Theoretical Framework II - Masterplanning Process through the Lenses of Carmona’s Place Shaping Continuum Model
Abstract This article investigates new town masterplanning projects with Carmona’s Place-shaping Continuum urban design process framework (design process, development process, management process, and space in use) to explore the model’s applicability in the new town masterplanning field. The investigation is done based on three case studies of masterplanning projects: Sonjiang New Town, Songdo Smart City, and Tongzhou. The three case studies showed the interrelated relationship between each phase of urban design process. These case studies also emphasized the intention of this article: new town masterplanning should have an equal spotlight in the study of its process – if not more, with other urban design subsidiaries. Lastly, investigating the whole process of urban in a new town masterplanning project will give more clarity in the pursuit of understanding how urban design is actually implemented.
Introduction Urban design as a field of practice has been praised and criticized as many things such as; an integrative force (Bentley, 1998); pseudo-scientific field (Marshal, 2012); a mongrel discipline, too focused on ends rather than means (Carmona, 2014), ‘an on-going long-term process intertwined with social and political mechanisms’ (Inam, 2002), and so on. One of the ongoing discussion about urban design is regarding the components of urban design process, mainly discoursing on how urban design is actually implemented. Matthew Carmona as one of the front-runner of the discussion, put forward some aspects of urban design process; urban design value (Carmona, 2002); stakeholder views in urban design (Carmona et al, 2010); design coding (Carmona, 2009); design governance (Carmona, 2016a, 2016b; Barnett, 2017; Lang, 2017); and place-shaping continuum (Carmona, 2014). In the discourse of urban design as the placeshaping continuum, Carmona (2014) argued that one of the main problem of urban design as a field of practice is that urban design projects are rarely subjected to postoccupancy review and almost never a systematic view of the whole process. Most studies focus on either part of the whole process (as Carmona (2014) suggested: design, development, management, or use of space) and not to the relationship to the final design outcome (Banerjee & Loukaitou-Sideris, 2011). New Town Masterplanning, as part of the urban design field (Lang, 2005), has arguably even less spotlight in the study of its process. Some investigations of new town masterplanning especially in the Global South (Hartog, 2010; Keeton, 2011; Provoost, 2010; Zhou, 2012) showed that there is a tendency for the masterplanner to show hands-off attitude in the processes apart from the
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