Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa FAUAS Lic. En Arquitectura Comprensión de Documentos de Arquitectura en ingles Grupo. 4-4 REVISTA Lectura N°4
Integrantes: Angulo Ojeda Mario Alberto Cota Álvarez Reyna Guadalupe Hendrickson Robles Cindi Itzayana Sandoval Martínez Pablo Andrés
Chicago shool -The chicago shool comprise an intellectually elite group of progressive architects in late-lath-century chicago, Illinois. -Varius factores in the untied state facilitate the expansion of skyscraper construction. -Emerging American architectural theory, influence of the group is work filter to other cities Histori and social -New technology, improvements in communication and transportation, all life in organic -marquette and reliance building, and the carson pierre scott department ent store,the Chicago building were the beginning of the modern. -new technologies, many from before the civil war, also contribute on this development. -chicago experience phenomenal growth benning in the late 18305, already known for its stockyads.
-concepts. -thes se first manifestations of modern architecture often express the structure on the exterior. - he creates an archictural language for tall building Designs characteristics -facade, covered with terro-cotta or masonry, many have bayor oriel windows or. Entries, lobbies, and atriums are large impressive spaces with expensive treatments and materials. Architecture -it user a metal skeleton composed of castuiron columns and steel beams that support the masonry wall and floors. -heavy metal or steel pies punctuate the plan in a grid sidtem at all levels to support the conceptrated weignt load. -entries are large and prominently placed. -the glas itself is most often plain. -furniture defines the space. Public buildings Architects design interior plans to take advantage of narural lignt.
-proriding direct task illumination are a critical necessity in offices. Furnishings and decorative arts Simple boxlike furniture of the America arts and crafts period. Roms of workers seated at flatutop desks replace the individual seated at a rolltop or wooten desk.
Chicago School 1880s–1910s The Chicago School comprises an intellectually elite group of progressive architects in late-19th-century Chicago, Illinois. This multistory structure establishes a new design language for commercial buildings and comes to dominate the urban landscape. HISTORICAL AND SOCIAL Following the Civil War, a second wave of the Industrial Revolution arises with America at its forefront. New technology, improvements in communication and transportation, and new or improved manufacturing processes usher in a period of extraordinary growth in industry and commerce. In response, American businesses reorganize and revolutionize how they work. CONCEPTS Need drives the development of the tall commercial structure, which has no precedent in architecture. Additionally, architects and engineers, such as Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan, work together to solve structural and architectural problems DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS Early skyscrapers have grid-patterned façades, large windows for light, and little ornament. Verticality is emphasized as façades rise relatively unhindered by horizontals.
ARCHITECTURE Significant advances in construction technology affect the structure, form, and composition of buildings in Chicago, New York City, and other metropolitan areas during the second half of the 19th century. Architecture: Guaranty Trust Building (later Prudential Building), 1895â€“ 1896; Buffalo, New York; Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan, with ornamentation designed by Sullivan and George Elmslie. Materials. They subsequently adopt steel-skeletal construction covered with brick, terra-cotta, or sandstone, thereby using an outer masonry envelope to cover the skeletal structure. Large, wide display windows at this level showcase the merchandise in shops. Windows. Buildings show wide expanses of glass windows arranged in rectangular grids that cover most of the faĂ§ade. Doors. Monumental entries, often with large arches surrounded by heavy architectural features or stonework, lead to major circulation areas INTERIORS Entries and lobbies, which are usually two stories and atrium-like, are lavishly decorated with rich materials. Impressive iron or marble staircases lead to upper floors.
Interiors: Root, likely inspired by French department store design, creates this twostory interior court, which was hailed at the time as bold, original, and inspiring. Public Buildings Other spaces vary with the type of building, such as banking halls in banks or lobbies in theaters and auditoriums. Relationships. Major circulation paths from exterior to interior connect important spaces. Color. As with the exterior, the primary color palette derives from the architectural materials, including various shades of wood, brick, marble, granite, metal, and stained glass. FURNISHINGS AND DECORATIVE ARTS The simple boxlike furniture of the American Arts and Crafts period (see Chapter 18, â€œShingle Style, American Arts and Craftsâ€?) is very popular in many offices. Furniture in other more public places reflects the character, scale, and importance of the particular space.
The Chicago School comprises an intellectually elite group of progressive architects in late-19th-century Chicago, Illinois. They introduce the skyscraper, a new building type for the new 20th century. These include phenomenal commercial and business growth; the development of huge, national corporations; new technology such as the elevator and the type writer; an inexpensive process for making steel. Following the Civil War, a second wave of the Industrial Revolution arises with America at its forefront. New technology, improvements in communication and transportation, and new or improved manufacturing processes usher in a period of extraordinary growth in industry. New technologies, many from before the Civil War, also contribute to this development. Until the invention of the passenger elevator in 1857 by Elisha Graves Otis, buildings are seldom more than four or five stories high. Tall office buildings or skyscrapers reaching to at least 10 stories begin to dominate the urban skyline.
Chicago experiences phenomenal growth beginning in the late 1830s. Already known for its stockyards, the city becomes an important railroad hub and manufacturing center in the 1850s. Immigrants flock there for jobs. Many new buildings are constructed with wood frames and cast-iron columns and faĂ§ades. However, these materials are not fireproof, as proved by the disastrous fire in Chicago in 1871 in which wood buildings are consumed and iron structures collapse. Need drives the development of the tall commercial structure, which has no precedent in architecture. Once the technology and construction methods are in place and prototypes appear, the architectâ€™s dilemma becomes how to articulate a multistory building to reflect a human scale. Significant advances in construction technology affect the structure, form, and composition of buildings in Chicago, New York City, and other metropolitan areas during the second half of the 19th century. Steel skeletons to replace masonry bearing walls or piers, foundations that can support tall buildings, and elevators to access upper floors come together to create the first skyscrapers s, or buildings 16 to 20 stories high.
Construction improvements occur incrementally, so some early skyscrapers retain load-bearing masonry walls combined with wooden or metal beams. However, the thick load-bearing walls take up valuable interior space. Floor Plans. Floor plans are generally rectangular or square, so the building forms a rectangular box or sometimes U shape. Plans often have a central corridor with shallow rectangular rooms on both sides Site Orientation. Office buildings and large complexes sit on prominent city streets, often on corner lots Materials. Exterior walls may be of brick, terra-cotta, granite, or other types of stone, giving no hint of the interior metal skeleton. At first, Adlerand Sullivan use granite and limestone to cover load bearing brickwork. Facades. Building faรงades exhibit large scale, verticality, repetition, order, and simplicity Doors. Monumental entries, often with large arches surrounded by heavy architectural features or stonework, lead to major circulation areas Roofs. Roofs are not visually apparent because heavy or projecting cornices often hide them.
Entries and lobbies, which are usually two stories and atrium-like, are lavishly decorated with rich materials. Impressive iron or marble staircases lead to upper floors. Elevators often appear in open cages, at least on the ground floors, with elaborate cast metal doors. Similarly, restaurants, department stores, and shops have open, light-filled spaces and rich finishes to attract customers.
Architecture in the first half of the 20th century Adolf Loos (10 December 1870- 23 august 193390 Was an Austrian and Czechoslovak architect. He was influential in European Modern architecture, and in his essay Ornament and Crime he abandoned the aesthetic principles of the Vienna Secession. In this and many other essays he contributed to the elaboration of a body of theory and criticism of Modernism in architecture. Origins of a Modern FaĂ§ade Adolf Loos and the Steiner House, Vienna 1910 According to loos art nouveau had to be seen as yet another superficial and transitory â€œstyleâ€? . Cubism, de stijl and new conceptions of space: The international style in architecture When a person looked directly at a building that was designed in the international style of architecture , they were overcome with the impression that flat surfaces and segments of the building could be moved all will, simply by sliding them to one side of other.
Is an influential visual arts design style which first appeared in France after World War I, flourishing internationally in the 1930s and 1940s before its popularity waned after World War II. It is an eclectic style that combines traditional craft motifs with Machine Age imagery and materials. The style is often characterized by rich colors, bold geometric shapes, and lavish ornamentation.