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2. 2  T H EO R E T I C A L F R A M E WO R K

EU/US definition of urban vitality

Theoretical Framework I - Urban Vitality through Various Lenses As mentioned earlier, urban vitality as the parameter of an ideal city has been advocated by many scholars e.g., Montgomery (1998), Gehl (1996;2010;2013), Jacobs (1961), Alexander (1965), Lynch (1960) and Cullen (1971) although with slight differences on its definition. These scholars are mainly advocating against the status quo at that time which was modernism, advocated majorly by Corbusier (1925). Montgomery (1998) clearly use the term ‘urban vitality’ in his research. His specific definition includes: ‘the numbers of people in and around the street (pedestrian flows) across different times of the day and night’; ‘the number of cultural events and celebrations over the year’; and ‘the presence of an active street life’. Other scholar defined urban vitality or ‘urbanity’ or urban life as: interplay among life, space and building, ‘eyes on the street’ (Gehl, 2013); the presence of the ‘sidewalk ballet’,


good mix of old and new building, mixed uses (Jacobs, 1961); legible and good imageability (Lynch, 1960); and picturesque (Cullen, 1971). These scholars constitute the mainstream definition of urban vitality especially from the context of Northern America and Western Europe (Figure 17, left-side). Moreover, to see the full extent of the definition of urban vitality, it is important to also understand scholars that criticize the mainstream scholars, namely Crawford (1995; 2005) and Marshal (2012). Crawford (1995) ‘narrative of loss’ argued that the loss narratives are for example the politic of public space, the inequality, and racism that are actually happening but not or only briefly addressed. Interestingly, Crawford (2005) herself was criticize by Speaks (2005) as ‘impractical’ from the point of view of market-driven urbanism. There is also an emerging field

R e z a Amba rdi Pr a da na . 4622553

Profile for Reza Ambardi Pradana

P1 Report - Cities for People -of Tomorrow  

P1 Report - Cities for People -of Tomorrow