Page 1

presents

a guide to

CHOOSING the best training strategies

for your objectives Penn Medicine Academy, 1500 Market St., 9th Floor, West Tower


Table of Contents Is Training Really the Answer? .....................................................................................................3 Training is the Answer. Now What? ...........................................................................................5 Which Activities Support My Objectives?.................................................................................8 Which Training Solutions Support My Objective(s)? ..........................................................12 Choosing a Training Strategy .....................................................................................................13 Job Aid .............................................................................................................................................14 Microlearning ................................................................................................................................15 eLearning Module ........................................................................................................................17 Simulation ......................................................................................................................................18 Can I Have This By Tomorrow?...................................................................................................19 I Am Designing Training. Where Do I Start? ..........................................................................20 Additional Resources, Templates and Downloads..............................................................21 Do-It-Yourself Templates ...........................................................................................................21 Ask the Experts .............................................................................................................................21


Is Training Really the Answer? At Penn Medicine Academy, we are here to help you work through this thought process. However, in general, training is the answer if it will close a performance gap.

In some cases, training is not the answer and the solution may require:

assessing other elements that may not be so obvious, such as environment and culture creating a tool as simple as a job aid

developing a more complex structure and design

The purpose of this guide is to provide a framework for identifying a need for training and designing appropriate and engaging instruction utlizing adult learning theories, proven design models, and aligning instructional goals and objectives with the deliverables. No training

Job Aid

Environmental Issues


Identify what is causing the performance gap. Ex. Staff members’ compliance with handwashing guidelines is only 80%.

KNOWLEDGE. ex. Staff members are not aware of current handwashing guidelines. Design training if knowledge should be stored in memory. If it can be obtained via a job aid, design a job aid.

SKILLS. ex. Staff members have never practiced handwashing based on current guidelines. Design training to help learners acquire skill(s).

ENVIRONMENT. ex. Staff members do not have access to handwashing sinks outside each patient room. Is it workflow, policy, or equipmentbased? If so, solve for that. If cultural, training is most likely NOT the answer and may need to be addressed some other way.

MOTIVATION. ex. Staff members do not understand importance of good hand hygiene in infection prevention. Is low motivation due to low skills, lack of knowledge, or environment? Refer to categories above. Otherwise, design training if it helps to motivate them.


Training is the Answer. Now What? You have decided that training is the answer. So where do you go from here?

Before you can even begin to think about designing your training, look ahead to what you want your learners to be able to do once training is complete. This is where framing your instructional goals and objectives comes into play.

Instructional Goal

Objective

Objective

Objective

Learn how to form instructional goals and objectives on the next page.


Write instructional goals and objectives. Instructional Goal (broad) The instructional goal describes what behavior learners will be able to demonstrate after instruction and indicates the context in which the behavior is to occur. ex. By following proper safety procedures, Penn Medicine employees will reduce the number of issues submitted to the Penn Safety Net over the next six months.

Learning Objectives (specific) The learning objectives describe what the learner will be able to do by the end of the training; used to measure progress towards goals. Often, objectives are written in the ABCD format:

Audience

+

Behavior

WHO

WHAT

Who are your learners? For whom is this learning intended?

Observable action/task/ behavior to be demonstrated

+

Condition

+

HOW Circumstances under which performance will be learned and/or carried out

Degree

HOW MUCH Level of mastery

ex. Clinicians will be able to properly wash their hands given a handwashing job aid as measured by the Penn Medicine guidelines. ex. Pharmacists will be able to fill prescriptions given a set of scripts with 100% accuracy.


Now that you have the formula to construct your instructional goal and supporting objective(s), how do you apply your specific content?

Begin with your audience. Who are your stakeholders? For whom is this training intended?

What behavior(s) do you want your learners to demonstrate upon completion of the training? Do you want them to memorize the Penn Medicine entities associated with each acronym? Do you want them to apply a surgical technique taught in class? For additional help, you can reference a list of tasks on pages 9-11 of this eBook.

Under what condition will you evaluate the learner’s performance of the task? What will the learner(s) be given or need to know prior to the learning?

Finally, to what degree must your learners master the content? Are you looking for 100% accuracy? Do they need to complete the task within a certain amount of time.

Plug each item into the formula from page 6 to construct your content-specific goal and objective(s).

For a list of tasks to include as you write your goals and objectives, please refer to pages 9-11 of this eBook.


Which Activities Support My Objectives? Design activities that support the desired behavior(s). Now that you have chosen the behavior(s) (pp.10-12) you would like your learner to perform by the end of your training, it is time to match those behaviors with activities that support that level of knowledge. Using the previous examples (p.7), if the objective is for your learners to memorize the Penn Medicine entities associated with each acronym, an activity that uses flashcards would help support this objective. On the other hand, if the objective requires your leaners to apply a surgical technique taught in class, an activity that utilizes simulation or role play could be used to demonstrate proficiency.

Take a minute to locate the behavior you are asking your learners to execute on the next three pages. The six categories of behaviors are organized from the most simple cognitive functions to the most complex: remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, create. Once you have found the behavior, take some time to navigate through the list of activities associated with that task (located directly below the list of tasks). As you read through them and consider the audience, development time and cost, and available resources, etc., decide which activities best support your desired outcome.

Refer to pages 9-11 of this eBook for a list of tasks and associated activities.


Which Activities Best Support the Behavior(s) I Want My Learner to Perform?

Behavior: REMEMBER Define List Describe Match Identify Memorize Label Name Activities: Analogies Audio Basic Searches Bullets/Lists Flashcards

Behavior: UNDERSTAND Classify Discuss Convert Distinguish Defend Estimate Describe Explain Activities: Assessments Audio/Video Discussion Objective Tests Podcasting

Outline Recall Recite Record

Relate Repeat Select State

Illustrations Lectures Mind Maps Narrative Examples Post-It Notes

Express Generalize Identify Interpret

Presentations Podcasting Questions Reports Reviews

Quiz/Test Video Visual Aids Worksheet/Books

Paraphrase Predict Recognize Restate

Rewrite Sort Summarize Translate

Storytelling Summaries Writing Assignments


Which Activities Best Support the Behavior(s) I Want My Learner to Perform? Behavior: APPLY Calculate Change Compute Construct Demonstrate

Discover Dramatize Employ Illustrate Interpret

Activities: Animation Demonstrations Exercises Interviews Micro Teach

Behavior: ANALYZE Appraise Debate Calculate Deconstruct Compare Deduct Contrast Diagram Criticize Differentiate Activities: Case Studies Critical Incidents Discussion Exercises

Manipulate Modify Operate Practice Predict

Prepare Produce Relate Schedule Shop

Models Podcast/Vodcast Presentations Projects Role Play

Discriminate Distinguish Experiment Identify Illustrate

Show Sketch Solve Use

Screen Captures Sculptures Simulations Sketches

Infer Inspect Inventory Outline Relate

Problems Relationship Mind Maps Tests

Separate Test


Which Activities Best Support the Behavior(s) I Want My Learner to Perform? Behavior: EVALUATE Appraise Criticize Assess Critique Choose Debate Compare Defend Conclude Describe Activities: Appraisals Case Studies Critiques Debates Exercises

Behavior: CREATE Arrange Compile Build Compose Collect Construct Combine Design Activities: Blogging/Vlogging Case Studies Constructs Creative Exercises Development Plans

Discriminate Estimate Interpret Investigate Judge

Justify Measure Rate Revise Score

Online Discussions Panel Discussions Persuasive Speech Reports Research Projects

Devise Formulate Generate Manage

Media Production Modeling Presentations Problems Programming

Select Support Value

Simulations Social Networking Surveys

Organize Plan Prepare Propose

Rewrite Set Up

Research Projects Simulations Songs Stories


Which Training Solutions Support My Objective(s)? Align goal(s) and objective(s) with deliverables. What Are My Options? A source of information, tool, or user’s guide intended to

Job Aid

support performance on the job. It is also called a tip sheet, quick reference guide/card, or pocket card.

Microlearning

Delivering content to learners in small, specific bursts that can stand alone. The learners are in control of what and when they learn. It is also called “just-in-time” learning.

. A typically longer series of online courses within a eLearning Module

curriculum that provides materials in a logical, sequential order and guides students through the content and assessments utilizing a variety of activities.

Simulation

A learning environment (live or virtual) intended to mirror reality (system or environment), allowing learners to safely explore consequences of their actions. Instructor-Led Training

Classroom-based instruction. Can be delivered face-to-face or online (synchronously or asynchronously).


Choosing a Training Strategy

CONSIDERATION LEARNING STRATEGY

Learner Volume

Content Volume (# Objectives)

Learner Location

Content Complexity

Small

Broad

Centralized

Complex or New

Instructor-Led Virtual Classroom

Large

Broad

Diverse

Complex or New

eLearning

Large

Broad

Diverse

Complex or New

Microlearning

Large

Limited

Diverse

Basic, Refresh or New

Simulation

Small

Limited

Centralized

Complex or New

Gamification

Large

Varies

Diverse

Varies

Table Top Discussion

Small

Limited

Centralized

Basic or Refresh

In-Service

Small

Varies

Centralized

Varies

Job Aid

Large

Limited

Diverse

Basic or Refresh

Instructor-Led Live Classroom


Job Aid Checklists, summaries, manuals, reference material, student and teacher guides, worksheets, glossaries, FAQs, etc.

Sample Job Aid Template

NOTE

For access to job aid templates and the like, please contact the Strategic Learning Solutions team at Penn Medicine Academy (p.21).


Microlearning Infographics, podcasts, emails, videos, PowerPoints, gamification, social networking, charts, learning nuggets, etc. “I only need a three-to-five minute video. It will not take a long time to create.” It seems logical, but that is not always the case. While the output itself tends to be short, the behind-the-scenes work that goes into the latest learning buzzword— microlearning—from conducting a needs analysis to choosing a training strategy to deciding how to deliver the training to your learners—is no micro feat. Before you decide that microlearning is the way to go, set up a consultation with the Strategic Learning Solutions team.

Microlearning can appear in many different forms—and while there may not be just one solution, it is important to consider your audience, objectives, development time and cost, available resources, etc. Microlearning can be as simple as a job aid or as complex as a video or game.

A sample infographic describing the steps to create a microlearning can be found on the next page of this eBook.

NOTE

For access to templates or assistance with your microlearning, please contact the Strategic Learning Solutions team at Penn Medicine Academy (p.21).


DESIGNING MICROLEARNING

Learning at Lightning Speed “need to know” versus “nice to know” short bursts of “right-sized” content

1

objective

“just-in-time” learning

idea less than three to five minutes stand-alone content

accessibility via multiple devices

performance support learner autonomy

COMMUNICATE IT How will you communicate and deliver your content to your learners? Where will you house your content – in Knowledge Link? On a website? Does it need to be tracked?

WRITE IT

Put your one objective – yes, one – in writing. Specifically describe what your learners will be able to do by the end of the microlearning. Ex. Employees will be able to properly draw blood with no errors.

SHORTEN IT

Narrow your content. Focus on what you need your learners to know versus what you want them to know. The microlearning should be able to stand alone as a separate unit without the need to view content before or after to meet the objective.

STRATEGIZE IT

What types of ENGAGING activities will you include in your microlearning? What is the format of the deliverable? Videos, podcasts, job aids, emails, apps, etc. Consider your audience and the format that best suits their needs.

STORYBOARD IT

Create a sequenced series of panels or screens with directions regarding text, audio, video, and graphics to appear in the deliverable. For storyboard templates, contact the Learning Solutions team at Penn Medicine Academy.

DESIGN IT

Put your storyboard into action, adding all elements, interactions, navigation, details, etc. For assistance with your microlearning, contact the Learning Solutions team at Penn Medicine Academy.

EVALUATE IT

Test your design. Collect feedback before distributing to the masses. Does your microlearning function properly? Does navigation work? Are your learners able to access it (on all devices)? Is it tracking properly? Is it less than three to five minutes? Have all stakeholders signed off on the deliverables? Does the content align to your objective? Did you check it against the Q&A Checklist?


eLearning Module Depending on the context, eLearning modules can vary from basic courses to advanced, highly-interactive modules.

TEXT–DRIVEN The most basic eLearning modules include simple content via text, graphics, minimal audio, and simple assessment questions.

INTERACTIVE Similar to a text-driven course, an interactive eLearning module includes more interactive components such as graphics, charts and diagrams with interarctive elements. Additional media such as videos may also be included.

VIRTUAL SIMULATION A highly interactive form of eLearning, simulation involves extensive use of graphics, video, audio and some level of gamification.

NOTE

Please consult with the Strategic Learning Solutions team at Penn Medicine Academy if you believe you need an eLearning course (p.21).


Simulation Live simulation uses patient mannequins, task trainers and specially-trained actors (standardized patients) to immerse participants in customized experiences which mirror real life.

Demonstration and evaluation of competencies

NOTE

Please consult with the Simulations team at Penn Medicine Academy if you believe you need simulation (p.21).


Can I Have This By Tomorrow?

Consider development time.

Start with your end date and work backwards

Create a project plan and timeline

Identify who is responsible for what


I Am Designing Training. Where Do I Start?

Create a storyboard. A storyboard is a visual map or blueprint of an eLearning/microlearning course that serves as a detailed guide to designing and developing the course.

Helpful Storyboard Hints 1. Form an outline of the course content and divide it into screens/slides/etc. 2. Design the storyboard using tools such as Google Docs, PowerPoint or Word. The Strategic Learning Solutions Team has templates available as a resource. 3. Include notes to the developer that provide audio/video/graphic/text instructions and describe interactivity and navigation for each screen/slide/etc. 4. Include exact script/narration.


Additional Resources, Templates and Downloads Do-It-Yourself Templates JOB AID

POWERPOINT

MICROLEARNING

Ask the Experts MICROLEARNING

GAMIFICATION

eLEARNING MODULE

INSTRUCTOR-LED TRAINING

SIMULATION

Strategic Learning Solutions Project Request Link: https://sites.google.com/view/slspr Click A to submit a new instructional design request

Ebook word version  
Ebook word version  
Advertisement