歷史人物圖鑑 1769-1821 法國軍事及政治家
出生於一個小貴族家庭。 年從巴黎皇家軍事學院 畢業，授與砲兵少尉。 年，法國土倫港被英國為 首的聯軍佔領，他在此次戰役中充分的利用砲兵的戰 力，協助法軍取勝。督政府時期，法國遭到聯軍的圍 攻，他在此時屢次擊敗以奧地利為主的聯軍並遠征埃 及，聲威遠播。 年 月，他發動「霧月政變」， 成立執政府，並擔任第一執政，成為法國的領導者； 在 年 月更頒佈了拿破崙法典。同年 月，拿破崙 在巴黎聖母院中，由教皇主持的加冕典禮中正式稱帝。 稱帝後，他採取擴張政策，再次引發周遭國家的不滿， 遂成立反法聯盟來對抗法國。 年法俄戰爭爆發， 法軍在嚴寒的俄國苦戰，損失慘重。拿破崙隨後於萊 比錫戰敗，他只好接納退位的建議，黯然的前去厄爾 巴島。 年，他回到法國，試圖東山再起，但於滑 鐵盧戰役被威靈頓擊敗，戰後被軟禁於聖赫勒島直至 死亡。
Gaius Octavius Thurinus
屋大維生於一個騎士階級家庭。由於他母親的關係， 當時羅馬獨裁者凱撒領養了他。公元前 年 凱撒被刺 殺，於是他招募凱撒舊部擴充軍隊。到羅馬後，他發 現首都掌握在謀殺凱撒的布魯圖與卡西烏斯手中。在 一陣僵持後，他與安東尼以及雷必達，組成「後三頭 同盟」的軍事獨裁。前 年，他與安東尼大勝布魯圖 斯與卡西烏斯。此時，羅馬的疆域西屬屋大維，東屬 安東尼。前 年，屋大維向安東尼宣戰。在希臘的阿 克提烏姆灣，他打敗安東尼。安東尼逃往埃及後又敗， 結果自殺，此後他掌握了一切國家大權，但羅馬並不 願接受一個專制君主。屋大維很聰明，他首先解散了 軍隊，當選執政官，即最高行政官。前 年，元老院 授予他對全羅馬的統治權，並授予其「奧古斯都」號， 開創了羅馬帝國。他於公元 年去世，羅馬元老院將 他列入「神」的行列。奧古斯都的統治給了羅馬四十 年和平與持續的繁榮。他創立了羅馬第一支常備軍， 建立了世上第一支消防隊，改革了羅馬的財政制度， 並設立交通部，促進了帝國的通訊及貿易。
她是古埃及托勒密王朝最後一任女法老，也就是「埃 及艷后」。公元前 年，年僅 歲的克里奧帕特拉輔 佐她的父親。前 年她父親逝世，在遺囑中他立 歲 的克里奧帕特拉七世和她 歲的弟弟托勒密十三世統 治王國。前 年，她與弟弟之間的關係破裂，於前 年被放逐到敘利亞。此時，凱撒到了埃及，她想利用 凱撒助她奪得王位，就將自己包裹在一張大毯子中， 獻給凱撒。她利用自己的美貌和智慧，把凱撒給迷住 了，凱撒就下令由她和托勒密十三世一起執政。隨後， 托勒密十三世在叛亂時被殺，凱撒控制了埃及。從此， 她與凱撒生活在一起，並獲恢復王位。公元前 年， 凱撒遇刺身亡，於是她色誘凱撒的屬下安東尼並投靠 他。安東尼當時為了討好她，竟把羅馬的佔領地賞賜 給埃及。屋大維藉此在前 年率領大軍進攻埃及，在 希臘的西海岸擊敗安東尼與克里奧帕特拉的聯軍，安 東尼自殺。她試圖誘惑屋大維，惜失敗告終，只好自 殺；整個埃及亦於前 年被屋大維佔領。
Fernando de Magallanes
麥哲倫出生於一個破落的騎士家庭， 歲時進國家航 海事務廳， 歲時參加了對非洲和阿拉伯的殖民戰爭。 歲離開印度回國，升任為船長。他堅信地球是圓的， 於是在 歲時向葡萄牙國王申請組織船隊進行一次環 球航行，可是失敗。 年，西班牙國王接見了麥哲 倫，國王很快就答應了他環球航行的要求。 年 月 日，麥哲倫率領一支由 條船、 人組成的遠航隊 出發。 年冬天，由於糧食短缺，船員內部發生叛 亂。麥哲倫於是派人假意去送一封談判信，並趁機刺 殺了叛亂的船長官員。穿越美洲後，他們經歷了 多 天輕鬆的航行，於是他就把這裡命名為「太平洋」。 年 月，船上的馬來奴隸聽見家鄉話，終於證實地 球是一個圓球體。為了推行殖民主義，麥哲倫插手菲 律賓的部族衝突，同年 月 日，他於馬克坦島的戰鬥 中被砍死。麥哲倫死後，他的同伴們繼續航行。終於 在 年 月 日返抵西班牙， 人完成了歷史上首次 環球航行。
伊莉莎伯一世是英格蘭王國都鐸王朝的最後一位君主， 也是名義上的法國女王。她終身未嫁，因此被稱為 「童貞女王」。伊莉莎伯是亨利八世和他的第二個王 后唯一倖存的孩子，受到良好的教育，可以說、寫六 種語言。在她的教師影響下，伊莉莎伯成為新教徒。 年，國王愛德華六世死後，她的姐姐瑪麗成了女 王。瑪麗是虔誠的天主教徒，她逼迫伊莉莎伯改信天 主教，更在一小段時間裡把伊莉莎伯關入倫敦塔。 年瑪麗一世無子而亡，伊莉莎伯於 年被加冕 為女王。在統治期間，她恢復了聖公會的國教地位， 再次立法否定羅馬天主教。 年，西班牙無敵艦隊 向英格蘭進發。伊麗莎白親自檢閱海軍，並發表演說， 帶領英格蘭擊潰來犯的無敵艦隊。她於 年逝世， 被安葬在西敏寺。經過她近半個世紀的統治後，英格 蘭成為歐洲最強大和最富有的國家之一。英格蘭文化 也在此期間達到了一個頂峰，湧現出許多著名的人物， 英國進入了「黃金時代」。
John F. Kennedy
約翰‧甘迺迪出生於美國馬薩諸塞州（即麻省）。 年， 甘迺迪獲得哈佛大學取錄，並於在學期間兩度到歐洲訪 問。 年他以優異成績畢業，並獲國際關係榮譽學位。 甘迺迪於 年以海軍少尉的身份到海軍情報局外國情 報處工作，於 年完成訓練，成為魚雷艇長。同年， 甘迺迪的魚雷艇參加攔截日本船隊的任務時被日艦撞成 兩截後沉沒，他帶領 名生還者游到不同的小島等待救 援。 日後，他發現了當地島民，並在椰殼上刻字求救。 七天艱苦逃生後，所有艇員都獲救。甘迺迪成為了頭條 新聞人物，並先後獲頒二戰紫心勳章等獎章。甘迺迪在 年－ 年期間先後任眾議員和參議員，並於 年當選為美國總統，成為美國史上唯一信奉羅馬天主教 的總統。他總統任期內有很多重要事件，包括試圖廢除 聯邦儲備委員會、豬灣入侵、古巴導彈危機、柏林圍牆 的建立、太空競賽、以及美國民權運動。 年 月 日，甘迺迪在副總統陪同下到德克薩斯州訪問時遭暗殺， 享年僅 歲。
Otto von Bismarck
俾斯麥出生在貴族家庭，父親是一名貴族地主，因此在 就讀小學及中學期間常被生長在資產階級的同學排擠， 令他的童年承受著極大的痛苦與壓力。但他並無因而感 到灰心，反而勤奮向上，學會英語、法語、俄語、波蘭 語及荷蘭語，為其日後的外交官生涯打下基礎。後來他 考進哥廷根大學，就讀期間他經常帶著佩劍，牽著大狼 狗，更與同學進行過 次決鬥。在 年，年僅 歲的 他當上了柏林州的議員，後來當上了外交官，最後被威 廉一世任命為首相。在他首次演講中，他曾說：「當代 的重大問題不是通過演說和多數派決議所能解決的 而是要用鐵和血來解決！」，自此他有「鐵血宰相」的 稱號。很快地他開始籌劃三場統一戰爭，先是聯合奧國 攻打北方的丹麥，然後聯合法國攻打奧低利，然後再次 聯合奧國攻打德意志邦國幕後操控者法國。接受法國的 投降後，普魯士國王威廉一世在法國凡爾賽宮的鏡廳中 登基，宣佈德意志帝國成立。自德國統一後，俾斯麥便 不希望再有對外交戰，休養生息，培養國力，最後在 年 月 日離世。
Robert Edward Lee
羅伯特父親亨利 李三世為美國獨立戰爭英雄，後任維珍 尼亞州州長。他在 年入讀美國軍事學院，以頂尖成 績畢業，更被時人稱為一位「完美無缺」的畢業生。他 在美墨戰爭中表現超卓，戰後於 年獲擢升為中校， 其後更成為西點軍校的校長，並晉升為上校。 年， 聯邦國總統林肯提議由李上校指揮聯邦軍，但由於他效 忠出生地維珍尼亞，因而拒絕並以總司令的身分指揮聯 盟國軍隊，由北方的李上校變成南方的李將軍。在他的 領導下，處於劣勢的南方軍使南北戰爭延長了兩三年， 聯邦軍在第四年由格蘭特將軍出馬才把他打敗。 年 月 日，李將軍投降。 雖然李將軍效力支持奴隸制合法化的南方，但他名下的 奴隸從未過半打，而且說過「 我相信，在這個開化的時 代，只有少數人不明白制度性蓄奴在道德上與政治上皆 屬有害」，可見於他對於奴隸制的立場。戰後，他擔任 華盛頓學院校長，並立下一條校訓：「我們只有一條校 訓：每一個學生都是紳士。」李將軍最後於 年 月 日死於肺炎。
君士坦丁是西羅馬皇帝君士坦提烏斯一世的長子。 年，君士坦提烏斯一世去世，不列顛軍團在英格蘭宣 布君士坦丁為奧古斯都。 年，帝國內四位奧古斯都 展開奪權鬥爭。君士坦丁與另一奧古斯都李錫尼結盟， 佔領意大利。 年，李錫尼與君士坦丁透過政治婚姻 鞏固同盟，一起打敗其餘兩個奧古斯都，並自行瓜分 了帝國。兩位更同時簽署了米蘭敕令，給予基督教在 帝國境內的合法地位，改變了教會歷史。經過十年的 內戰，君士坦丁終於在 年擊潰李錫尼，君士坦丁從 此成為羅馬世界唯一的統治者。在君士坦丁一世時代， 羅馬帝國變成了軍事官僚國家。君士坦丁完善了專制 君主制度，以公開的強制手段克服羅馬的各種危機。 對外方面，君士坦丁曾多次擊退法蘭克人和哥德人的 入侵。此外，他重建並擴建了古老的城市拜占庭，把 它重新命名為君士坦丁堡（今名伊斯坦布爾），並定 為首都。君士坦丁於 年病逝，終年 歲。
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
列寧出生於一個小康之家，兄長在 年因參與刺殺沙 皇亞歷山大三世之行動而被絞死，其後列寧本人亦因參 加學生運動而被流放到農村。他在此期間自修大學法律 系課程及馬克思主義，自此一生堅信馬克思主義。列寧 後來獲得大學證書成為律師，並參加了工人小組活動。 年俄國爆發二月革命，羅曼諾夫王朝被推翻，同時 德國希望利用列寧緩解當時的第一次世界大戰東綫戰事， 所以協助他祕密回國，在 月 日發動十月革命，推翻 臨時政府，鎮壓了敵對的社會革命黨等，標誌著蘇聯的 成立；翌年 月，俄國正式退出了一戰。 列寧尤其反對基督教世界中的反猶主義，而且希望建立 免費的全民醫療體系。他十分重視提高民眾的識字率， 比同期的各國領導人更深入了解人民的需要。晚年時， 他對六位蘇共的高級領導人做出評價，對斯大林的評價 是 ：「他能不能永遠十分謹慎地使用這一權力？我沒有 把握。」但這評論並未阻止後者繼任蘇聯領導人。列寧 於晚年遭逢兩次刺殺，均失敗告終，最後 年 月 日 因先前刺殺引致的中風而逝世。
查理曼的父親是創立法蘭克王國加洛林王朝的丕平三世。 在 年， 丕平病逝，查理曼及其弟卡洛曼分別在努瓦 永與蘇瓦松即位。三年後，卡洛曼去世，時年 歲的查 理曼便吞併其全部領土，成為法蘭克王國的唯一的君主， 此也為他征戰歐洲的旅程鋪路。查理曼歷經多年征戰後， 領土是原本法蘭克帝國的一倍，據說是自羅馬帝國衰落 以來歐洲領土最遼闊的帝國；征戰後的領土之大，相當 於今天的法國、瑞士、荷蘭、比利時、奧地利、德國及 意大利。 在 年，當時的羅馬教宗利奧三世與貴族發生衝突，並 向查理曼求救，一年後查理曼平定了叛亂，恢復了前者 教宗的職位。 年 月 日，查理曼在羅馬聖彼得大教 堂做禮拜的時候，突然被利奧三世套上皇冠，並被稱為 「羅馬人的皇帝」。查理曼獲加冕，標誌著西歐文明不 再是屬於東羅馬拜占庭的附庸。 年，拜占庭皇帝米高 一世歡呼擁戴查理曼為皇帝；這是五百年來，拜占庭第 一次承認另外一個皇帝。 年冬天，查理曼感染風寒逝 世，享年 歲。
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
甘地出生在一個印度教家庭，父親是當地一土邦的首相。 歲時，他和一同齡女孩成婚，育有 子。 年赴英國 倫敦大學學院學習法律，並成為了一素食主義者。回國 後，他取得了英帝國的律師資格，並在孟買執業。 年，他到南非工作，目睹印度移民在當地遭剝奪政治權 利，於是他開始抗議和游說，反對種族歧視。 年， 他在領導印度礦工遊行時被捕。 一戰後，他回國並參與了國民大會黨的獨立運動。他以 不服從、不合作和絕食抗議等非暴力運動抗議英帝國殖 民統治，因而被英國當局多次逮捕。二戰時，甘地的獨 立要求更加得到擁護。他起草了一個讓英國撤離印度的 草案，引發了印度有史以來的最大的一次獨立運動。甘 地清楚說明，如果印度不能獨立，他們就不支持反法西 斯戰爭。二戰後，甘地希望印度能夠獨立並成為一個完 整的國家。但最後，為了印度獨立，甘地接受讓印度與 巴基斯坦分別獨立的方案。 年，印度人和穆斯林人 開始暴亂衝突，甘地開始了他的第 次絕食。但在 月 日，剛結束絕食的甘地被一個印度教狂熱分子槍殺。
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歷史學會一向以促進我校同學對歷史的認識為己任，今年本會銳意革新，舉辦多項活動，務 求消除同學對歷史的誤解，讓同學知道歷史的趣味。 您正在閱讀的學會刊物《Histogram》將定期出版，帶大家回顧過往史實。此外，我們亦正籌 備一連串的活動，歡迎大家參與，詳情請留意本學年稍後時間之公佈。 本會稍後將招募會員，歡迎所有本校學生加入。申請辦法將於日內公佈，請密切留意！
梁燕珊老師 (總顧問)、黃煒鍶老師 曾啟泓 5B 陳嘉軒 5A 列嘉希 5F 蔡偉強 5B 梁宇衡 4F 、譚仲匡 5B、 晉 譽 5C 、林博文 5C
Kwangtung is controlled by Japanese troops already
8 Dec 1941: About 60000 Japanese soldiers crossed Sham Chun River ( ) and invaded Hong Kong at 8:30 a.m. 9 Dec 1941 Japanese troops breached a western segment of Gin Drinkerâ€˜s Line (Gin Drinkerâ€™s Bay - Hebe Haven ). 10 Dec 1941 British troops withdrew onto Hong Kong island after the defensive Gin Drinker's Line collapsed. 15 Dec 1941: A group of 300 Japanese troops crossed Lyemun Channel ( ) onto Hong Kong island, but the Allied defenders on the beach drove off this amphibious attack. Japanese artillery and aerial bombardment on the northern coast of Hong Kong island began. 18 Dec 1941 3,500 Japanese troops crossed Lyemun Channel and established a beachhead, followed by another 4,000. Japanese troops executed 20 colonial Chinese prisoners of war at Sai Wan Hill ( , present-day Lei Yue Mun Park & Holiday Village), while 26 male medical personnel and 2 wounded soldiers were executed by beheading at the Salesian Mission Advanced Dressing Station ( ). 19 Dec 1941 Japanese troops reached the Wong Nai Chung Gap in central Hong Kong island where they were held by Canadian and colonial Chinese troops. 20 Dec 1941 After holding off the Japanese troops at Wong Nai Chung Gap in central Hong Kong island for a day, Canadian and colonial Chinese troops begin falling back suffering heavy casualties. 24 Dec 1941 Japanese troops penetrated the final Allied defensive line at the Stanley Peninsula on Hong Kong island. At St. Stephen's College Emergency Hospital, 56 wounded soldiers, doctors, and nurses were bayoneted while a number of female civilians were raped. 25 Dec 1941 British Governor of Hong Kong Sir Mark Young and Commander of British Forces in Hong Kong General Maltby ordered the surrender of the colony, which was signed shortly after at the Japanese field headquarters at the Peninsula Hong Kong hotel by Young.
Wong Nai Chung Gap, located at the centre of Hong Kong Island, was the most strategic passage between the north and the south of the Island due to the fact that 5 prominent roads meet at the Gap, namely Wong Nai Chung Gap Road, Tai Tam Reservoir Road, Repulse Bay Road, Deep Water Bay Road and Black's. As said by Major General Christopher Michael Maltby ( ), the Commander of British Troops in China, the key to holding the Island rested with the garrisonâ€™s ability to successfully defend the narrow Wong Nai Chung Gap. Therefore, who can control the Gap can control the whole Island easily. Canadian troops defending WNC Gap.
In the 1930s, the British force began installing defence structures at the Gap in preparation for possible attacks by the Japanese army. Ammunition depots, bunkers, and water tanks were built. Pillboxes installed with Vickers machine guns and Lewis light machine guns were built as well. Moreover, the original mortar pit was reconstructed into an anti-aircraft gun pit to protect the Gap from the attack of the Japanese air force. In 1941, Japan sent 60,000 soldiers to cross the Sham Chun River and invade Hong Kong. On 11 December, The British army, which consisted of 14,000 troops and led by C.M. Maltby, had no choice but to evacuate from Kowloon to HK Island after destroying the military and harbour facilities.
The British army was split into East Brigade and West Brigade after retreating to the Island. On 18 December, the Japanese successfully landed near North Point secretly making use of the heavy rain and the dense smoke from the burnt North point oil refinery. Facing little resistance, they captured Sai Wan Hill (present-day Lei Yue Mun Park & Holiday Village) and Lyemun Fort ( present-day HK Museum of Coastal Defence) . The East Brigade had no choice but to retreat to Stanley Peninsula.This created a gap in the defence line and the Japanese army marched towards WNC Gap. On 19 December, the Japanese attacked WNC Gap. Unexpectedly, the Japanese met fierce resistance. The Canadian and HK troops defended the passage to Stanley and WNC Reservoir bravely in the 3 pillboxes and the bunkers, with more than 600 Japanese soldiers injured or killed. However, the Japanese successfully approached the West Brigade Headquarters. Standing between the HQs and the Japanese army were only a few Winnipeg Grenadiers. Brigadier J.K. Lawson who was inside the HQs, had refused to pull back to Mount Nicholson at an earlier time.7 An hour later, the Japanese have completely surrounded the JQs. After ordering the Grenadiers to retreat, he calmly phoned Major General Maltby, saying that he was going to “fight it out”. These were his last words. Being captured as the headquarters was, "D" Company of the Grenadiers still held on firmly to its position near WNC Gap, denying the Japanese use of the one main north-south road across the Island. The Grenadiers inflicted severe casualties on the enemy and delayed Japanese advances for 3 days without the commander. They held out until the morning of 22 December, when supplies were exhausted and the Japanese had broken into their shelters. Only then did they surrender.10 On 23 December, the Japanese captured the Gap and WNC Reservoir and defeated all the pillboxes.The Battle of Wong Nai Chung Gap ended with the British defeat eventually. At the afternoon of 25 December, it was clear that further resistance would be futile. The British colonial officials headed by the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Mark Young, surrendered. The Battle of Hong Kong, which lasted for 17 days, ended on the “Black Christmas”. Negotiation between British and Japanese armies for surrender
St John Ambulance Memorial at WNCG
Our former Principal, Evan George Stewart ( , serving as SPC principal 1930 -1958) was serving in the Commonwealth Army in WWII. He was a major who commanded the Royal Hong Kong Regiment No. 3 Machine Gun Company and participated in both battles on Stonecutter Island and in Wong Nei Chong (WNC) area. He fought bravely in these two battles. He led his Company to launch a success evacuation from Stonecutters Island under Japanese attacks. In Colonel E.G. Stewart, former SPC principal WNC Gap, even he was wounded in early fight, he once again proved his leadership and showed his determination of defending against Japanese Invasion. Unfortunately, the defense of Wong Nei Chong Gap was overwhelmed and outnumbered by the Japanese at last. He was not demoralized and rapidly organized an escape of six survivors, this proved him to be a successive leader. During the fighting at WNC Gap, his Company suffered 100% casualties in officers and over 80% in Other Ranks. He was awarded Distinguished Service Order and Order Of British Empire honour for his remarkable and honourable command of the Army. He was later appointed to be the Royal Hong Kong Regiment Honorary Colonel. During the battle of Hong Kong, 3 staffs and 9 students of our school also joined the army and fought against the Japanese in the frontline with our principal, which 5 of them lost their precious life in the battle. Rather than fighting in the frontline, some students also contributed in the home front. Some members from the 10th Hong Kong Scout Group joined the Air Raid Precaution (ARP) Dispatch Corps for setting up defences in Hong Kong. After the surrender on Christmas Day, some staffs and students also joined The British Army Aid Group (BAAG) and carried out spy activities, our former vice-principal, Mr. Wong Shiu-pun was one of the participants. He was caught by the Japanese in 1943 and was killed in the Stanley Concentration Camp.
In November, the F.5 and F.5 history classes went on a field trip to the WNC Gap, visiting 8 destinations in total, namely the ammunition depot, mortar, bunker, water tanks, pillbox, tunnels and also the St John Ambulance Memorial. The first one is the ammunition Depot.The size of it is enormous, and it can be imagined that how much ammunitions were stored in the place during the WWII. The second one is the mortar (anti-aircraft gun pit), which was used to shoot down Japanese planes.We found many rocks being broken by bombs and guns, and it is truly the evidence of war. According to what our guide, Mr Ko Tim-keung , noted HK historian) said, some Japanese soldiers and warplanes were destroyed by the guns. The third one was a bunker, which was used to shot enemy that passes through the path. There were also many gun holes on the walls of the bunkers as they blocked a lot of attack. For the water tanks, they are very tall and gigantic in size since it needed to provide water for all soldiers nearby. The Japanese soldiers walk through the waterway and launched a sudden attack to the Hong Kong forces. After that, we went to the pillbox, which used to be a significant defense facility during the early 20th century. However, they are now badly damaged. There are some graffiti and marks made by tourists on it too. For the tunnel, it is a place for soldiers to rest and have transportation of. From my points of view, the tunnel is quite dark even in the day time.
The Jardine’s Lookout was an important point of defence, and was used to search enemies since they do not have the radar of detecting human then. Japanese soldiers were shot once they were being discovered. The last point we visited was the St John Ambulance Memorial. It was erected in memory of those who sacrificed their lives during the war as a member of the Ambulance. When I saw it, I was shocked by their spirit of sacrifice. Even some of them were not local people, they still provide medication to the people at that time.
Histogram Issue 2 (2011-12) Official Publication of St. Paul’s College History Society Chairman: Reynold Tsang Editors: Thomas Leung Boaz Nit Design: Samson Tam (Concepts@KX) Publisher: St. Paul’s College History Society 69 Bonham Rd, Hong Kong Publishing date: 21/2/2012 All rights reserved.
BRIEF HISTORY OF COMMUNISM
Communism is a movement to create a classless, moneyless, and stateless society. It strives for an equal and harmonious society which emphasized on the public ownership of properties, as well as the sharing of resources. In order to archive this, it promoted class struggle to organize proletarian (無 產階級) uprisings against the bourgeoisie (資產階級) and turn the governments under the control of the communist party.
the world should unite together and fight for their interests, as written in the Communist Manifesto "Workers of the world, unite!". They also published The German Ideology (《德意 The idea of communism started to take 志意識形態》), which exits shape in the 16th century, when plained how to build socialThomas More proposed utopian socialism (空想社會主義) in his book Utopia (《烏 ism in a practical way, and Das Kapital (《資本論》), 托邦》). Inspired by this, Karl Marx and which criticized the probFriedrich Engels proposed communism th in the 19 century. At that time, workers lems of capitalism. Unlike were exploited by the capitalists and had the utopian socialism, they proposed scientific socialto work under poor conditions as the governments did not defend their rights. ism (科學社會主義), which could be actually executed. In response to these social problems, they suggested that the workers around
FATHER OF COMMUNISM Friedrich Engels, one of the proposers of scientific communism.
is the Official Magazine of St. Paul’s College History Society 2011-2012. Published frequently, it focuses on different on different history issues and occasions, and is distributed to all members of the Society.
Issue 3 — Communism Published by St. Paul’s College History Society 2011-2012, 69 Bonham Road, Hong Kong. Chairman Reynold Tsang. Editors Michael Chan, Thomas Leung, Boaz Nit, Samson Tam, Andy Tsoi, Reynold Tsang, etc. Graphic Design by Samson Tam, Concepts@KX. Published on July 1, 2012. © 2012 St. Paul’s College History Society. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without written permission is prohibited.
BRIEF HISTORY OF COMMUNISM
Communism deeply influenced the workers in European countries. Under its influence, the International Workingmen's Association (第一國際) was set up. The Paris Commune (巴黎公社) was also established in 1871. Moreover, it paved the way for the future establishment of the Soviet Union, which was set up by Vladimir Lenin according to the scien-
tific socialism. On the other hand, fearing the spread of communism, the European countries suppressed the workers’ revolts, but at the same time introduced policies that improved their working conditions. This also helped easing the social tension between the working and capitalist class.
SYMBOLS OF COMMUNISM
Hammer and Sickle
is perhaps the most widelyrecognized symbol of communism. Hammer and sickle represents the working class and peasants respectively, and placing them together symbolizes the unity between the two classes.
is another widely-recognized symbol of communism. It is suggested that the five points of the star represents the 5 fingers of a worker’s hand, while some suggested that they represents 5 social groups that would lead to Russian communism. In Soviet times, it was used to symbolized the Red Army as well as military, as opposed to the hammer and sickle that represented the peaceful labour.
is the colour which symbolizes communism. In Russian language, the word for red, красный, is related to the word for beautiful, so red has a positive meaning in the Russian world. Red also symbolized the blood spilled by workers and farmers in their struggle for emancipation.
Along with the Red Star, it was featured on the flag of Soviet Union. Many communist bodies around the world nowadays still use the hammer and sickle as their symbol.
It was widely used in the French Revolution, and then became a symbol of patriotism.
COUNTRIES that had practiced communism at present or in the past. Full black represents countries that are still communist now, while deep grey represents countries that adopted communism in the COUNTRIES that were formerly communist but now switched to other forms or dissolved: Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Benin, Bulgaria, Congo-Brazzaville, Czechoslovakia (dissolved into Czech Republic and Slovakia), East Germany (reunified with W. Germany), Hungary, Ethiopia, Grenada, Kampuchea (now Cambodia), Mongolia, Mozambique, North Vietnam (defeated S. Vietnam to form Vietnam), Poland, Romania, Somalia, South Yemen, Soviet Union, Yugoslavia
COUNTRIES that are still communist:
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA Mao Zedong (毛澤東, 1893-1976) took control over China and turned China into a communist country on October 1, 1949. The country is now ruled by the Communist Party of China (CCP) and the current leader is Hu Jintao (胡錦濤, 1942-, General Secretary of CCP and President of PRC).
REPUBLIC OF CUBA After the revolution in 1959, Fidel Castro (1926- took over the Cuban government and set up the Republic of Cuba on May 1, 1961. The current ruling party and leader of Cuba are the Communist Party of Cuba and Raul Castro (1931-) respectively.
COMMUNIST COUNTRIES COUNTRIES that are still communist:
LAO PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC (LAOS) Laos became a communist country in 1975. The Lao People's Democratic Republic was officially set up on December 2, 1975. Laos is currently ruled by Lao People's Revolutionary Party and the leader is Choummaly Sayasone (1936-).
DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KOREA (NORTH KOREA) After World War II, Korea was divided into a Soviet north and American south along the 38th parallel. The country was formally established on September 9, 1948 and the first president is Kim Il-sung (金日成, 1912-1994). It is now ruled by the Workers' Party of Korea (朝鮮勞動黨) and the leader is Kim Jong-un (金 正恩,1984- ).
SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM After the Vietnam War (1955-1975), North Vietnamese gained victory and unified Vietnam into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1976. The country is currently ruled by the Communist Party of Vietnam.
LIFE UNDER COMMUNISM LIFE IN SOVIET
UNION AFTER 1950s
The Soviet Russians were living under tyranny in the Stalinist-period, with frequent secret police activities and oppression of ideas and thoughts. After the de -Stalinization introduced by Nikita Khrushchev, the living standard of Russians was generally improved, the government provided a stable, comfortable and peaceful life for Soviets. The social welfare system provided by the Soviet Union was comprehensive. For example, there was free compulsory education in Soviet Union, in which Russians have the right to education, where free textbooks and teaching materials were distributed to children, and school fees were not required. Public housing was also implemented in Soviet Union; as long as you found a job, you would be on the queue of receiving a free flat, and it only takes a few years to receive one. The medical service was also provided by the Soviet government free of charge. So the Soviets received nice social welfares, some of them were even better than those of modern countries. Apart from the welfare system, Soviets also enjoyed well-planned recreation resources in their daily life. Public leisure facilities such lakes, cinemas, rivers or even the beaches of the Black Sea were opened to the public free of charge. The education of Soviet Union emphasized on all-rounded
personal development. Students learnt arts subjects like music, painting since they were compulsory, while sports were also one of the proud cultures of Soviet students. The students would receive a work after graduation from University, so there was low or even 0 unemployment rate in the Soviet Union. The crime rate in Soviet Union was also low. This was not because of secret police activities in the past and purges. The low crime rate after 1960s was due to the narrow wealth-gap of people at that time, so thefts or robberies were rare in Soviet Union; small children were safe on the Soviet streets.
THE COMMUNISTS KARL HEINRICH MARX (馬克思) 1818—1883 He was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, and revolutionary socialist. He published various books during his lifetime, such as The Communist Manifesto and Das Capital. His ideas played a significant role in the development of socialist movement. Marxism had led the formation of various socialist states, such as the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. Leninism (列寧主義), Stalinism (史太林主義) and Maoism (毛澤東主義) were developed under the theory of Marxism.
ERNESTO "CHE" GUEVARA (哲 · 古華拉) 1928—1967 He was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, author, guerrilla leader, diplomat, and military theorist. He had taken up an important role in the Cuban Communist Revolution. Nowadays, he had become a countercultural symbol of rebellion and revolution *. * For example, legislator “Longhair” Leung Kwok-hung often wear a T-shirt with Che Guevara’s portrait.
JOSEPH VISSARIONOVICH STALIN (史太林 [本港翻譯] / 斯大林 [大 陸翻譯]
1878—1953 He was once a revolutionary and joined the October Revolution in Russia in 1917. Later, he held the position of General Secretary of the Communist Party from 1922 until his death. After the death of Lenin in 1924, he became the leader of the Soviet Union. He led the Soviet Union in defeating the Axis Power in WWII and launched a highly centralized command economy during his rule. Stalin also turned the Soviet Union into a superpower and started the cold War.
A REVIEW ON HIST SOC ACTIVITIES This academic year is definitely a fruitful year to both History Society itself as well as our members. Not only did History Society play a vital part in the College’s 160th Anniversary celebrations, we also held a variety of events related to history. 160th Anniversary Exhibition Day The Society played an important role in the preparation and operation of History Department’s exhibition on that day. The “History & Culture of Germany and Poland” exhibition, held in the History Room, attracted a large number of visitors, in which many schoolmates, alumni and friends of us gave positive feedback. We are deeply indebted to their patronage. Publication of in-house magazine Histogram One of our new initiative this year is the publication of Histogram, our official magazine. A total of 3 issues were published this year, and are distributed to all members. The 3 issues featured a selection of Great Men in History, insights on the Battle of Hong Kong as part of WWII and communism respectively. Histogram is widely acclaimed for its contents as well as presentation. General Meetings Like other clubs and societies, general meetings were held to enhance the Society’s members’ knowledge on different history issues. In the first meeting, participants were keen to know more on the topic “the secrets of WWII”, while the Chairman of the Society, Reynold Tsang, gave a insightful and lively lecture on different less-known aspects of WWII.
On behalf of St. Paul’s College History Society 2011-2012, we would like to express our sincere gratitude to our members and all those who have gave their support and patronage to us in this academic year. We hope that you will continue to support History Society in the coming year. Remember: “History repeats itself”, and “History is not just a subject” !
Official Publication of St. Paul's College History Society Session 2011-2012