a possible correlation between exon 5 and exon 7, as these were more susceptible to co-skipping under oxidative stress.

Presenter: Alexandra Myhal Tribe: The Sault Ste Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians Primary Email: myhal001@morris.umn.edu Biography My name is Alexandra Myhal and I am enrolled in the Sault Ste Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians. I’m from Cleveland, Ohio and currently a sophomore at the University of Minnesota Morris. My major course of study is biology and a minor in American Indian studies. On campus I participate in the women’s cross country and track team, Academic Fee Review Committee, and AISES. In my extra time, I volunteer at the local humane society and community meal. My future goals are to help the Native American community through the human-animal bond and as a mentor for aspiring college students.

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Presentation Title: A Minority of the Minority: Native Americans and STEM Outreach Programs Discipline: Biotechnology School: Rochester Institute of Technology Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: A Minority of the Minority: Native Americans and STEM Outreach Programs Tanner Newcomb, Rochester Institute of Technology

Despite the existence of many programs designed to increase the number of minority status students pursuing degrees in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) the dropout rates for Native Americans, Hispanics and African-Americans in these areas are substantially higher than those for Caucasians or Asians. We link the literature concerning minority success in STEM to the access programs currently being implemented and discuss the degree to which they align. Special attention is given to the relationship between these programs and Native Americans pursuing degrees in STEM.

Presenter: Tanner Newcomb Tribe: Blackfoot Primary Email: ton1603@rit.edu Biography Tanner Newcomb is a third year Biotechnolgy, with a concentration in Native American Science and Technology student at Rochester Institute of Technology in Rochester, NY. He plans to graduate and pursue graduate work in higher education and/or genetic engineering.

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Presentation Title: The Future in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technology Discipline: Engineering School: University of Hawai'i at Manoa Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: The Future in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technology Authors: Kaleo Norman, Joshua Shigemitsu Mentors: Dr. Mehrdad Nejhad, Michael Menendez University of Hawaii at Mnoa College of Engineering, Honolulu, HI

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft that can be controlled remotely or autonomously. This technology has been used primarily in the military for reconnaissance and strike missions that are deemed to hazardous for manned aircrafts. The application of utilizing UAV’s towards STEM fields has not been fully explored. The goal of this project was to demonstrate the impact UAV can have in both STEM research and commercial application. An autonomous UAV was built with its direct application of surveying and mapping terrain on the Island of O`ahu. The engineering process was used to accomplish this project. This involved designing in Solid works, performing Finite Element Analysis, Fabrication and Testing. The final result for the project was an autonomous and remote controlled UAV that is capable of surveying as well as collecting aerial images. The UAV was designed with flying wing airframe fabricated from laminated E.P.P (Expanded Polypropylene) reinforced with carbon fiber spars to withstand rough flying conditions. It is controlled autonomously by an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) autopilot. The versatility of UAV’s allows for much more than surveying; possible future uses include real time weather data, search and rescue, and STEM research and data sampling. In conclusion the use of UAV technology provides limitless opportunities that can be used in STEM research.

Presenter: Kaleo Norman Primary Email: kknorman@hawaii.edu Biography My name is Kaleo Norman. I'm Native Hawaiian and was born and raised in Ewa Beach, Hawai'i. I'm currently attending school at the University of Hawai'i where I'm studying to be an Electrical Engineer. I also work part time as a high school math tutor and am a student member of the Native Hawaiian Science & Engineering Mentorship Program. My goals in life are to help the environment in any way that will build sustainability and efficiency, as well as showing the Hawaiian culture and its values.

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Presentation Title: A Drosophila Model of Glaucoma Discipline: Genetics School: North Carolina State University Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: A Drosophila Model of Glaucoma James C Oxendine, North Carolina State University

Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions responsible for the damage of the optic nerve and is the second leading cause of blindness due to death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC). Mutations in the protein myocilin (MYOC) have been associated with congenital glaucoma and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Mutations in myocilin can result in misfolded protein leading to its accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and consequently RGC death. To alleviate ER-stress, the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway is activated which reduces accumulations of misfolded MYOC protein. In this project, Drosophila melanogaster is used as a model for the development of glaucoma, by over-expressing human wild-type or mutant MYOC (D380N, K423E, Q368X and R342K) in the Drosophila eye. With the treatments of sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) and myo-inositol, two chemical chaperones, we aim to alleviate MYOC aggregation, reduce ER-stress and improve phototaxis behavior. We will use two analytical techniques, the western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, to quantify protein and transcriptional changes in the UPR pathway. If there are changes in the UPR pathways, the study will lay a basis for further experiments and treatment possibilities for glaucoma in humans.

Presenter: James C Oxendine Tribe: Lumbee Primary Email: jcoxendi@ncsu.edu Biography James C Oxendine is a member of the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina. Originally from Pembroke, NC, he now lives in Raleigh where he attends North Carolina State University. He is a senior, planning to graduate May 2012 with a BA in Psychology. He is currently applying for graduate school to study to become a clinical heath psychologist.

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Presentation Title: How Does Prozac Really Work? The Use of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) in Testing Fluoxetine Drug Actions. Discipline: Zoology School: North Carolina State University Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: How Does Prozac Really Work? The Use of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) in Testing Fluoxetine Drug Actions. Sarah Oxendine, North Carolina State University

Stress/anxiety disorders are one of the leading causes for morbidity and mortality in today’s society. Zebrafish are excellent tools for anxiety research since they share strong homologies to humans in important respects, are relatively inexpensive and easy to maintain, and are very amenable to genetic manipulation. Fluoxetine, a popular anxiolytic drug, better known as Prozac, has two known stereoisomers, R and S. It is widely believed that the R stereoisomer, which acts on serotonin, is responsible for Fluoxetine’s anxiolytic effects. The S stereoisomer, which acts on Gabaergic mechanisms, is not as thoroughly researched. Utilizing a Novel Tank Diving Test (NTDT) apparatus, zebrafish anxietyrelated behaviors were observed after introduction of the animals into a stressful environment. Prior to testing, the fish were administered 200µl of 33µg/µl R or R/S stereoisomer Fluoxetine for two weeks. The fish were placed into the novel tank and allowed to roam for six minutes. Alarm Substance was added immediately after and the fish were tested for six additional minutes. The durations of time spent in the top vs. the bottom of the tank and the time spent stationary were recorded. We hypothesize that the anxiolytic effects of Fluoxetine are largely due to Gabaergic mechanisms. We anticipate that by determining the true stereoisomer action mechanism for Fluoxetine, the drug specific mechanism will be better understood. This is essential for effectively treating stress/anxiety related disorders.

Presenter: Sarah Oxendine Tribe: Lumbee Primary Email: seoxendi@ncsu.edu Biography Sarah Oxendine is a senior at North Carolina State University. She is majoring in Zoology and minoring in Animal Science. She is a member of the Lumbee tribe and grew up in Pembroke, NC. Sarah is the CoPresident of the Beta Chapter of Sigma Omicron Epsilon Sorority, Inc., an American Indian sorority. She is the daughter of Allen and Sharon Oxendine. Upon graduating in May, Sarah will pursue a DVM. After graduating from vet school, she will return home to Pembroke to work for her people.

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Presentation Title: The Preservation of the Historical Veteran’s Memorial Wall Discipline: Structural Engineering School: Oglala Lakota College Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: The Preservation of the Historical Veteran’s Memorial Wall Lester Richards, Oglala Lakota College

OSSPEEC (OLC/SDSU/SDSMT Pre-Engineering Education Collaborative) is an NSF grant dedicated to creating project and service-based learning opportunities for students interested in engineering. One of these projects is the preservation of the historical veteran’s memorial wall at Crazy Horse School in Wanblee, South Dakota. The wall is a memorial for WWI & WWII veterans that have made numerous sacrifices for our freedom. Allowing the wall to deteriorate is showing disrespect and displaying a bad example to our youth toward our fallen Lakota warriors. Refurbishing the veteran’s wall with the assistance of undergraduate Native American engineering students will show engineering skills and accomplishment by example to the youth. The project is to preserve and refurbish the Veterans Wall with minimal change to the existing appearance. Several repair options have been considered, from which replacing the old sand stone panels with durable concrete has been selected as the most appropriate. Replacing all sandstone panels will allow the letters to be repaired as well. The Veterans Wall is leaning and three repair options have been explored, 1) Lifting the Wall and placing it on a new cast foundation. 2) Lift the wall and shim. 3) Mud-jack. We are seeking input from the community to make a final decision on preservation techniques presented. We believe that our Native American pre-engineering students will be given the opportunity to become a positive role model for today’s youth by display respect to our Lakota Veterans of the Unites States services.

Presenter: Lester Richards Primary Email: lrichards8029@olc.edu Biography I have decided to pursue an AA in Science, Engineering and Math degree with Oglala Lakota College because of the 3 reasons. I am going to receive my AA in Science, Engineering and Math degree from OLC and continue through South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. At SDSM&T, I am going to pursue a BA in Mechanical Engineering. When I get my degree I would like to help design wind turbines for the reservation. This can help us save energy and we can be a better reservation.

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Presentation Title: Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) On The Davis Mountain Preserve In the Davis Mountains of Texas Discipline: Biology School: Sul Ross State University Presentation Type: Oral Presentation Abstract: Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) On The Davis Mountain Preserve In the Davis Mountains of Texas David Rumbelow, Sul Ross State University

The Davis Mountains are the Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) southernmost range in the United States. The climate, elevation, and moisture in the Davis Mountains makes this region ecologically very diverse and very different from the surrounding Chihuahuan Desert that the mountains rise from. The Davis Mountain Preserve, in the heart of the Davis Mountains, has historic records of sightings of Mexican Spotted Owls but the last was in 2002. This study was preformed to confirm that Mexican Spotted Owls continue to inhabit the Davis Mountain Preserve. From April to late June night time surveys were conducted using the owl’s four-note location call. Daytime follow ups were used where responses were heard. Two owls were seen during this survey. The age class of the individuals was assessed and photographs of the animals’ activity center were taken. Knowing the owls are still present in the area is a good sign for the species health as well as a good indicator of overall ecosystem health. This brings with it new questions about the population dynamics which a second year of research in 2012 will hope to answer.

Presenter: David Rumbelow Tribe: Choctaw Primary Email: drumbelow@sulross.edu Biography My name is David Rumbelow and I am a 22 year old Choctaw student in my senior year at the University of the Big Bend, Sul Ross State. I came to Sul Ross because of the unique opportunities associated with studying wildlife west of the Pecos. While at Sul Ross I was fortunate enough to be accepted into the McNair program which funded my project on Mexican Spotted Owls in the Davis Mountains. This project was very rewarding and has encouraged me to go on to graduate school to obtain my PhD.

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Presentation Title: Test Format Affecting Psychometric Reliability Discipline: Systems Engineering School: SUNY Binghamton University Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Test Format Affecting Psychometric Reliability Zachary D. Ryan, SUNY Binghamton University

"Food for Thought", to me, can only mean education, which is truly how we feed the intellect. However, the methods we use to test the success of that nourishment can be convoluted and flawed. My hypothesis is that the further departed from a "standard" test a test is, the more test scores and test times will be inflated. For the purposes of this experiment standard is defined as "most similar to the vast majority of previous tests" not necessarily a "standardized test." To test this hypothesis an experiment will be carried out between the time of writing for this abstract and the National AISES Conference. This experiment will essentially be a sensitivity study of Psychometric reliability, depending on how "nonstandard" a test is independent of the actual contents of the test. The tests will be made up of multiple choice questions from the GRE and will have an altered format, based on 3 binary test format decision variables. These three variables have a "high" "non-standard" and a "low" "standard" setting representing a format decision. The more of the three test format decision variables are "high" the more "non-standard" the test becomes. The experiment will follow a Randomized Complete Block Design, and will test for the effects of the three test format decision variables and all of their interactions. Again, this experiment has not yet been completed, but will be before the start of the National AISES Conference where the results will be presented.

Presenter: Zachary D. Ryan Tribe: Morongo Band of Mission Indians Primary Email: zryan1@binghamton.edu Biography Zachary D. Ryan is a senior engineering student at the SUNY Binghamton University Watson School of Engineering, pursuing a degree in Industrial and Systems Engineering. Unfortunately, he is joined by extremely few fellow Native Americans at the University, both in the STEM fields and at the university at large. Having attended last year's national conference and feeling the most welcome he had since becoming a collegiate scholar, Zachary decided to design, perform and present an experiment at this year's National AISES Conference, knowing he would receive support there unlike anywhere else.

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Presentation Title: Origin of the Pipestone Unit of Sioux Quartzite Discipline: Geology School: University of Minnesota- Morris Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Origin of the Pipestone Unit of Sioux Quartzite Kelsey Scareshawk, University of Minnesota- Morris

The goal of this project is to determine the origin of the pipestone argillite layer in Pipestone National Park. Native Americans have quarried pipestone since 900 AD. The varieties of pipestone vary although the red pipestone of Pipestone National Park is the most sought after and considered the most sacred. The characteristics of the pipestone enable it to be carved by hand because it is too soft and brittle to be carved by big machinery. Pipestone (also called Catlinite) is a fine grained (argillite) layer that occurs within the Proterozoic age Sioux Quartzite. The pipestone is made up of sericite, hematite, pyrite, rutile, and titanium dioxide. The Sioux quartzite is 99% quartzite deposited in a shallow river or near-shore facies. This study will determine the origin and depositional environment of the pipestone unit in particular. Samples of pipestone were collected on our visit to the Pipestone National Park. They were of the same layer and same spot of quarry. Lab work consisted of smoothing and sanding down rough sides so that an adhesive can be applied and attached to a slide. It was then cut into very thin sections so that light would pass through. This allows the slide to be seen under a microscope and the layers of sedimentary rock to be seen. Future lab work will consist of using x-ray diffraction to determine composition.

Presenter: Kelsey Scareshawk Tribe: Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe Primary Email: scare004@umn.edu Biography My name is Kelsey Scareshawk and I come from the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe. I am a junior geology major with an interest in sustainable energy and earth resources. The main thing I am interested in would be to research different kinds of materials for biomass gasification. In my spare time, I enjoy listening to music and talking with my friends.

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Presentation Title: PCR to Distinguish Diploid and Triploid forms of Butomus umbellatus Discipline: Molecular and Cellular Biology School: Salish Kootenai College Presentation Type: Oral & Poster Presentations Abstract: PCR to Distinguish Diploid and Triploid forms of Butomus umbellatus Amy Stiffarm, Salish Kootenai College

Butomus umbellatus (flowering rush) is an invasive species of Flathead Lake that was first documented in 1964. Currently there are no treatment methods against the invasion of flowering rush. In order to provide the correct treatment, the exact form of flowering rush needs to be determined: diploid form (26 chromosomes) or triploid form (39 chromosomes). The chromosome squash technique to count the number of chromosomes is cumbersome and depends on obtaining rapidly dividing cells in root tips. This research is aimed at establishing an alternative method utilizing Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to distinguish diploid or triploid forms of flowering rush. PCR is a simple, quick method that requires only plant DNA, that is easily isolated and stored at -80°C to be readily available. The method utilizes a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). In order for a SNP to be located, regions of the plant genome need to be sequenced. There is very little sequence data on flowering rush, therefor primers were designed within structural genes inside exon boundaries in organisms related to flowering rush. Thus far an amplicon was obtained using a zinc transporter gene found from Allium cepa (onion). This amplicon was purified and sequenced, revealing a 183 base pair product and a possible SNP. Another amplicon was acquired using a xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase gene from Sagittaria pygmaea (dwarf arrowhead). Primer design will continue until a SNP within a single copy region has been verified. Once a diploid or triploid PCR verification technique is developed precise control treatments can be established.

Presenter: Amy Stiffarm Tribe: Gros-Ventre Primary Email: amystiffarm@student.skc.edu Biography My name is Amy Stiffarm and I’m from Harlem, MT. I’m a member of the Whiteclay (Gros-Ventre) tribe and a descendant of the Chippewa Cree and Blackfeet nations. I graduated high school from Harlem in 2007 and enrolled at SKC the following fall. I am beginning my senior year at SKC in the Life Sciences Department. I have been a student intern in the Cellular and Molecular Biology Laboratory at SKC since spring of 2009.

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Presentation Title: Fire Risk Probability Method Using Soil Moisture and Other Parameters Discipline: Environmental Science School: Salish Kootenai College Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Fire Risk Probability Method Using Soil Moisture and Other Parameters Cody Natoni Sifford, Salish Kootenai College

Assessing the risk of fire in an area is important for resource protection as well as habitat conservation. Monitoring of these high-risk areas can improve protective management practices and allow faster response to an active fire. We used 2 years of past fire events for the state of Florida correlated with environmental parameters to designate several regression models. Inputting environmental parameters, we use the regression models to estimate fire probability and the strength of the fire for each county in Florida. Of the environmental variables examined, soil moisture had better correlation with fire area and strength.

Presenter: Cody Natoni Sifford Tribe: Navajo Primary Email: codysifford@student.skc.edu Biography Cody Sifford is 23 years old from Huntley, Montana. Cody is a member of the Navajo Nation and lives in Polson, Montana. 2011 research was conducted during a 10 week NASA internship at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. 2011 research won 1st place in Science Division at Marshall Intern Poster Expo. 2010 research was conducted during a 10 week NASA internship also. 2010 research chosen to be presented at Smithsonian in "Living Earth Symposium". Cody is currently a NASA Student Ambassador and is currently a junior at Salish Kootenai College, majoring in Environmental Science.

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Presentation Title: The Effect of Diversity on Sin Nombre Prevalence Within Deer Mice Populations Discipline: Ecology School: University of Utah Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: The Effect of Diversity on Sin Nombre Virus Within Deer Mice Populations Ashleigh Thompson, Laurie Dizney, Denise Dearing University of Utah

The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) is the natural host for Sin Nombre virus (SNV), a pathogen found predominantly in the Western United States that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans. HPS has a 38% mortality rate with no specific treatment or cure, making SNV a dangerous pathogen for humans. Within deer mouse populations SNV is hypothesized to be transmitted through aggressive encounters: therefore behaviors that decrease encounters and interactions between deer mice should decrease infection prevalence. SNV prevalence varies greatly within deer mouse populations, and while the reason for this is unknown, several studies have shown that higher mammal diversity leads to lower SNV prevalence. These studies suggest behavior as the mechanism for the differences in SNV prevalence. We wanted to study behavior on sites with varying diversity by trapping mice to gather blood samples and monitor behavior with video cameras. We hypothesized that in areas with more predators and competitors (higher diversity), deer mice would behave more cautiously, therefore encountering and interacting less with other mammals, leading to less SNV transmission. Because of the significance of deer mouse behavior and lifespan to SNV, the goal of the research was to study the roles of behavior and survival in SNV transmission dynamics. Our hypotheses were correct: higher diversity leads to less risky mouse behavior, thus less encounters between mice and less SNV transmission.

Presenter: Ashleigh Thompson Tribe: Red Lake Ojibwe Primary Email: thom3377@morris.umn.edu Biography Ashleigh Thompson is a junior at the University of Minnesota, Morris. She studies Anthropology and American Indian Studies and looks forward to a career in archaeology.

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Presentation Title: The Application of Statistical Downscaling to the Southern California Region Discipline: Civil and Environmental Engineering School: University of California, Los Angeles Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: The Application of Statistical Downscaling to the Southern California Region Flora Zepeda Torres, University of California, Los Angeles

The general consensus within the scientific community is that global warming does exist and is being perpetuated by the anthropogenic emissions in the atmosphere. Climate-induced changes to precipitation trends are expected. We aim to enhance prediction of future precipitation trends using statistical downscaling techniques and then investigate how future climate impacts water resources within Southern California, a semi-arid region. We used the Multivariable Linear Regression (MLR) and Enhanced Canonical Correlation Analysis (ECCA) statistical methods to enhance the comparison between largescale general climate model (GCM) predictions and local-scale observations of precipitation. These methods were tested to determine a suitable method for the Southern California climate. Daily precipitation data was extracted from 25 gauges within Los Angeles and Orange counties using the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) data system. The data period for this study was 1980 – 2000; we focused on identifying significant trends over the last 20 years. We compared the statistical downscaling techniques by computing regional statistics of the simulated and observed data. The expected impact of the project is the ability to develop climate scenarios over the next century due to varying CO2 emission scenarios and determine how future climate will affect water quality and quantity in Southern California. In conclusion, we will find an adequate method to improve future weather predictions of this region.

Presenter: Flora Zepeda Torres Primary Email: fazepeda@ucla.edu Biography Flora Zepeda Torres is a third year at the University of California, Los Angeles majoring in Civil and Environmental Engineering. She is a Mexican-American, first generation student to attend college. Flora has been an AISES member since her freshmen year in college and has attended the past two national conferences. One of her passions is to work on her research. She has been working on this project for the past two years with the help of her graduate mentor Sonya Lopez and her professor Dr. Terri Hogue in the Hydrology laboratory.

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Presentation Title: Investigation of the [4Fe-4S]2+ Cluster in the DNA Glycosylase AfUDG Discipline: Chemistry/Chemical Biology School: The University of California-Davis Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: 2+

Investigation of the [4Fe-4S] Cluster in the DNA Glycosylase AfUDG Aisha True, Lisa Engstrom, Olga Lukianova, Sheila David Department of Chemistry, University of California-Davis

One of the most common DNA mutations is caused by the deamination of cytosine to form uracil. Uracil, which is not a normal DNA base, leads to a transition mutation from a C-G base pair to a T-A base pair if it is not removed. The removal of uracil is initiated by uracil DNA glycosylases (UDGs), which recognize and remove the uracil base, leaving an abasic site so other enzymes in the base-excision repair (BER) pathway can insert the correct base. Family 4 UDGs contain an iron-sulfur cluster, held in place by four cysteine ligands, which is important in maintaining the active site’s structure. In a family 4 UDG in Archaeoglobus fulgidus (AfUDG), these cysteine ligands were altered one at a time to alanine, histidine, or serine using site-directed mutagenesis in order to evaluate how changes in coordination of the cluster affect stability and activity of AfUDG. In order to determine these effects quantitatively, the rate of glycosidic bond cleavage by mutated forms of AfUDG was measured under single-turnover conditions. Surprisingly, preliminary results suggest that while some of the alterations affect enzyme stability, they have varied effects on enzyme activity. This suggests that the iron-sulfur cluster cofactor plays a more involved role in damage recognition and catalysis, minimally by affecting enzyme stability, and potentially through alterations in enzyme structure that affect DNA binding interactions.

Acknowledgements: President’s Undergraduate Fellowship

Presenter: Aisha True Tribe: Navajo Primary Email: adtrue@ucdavis.edu Biography Aisha True is a fourth-year undergraduate at the University of California-Davis majoring in chemistry with a pharmaceutical emphasis. She is the oldest of four children, born and raised in California. Since she was young, she has dreamed of becoming a physician. For now, she likes the idea of becoming a pediatrician, though she is keeping an open mind as she prepares to apply for medical school this coming June. When she is not working in the laboratory or volunteering at a local health center, she likes to swim, read, and travel.

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Presentation Title: Determining Crop Management Factor (C-factor) for Four Natural Land Covers Discipline: Natural resources and environmental management School: University of Hawaii at Manoa Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Determining Crop Management Factor (C-factor) for Four Natural Land Covers Travis Voeller, Ali Fares, and Farhat Abbas Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management

Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental and socioeconomic problems. It’s accelerated in areas, which lack natural land covers which provide good surface cover. Natural land covers affect soil water content, temperature regimes, soil aeration, soil aggregation, energy source for soil fauna, and in some cases nitrogen fixation. The literature lacks the quantification of the effect of most of Hawaii’s native plant species in reducing soil erosion. This information is needed for use with some of the existing soil erosion estimation numerical tools, e.g., the water erosion prediction project (WEPP) model or the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE). One of the main input parameters for these models is crop management factor (C-factor) that is calculated from plant morphological parameters, e.g., stem density, canopy height and root depth, plant growth rates of above and below ground biomass, percent soil cover by plant canopy, leaf area index, surface residue cover, soil roughness coefficient. An experiment has o o been initiated at the Pioneer Hybrid International Inc. site in Waialua, O'ahu, Hawai'i (21 33' 8'' N; 158 7' 44'' W) with an objective to study the above parameters of Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), oats (Avena sativa), pili (Heteropogon contortus), and ahuawa (Cyperus javanicus Houtt). This poster presentation includes methods for determining above parameters and the results obtained and the outcome of their analysis during the first two months of this experiment.

Presenter: Travis Voeller Primary Email: voellertravis@gmail.com Biography My name is Travis Voeller, I am a conscious individual with Native Hawaiian blood interested in making things happen and improving the quality of life. My interests lie in environmental awareness and sustainability practices. I was born and raised in the country life on the east side of Oahu, on the beach and in the ocean. I hope to share my passion for the natural world with the people that don't value it. In this life I am seeking authentication through the many experiences I endure.

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Presentation Title: Influence of Tropical Premontane Reforestation on Canopy Throughfall Discipline: Hydrology School: Salish Kootenai College Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Influence of Tropical Premontane Reforestation on Canopy Throughfall Sam Wall, Salish Kootenai College

Reestablishment of the functional role of forest canopies is a key metric of success for tropical reforestation efforts. Canopies in tropical regions exert a strong influence on forest hydrology, including total precipitation reaching the ground surface, soil infiltration, overland water flow and erosion. I investigated differences in precipitation throughfall between primary and secondary forests in comparison to an un-canopied reference area within the Las Cruces Biological Station, Coto Brus, Costa Rica. Forest structure was characterized in terms of forest basal area, diameter distribution, leaf area index, and canopy transmission. The results indicate that the canopies the young secondary forests exert considerable influence on the interception of precipitation similar to primary forest canopies, both of which were generally below an uncanopied reference condition. The data suggest that the reforestation, which includes planted seedlings and natural regeneration in abandoned tropical premontane pastures, can rapidly reestablish canopy interception function.

Presenter: Sam Wall Tribe: Pend d' Oreille Primary Email: samwall@student.skc.edu Biography Sam Wall is a sophomore in the newly created Hydrology program at SKC. Sam is also the vice president of the SKC AISES chapter.

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Presentation Title: Morphology and Soot Size in Canola Methyl Ester and Diesel Air-Flames Discipline: Mechanical Engineering School: University of Oklahoma Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Morphology and Soot Size in Canola Methyl Ester and Diesel Air-Flames H. Ware, W. Merchan-Merchan, S. Granados-Sanmiguel Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 730190390, USA

With the great demand for traditional fuels, the need for renewable/sustainable energy sources has emerged. When incomplete combustion occurs, carbon soot particles are released into the atmosphere. One can inhale these particulates, and because they are so small, they can remain within the body for years and cause multiple health problems. The capability of soot particles to be transported in the atmosphere and the translocation through the human respiratory system will depend on the physical properties of the soot, such as the primary particle size and aggregate dimensions. Soot particles derived from Canola Methyl Ester (CME) and Diesel fuel were studied in an open-air laminar diffusion flame using thermophoretic sampling technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particles experience carbonization and agglomeration as they ascend towards the flame tip, forming the mature soot. Particle evolution (structure and size) was obtained along the axial flame axis for both tested flames. It was found that CME soot is composed of significantly smaller diameters than those produced using diesel fuel. Further examination of the nanostructure of the primary soot particles was also conducted using a HR-TEM imaging technique. In addition, ongoing research is being conducted on elongated carbon structures, such as carbon nanotubes and fibers, in CME-fueled flames. Any positive results from that research will also be present within the poster.

Preseter: Henry Ware Tribe: Kiowa, Mvskoke, Euchee, Seminole Primary Email: henry.o.ware-1@ou.edu Biography My name is Henry Ware. I am enrolled Kiowa, but am also Mvskoke, Seminole, and Euchee. I am a junior studying Mechanical Engineering at the University of Oklahoma.

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Presentation Title: A Palynological Reconstruction of the Late Holocene Flora and Climate Change from Three Minnesota Lakes Discipline: Forestry/Hydrology School: Salish Kootenai College Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: A Palynological Reconstruction of the Late Holocene Flora and Climate Change from Three Minnesota Lakes Matthew S. Weingart, Salish Kootenai College

This study is a part of the Manoomin project of the LacCore facility in coordination with the Department of Natural Resources of the Fond du Lac Reservation which is focusing on the historical presence and abundance of Wild Rice (Zizaniapalustris). Examination of pollen grains found within lake sediment cores taken from Deadfish Lake, Perch Lake, and Rice Portage Lake on the Fond du Lac Reservation, Minnesota were used to reconstruct the paleoenvironment from the late Holocene to present. At least 300 pollen grains from each 16cm (~25-100 years) sample interval of sediment were identified down to the species, genus, or family level. The data was then compared to the climatic sensitivities (xeric/mesic) of each taxa to relate observed changes in the pollen record to vegetation changes in response to the changing environment. The samples revealed a shift from a Pinus-Betula-Poaceae dominated zone (~1500-2000 yBP) to a Pinus-Betula dominated zone (~1000-1500 yBP) to a Pinus-Poacea dominated zone (~100 years to Present). The shifts have been accompanied by either high charcoal counts, climate anomalies derived by the presence of climate sensitive vegetation, or known dates of human settlement and interaction with the environment.

Presenter: Matthew S. Weingart Tribe: Klamath Primary Email: matthewweingart@student.skc.edu Biography My name is Matthew Steven Weingart and I am a 3rd year college student working towards a doublebachelors degree in Forestry and Hydrology at the Salish and Kootenai College on the Flathead Reservation in Montana. I love the Natural Sciences and all of the earth’s surface dynamics involved in creating the beautiful surroundings. I am also a lover of the musical arts and have played the violin for 12 years and the guitar for 5 years. I love to teach all of the things I learned in class and help others to see the world through an entirely different set of eyes.

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Presentation Title: Comparing Ex-situ and In-situ Cuttings of Hibiscus arnottianus to Establish Best Use Propagation Method Discipline: Natural Resources and Environmental Management School: University of Hawaii at Manoa Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Comparing Ex-situ and In-situ Cuttings of Hibiscus arnottianus to Establish Best Use Propagation Method Kamuela K. Werner, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Koki‘o ke‘oke‘o (Hibiscus arnottianus sub. arnottianus) is an endemic native Hawaiian hibiscus most often occurring in mesic to wet forest between 300-800 m on the island of O‘ahu. It is a small perennial tree generally reaching 15 to 20 feet in height and can comprise a significant amount of canopy layer in the absence of larger native forest trees. Measures have been taken to protect and propagate H. arnottianus, as well as other rarer native plants, within a fenced 6-acre forest called the Manoa Cliff Native Forest Restoration Project located along the Manoa Cliff Trail. In the experiment, a total of 200 cuttings were taken from 50 different wild H. arnottianus from both in and out of the restoration site. Half of the cuttings collected were propagated in-situ randomly within the restoration site. Of those 100 cuttings 50 were applied with rooting hormone and the remaining used as a control group. The other 100 cuttings were propagated ex-situ within sterile media at the Harold L. Arboretum Shade House with the same ratio of applied rooting hormone to control group. Since propagation of H. arnottianus is easy by method of cuttings, in-situ propagation with rooting hormone would prove to be more efficient, resulting in a reduction of labor, time and materials involved in off-site propagation. Results based on survival rates are currently pending.

Presenter: Kamuela Werner Tribe: Kanaka Maoli (Native Hawaiian) Primary Email: kamuelaw@hawaii.edu Biography My name is Kamuela Werner and I am a senior student at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. I am currently pursuing a Bachelor of Science Degree in Natural Resources and Environmental Management with a specialization in Plant Conservation Ecology. I have a great interest in native Hawaiian plants as well as ecology restoration. This interest originates from my desire to perpetuate the native Hawaiian cultural heritage found within Hawaii's flora and the urgent need to protect and preserve its unique and diverse ecosystems.

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Presentation Title: Alcohol and Other Drug Use Among Northern Plains Indians Discipline: Psychology School: University of North Dakota Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Alcohol and Other Drug Use Among Northern Plains Indians Melissa Wheeler, University of North Dakota

This project showcases the prevalence of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use by American Indians in the northern plains region. American Indians/ Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have some of the highest rates of marijuana and alcohol use and abuse, yet neurobiological measures associated with dependence on these substances in this population remain unknown (Ehlers, Phillips, Gizer, Gilder, & Wilhelmsen, 2010). This study provides AOD usage indicators, informs public health policy, informs prevention treatment programs that target the different needs of AI/ANs, and addresses services needs for this population. Six hundred northern plains male (39%) and female (61%) adults were recruited from Indian Health Services (IHS) clinics to complete a series of assessments. Data included AOD use, mental health diagnoses, and demographics, and were analyzed using SPSS. Males had greater use than females of AOD in all categories, with similar usage between genders with methamphetamine at about (21%). Participants with a diagnosed mental health problem used more AOD (48%) than those with no mental health diagnosis (38.5%). Younger adults used more AOD than older adults with dramatic decrease in AOD usage after 45 years of age. Marijuana use peaked in the 18-25 age groups, while methamphetamine usage peaks in the 36-40 age group, and cocaine usage peaks in the 31-35 age group.

Presenter: Melissa Wheeler Tribe: Navajo Nation Primary Email: melissa.wheeler@my.und.edu Biography My name is Melissa Wheeler; I am a senior undergraduate majoring in Psychology at the University of North Dakota. I am a member of the Navajo Nation from Arizona. I am dedicated to continuing with my education in psychology. I plan on entering graduate school, ultimately receiving my Ph.D in Clinical Psychology. I find this area of psychology very interesting and would like to explore them further. I know I will gain tremendously from attending this conference.

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Presentation Title: Measurement of Alkali-Labile Sites in Plasmid DNA Exposed to Uranyl Acetate Discipline: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry School: Northern Arizona University Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: Measurement of Alkali-Labile Sites in Plasmid DNA Exposed to Uranyl Acetate Janice Wilson, Diane M. Stearns, Ph.D. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University

Uranium is an important emerging toxicant whose use is fast outpacing the rate at which we are learning about its health effects. Previous work in our lab has shown that uranyl acetate (UA) could be activated by either ascorbate (vitamin C) or UVB radiation to form DNA strand breaks in pBR322 plasmid DNA. The purpose of the current project was to develop a protocol to assess the presence of uranium-DNA adducts, and then to quantify their presence in plasmid DNA exposed to the above reaction conditions. A method was successfully developed in which warm piperidine was used to convert U-DNA adducts to akali-labile sites, which would then hydrolyze. The hydrolyzed DNA could be visualized and quantified by gel electrophoresis. We hypothesized that if U-DNA adducts were present, then warm piperidine treatment would degrade more DNA compared to the same reaction conditions in the absence of piperidine. Conversely, if U-DNA adducts were not present, then warm piperidine would have no affect. Data supported our hypothesis. For reactions of UA and ascorbate, piperidine treatment resulted in 46% degradation of DNA, a loss that was not seen in control reactions. For reactions of UA and a range of UVB radiation, piperidine treatment resulted in 15-23% degradation of DNA, which again was not seen in control reactions. This work is significant because it establishes a new method to quantify U-DNA adducts, which if present in humans exposed to uranium could be another source of mutations that may lead to cancer.

Presenter: Janice Wilson Tribe: Navajo Primary Email: jw634@nau.edu Biography Hi, my name is Janice Wilson, I am a member of the Navajo tribe, from Many Farms, AZ. I am a graduate of DinÊ College and received my Associates of Science with options in Health Occupations in 2010. I transferred to Northern Arizona University this semester and have applied to the Nursing program to pursue my Bachelors of Science in Nursing. I am an Otten’s fellowship recipient and am working with my mentor on Undergraduate research in the area of the effects of uranium on DNA.

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Presentation Title: The Use of Biochar in Corn Hill Agriculture Discipline: Environmental Science School: Rochester Institute of Technology Presentation Type: Poster Presentation Abstract: The Use of Biochar in Corn Hill Agriculture Robyn Wilson, Ali Ahmed, and Paul Shipman, Ph.D. School of Life Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623

The use of charcoal as a soil amendment, or bio-char, in human created landscapes of South America has recently become of interest due to revelations about the extent of Terra Preta soils and demonstrated benefits of bio-char use for agricultural production, use for soil remediation, and as a carbon sequestration technique. Though little historical information exists, there is a possibility that charcoal may have been used in some forms of corn hill agricultural practices in Eastern North America. We performed two series of experiments of in situ pyrolysis vs. controls to test for increased corn production on corn hills using a Three Sisters planting regime (corn, beans, and squash). We also searched relevant historical literature and spoke with elders to find evidence of pre-Colombian bio-char use in Native North American agricultural practices. We found significantly greater yield and growth differences in several varieties of corn grown on hills with in situ bio-char vs. controls of corn grown in soils with exogenous bio-char and no bio-char. We also found evidence that bio-char may have been utilized as a part of Native North American Agriculture.

Presenter: Robyn Wilson Tribe: Keetoowah / Cherokee Primary Email: raw7484@rit.edu Biography Robyn Wilson is a member of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokees and is a fifth year Environmental Science Major in the School of Life Sciences at Rochester Institute of Technology. She has worked the last three summers for the Natural Resources Conservation Services in Iowa as a student trainee working to be a soil conservationist. Robyn has been active in AISES for nine years, since her freshman year at Sequoyah High School in her hometown of Tahlequah, OK.

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THE 2011 AISES PR-COLLEGE STUDENT POSTER SESSIONS Sponsor: NOAA’s Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research

Effect of Plants on Temperature and Humidity in a Closed Environment Marla Dick and Tarra York

The Citrus Solution: Using Citrus Peels as Filtrates for the Heavy Metal Pollutants: Lead, Cadmium & Zinc, Wyatt Dunham

Heat Retention and Insulators, Marilena Gartiez and Valentina Horn

Weed Killer Impact on Brine Shrimp, Joseph James

Environmental Assessment Of River and Estuarine Ecosystems, Hydaburg Alaska Moses Nix and Marquette Patterson

Production of "Densified Wood Log" from Invasive Tumblesweeds (Baccharis halimifolia, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Euonymus alatus) Commonly Found in the Foot and Surrounding Areas of the Chuska Mountains, Lawrence Redhorse and Cyrus McDonald

Iron Oxidizing Bacteria: The Microbiology of Iridescent Films, Sterling Smythe

The Effectiveness of Natural Plant Extracts to Control Weed Growth, Racheal Thacker

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Presentation Title: Effect of Plants on Temperature and Humidity in a Closed Environment Discipline: Biology School: Owyhee Combined School Abstract: Effect of Plants on Temperature and Humidity in a Closed Environment Marla Dick and Tarra York, Owyhee Combined School

The atmospheric increase in temperatures, often called global warming, is an important issue today. Scientists around the world are concerned about greenhouse gases. The number one greenhouse gas is water vapor. Ecosystems with many plants appear to be more humid, but are the temperatures actually higher? We wanted to see what effect plants would have on humidity and temperature levels. We set up two containers (eco-chambers), and filled each one with 100 grams of potting soil. Next, we added 50 grams of water to the soil in each chamber. We planted a green spider plant (Chlorophytum comosum) in one of the containers and left the other container without a plant. We inserted a temperature and humidity gauge in each eco-chamber and then sealed the containers air-tight. We recorded the temperature and humidity levels twice every day. The results showed that the humidity level remained the same in both containers, but the temperature in the eco-chamber with the plant remained cooler than in the one without the plant.

Presenter: Marla Dick Tribe: Shoshone/Paiute Primary Email: mdick34@hotmail.com Biography Marla Dick. I am a junior at the Owyhee Combined School and live on the Duck Valley Indian Reservation in Northern Nevada. In my spare time I like to read or baby-sit my nieces, nephews, and my cousins. I have lived on this reservation my entire life, and I think it is peaceful and friendly place to be. Presenter 2: Tarra York Tribe: Paiute Primary Email: Tarrayork@yahoo.com Biography My name is Tarra York, and I am sixteen years old. I am a junior at the Oyhee Combined School on the Duck Valley Indian Reservation at the Nevada/Idaho border. I like reading and writing. I also like to travel and be outdoors. I was born in Reno, NV, but lived most of my life in Winnemucca before I moved here.

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Presentation Title: The Citrus Solution: Using Citrus Peels as Filtrates for the Heavy Metal Pollutants: Lead, Cadmium & Zinc Discipline: Environmental Science School: Grove High School Abstract: The Citrus Solution: Using Citrus Peels as Filtrates for the Heavy Metal Pollutants: Lead, Cadmium & Zinc Wyatt Dunham, Grove High School

The purpose of this project was to test the effectiveness of citrus filters for filtrating heavy metals: lead, cadmium, and zinc. It was hypothesized that the citrus filters would decrease heavy metal concentration, TDS, and pH. Each of the heavy metal solutions went through 6 different citrus filters and 2 controls (sand and charcoal) to see their effects on heavy metals, pH, and TDS. The filters were effective at removing heavy metals. Dehydrated oranges are the best filter for all 3 heavy metals tested. Fresh oranges were effective at removing lead and zinc. Dehydrated grapefruits were effective at removing zinc. Fresh grapefruits were effective at removing cadmium. Although the filters worked well at removing the heavy metals, they also increased the TDS. The fresh lemon for the zinc solution was the only trial where the citrus filters decreased the TDS of any solution. Half the citrus solutions were less acidic after filtration. The charcoal filter for cadmium was the only filter to have a pH reading above 7.

Presenter: Wyatt Dunham Tribe: Cherokee Primary Email: dunham_wyatt@yahoo.com Biography My name is Wyatt Dunham and I am a junior at Grove High School. My research interests are Mathematical and Environmental Sciences. My current science and math courses are Chemistry I and Trigonometry. I do not have a specific college or career field identified yet, but I would like to do something in the mathematic field.

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Presentation Title: Heat Retention and Insulators Discipline: Physical Science School: Owyhee Combined School Abstract: Heat Retention and Insulators Marilena Gartiez and Valentina Horn, Owyhee Combined School

The purpose of our project was to investigate the effect that different types of insulators have on heat retention. We were especially interested in insulating materials that are renewable or could be made from recycled materials. We built a test box consisting of an outside box, an inside box, and a lid. The test box was our model of a house with four walls, a floor, and a ceiling. We tested different materials for their insulating properties by placing them on the floor, in the walls (between the outside box and the inside box), and in the lid of the test box. Our heat source was a beaker with 1000 ml of boiling water that was placed inside the box. We closed the test box with the lid, and then put the test box in a refrigerator. We measured the water temperature inside the box at hourly intervals for six hours and recorded our data. Our results showed that cotton fabric and popcorn, both renewable materials, retained more heat than conventional R-16 fiberglass insulation.

Presenter: Marilena Gartiez Tribe: Shoshone/Paiute Primary Email: marilena_gartiez@yahoo.com Biography I am an 18 year old Native American girl who lives on the Duck Valley Indian Reservation. I am ambitious and hard working. I am planning to go to college, and hope to be a famous author one day. I love to travel to new places, and meet new people. Presenter 2: Valentina Horn Tribe: Shoshone-Paiute Primary Email: valentinahorn08@yahoo.com Biography My name is Valentina Horn. I am a member of the Duck Valley Shoshone-Paiute Tribe. I am 17 years old, and I am a senior at the Owyhee Combined School. In my spare time, I like to play volleyball and basketball. I am planning to go college after high school.

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Presentation Title: Weed Killer Impact on Brine Shrimp Discipline: Zoology School: Roosevelt High School; Seattle WA Abstract: Weed Killer Impact on Brine Shrimp Joseph James, Roosevelt High School

What is the dosage of weed killer needed to lethally impact brine shrimp? During this study, I intend to show a tremendous negative impact on brine shrimp survivability when Round Up weed killer is applied. I believe the brine shrimp will not survive as long in higher dosages. 1. brine shrimp 2. 2qt pitcher 3. heat lamp 4. pH level strips 5. kitchen thermometer 6. microscope 7. turkey baster 8. stopwatch 9. petri dishes 10. air pod/pump 11. 2 qt tap water 12. aquarium salt 13. syringe 14. filter 15. air tubing 16. weed killer (round up) a. Isopropylamine 18% b. Diquat dibromide 0.73% c. Other ingredients 83.2% Set up pitcher, air pod and tubing, measure out 2 qts. tap water from sink and pour into pitcher. Measure out 4 Tbs aquarium salt and add to pitcher. With heat lamp, warm water to 80-85 degree F, utilizing thermometer. Maintain water at 8.0 pH level, utilizing pH strips. Once proper temperature and pH have been reached, brine shrimp can be added and grown to testing stage. For this experiment, brine shrimp were grown for 84 hours, prior to testing. Observations were recorded with 0ml, 1ml, 3ml and 5ml dosages of round up, for each time trial. Results did not support my hypothesis. I stated that weed killer would have a negative impact however, results seemed opposite. Survivability increased with dosage.

Presenter: Joseph James Tribe: Yakama Primary Email: nekewyema@gmail.com Biography Joseph James is a student at Roosevelt High School, Seattle, Washington. He is currently enrolled in the University of Washington (Seattle) MESA Program.

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Presentation Title: Environmental Assessment of River and Estuarine Ecosystems, Hydaburg Alaska Discipline: Environmental Science School: OHSU-CMOP Abstract: Environmental Assessment of River and Estuarine Ecosystems, Hydaburg Alaska 1 1 1 Marquette Patterson ,Melanie J. Kadake , Moses Nix, Andrew Kashevarof, Wendy F. Smythe 2 3 1 (smythew@ebs.ogi.edu), Sean McAllister , Anthony Christianson , & Antonio Baptista 2 3 1 OHSU-CMOP, Western Washington University, Hydaburg Cooperative Association

The rivers and estuaries in and around Hydaburg Alaska serve an important function as both a valuable community resource and as an indicator of environmental health. These rivers provide water resources to the community, and deliver nutrients to the estuaries into which they flow. The health of these ecosystems directly impacts the health of the community that relies on these water and fishery resources. This study focuses on answering the question of “What is the health of these ecosystems?� by conducting filed assessments examining the ecological, chemical, and microbial characteristics of these environments. Environmental assessments were conducted along four rivers: Natzuhini, Little Creek, Hydaburg, and Saltery. Ecological bioassessment was conducted by collection identification and characterization of macroinvertebrates, this information can be used as an indicator of water quality within these ecosystems. Microbiology assessments were conducted by plating water samples onto eosine & methylene blue (EMB) plates, which are selective for E. coli and other harmful microorganism. Chemistry assessments were conducted using both Vernier data loggers and colorimetric assays. Results suggest that overall these ecosystems are healthy. Even so, there are some indications that local logging activities are negatively impacting the river and estuary ecosystems that have the potential to have significant negative consequences for the health of the local fisheries and subsequently the community.

Presenter: Moses Nix Tribe: Haida Primary Email: smythew@ebs.ogi.edu Biography Moses Nix is a high school student at Hydaburg High School. Presenter 2: Marquette Patterson Tribe: Haida Primary Email: smythew@ebs.ogi.edu Biography Marquette is an active member of the community. She initiated the student council & recycling club at her school. This past summer she worked as an intern where she conducted environmental assessments of rivers & estuary ecosystems.

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Presentation Title: Production of "Densified Wood Log" from Invasive Tumblesweeds (Baccharis halimifolia, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Euonymus alatus) Commonly Found in the Foot and Surrounding Areas of the Chuska Mountains Discipline: Energy and Transportation School: Newcomb High School Abstract: Production of "Densified Wood Log" from Invasive Tumblesweeds (Baccharis halimifolia, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Euonymus alatus) Commonly Found in the Foot and Surrounding Areas of the Chuska Mountains Lawrence Redhorse and Cyrus McDonald, Newcomb High School

With the purpose to generate an alternative source of combustion products for heating and ambience fires, while considering the use of sustainable and renewable materials, “Densified Wood Logs� were developed from the mixture of invasive tumbleweeds commonly found on the foot and surrounding areas of the Chuska Mountains within the Navajo Nation in North Western part of NM. The tumbleweed species are Rabbit Brush, Chrysothamnus nauseousus; Four Wing Salt Bush, Baccharis halimifolia; and Burning Bush, Euonymus alatus and are considered to be invasive in origin and has no considerable use for grazing animals and the Native Americans who live in the area. The industrial technique on the TM TM production of commercial Densified Woodlogs such as BioFlamme and Clean Burn technology logs will adapted in the manufacturing process. The study of the following factors: production of particulate matter, carbon monoxide production, spark generation, combustion time and its sustainability compared to common commercial Densified Wood Logs is still on process. This study also aims to generate a sustainable income to the people in the communities surrounding the mountain as well as a means of defining a sustainable resource.

Presenter: Lawrence Redhorse Tribe: Navajo Primary Email: redhorselawrence@yahoo.com Biography Lawrence is a senior student at Newcomb High School in Newcomb, NM. He is a football player, a student council member and has been very active in various school activities. He plans to go to Colorado School of Mines after High School to pursue a career in Environmental Science or Environmental Engineering or any related field. He strongly supports sustainable use of our resources. Presenter 2: Cyrus McDonald Tribe: Navajo Primary Email: cyrus_mcd67@yahoo.com Biography Cyrus McDonald is an 18 years old Senior High School student who is from Sheepspring, New Mexico. His interests are in Science & Reading and is active both in academic and extra curricular activities. He has been trained in Video production and Editing in one of his classes and is now working with the NHS GEAR UP Student Leaderhip group in making videos about a community issue.

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Presentation Title: Iron Oxidizing Bacteria: The Microbiology Of Iridescent Films Discipline: Geomicrobiology School: Hillsboro High School Abstract: Iron Oxidizing Bacteria: The Microbiology Of Iridescent Films 1 2 Sterling Smythe and Wendy F. Smythe 1 2 Hillsboro High School, OHSU-CMOP

Iron (Fe) is the fourth most abundant element in Earth's crust and has long been recognized as a requirement for life. Iron redox reactions support large microbial populations that persist in sediment and aquatic environments. Fe(II) functions as an electron source for Fe oxidizing bacteria under both oxic and anoxic conditions. Biological Fe redox reactions are considered as one of the most ancient forms of microbial metabolism on Earth. Jackson Bottom Wetland is a freshwater wildlife reserve comprised of swamp and wet grasslands located in Hillsboro, Oregon. Underlying basalts provide a source of minerals with water input from groundwater and rainwater. In this wetland there are many Fe(II) rich, ditches and puddles that have black-to-gray sediment covered with large masses of orange-pigmented flocculent overlain by a layer of clear water, with an iridescent film at the water surface. Orange-pigmented flocculent may indicate the presence of natural Fe seeps and result from precipitation of large quantities of Fe oxides by bacteria in places where Fe(II) rich anoxic water reaches oxygenated zones. Microscopy of the iridescent film and flocculent was conducted using a high resolution scanning electron microscopy and a light microscopy. Our research indicates that the iridescent films and orange-pigmented flocculent are the result of Fe oxidizing bacteria. This is evident from examining Fe films and flocculent in which biogenic Fe oxides are formed with morphologies indicative of microbial activity.

Presenter: Sterling Smythe Tribe: Haida Primary Email: smythew@ebs.ogi.edu Biography Sterling Smythe is a student at Hillsboro High School in Hillsboro Oregon. He is an avid football fan, playing on his schools team the Spartans. After high school he plans to attend college to become a lawyer.

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Presentation Title: The Effectiveness of Natural Plant Extracts to Control Weed Growth Discipline: Biology School: Owyhee Combined School Abstract: The Effectiveness of Natural Plant Extracts to Control Weed Growth Racheal Thacker, Owyhee Combined School

Common herbicides are effectively killing weeds but are not necessarily good for the environment. With my project, I wanted to see if plant extracts could be efficiently used again common weeds. We have two greenhouses and two hoop houses on our school grounds, and weeds are a problem. After consulting literature, I decided to make plant extracts from laurel bay leaves, from bitterbrush, and from sagebrush which naturally grows in our area. I made the extracts by juicing up the leaves of each plant with a little water, and I also made infusions with boiled water from each plant. I applied these solutions to pots that had been planted with the common mallow, a weed that is growing everywhere where there is water in our area. My results showed that sagebrush extract was the most effective in controlling weed growth; bitterbrush and laurel bay leaves were less effective than the extract with sagebrush.

Presenter: Racheal Thacker Tribe: Shoshone-Pauite Primary Email: thackerracheal@yahoo.com Biography My name is Racheal Thacker. I am a member of the Shoshone -Paiute Tribe at the Duck Valley Indian Reservation. I am senior at Owyhee Combined School, and I plan to attend college after high school. I am president of the senior class. In my spare time, I like to play basketball and visit family.

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Navajo Nation Oil & Gas Company (NNOGC) is a Federally Charted Corporation headquarter in St. Michaels Arizona near the Navajo Nation Capital and is fully owned by the Navajo Nation. NNOGC has three unique business units with its own specialty of professional, technical and specialty positions. VISION STATEMENT: “Be profitable and self-sustaining model corporation, serving the Navajo Nation.” MISSSION STATEMENT: “Develop a culturally and environmentally sensitive integrated Navajo energy corporation which provides maximum asset growth, enhances Navajo human resources and maintains high business standards.” DOWNSTREAM: NNOGC’s retail and wholesale business is called Navajo Petroleum, LLC. This business unit started operating in 1994 as a small operation and since then has grown to eight convenience stores. Six of our convenient stores serve the great Navajo Nation and two stores are located in Colorado. As a wholesaler, we are the fuel supplier to several independent owned convenience stores on and off the Navajo Indian Reservation. Our current opportunities range from retail management, marketing, information technology, accounting and administrative position in the convenience store retail industry. MIDSTREAM: NNOGC’s transportation business unit is called Running Horse Pipeline, LLC. Our facility is located in Montezuma Creek, Utah. This facility is the hub for 40 miles of gathering lines for crude oil and 87 mile long pipeline that extends from Montezuma Creek to Bisti, NM. The main pipeline system is a 16 inch interstate crude pipeline that is operated under the DOT Regulations. Our career opportunities embrace professionals, semi-skilled individuals in management, environmental engineering, semi-skilled pipeline operators, instrumentation technicians and administrative position for petroleum and crude oil pipeline industry. UPSTREAM: NNOGC’s exploration and production business unit is called our NNOGC’s Exploration and Production, LLC where we expanded our operations in 2009 to Denver, Colorado. This business unit is tasked with bringing growth by increasing its reserve base through exploration activity and acquisition for oil, gas and non-petroleum resources such as coal bed methane, helium and CO2. Our team of professional research, study and interprets information on the geological exploration of minerals. Our operating areas have been in the Greater Aneth, Utah area and Northwestern New Mexico. Our career opportunities comprises of professional and technical teams such as geologist, Geophysicist, Geotechnical and Analyst, Petroleum Engineers, Environmental Engineers, Engineering Techs, Landsman, Land records administrators and oil and gas accountant.

P.O. Box 4439 Window Rock, AZ 86515 Phone: (928) 871-4880 Fax (928) 871-4882

NAVAJO NATION OIL & GAS 50 Narbono Circle West St Michaels, Arizona 86511 www.nnogc.com


2011 National Conference Student Research Abstracts