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PEER BULLETIN July 5, 2011!

Navigation Tools for the Heart, Mind, and Soul™ !

Number 202

Rey A. Carr Editor-in-Chief

The End of Coaching as We Knew It The Influence of Peer Assistance Training on Adolescent Expectations of Friendship Peer Ministry Leadership is Good Samaritan Leadership Sally Kain

Assistant Editor

Use Indigenous Wisdom to Train Peer Mentors

Charles Ashton Art Director

Employees Awarded for Mentoring Prowess

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The Peer Bu!etin is published monthly by Peer Resources as one of a series of navigation tools to assist business, community, education and agency personnel to achieve balance, well-being, and prosperity in heart, mind and soul.

The One-Minute Commencement Speech Famous Mentoring Pairs Plus Book Reviews, Funding, Research, Champions, New Resources, Discounts, Events, Books, Peer Assistance Job & More...

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Peer Bulletin No. 202


Number 202 July 5, 2011 ISSN: 1488-6774



FEATURE ARTICLES The End of Coaching as We Knew It By Rey Carr Four current trends, some led by major players, may be reducing respect & regard for the coaching industry and stifling its progress.



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FEATURE ARTICLES Employees Awarded for Mentoring Prowess By Sarah Dobson A diversity mentoring program that provided mentors for more than 1,500 newcomers received deserved recognition.



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The Influence of Peer Assistance Training on Adolescent Expectations of Friendship By David de Rosenroll Research shows the importance of including social skills training such as making and keeping friends as a key part of effective peer assistance programs.

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SHORT & SWEET Peer Ministry Leadership is Good Samaritan Leadership By Lyle Griner Secular and spiritual goals merge in the delivery of peer ministry.

The One-Minute Commencement Speech By Michael Josephson Advice to university graduates takes an unexpected direction.

Book Reviews By DeeAnne Vonde & Lisa Lucas PRN members review A Coach’s Story by Gerard O’Donovan and Leadership Coaching for Educators by Karla Reiss.

Famous Mentor Pairs By Lorne Daniel A Canadian writer pays tribute to his mentor and illustrates the idea of ‘pay it forward.’

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July 5, 2011

The End of Coaching as We Knew It Rey Carr Professional ice hockey isn’t the first thing that typically comes to mind when thinking of a way to describe the evolution of the coaching industry. But what happened on the streets of Vancouver, British Columbia after the final game of the Stanley Cup may be an appropriate analogy to identify trends that are changing the world of coaching—and not for the better.

occurred, various pundits have placed the blame on different groups, and social media Much to the embarrassment and dismay of tools have yielded the names and contact details for many participants captured by the citizens of British Columbia who cell phone cameras, YouTube videos, and worked just a few months earlier to make Flickr images. The reality is that a just a the 2010 Winter Olympics inVancouver a few people were responsible for the public image success, and the shock and exceptionally negative actions and tears of more than 100,000 hockey fans impressions that were sent around the who gathered on the streets of downtown Vancouver to watch the final game between world, and most of them were virtually indistinguishable from members of the Boston and Vancouver on giant, outdoor larger crowd. TV-screens, a few people created such havoc after the game that their vandalism, looting, and violence was shown repeatedly I’ve been involved in large groups where problems have occurred and people have on TV-news programs throughout the been hurt. Almost anyone who was world. associated with campus politics of the 60’s and 70’s can probably say the same. But Probably everyone around the world with those protests, while possibly disrupted or an interest in hockey or access to a TVhijacked by small groups of more violentnews saw automobiles set on fire, store prone participants, were, in fact, protest windows smashed, shops looted, good groups, where people were hoping to bring samaritans beaten, rocks and bottles about change, but differed in their tactics thrown at police, and fire fighters and methods. prevented from doing their jobs. Post-riot analysts have all expressed opinions about how and why the violence Peer Bulletin No. 202

The Vancouver post-hockey event, however, was not a protest. It was a large 3

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as ‘disturbing.’ They included: unsavory marketing practices, claims of ultimate authority, lack of relevance for certification and accreditation, coaches with too little experience, and the inappropriate use of certain practice standards from professionals trained in disciplines other than coaching. The five trends identified by Jan Newcomb as well as four that we have group of mostly hockey fans and families identified—the creation of niche eager to cheer on their team. These were coaching, the proliferation of people of all income levels who were credentialing schemes, the influx of hoping to see their team win the seventh parasites, and the exclusionary practices of and deciding game of what Canadians coaching organizations—are the result of grow up dreaming about. the work of a relatively small group, but These were all well-meaning residents who they appear to be having an impact on the had no idea that such a violent end could general public as more and more cultural come even as a result of their favored team observers describe coaching practices in losing that seventh game. cynical or critical fashion, and the What this reminds me of, and why I think previous esteem and confidence accorded this tragic turn of events in Vancouver is coaching by the public appears to be analogous to what is happening in the diminishing. coaching world is that I don’t believe the well-meaning, innovative and highlyBefore we examine the specific trends, it skilled pioneers of the coaching industry will be helpful to update the estimate of could have predicted the trends that are the number of people offering their now occurring in coaching and are likely services as coaches. This number is contributing to the demise of coaching as important because it may be the they knew it. underlying reason why the trends identified by Jan Newcomb and the three In Peer Bu!etin No. 194 (November 2, 2010), additional trends to be detailed later in Peer Resources Network member, author this article have emerged, and and coach Jan Newcomb identified five paradoxically may also be the main reason trends in coaching that she characterized

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why the public is becoming less accepting of coaching as a credible industry.

And while many coaching experts have stated that anyone can benefit from having a coach, the number of actual clients willing to hire a coach is finite. If we add in the number of other sources of help that are not coaches, including selfhelp and self-coaching, and all the psychology and social work practitioners, then the ratio of potential helpers per client gets much larger.

In the 2008 article, Coaching Statistics, Facts, Guesses, Conventional Wisdom and the State of the Industry (access), sources within the coaching industry estimated that there were approximately 40,000 business coaches working the US. Another 40,000 coaches were considered operating in other countries around the world. If we estimate the What this means is that there is an number of life coaches currently exceptionally large pool of coaches providing some competing against type of coach each other for the service around the same client base. in World es ach Co of ate tim Es world at 20,000, A search of the 0 ,00 40 s! che and the number of Internet using US Business coa 40,000 additional, Google reveals Coaches outside USA! informal coaches that there are 20,000 Life coaches in world! who just call more than 125 5,000 Call themselves coaches! themselves million websites 25,000 tes per year ua ad Gr coaches at 5,000, listed when the 130,000 : tal To then the total term ‘coaches’ is number of coaches used (while at the comes to 105,000 same eliminating other terms such But there is an as ‘sports, bus, additional calculation to add to this total. clothing’ and other terms not associated According to the latest figures available, with life and business coaches). there are approximately 500 coach training schools now in operation (Coach The Rise of the Nouveau Niche Directory). If, by conservative estimate Marketing specialists have made we guess that each coaching school significant inroads to the coaching graduates 50 participants a year, that industry to convince coaches that if they adds another 25,000 graduates each year want to make a living with paying clients to the existing group of 105,000, bringing they need to, among other tricks and the total for 2011 to 130,000 coaches. techniques, distinguish themselves from Peer Bulletin No. 202


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their coaching colleagues. The primary way this differentiation has been implemented is through ‘niche coaching.’

and psychiatrists now has coaches dealing with the wide variety of disorders, crises, syndromes and addictions mentioned in the DSM IV.

Niche coaching includes two elements (scope of practice and whiz kids) that are Some coaches attempt to cover multiple more likely to contribute to the demise of niches. Their websites or biographies read coaching as we knew it. Paradoxically both as if they were worried about leaving out a of these elements have as their intention niche which might result in a potential the creation of a greater willingness of the client searching elsewhere for a coach. public to pursue coaching. However, it’s One coaching commentator speculated likely that these that coaches are doing elements associated with ‘keyword’ searches on How Many Niches Can There Be? niche coaching have Google, finding the resulted in increased problems people A website devoted to a satirical review of the coaching world has provided a skepticism about the experience that have the number of humorous descriptions of value of coaching. most frequent hits, and the niche coaching trend at then adding those key Boundless Scope International Coach Confederation words into their scope of The first problem practice descriptions. element is scope of practice. There is hardly a challenge faced The Never Quiet Whiz Kids by a human being that a coach will decline The second element of niche coaching to coach. There are birthing coaches, that has a paradoxical impact is the death and grief coaches, coaches for kids willingness of coaches to speak and teens, coaches for retirees and the ‘authoritatively’ about virtually any topic elderly, and coaches for hospice and having to do with human behaviour. recovery. There are even coaches for our animal companions such as feline, equine While some of these individuals receive and doggy coaches. While the pioneers of continual national exposure on TV-talk coaching often would make a point of shows such as Oprah, Dr. Phil, Dr. Drew, distinguishing themselves from sports Dr. Oz, the View, and other talk shows, coaches, that distinction is no longer thousands publish their advice in their appropriate as more and more life and own books, blogs, websites, newsletters, business coaches now claim the niche of magazines, article clearinghouses, social working with athletes. media outlets and listservs. “There’s a freeWhat’s more, the previously taboo land for-all regarding what anyone calling usually populated by clinical psychologists themselves a coach can or will do;” a coach Peer Bulletin No. 202


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critic told me, “one of these days, I hope to find one instance of a coach saying, ‘Sorry, I really don’t know anything about that’.” While individual coaches in their actual coaching interactions may be more reluctant to provide ‘advice’ to clients in order to facilitate the quality of the coaching interaction, they typically do not show the same reluctance to comment in public about almost every aspect of the human condition. As Grey Owl has noted, “Wisdom is divided into two parts: a) have a great deal to say, and b) not saying it.”

lost any connection with professional boundaries.” Another way that some members of the coaching industry are demonstrating a blurring of boundaries is through the increasing use by coaches of the term “mentor” as in “mentor-coach.” Whereas in the past, coaches made an effort to distinguish themselves from mentors (often writing short articles on the differences between the roles), now many coaches have added that role to their repertoire of practice.

For the most part the addition of the ‘mentor coach’ accolade to their resumes seems to These public commentaries, typically be a way to elevate their skill status and based on life experience, are legitimate promote and market their services to and well-meaning. However, their other coaches. The irony here is that frequency, constancy, and their expression acting as a mentor has been historically in a variety of media venues has likely and is currently a free or completely saturated the public with too much volunteer service. Mentor-coaches have information. In other words, the ignored or rejected this key element of appearance of such widespread “expertise,” mentoring and charge a fee to work with rather than acting as a catalyst to garner other coaches. In so doing they have again respect, has led many people to likely be expanded the scope of their practice, skeptical of coaching. “So many people added to the confusion about the have taken the title ‘coach’,” according to difference in roles, and, rather than one Peer Resources Network member, referring to their work with other coaches “that even fewer coaches really know what as supervision or consultation, have added true coaching is, and they seem to have the status, but not the accuracy of mentoring to their own scope of practice. Peer Bulletin No. 202


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It seems that Germaine Porché and Jed Niederer hit the nail on the head in selecting the title for their highlysuccessful and worthy book: Coach Anyone about Anything (Amazon). The Influx of the Parasites I’ve been involved in the helping profession for close to 45 years. I’ve worked closely with psychologists, social workers, physicians, psychiatrists, child care workers, psychotherapists, and other practitioners. In all that time and from my connections with the varied helping professionals I’ve never witnessed the influx of external sources offering these practitioners the types of services and products in the amount or to the extent that coaches typically receive.

or product. No doubt many of these are legitimate practitioners acting to share what they know with colleagues, but seen in a larger perspective they are part of a trend—a trend that preys on the fear of failure, lack of experience, vulnerability, and the promise that ‘there must be a pony in here somewhere.’

The School of SelfCoaching Flow Chart

Some coaches are so disturbed by this trend that they refer to the people who Not a day goes by without multiple email make these offers as vampires, exploiters and manipulators. This is a sensitive area messages heralding six-figure income, because I’m sure the people who offer multiple streams of revenue, marketing secrets, blog, article and web writing tips, these services would object to this type of skill enhancement, assessment tools, client characterization. They see themselves as attraction methods, and a variety of other helping others to improve their practice— a goal we all strive towards. The problem, practice improvement schemes. and the reason why this trend may be contributing to the reduction in respect Many of these offers come from people who describe themselves as coaches. They and regard for coaching, is that it’s virtually impossible to distinguish between typically provide testimonials and those offering credible, legitimate services persuasive ‘squeeze’ pages to encourage and those offering bunk. other coaches to sign up for their service Peer Bulletin No. 202


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The Multiplying Credentials In 2005 (and updated in 2009) Peer Resources published a white paper titled A Guide to Credentials in Coaching: Types, Issues and Sources (access) that documented the more than 65 distinct coach credentials available in North America and the United Kingdom. That review showed that some certifications are competencybased, some require attaining hours of course work, others require supervision by someone who has already attained the credential, some rely on self-assessment, some can be obtained without ever coaching a client; and some are just based on selfproclamation.

little to do with credentials and more to do with experience. Yet the coaching schools and coaching associations continue to build more and more complex systems to reinforce the credentialing model. Some critics have even referred to this connection between credentialing, the coaching schools and the coaching associations as a coaching ‘ponzi’ scheme.

At the same time the promotional claims that so many of these schools make regarding their place in the coaching industry can be confusing, unsubstantiated, and close to deceptive. There are dozens that claim they are the The proliferation of ‘first,’ ‘number one’ or credentials in ‘only’ group that does coaching has not X, Y or Z. These slowed. More than promotional claims 100 additional often contradict coaching schools are coaching practice since now in operation since the previous update most coaching engagements include a of the white paper, and most of these survey of the horizon in order to schools also offer some variation of one of determine current reality prior to the types of credentials listed above. And embarking on the rest of the journey. If the surprisingly there are even organizations school did a Google search on X, Y or Z, that specialized in credentialing in fields they would likely find others also making other than coaching that have now jumped the same claim. into offering their own system of certifying coaches. In addition, the coaching associations appear to act as enablers of these claims in The irony here is that research on how that they do not require any evidence of potential clients find or select a coach has such claims when approving or accrediting

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the school’s offerings. Our review of the relationship between coaching schools and coaching associations could not identify an instance of a coaching association expressing any warnings, cautions or reservations regarding the practices and policies of any coaching school. Nor does there seem to be any record of a coaching school losing its coaching association accreditation or approval status as a result of the school’s policies or practices. This ever-multiplying system of credentialing does little to protect the public from incompetence, shoddy practice and exploitation. Credentialing in coaching continues to grow with minimal credible oversight and accountability. This not only serves to confuse and exasperate the public, but it has also contributed to considerable skepticism from experienced coaches as well. We’re It and You’re Not The third trend that may be adding to the end of coaching as it was originally designed is what we’ve come to call exclusionary policies and practices. These are actions, mostly associated with the 15 current coaching associations, to limit, Peer Bulletin No. 202

restrict or control the evolution of coaching. On the surface their restrictions seem like a good idea: they raise standards, improve competence, identify best coaching skills; increase precision of coaching definitions and terms and encourage on-going practitioner education. However, the associations typically exclude each other when making changes, and seldom, if at all, ever refer to the existence of each other. In their start-up phase most associations had membership policies that were inclusive—virtually anyone with an interest in coaching could join, but their current or pending membership policies are much more exclusive and require more extensive (and costly) training or other requirements. An expert on the coaching industry sent Peer Resources an email that said, “Approximately 95 percent of the 500 organizations that provide training for coaches are ‘for profit’ businesses. They compete against each other to sell their coach training and in doing so they must find numerous niches, specialties and unique issues that can boost their competitive positions.”


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While most of the coaching associations hold not-for-profit status, they still compete with each other for members. Few individuals can afford to hold memberships in more than one of these associations, and their membership standards are restrictive enough that it would be quite unusual for an individual coach to qualify for membership in more than one. But the myriad of standards, definitions and promotion of membership benefits has created uncertainty among many coaches as to which one to join.

minimizing innovation and experimentation, and homogenizes the offerings available. Even more troubling is the fact that coaching associations have assigned themselves the authority to ‘grant’ accredited or approved status to coach training schools. No external authorities review or monitor their accrediting practices, and the associations are not accountable to any expert authority on accreditation or curriculum approval.

Typically, the coaching associations operate as if the other associations don’t exist; and as of this date only one membership-based group actually mentions and fully acknowledges all the other coaching associations on its website.

As far as we could tell from enquiries to the associations none have the expertise and experience with accreditation and curriculum approval models that exist outside of coaching; none are members of various organizations that oversee accrediting procedures; few have consulted In addition, the coaching associations have with or have an on-going relationship with increased their efforts to approve and existing agencies that have been engaged accredit coaching schools, and thus gain in accrediting and curriculum approval; allegiance to their model of a coach and none have the expertise or staff hours training curriculum as specified by the to conduct accreditation or approval that association. This system, in the guise of would make them relatively equivalent to raising standards, contributes to I long to accomplish a great and noble task, but it is my chief duty to accomplish humble tasks as though they were great and noble. The world is moved along, not only by the mighty shoves of its heroes, but also by the aggregate of the tiny pushes of each honest worker. ~ Helen Keller (1880-1968) ~ American author, activist and speaker Biography

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the most well-known and reputable accreditation models. Even the methods and standards used by the coaching associations to accredit or approve coaching schools are quite different from each other. This lack of authority and coordination can and does contribute to public confusion as to what those terms actually mean. (See our latest guide to the use of accreditation in the coaching industry on our website at

same can be said for the coaching industry. The few voices that attempted to raise concerns and speak out about the coaching industry such as The Coaching Commons and before that the Coaching Insider, edited by Ken Winston Caine, are no longer available to provide forums for journalisticlevel critique, public commentary and independent editorial opinion.

What Thomas Leonard and other coaching pioneers started as an innovative and unique practice is exemplified by the majority of coaches today who have Where Are Our Heroes? studied, trained, and continue to educate We began this article by comparing aspects themselves. These coaches also honour the of the post-hockey game hooliganism with ideas and principles that Thomas created trends being perpetuated by a small and by recognizing the need to distinguish influential minority of those in the what they provide in order to attract coaching industry. And here’s an clients and earn a decent living. additional, and somewhat sad, comparison. During the aftermath in Vancouver a few Their progress, however, has slowed hockey fans in the mob of 2,000 made because the coaching industry is so valiant, and in some cases, successful overloaded with multiple certification efforts to prevent the trouble-makers from schemes (at least 65 now available); is rife engaging in their illegal actions. Some of with the misuse of accreditation principles these Good Samaritans (now called local and practices; is beset by the unwillingness heroes in the media) were attacked of coaching associations to cooperate with themselves and sustained injuries. The each other; and is suffering from the

To visit the pioneers of the coaching industry and learn about their vision for coaching practice, there is no better source than Dr. Vikki Brock’s Sourcebook of Coaching History. Peer Bulletin No. 202


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proliferation of highly disparate coach training schemes. The unfortunate result is that the general public has become even more confused and baffled by the coaching industry. The four trends identified in this article, unlike the hooligans in Vancouver, are all well-meaning, reasonable and make sense for individual practitioners to engage in order to survive in a highly competitive

market. But seen in a ‘big picture perspective’ they appear to form an unintentional whole that is larger than the sum of its parts. Rather than increasing the public’s connection and celebration of coaching and coaches as a way to achieve greater life happiness as well as business and career success, the trends identified here may signal the end of coaching as we knew it.

“I am not afraid of storms for I am learning how to sail my ship.” ~ Louisa May Alcott (1832-1888) ~ American novelist and mentored by Ralph Waldo Emerson Biography Peer Bulletin No. 202


July 5, 2011

The Influence of Peer Assistance Training on Adolescent Expectations of Friendship David de Rosenroll A rationale upon which peer assistance advocates build peer-led programs is that natural helpers can be selected and trained to be more enlightened and effective friends. In fact, peer assistance and friendship behaviors have been described as being substantially the same (Carr, 1984; Carr, 1988; Carr & Saunders, 2011; de Rosenroll, 1990; Varenhorst, 1983). Carr (1984) characterized friendships as a “…mutuality or a willingness to be helpers to one another” (p.7). He referred to “being attentive and supportive, able to manage conflicts appropriately, ability to be sensitive to others and express thoughts and ideas in ways others do not feel their esteem is threatened” (p.7) as being learnable skills. He associated acquisition of these specific social skills with ability to acquire and maintain friendships. Carr suggested that use of these skills is more important than a purely cognitive awareness of how to make and keep friends. However, Carr indicated that students can become consciously aware of their social skills through peer helping (1989) and that they could learn how to teach these skills to others (1984). Further, Varenhorst (1983) suggested that peer helping training allows students to learn how to become real friends within themselves, as well as to others. Peer Bulletin No. 202

Skills associated with initiating and maintaining healthy friendships, such as

basic interpersonal communication skills, assertion skills, and problemsolving are already being taught within social skills curricula (Benard, 1986; DeAngelis, 2010; Englander-Golden, Elconin, Miller & Schwarzkopf, 1986). However, whereas social skills training focuses on participants learning friendship skills for their exclusive and personal use, peer assistance training extends the purposes of training to include participants helping their peers to acquire the same skills in which the peer assistants have been trained. During training, attitudes such as keeping secrets, sharing, caring, being real, and not judging are stressed as being important. These attitudes can be grouped within a developmentally advanced level of friendship expectations which Bigelow (1977), 14

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Bigelow and La Gaipa (1975), and trained in the acquisition of friendship Reisman and Shorr (1978) have skills and attitudes so that they could suggested are associated with higher help their peers to acquire the same moral development but are not skills and attitudes. Further, if peer frequently articulated by any age assistance were to become a social group, including adults. However, a skills training component, the selection review of training literature has failed of those who receive training could be to find any reference to changes in adapted to include individuals friendship attitudes that might be perceived to be socially ‘at risk’ or the associated with peer assistance program could be offered to all training. Evidence to suggest that peer students as a basic course in living assistant candidates change their skills. Rubin (1980) has asserted that friendship attitudes during their social skills such as making and training, or that after training their keeping friends need to be friendship attitudes differ introduced to children as early markedly from their in their school experiences as untrained peers, does possible. Training peer “A friend is not exist. Further, if peer assistants as peer th e best gift assistants do have high models and coaches developmental levels of may be useful to the you can give friendship expectations, it transfer of these yourself.” is unclear as to whether essential social skills. these attitudes are learned during training The Current Study or whether peer assistance Friendship Expectations (FE’s) attracts such individuals or both. are “...those attitudes, values and behaviors that a subject expresses The Value of Conducting the Study as being important characteristics of a If research could provide evidence for a friend (Bigelow, 1971, p.1).” FE’s are relationship between peer assistance not the same as friendship behaviors. training and increases in friendship Respondents may or may not behave expectation levels, more educators consistently with their expectations of could expand their expectations of peer their friends. However, their answers assistance training to include teaching do imply a specific awareness level social skills such as friendship pertaining to potential friendship acquisition and maintenance. Peer behaviors. assistants could be more systematically Peer Bulletin No. 202


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Our study compared adolescent peer assistant volunteers to their nonvolunteer peers in terms of their friendship expectation levels. Further, peer assistant volunteers’ FE developmental levels prior to training were compared with their FE levels after training. The comparison provided information concerning the relationship between peer assistance and the development of friendship acquisition and maintenance skills. The Student Groups Involved A unique peer assistant training program, designed by Carr (1988), that recruited students from across a wide urban area and then trained them as a group during the summer months, provided an experimental group of 175 13-to-18 year old volunteers. The students represented virtually every one of the junior and senior high schools in a local urban area. The same number of control peer group adolescents were drawn from school populations. Students from the control group were selected so that the two groups would contain approximately the same numbers when compared by age and by gender. Although 175 participants in both the experimental and control groups filled in the questionnaires, eight of the experimental group participants were dropped from the comparisons because Peer Bulletin No. 202

they had received peer helping training prior to the summer training. Therefore, the experimental group comprised 167 members. Twenty-six participants were 13 or 14 years old, ninety-nine were 15 or 16 years old, and forty-two were 17 or 18 years old. Of the 167 experimental group participants, 139 were female and 28 were male. Within the control group, thirty-four were 13 or 14, ninety-eight were 15 or 16 and forty-three were 17 or 18. Of the 175 control group participants, 150 were female and 25 were male. Administration of Questionnaires Peer assistants, on their first day of training, were asked to complete a questionnaire describing the characteristics and behaviors of a friend. At the end of approximately 35 hours of training, the students received a second brief questionnaire along with their first questionnaire. On the second questionnaire, they were asked to review their previous answers and make any changes. All questionnaires were coded. Instructions for both questionnaires were standardized and read by the trainers. The control group students received both questionnaires during their English 16

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classes in local schools. The second questionnaire was given to the students about two or three weeks after the first questionnaire to simulate the lapse time between the peer assistants’ questionnaires. The questionnaires were devised by the researcher to enable participants to reflect on their friendship experiences and to draw some general friendship behaviors and characteristics from their

reflections (Hunt, 1987; Kolb, 1984). Reflective questioning is by no means new to the literature (Austin & Thompson, 1948; Hayes, Gershman, & Bolin, 1980; Weiss & Lowenthal, 1975). Trained judges reviewed and analyzed the data provided by the students and categorized their responses into the following Friendship Expectations Developmental Levels (see Table 1).

Table 1 Friendship Expectation Dimensions by Levels as Clustered by Judges I. Situational

II. Contractual

III. Internal Psychological


Common Activities

Similarities of Attitudes and & Values

Demographic Similarity

General Play

Intimacy Potential

Common Interests

Organized Play


Altruism (helping): friend as giver

Reciprocity of liking


Altruism (sharing): friend as giver

Altruism (helping): friend as receiver Loyalty & Commitment

Ego Reinforcement

Altruism (sharing): friend as receiver

Incremental prior interaction

Stimulation value

Physical characteristics

Admiration of character

Admiration of physical traits


Sense of humour

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Results Significant differences were found between the experimental group (peer assistants-in-training) and the control group (students in schools) on the FE dimensions of ‘intimacy potential,’ and ‘acceptance.’ A comparison of the other three dimensions did not yield any significant differences nor did a comparison of the other dimensions clustered under either level I or level II suggest any significant differences. In the second (follow-up) questionnaire, significant differences between groups were found in ‘similarity of attitudes and values,’ ‘intimacy potential,’ ‘genuineness,’ and ‘acceptance.’ None of the other dimension comparisons clustered under Levels I or II were significant. We also examined the differences between the peer assistants-in-training group participants’ responses on the first questionnaire with their frequencies on the second questionnaire. We found statistically significant differences on ‘similarity of attitudes and values,’ ‘intimacy potential,’ ‘acceptance’ and ‘loyalty and commitment.’ No other dimension comparisons in either Level I or II appeared significant. Discussion of Results Our analysis of the 25 FE dimensions between groups showed that Peer Bulletin No. 202

adolescents from this population who volunteer to be trained as peer assistants are significantly different than their nonvolunteer peers in the frequency that they respond with both ‘intimacy potential’ and ‘acceptance’ friendship expectations. Further, it appears that these two dimensions are significant to the degree that, when placed with the other three level III FE dimensions, the difference between groups in level III FE’s is also significant. Other than within the ‘internal-psychological’ FE level, the groups appear to be similar.


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As children mature into adolescence both intimacy and acceptance become more important. Particularly in early and middle adolescence, acceptance is crucial to the developing identity and fluctuating self-concept. Similarly, intimacy is important. Through sharing one’s insights, feelings and concerns with another, the adolescent finds relief, support and validity. Peer assistance volunteers express these dimensions more often than the control group. This could mean that on average they have a greater awareness of these two dimensions or that they place more importance in the two dimensions than the controls. It could also mean that peer assistance volunteers have a greater desire than their peers to be accepted (and to accept) and to be emotionally intimate with others. Perhaps their volunteerism to become peer assistants reflects a predisposition toward two peer assistance characteristics, accepting of others and sharing their real feelings. During peer training, the group focuses a great deal of time and energy on Peer Bulletin No. 202

sharing their attitudes around developmental issues. Values-oriented exercises often propel the group members into sharing their own values, sometimes for the first time with others. Genuineness is frequently stressed within the group. ‘Being real’, ‘being visible’ and ‘being in the here-and-now’ are all expressions peer trainees may hear and use to suggest that being genuine (not phony) is an important personal ingredient. A comparison of changes between groups showed that peer assistants appear to be different from their non-volunteer peers on two level III FE dimensions before training and four level III FE dimensions after training. Further analyses have indicated that, when compared to the control group, the differences in the number of statements over all coded level III dimensions that the peer assistants submitted on their post-training questionnaires versus their pre-training questionnaires are significant. Because of the variation of FE frequencies among individuals in both experimental and control groups when they entered the study, it is important to note that a 19

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comparison of their pre/post-training questionnaire differences supports the relationship between peer training and learning about friendship attitudes and values. Implications The answer to the question concerning whether or not peer assistance volunteers are different than their nonvolunteer peers even before training seems to be “yes.” The answer to the question as to whether or not peer volunteers increase their friendship expectations during their training is also “yes.” However, both answers require qualifications.

A second possibility exists. Although ‘intimacy potential’ and ‘acceptance’ are not overt selection criteria, peer assistance supervisors may inadvertently look for these characteristics when interviewing candidates or reading their letters of According to our study, prior to training application. Further, if candidates peer assistants were significantly require references (from peers, teachers, different from the peers in only etc.), the referees may agree to nominate ‘acceptance’ and ‘intimacy potential’. them based on the candidate’s intimacy These two dimensions are important to and acceptance behaviors. Further all ages in both groups, so participants research into this possibility would be from both groups were similar in their interesting and, if these two dimensions perceptions of relative importance. As are associated with successful peer stated in the Discussion section, one can assistance trainees, their supervisors only guess as to where the difference could remain more alert for signs of arises, though it is possible that the presence or absence of these dimensions experimental group was more in their candidates. predisposed to generating responses that might be coded into these dimensions. Even with differences in the two However, further research seeking dimensions, at the end of training the similar information from groups in more peer assistance trainees had made comparable environments may provide significant changes in the frequencies of more information. their Internal Psychological level Peer Bulletin No. 202


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responses. So, peer supervisors are not just choosing candidates who have high level expectations of friendship and training them in peer assistance skills. The net differences between Internal Psychological level FE’s within the peer assistance group indicate that the trainees were able to provide significantly more of this level of responses after training than they were before training. There is clearly an association between peer assistance training and the growth in frequency of Internal Psychological level responses. Although pinpointing any one variable within the training as being more important than others is beyond the scope of our study, one might speculate. For example, several aspects of the training would certainly predispose participants to re-evaluate their initial responses. During the training, the group members quickly become a cohesive group. The trainer,

the exercises, the common learning goals and the learning environment all contribute. In addition, the peer assistance trainees contribute. First, they are there for a common purpose and they recognize a common goal. They are kindred spirits. Second, their disclosures within session exercises are rewarded by being attended to by one or more group members and by disclosures being shared by other participants. The relationship between peer training and increases in level III FE’s suggests that level III FE dimensions are learnable. Trainers do not consciously explore the dimensions with the participants but the participants appear able to generalize high-level friendship expectations from the training experience. However, these peer trainees have volunteered to receive this training. They are likely to be more motivated than non-volunteers to learn about themselves and their attitudes and values. Whether or not individuals who were not volunteers could learn in a similar way or to a comparable degree remains a question for future research. Our study focused on questions surrounding friendship expectations, as opposed to friendship behaviors. Pursuant to this, any associations drawn from analyses of the data must be in the

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context of expectations not behaviors. Our research suggests that peer assistance trainees, before training, have higher frequencies of friendship expectations but not friendship behaviors in the areas of intimacy and acceptance. Further, any significant changes within the peer assistance trainees and any differences between groups remain within the parameters of friendship expectations, not behaviors.

practice their new awareness and sensitivity. Furthermore, the training program offers trainees a relatively safe environment within which they can explore new ideas and try out new behaviors. The environment provides a space where the participants can integrate their new perspectives among a group who have similar goals.

Research questions concerning whether or not participants learn and enact new Peer assistance training allows or increased friendship behaviors as a participants to discuss personal and result of peer training still remain for developmental issues that may increase future research. Moreover, research their awareness of and sensitivity to the comparing participants who choose to needs and wants of others. Peer training receive training versus participants who also offers participants the opportunity are, on some level, forced to receive to learn and develop communication training might suggest whether peer skills that enable them to become more training might be effective as a schooleffective in their interpersonal based curriculum open to all. Finally, interactions. These skills allow more peer assistance research which participants to immediately put into compares age groups is vital. We must train young people in social skills such as suggested by Carr (2011) making and keeping friends early in their development so that those that have friends can better maintain and expand those relationships and those that are friendless can end the ‘friendless cycle’ by learning how to make and keep friends.

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About the Author Dr. David de Rosenroll is a faculty member at the University of Victoria in Victoria, British Columbia where he coordinates their offcampus programs for people working towards degrees in counselling psychology. He was a founding partner of Peer Resources, and previously served as their Director of Peer Training. He was also a board member of the National Peer Helpers Association (now called the National Association of Peer Program Professionals), and was the Editor of the Peer Facilitator Quarterly. David loves puns and he shared one of his favorites: King Ozymandias of Assyria was running low on cash after years of war with the Hittites. His last great possession was the Star of the Euphrates, the most valuable diamond in the ancient world. Desperate, he went to Croesus, the pawnbroker, to ask for a loan. Croesus said, "I'll give you 100,000 dinars for it." "But I paid a million dinars for it," the King protested. "Don't you know who I am? I am the king!" Croesus replied, "When you wish to pawn a Star, makes no difference who you are."

David can be contacted by email at Peer Bulletin No. 202

References Austin, M. C., & Thompson, G. G. (1948). Children’s friendships: A study of the bases on which children select and reject their best friends. Journal of Educational Psychology, 39, 101-116. Benard, B. (1986). Characteristics of effective prevention programs. Prevention Forum, 6, 3-8. Bigelow, B. J. (1971). The development of childhood friendship expectations. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Bigelow, B. J. (1977). Children’s friendship expectations: A cognitive-developmental study. Child Development, 48, 246-253. Bigelow, B. J., & La Gaipa, J. J. (1975). Children’s written descriptions of friendship: A multidimensional analysis. Developmental Psychology, 11(6), 857-858. Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1963). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Chicago: Rand McNally. Carr, R.A. (2011). The peer assistance starter kit: A step-by-step guide for training peer assistants and developing effective peer programs for youth and adults. (e-book). Victoria, BC: Peer Systems Consulting Group, Inc. Carr, R.A. (2011). The theory and practice of peer mentoring in schools. (e-book). Victoria, BC: Peer Systems Consulting Group, Inc. (Available for the Kindle at 5fwE6)


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Carr, R. A. (1984). Theory and practice of peer assistance. Educational and Vocational Guidance, 42, 1-10. Carr, R. A. (1988). Ethical considerations in peer assistance. Peer Counsellor Journal, 5(1), 10-11. Carr, R. A. (1988). The City-Wide peer counselling program: A four-year experiment. Children and Youth Services Review, 10, 217-232. Carr, R. A. (1989). Peer helping: The bridge to substance abuse prevention. The B.C. Counsellor, 10(2), 5-18.

Englander-Golden, P., Elconin, J. Miller, K. J., & Schwarzkopf, A. B. (1986). Brief Say It Straight training and follow-up in adolescent substance abuse prevention. Journal of Primary Prevention, 6, 219-231. Hayes, D. S., Gershman, E., & Bolin, L. J. (1980). Friends and enemies: Cognitive bases for pre-school children’s unilateral and reciprocal relationships. Child Development, 54, 1276-1279. Hunt, D. E. (1987). Beginning with ourselves. Toronto: OISE Press. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (1979). Quasiexperimentation design and analysis issues for Reisman, J. M., & Shorr, S. I. (1978). field settings. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Friendship claims and expectations among children and adults. Child Development, 49, DeAngelis, T. (April 2010). Social awareness 913-916. +emotional skills=successful kids. Monitor on Psychology. (Retrieved June 23, 2011 from Rubin, Z. (1980). Children’s friendships. Somerset, England: Open Books. classrooms.aspx) Varenhorst, B. B. (1983) Real friends: de Rosenroll, D. A. (1990). Peer assistance Becoming the friend you’ve always wanted to implementation, maintenance and research have. San Francisco: Harper and Row. issues. Victoria, B.C.: Peer Systems Weiss, L., & Lowenthal, M. F. (1975). LifeConsulting Group, Inc. course perspectives in friendship. In M. F. de Rosenroll, D. A., & Dey, C. (1990). A Lowenthal, M. Thurnher & D. Chiriboga centralized approach to peer counseling (Eds.), Four stages of life, 48-61. San training: Three years of progress. School Francisco: Jossey Bass. Counselor, 37(4), 304-312. Sign posted in a Senior Citizen Peer Assistance Office Peer Bulletin No. 202

If you want happiness for an hour, take a nap. If you want happiness for a day, go fishing. If you want happiness for a year, inherit a fortune. If you want happiness for a lifetime, help someone else.


July 5, 2011

Peer Ministry Leadership is Good Samaritan Leadership Lyle Griner In our National Peer Ministry Leadership (PML) program at EveryDay LLC, we strive to achieve seven specific outcomes for our peer trainings. These have been developed over time and through discussions with our Advisory Board. Rey Carr asked us to share them with Peer Resources Network members and we’re delighted to do so.

Observant: Is alert to the needs of others PML is about being able to see the needs of others, whether that is in one’s family, school, community, nation, or globally. Often we become aware when our observation triggers an inner tug, possibly the Holy Spirit prompting us to say a welcoming “Hello.”

Takes Action: Uses skills and confidence led by a compassionate heart As needs are recognized, the Peer Minister does not pretend to not see or pass to the other side of the road. Instead the PML follows his or her heart to take action. Action becomes easier as skills for caring and welcoming are practiced. PMLs learn it is better to do something, rather than nothing.

Improbable: Welcomes and cares while feeling inadequate and unlikely No excuses are made for being too young, too inexperienced, too busy, unqualified, or even too hurt or wounded from our own life situations. There is no one who has all the confidence, training or qualifications. Where there is a need, it is the person present who gets to be the first to offer welcome or help.

Comes Close: Listens patiently and explores what is the real need PML is not about fixing someone, it is about coming close, caring enough to hear and let a person make choices that best fit him or her.

Sacrifice: Willing to risk group security to give help Caring and welcoming is not always the popular thing to do...even in the church! Caring and welcoming means accepting and including. This sometimes threatens a group’s norms. Insecure people might make fun of caregivers. Even friends may ask, “Why are you talking to him (or her?)” Be assured, caring is always noted, and often admired.

Crosses Barriers: Gives help to others, no matter their clique, culture color or creed Jesus knew that using a Samaritan in his story would raise eyebrows and even make some listeners angry. Many believed there are no good Samaritans. Caring and welcoming has no barriers, including cliques, race, age, sex, religion or other differences.

Seeks Help: Guides others to “innkeepers,” people who can help Even the Good Samaritan takes the victim to someone who can help. The Good Samaritan is just the bridge to the long term care giver, the Innkeeper. We do not have to be it all for a hurting person. We are often the short term connection needed to get the person to another who can help. Ministry is not meant to be a solo experience. We need the support of others of clergy, counselors, doctors, and other trusted, capable adults.

Lyle Griner is the National Director of Peer Ministry Leadership at EveryDay LLC. He has a Masters in Youth & Family Leadership, and has written numerous resources for youth and family ministry. Peer Bulletin No. 202


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Employees Awarded for Mentoring Prowess Sarah Dobson

When the City of Toronto launched a mentorship program in 2004, it took an experimental approach. One-half of the 29 mentors only went online while the other half met face to face with their mentoring partners, also using supplemental phone calls and emails.

“To me, part of a mentoring program isn’t just about networking to find a job, it’s about networking to meet other people and giving them a place in our society.”

By 2010, the mentoring program at the City of Toronto had progressed to include 120 volunteers from 16 different professions, It made for an interesting recognition with 75 repeat mentors, who have ceremony at the end of the year, as many of mentored more than 500 skilled the mentors and partners met each other for immigrants. the first time, said Cheryl Ogle, a program assistant at the staffing, workforce “It’s evolved into a much more widespread transition and employment equity division type of program, where it’s not necessarily at the City of Toronto. just about the organization, the City of Toronto, but people who work for the City But going forward, the organization of Toronto doing it on their own time,” said decided to take the in-person approach, to Ogle. “It’s not just a work program, it get more bang for the buck, she said. touches all aspects of their life.” “People need that one-on-one (time) more, That dedication was recognized recently by it kind of cemented friendships,” said Ogle. the Toronto Region Immigrant Employment Peer Bulletin No. 202


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Council (TRIEC) as the City of Toronto along with four other employers—TD Bank Financial Group, Deloitte, KPMG and Scotiabank—were honoured as leaders in mentor recruitment. Each has been involved with the council’s Mentoring Partnership to bring together recent skilled immigrants with established professionals in occupation-specific mentoring relationships—and the five have collectively mentored more than 1,500 newcomers. Instead of honouring individuals, TRIEC changed its recognition this year to honour organizations. “We decided we wanted to recognize some of the key corporate partners that had really excelled in their achievements and in reaching the goals that they’d set,” said Elizabeth McIsaac, executive director at TRIEC. “It was a little difficult to objectively determine who should be mentor of the year. Everyone has a fantastic story.” The top performer was TD Bank, a founding partner of the Mentoring Partnership. The organization has been incredibly supportive, not just with money but with internal champions who enlist as mentors themselves and encourage colleagues to come onboard, she said. As a result, TRIEC has to do very limited Peer Bulletin No. 202

outreach when it’s time to find mentors each year. “The names come flying in,” said McIsaac. “They’ve hit over 700 mentoring matches to date in the last five years so that’s pretty impressive and we’re just delighted.” Deloitte has been onboard since the beginning of the Mentoring Partnership and has had more than 250 mentor matches, said McIsaac. Having started as an organic, word-ofmouth program, Deloitte’s mentorship program now includes information sessions held a couple of times a year to promote the program and give people an opportunity to hear about the work involved and the options available. “Time commitment is a big consideration, especially in our business when people work on client sites, and there’s uncertainty in terms of where you’ll be working,” said Marta Rzeszowska Chavent, senior manager of quality and risk management at Deloitte in Toronto. But mentees are usually flexible with their time because they’re in job search mode and the two can compliment face-to-face visits with phone calls or emails. “You don’t have to be tied down to a certain schedule or formula,” she said. Over the last few years, the organization 27

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has also sent out tips or suggestions to its pool of mentors and it hopes to do more regular newsletters for mentors internally and connect them. So far, Deloitte’s program has only been offered in the Greater Toronto Area but this year it would like to pilot a few other locations and see how that works, potentially for a national roll-out, said Chavent.

leadership development opportunity for your high-potential performers. And, as you have your managers and your senior team managing cross-cultural teams and diverse teams, this is a really great professional development opportunity around their cross-cultural competencies.”

This article has been reprinted in the Peer Bulletin with the gracious permission of the The most successful mentoring Canadian HR Reporter © Copyright organizations are those where HR owns the Thomson Reuters Canada Ltd., January 31, program and promotes it in different ways, 2011, Toronto, Ontario, (800) 387-5164. said McIsaac. Sometimes it’s about soft recruitment outreach, to see who’s out About the Author there. Sarah Dobson is the Senior Editor of the Canadian HR Reporter. She can be “More broadly, there is an awareness and contacted at (416) 298-5141 ext 2680 or by recognition that mentoring is a great email:

“You can work as hard as you want to become an influencer and thought leader. You can put yourself out there daily, and tweet, comment, and blog all the time. But there is a certain level of serendipity and luck that goes into becoming an online celebrity that is outside of your control. You can’t force people to make you go viral. You can’t make people find you entertaining or insightful. The most you can do is keep working hard and hope your efforts pay off.” ~ Jay Dolan ~ Anti-Social Media Blog Peer Bulletin No. 202


July 5, 2011

The One-Minute Commencement Speech Michael Josephson I’ve given my share of commencement addresses, and I confess it’s a headswelling experience to tell a captive crowd how you think they ought to live their lives while wearing an academic robe and a very silly hat. After all, didn’t they come primarily to hear what you have to say? Actually, they didn’t. In fact, graduation speakers are impediments to the real goal of the day – celebration, not reflection. So what we need is a good one-minute graduation speech. Here’s my effort:

“Listen to both your heart and your head. Pursue your passions, but don’t confuse feelings with facts, fun with happiness, or pleasure with fulfillment. Live within your means. Don’t sacrifice a thousand tomorrows for a few todays. “Be especially careful of choices that can jeopardize your health, reputation, or important relationships. Safeguard your integrity. You never know when you’ll need it. “Finally, don’t settle for a little life. Fill it with purpose and meaning and people worthy of your love and respect.”

“Okay, folks, you got your degrees. Now you have to move toward other goals. If you don’t have any, borrow the goals of the About the Author person next to you. They’re probably as good as any, and besides, true success isn’t Michael Josephson is the President and Founder of the Josephson always getting what you think you want Institute whose mission is but learning to want what you get. Perhaps to improve the ethical the most important thing you can do is quality of society by prepare yourself to deal with unavoidable changing personal and ups and downs and unexpected turns that organizational decision are almost certain to scuttle the best-laid making and behavior. He plans. has conducted character “Take control of your life by taking control education & ethics of your attitudes. Remember, pain and programs for over disappointment are inevitable, but tough 100,000 influential leaders including times are temporary. Persist with public officials, school administrators, confidence that no negative emotion can military and police officers, journalists, withstand your will to be happy. senior corporate executives, athletes, judges and lawyers. “I want to thank Harvard for this honor. I'll be changing my job next year and it will be nice to finally have a college degree on my resume.” ~ Bill Gates ~ ‘Harvard’s most successful dropout’ & Chairman of Microsoft View his commencement address on YouTube Peer Bulletin No. 202


July 5, 2011


Professional Life Coach: A vague term, needs clarification, sounds ambiguous, even a bit suspicious. Face it, if there was ever a term that needed clarification, life coach is it. What is a professional life coach? What does a coach do? Who should have one? What are the benefits of working with a coach?

personal narratives that provide unique insights into the coaching world. As you read the varied paths that the coaches traveled, you experience a new found respect for the impact a highly trained coach can have on the lives of others.

O’Donovan begins the book by describing his own personal coaching journey and his personal vision of the coaching profession. He and the To find out, pick up a copy of A Coaches contributors then describe their personal Story, Revealing Insights into Life as a journeys with brutal honesty, describing Professional Coach (, their challenges and successes. Each or This book story inspires the reader to pursue their —also available for the Kindle—not only dreams. clarifies the role of the coach, but also paints a realistic picture of what a coach This book is for coaches, clients and does through personal stories. Each anyone who enjoys stories with an narrative follows the journey of 20 underlying theme of perseverance and different coaches; who they are, how determination. If you are considering they began their coaching career, their hiring a coach you’ll gain clarity of the ups and downs, and the impact they role a coach could potentially play in have had on others. Each coach’s story is your life. unique, but there seemed to be one constant: coaching isn’t just a career; it’s If you are considering a career in a way of life. coaching, you’ll discover a plethora of information, strategies, techniques and Gerald O’Donovan, the founder of the resources through true life stories of international and UK-based coaching perseverance. These stories shed light on and coach training company Noble the paths that successful coaches have Manhattan, has compiled twenty taken. You will gain insights by reading Peer Bulletin No. 202


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Book Review: A Coach’s Story ...continued from Page 29

about coaches who are currently in the trenches.

classroom teacher for eighteen years in a public school district.

This collection of real life stories will inspire you take action to attain your goals. Each story motivates you to be a coach or be coached in order to pursue that next dream.

Dr. Lucas was the first instructional coach in her school district and remains active on the Pennsylvania State Coaching Collaborative Board (CCB). Her mission is to bring a culture of coaching and mentoring into every system she encounters. She resides in West Chester, Pennsylvania with her husband and two teen-age children. Contact via email:

About the Reviewer Lisa J. Lucas, Ed.D., a member of the Peer Resources Network, is currently an assistant professor at West Chester University, an educational consultant, and a personal coach. Prior to working at the University, she was the program director of organizational and professional development, and a

Her website is expected to be available by mid-July. (This review was completed in exchange for receiving Gerard O’Donovan's book at no cost from Peer Resources.)

“Managers get things done; leaders figure out what needs to be done. Leaders used to be seen as Captain Kirk on the bridge, and a whole bunch of managers beneath. Now we're at a place where everyone needs to be a leader—and to do that, we need to create an organizational environment where learning is seen as a sign of strength not weakness.” ~ Gervase Bushe ~ Canadian professor of leadership at Simon Fraser University and author of Clear Leadership Biography

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Karla Reiss, the author of this book and the founder of The Change Place (a coach training organization), does an excellent job of demystifying coaching. She clearly states that coaching has a role to play in professional growth and that coaches need to be trained in the International Coach Federation (ICF) Core Competencies model. Her book was written to align with the ICF competencies. If you are in the teaching profession and considering a move into administration consider reading this book before your interview. Based on the ICF’s 11 core competencies, Karla Reiss provides valuable information for both new and experienced administrators. She focuses on setting a firm foundation, addresses the importance of establishing and following ethical guidelines, communicating effectively and facilitating learning. She makes it very clear that coaches are change agents who balance practice and theory. I liked the way the author viewed change as a process or journey. Realizing Peer Bulletin No. 202

that it is a journey and that learning must accompany change would make me put this book at the top of any reading list. Change doesn’t always come easily; new learning and paradigm shifts are often required. The strategies the author offers for overcoming resistance will be useful for those involved in this journey. There are often ‘challenges’ with any journey and one of the challenges in this journey might be the cost. Certified Empowerment Coach Reiss makes a good point that the benefit of working with a trained coach is certainly worth the money and time invested. She suggests that staff and administration focus on the benefits to both staff and students and consider a coaching program. I intend to share this book with friends who are new to the role of administration either as a vice principal or principal. The author speaks to administrators about the key role they play in a collaborative discovery process. Administrators can now have even more 32

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Book Review: Leadership Coaching for Educators... ...continued from Page 31

influence in the school improvement plan that has the potential to boost the performance of everyone working with children.

About the Reviewer DeeAnne Vonde is an educational consultant and member of the Peer Resources Network. She is a frequent Peer Bulletin Quiz winner, and has also written other book reviews for the Peer Bulletin. She is the co-author of the Heart-to-Heart Mentoring books (Guide, Workbook, and Training Manual) which serve as a base for mentoring programs in Alberta secondary schools. Her email:

If you are a coach and haven’t yet discovered this book, it is filled with insightful comments. Teachers moving into administration would especially find value in the sections of the book where the author discusses how to gather information, identify strengths, and develop a plan of action. As a teacher working with a coach you can leverage inquiry and personal discovery in a way to maximize your impact on (DeeAnne received this book at no cost student learning. in exchange for preparing a review for the Peer Bulletin.) This book is available through, or Employment Opportunity in Peer Assistance

Southeastern Massachusetts Recovery Learning Community(SMRLC) The SMRLC of Community Counseling of Bristol County in Massachusetts (map) seeks an Assistant Program Director who can help with the day-to-day operations of the Recovery Learning Community. Responsibilities include, among other duties, recruiting, developing and supervising volunteers to engage in peerbased recovery learning. Candidates must be Certified Peer Specialists with 3-5 years in a leadership Peer Bulletin No. 202

position in a Recovery-oriented program. Lived experience as a person in recovery with at least two years of sustained recovery time is preferred. The closing date for applications is July 31, 2011. Submit a cover letter and resume to Elizabeth Amaral at For additional details about working for Community Counseling of Bristol County visit their website. 33

July 5, 2011

Exclusive Offers for Members of the Peer Resources Network

We continually search for ways to increase the benefits of membership in the Peer Resources Network. We typically negotiate arrangements for discounts, find resources we believe will be of exceptional value to members, or arrange exclusive offers for members.

1. A No-Cost Update to the Peer Counselling Starter Kit is now available to any member of the Peer Resources Network who had purchased any edition of the Kit previously. The new Kit has been completely revised with new material added and the training expanded to be more inclusive of working with adults as peer assistants. Consequently the book has been renamed The Peer Assistance Starter Kit: A Step-by-Step Guide for Training Peer Assistants and Developing Eective Peer Programs for Youth and Adults. The newly revised and expanded version of this previously top-selling publication is available only as an e-book (PDF) and will be priced at $49.95 when it is made available to the public. Peer Resources Network members who purchased the previous version can email to obtain their nocost, complete new version.

In most cases Peer Resources does not receive any financial gain from these offers, and they are often graciously provided by other members of the Peer Resources Network. We also provide some unique features associated with membership.

2. The 2011 New Mexico Mentoring Institute Conference (October 26-28, 2011) in Albuquerque was profiled in the May issue of the Peer Bu!etin (No. 200), and we did not include the fact that Nora Dominguez, a Peer Resources Network member and the Mentoring Institute Director, is providing PRN members with a $50.00 discount of the standard conference fee of $300.00. For more information about the conference, the Institute or to register with the PRN discount go to:

If any PRN member has a product or service to offer to other PRN members with an exclusive offer, please contact

3. Emeritus Members Gain Credit for Playing the Peer Bulletin Quiz With the increasing number of Peer Resources Network members who now hold 10-year Emeritus Status and consequently no longer need to have any additional months added to their already free membership, we've found a way to recognize their correct answers for the Peer Bu!etin Quiz.

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Exclusive Offers for Members of the Peer Resources Network ...continued from Page 33

Emeritus members now receive a threemonth credit for each correct answer. When they have garnered four threemonth credit vouchers, they can give a membership in the PRN to anyone of their choosing. This means Emeritus members can continue to have fun playing the Quizzes, and give away a membership to someone they’d like to award. This system also provides the Peer Resources Network with a new member, recognizes Emeritus members’ brilliant answers, and earns a reward they can bestow at no cost. Will any other organization be able to match this benefit? 4. One-Year, No-Cost Membership Incentive for Referrals For the last few years any current Peer Resources Network member who referred another person for membership, and the person became a member, had three months added to his or her own membership for each person referred. This means that PRN members who refer four members within a year (and they become members), those referring PRN members received a full-year of membership at no cost. In addition to that incentive, we’ve now added an iPod shuffle bonus. Every PRN member who refers four people who become members (within a year) will receive an iPod shuffle at no cost. And all Peer Bulletin No. 202

referred members who sign-up will have their names placed in a draw to determine one new member who will also receive an iPod shuffle. A place is available on the Peer Resources Network application form where a new member can include the name of the referring member. This will be essential to qualify for this incentive as well as make sure the additional month’s are added to the referring member’s account. 5. Submit an Article for the Peer Bulletin We are eager to obtain articles written by Peer Resources Network members that would be suitable for upcoming issues of the Peer Bu!etin. Any member that submits a feature article that is published in a future issue of the Peer Bu!etin will receive an extra three months added to his or her membership. To prepare and submit an article, review our style guide at pscgwriters.html and contact Rey Carr at 6. Two-Year Renewal Offer Any Peer Resources Network individual or institutional rate member who renews for a two-year period, will receive a 15 percent discount on the fee for the second year. Renew at 7. The Ten-Year Emeritus Member Any Peer Resources Network member 35

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Exclusive Offers for Members of the Peer Resources Network ...continued from Page 34

who has 10 years of continuous membership will gain “Emeritus” membership status. Forty-six members now hold Emeritus status. This means no more yearly dues, no more fee notices, no fee increases, and a continuation of all services and benefits. No other organization provides this benefit. (Forty-five members now receive this benefit.)

know, no other organization provides that benefit. However, if your membership lapses and is not renewed by the normal renewal date or you decide to switch membership categories at renewal time, the current fee will likely be used to determine membership cost.

9. Play the Peer Bulletin Quiz Several members have already discovered that if they participate in the Peer Bu!etin Quiz, which appears in each issue of the 8. No Fee Increases for Current Peer Bu!etin, they can extend their Members membership expiration date and reduce Did you know that current members, as the likelihood of having to ever pay a long as they maintain a continuous and membership renewal fee. Why not join uninterrupted membership, never them? Correct answers in this quiz experience an increase in fees? typically result in an extra month added to This means that whatever fee you paid for your membership. Submit correct answers your membership category at the time you to all 12 quizzes in a year and the result is a signed up will remain the fee for the year of no fee-membership. duration of your membership. As far as we

“Gratitude unlocks the fullness of life. It turns what we have into enough, and more. It turns denial into acceptance, chaos to order, confusion to clarity. It can turn a meal into a feast, a house into a home, a stranger into a friend. Gratitude makes sense of our past, brings peace for today, and creates a vision for tomorrow.” ~ Melody Beattie ~ Self-help writer, journalist and author of Codependent No More Biography

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The Peer Bulletin Quiz: How many members have gained Emeritus status? This Month’s Quiz Peer Resources provides a number of unique benefits for members of the Peer Resources Network. As far as we can tell we’re the only organization that enables members who have achieved ten consecutive years of paid membership to then no longer pay a fee for membership. This month’s Quiz asks PRN members to search the Peer Bu!etin and send the number that represents the number of Peer Resources Network members who have attained the 10-year Emeritus status.

Answers need to be submitted prior to the publication of Peer Bu!etin 203 (August 2nd) to gain an extra month of membership in the Peer Resources Network. We’d also like to include each winner’s name, photo and website contact details in the next issue; so if you haven't sent this along previously, please include them with your answer. Send your answer, contact URL (if available), and photo to

Last Month’s Quiz and Winners

DeeAnne Vonde Website

The June Peer Bu!etin 201 Quiz asked readers to calculate the total number of training events in coaching, mentoring and peer assistance that were listed on the Peer Resources website. The correct answer was 50 and could be determined from adding the three events featured and the numbers for the additional events mentioned on Page 52 of the June Peer Bu!etin.

Sylva Leduc

Tony Jacklin Website

Deepak Chopra Website Loni Love @lonilove

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Dan Pruitt Website

Christine Lagarde LinkedIn 37

July 5, 2011

What’s New in Coaching, Mentoring and Peer Assistance

In this section we feature the most up-to-date information about peer programs, mentoring programs and services, and what's new in the coach training world. Our goal in providing this information is to assist members to locate programs and resources that meet their professional needs. The complete listing of coach training programs is included in our Coaching Directory. A complete listing of all peer programs is available in our Peer Assistance Directory; and a complete listing of all mentoring programs and services, including links to the best Find a Mentor services is available in our Mentor Directory.

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The International Child & Youth Care Network (CYCNET) is an organization the provides a forum, support and resources for child and youth care workers around the world. Peer influence is one of the topics that members are most concerned about, and it’s likely that many members of the Peer Resources Network may be able to find ways to provide information about mentoring, coaching and peer assistance to CYC-NET. They also produce a monthly magazine, which is available in a unique online format. Learn more about CYC-Net, connect with their members, and read the June 2011 issue of their magazine here. Peer-Based Recovery Programs that connect people in mental health and addictions recovery with peer assistance, training, education and advocacy are on the rise across North America. Many of the people who have experienced their own journey in the mental health and addictions system have become Certified Peer Specialists, a designation that is becoming more and more prevalent in this field. One of the best sources for keeping current in this field is the nocost newsletter from The Recovery Network at the

Transformation Center in Massachusetts. Learn more about the growth of this model of peer assistance and receive their newsletter by visiting their website here. CoachingOurselves (website) is a new online subscription service based in Canada that provides learning materials through a unique discussion forum. There are currently 70 modules available and they are meant to be used directly by employees and managers. The focus on practical management and have been prepared by some of the best management thinkers. A review of this service approach that is designed to help people coach themselves is available at: TrainingMediaReview. Online Certification for Mentoring Program Managers is now available from Management-Mentors, founded by Peer Resources Network member Rene Petrin. This Level I Certification is offered as a five-hour course and covers all the best practices that have demonstrated value in business. The course includes a focus on how mentoring differs from other systems; the role of the mentoring manager; designing a business mentoring program; 38

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creating & sustaining effective matches; designing an evaluation system; and dealing with the typical challenges associated with mentoring in business. The International Mentoring Association (IMA) has shifted its offices to Farmington, New Mexico. Members can login to their new website to update their contact information and make sure that the transition to New Mexico didn’t accidentally drop details from the membership list. University of Dundee Peer Connections (website), through its Student Services Department, uses trained student volunteers for a welcoming, buddying and mentoring program so that other students can feel connected to university life. The peer connectors are trained to listen, answer questions, provide ideas, act as a guide and respect confidentiality and privacy. Contact is made through drop-in sessions where refreshments are served, a series of Open House events, and appointments. Peer Connections also provides peer mediators who receive eight

hours of additional training beyond their training as Peer Connectors. Contact; Joan Muszynski, Co-Ordinator, Room B10, Caird House, 172 Nethergate, Dundee, Scotland; Tel: (+44) 01382 384932; email: The Association of Coaching Supervisors (AOCS), a fee-based group of persons who have been trained in supervision and are actively involved in supervising coaches, has recently been launched in the United Kingdom to: • Raise the profile of coaching supervisors amongst coaches and buyers of coaching • Inform and educate coaches and buyers of coaching about coaching supervision • Promote the value of coaching supervision to coaches and buyers of coaching services • Encourage all coaches to include coaching supervision as integral to their practise and development • Encourage buyers of coaching to choose supervised coaches over non-supervised coaches; and

Peer Resources Network member and Coaching & Leadership International President, Dr. Betska K-Burr has published a new book: The “God” in Coaching: The Key to a Happy Life. We had an opportunity to review a preview copy, and this hardcover book will be of top value to accelerate coaching practice. The book was launched in Mumbai, India in June at the International Coaching Conference, and the world launch is scheduled for September. While the book will retail for $27.95, Peer Resources Network members can obtain a pre-launch copy of the complete book for $19.95. Every PRN member who orders a book will receive an autographed copy from Betska. To get more details about the book and read reviews and testimonials, visit the book order website. Peer Bulletin No. 202


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• Encourage all organisations using coaching skills and/or adopting a learning culture, to employ coaching supervisors to ensure best practise.

Certification also requires passing a final examination. (Note: to obtain ICF certification an additional 10 hours with an ICF PCC or MCC as well as six hours of supervised coaching is necessary—these are The Goal Imagery Institute (website) coach additional costs.) Tuition is $5000.00 and training program meets all the International includes all learning/reading materials, Coach Federation (ICF) portfolio applicant group mentoring sessions and cost of certification requirements. Training at Goal examinations. Contact: Marianna Lead, Imagery consists of an intensive six month, PCC, PhD: 125 coach-specific contact hour course. Classes are limited to six students per class. The Change Place (website) provides a 60Content focuses on the ICF Core hour coach training program that is Competencies and holistic techniques to described as “qualifying participants to assist clients to overcome spiritual, become a certified professional coach and emotional, creative, and intellectual limits, be eligible for the International Coach mind-body wellness techniques, positive Federation’s Associate Certified Coach psychology, NLP. (ACC) professional coach credential.” The program is described as 'unique' because it Their curriculum is divided into three offers three options: a three-day training, a levels: learning the foundations of Goal three-day training plus three month Imagery coaching (defining coaching, coaching practicum, and course work and coaching structure and techniques and practicum (60-hours) leading to the ACC integrating coaching skills into practice); credential. Contact: The Change Place, 4963 becoming a certified practitioner; and Sundance Square, Boulder, Colorado 80301; becoming a certified coach. Tel: (303) 530-9699; email:

“Life is change. Growth is optional. Choose wisely.” ~ Karen Kaiser Clark ~ American motivational speaker and consultant Contact

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Champions for Coaching, Mentoring and Peer Assistance

Champions are individuals and organizations that represent best practices in their field. In most cases the people and groups listed in this section are educators who offer services and resources, or make recommendations that Peer Resources has reviewed for quality and their ability to facilitate learning. We welcome submissions from Peer Resources Network members regarding their own work or the resources of others that they can recommend.

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OakTraining provides a variety of management, coaching and mentoring modules, and after receiving feedback on the latest version of their problem-solving course, they have made a number of revisions. The great news is that Des Fitzgerald, Oak Training’s Managing Director is making the updated course available as a no-cost download to Peer Resources Network members. To access the file enter ‘free’ for username and ‘courseware’ for the password here. (Note: it’s an 18MB file.)

question. The goal is to help clients or mentoring partners think more carefully, and support them as they discover the answers for themselves. ManageTrainLearn has provided a review of this technique along with an array of useable examples and three website pdf resources here.

Perrone-Ambrose Associates, Inc. (website), founded in 1973, is a member of the Peer Resources Network that provides a variety of mentorship training workshops for mentors, mentees, coaches and ManageTrainLearn managers. They also publish provides a number of no-cost many excellent books on products and some great tips mentoring, including: A for persons involved in Mentor’s Companion (Revised), mentoring, coaching and peer The Mentoring Field Guide, The assistance. Recently they Mentee’s Navigator, Common identified some useful Sense Mentoring, Mentor Self resources about one of the Assessment, and Mentee Self most well-used techniques in Assessment. Details about each facilitative styles of group of these six books and their leadership called the workshop schedule are on ‘boomerang’ question. This their website, and bulk orders type of question is used yield a discount. Peer extensively in mentoring and Resources Network members coaching as a reponse to a are eligible for further partner or client who asks a discounts on any bulk orders. 41

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The International Association of Coaching (IAC) has made significant changes to its website, giving it a fresh, new and different look. Among the features that now stand out on the site are: details about how to become an IACPractitioner or an IAC-Certified Coach; how to find an IAC coach; how to become an IAC Licensee; an explanation of the IAC Coaching Masteries®; and an explanation of their Learning Agreements.

The International Coach Federation (ICF) has made a membership requirement change. As of April 1, 2013 ICF members must have completed at least 60 hours of coach-specific training* to become or remain a member. The policy change has been described as a way to “protect [coaches] consumers...and preserve the integrity of the ICF by establishing a clear and verifiable standard.” Current holders of ICF credentials will be considered as having met this requirement. Members The Learning Agreements may become who have not met the requirement or do more important for IAC members as the not hold an ICF credential will be Association has revised their membership considered ‘provisional’ members and will standards to require members to submit an have a maximum of one-year to do so. annual continuing education proposal (Learning Agreement). At Peer Bu!etin *Coach specific training is defined by the press time the IAC has indicated they will ICF as: a) training from an ICF Accredited charge a fee for the initial submission of Coach Training Program; or b) a program the Learning Agreement and a fee for that has received the ICF Approved Coach review each year thereafter. Members had Specific Training designation; or c) training a variety of reactions to this new that is specifically marketed as teaching requirement and details of the discussion coaching skills and behaviors and aligns are available on the IAC blog here. with the ICF Core Competencies. Learn Conflict Management Coaching from a Leading Expert in North America Conflict management coaching also known as conflict coaching, is a specialized niche in the field of coaching and conflict management. It is a one-on-one technique, in which a trained coach assists people to effectively prevent or manage specific disputes and to enhance their conflict management skills. It may also be used for coaching individuals to participate in mediation, negotiation and relational conflict. Peer Resources Network member Cinnie Noble (website) will be leading three workshops (August 22-25 in French in Ottawa; October 17-20 in Ottawa; and October 31-November 3 in Toronto) for coaches, mediators, ADR consultants and HR professionals who want to learn the fundamentals for coaching individuals through conflict. PRN members will receive a discount of $100 off the registration fee. To register or request more information: (416) 686-4247; (866) 335-6466;

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July 5, 2011

Famous Mentoring Pairs: The Unforgettable Mentor Lorne Daniel

A sense of loss is to be expected when someone in our lives passes away. When the deceased person has been a mentor we are fortunate to be able to offset some of those losses with a recognition of what has been gained—all the riches of wisdom and experience that the mentor contributed to our lives. Virtually anyone can benefit from having a mentor. And most well-known, accomplished and successful people can identify people in their lives who acted as mentors. The mentor pairings that are described in this section of the Peer Bulletin were identified from a variety of sources including autobiographies, biographies, newspaper articles, personal interviews, and diligent historical research. An extensive list of additional well-known mentor pairings, including those from TV, motion pictures and fiction, can be found on the Peer Resources website at mentorpairs.html. In addition to the list of mentor pairs from the world of entertainment, business, creative arts, sports, politics, history, and science available in the Peer Resources listings, a few historical facts or humorous references to the term mentor are also included.

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That was my experience recently when writer, editor and teacher Martin (Marty) Oordt passed away after complications from a heart attack. Back in the late 60s, Marty came to a new university in the dryland country of southern Alberta after earning his doctorate in English at Professor the University of Kentucky. At The Martin Oordt University of Lethbridge, he not only taught English and Creative Writing but mentored young writers like Peter Christensen, Yvonne Trainer and many more. He received the university’s Distinguished Teaching Award in 1996. Marty also played a lead role in starting a campus newspaper, a literary magazine and a writers’ collective. He was a writer himself and a catalyst in the fledgling prairie literary community. Marty was always on the hunt for projects and ideas. He and his wife Mary published Lethbridge living Magazine for 10 years after Marty retired from teaching. Those were the external accomplishments. As a person, Marty was a big man in all the best senses—a huge presence in a room, a personality who brought people together, an open and welcoming person. 43

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He agreed to serve as my faculty advisor in a free-wheeling independent learning program at The University of Lethbridge —a program that unfortunately disappeared when liberal arts took a turn towards “practical” learning in the 1980s and 1990s.

“But hang on there, Daniel,” I can imagine him interjecting. “You make it all sound so damn serious.” And he would laugh, reminding we serious poets that life was a lark, that we could ponder the universe with a twinkle in the eye.

Every week for two years, I sat down with Marty, read poems, talked poetics, mused about craft and generally shot the breeze. He was the kind of editor who could guide your writing with kindness and subtlety.

At readings, he would stand at the back of the room in his favourite green cowboy boots and shout out encouragements. Yvonne Trainer remembers the voice: “Give ‘em hell, Trainer!”

When I think of Marty’s own skills with words I see a master craftsman. I always imagine him a woodworker. His large hands would turn a piece, examine it from all angles. Take an edge off here, add a bit of polish there. His suggestions always grew from possibilities. “What would happen if you started the poem here?” he would ask. Or “where do you think that image could go?” Beyond the poetry, he saw the poet, or the would-be poet—the person. He pulled his chair up close, sat knee to knee, and locked his eyes on you. He cared. No absent-minded multi-tasking. In Marty’s world, poems mattered. Poets mattered.

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You knew the cheerleading, the caring, the support was authentic because it spilled over, beyond the campus, past graduation, into the ordinary days and weeks and years of our lives. He kept in touch. Whenever our paths crossed, on the phone or in writing or in person, I could count on Marty to say, “Damn, it’s good to hear from you!” When someone like Marty Oordt passes away, we often wish we had had more contact, more recently. Did I do enough to pay him back? To thank him for his contributions to my life? Our debt to mentors like Marty is a human debt. By that I mean, it’s not just between him and me. It’s between generations. 44

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Evolving Minds (April 25, 2011). To We each have a finite number of hours leave comments for the author about on the planet. To invest a significant this story, visit the original article page number of those hours in another person here.) is a selfless act. About the Author The “pay it forward” concept suggests Lorne Daniel is a writer and frequent that we invest in people for future contributor to Life as a Human. While benefit. Implicitly, the mentor gets some he was earning his B.A. payback down the road. at the University of Lethbridge he spent But really it is an investment in “about equal time humanity. Marty’s joy of discovery, his drinking, reading and willingness to explore and create, his writing poetry.” He fondness for collaboration, his fine eye for the well-turned phrase: these are not eventually earned a Masters in Communication Studies from the things that he gave expecting any big University of Calgary, and from there return. returned to his home town of Red They are qualities he shared with the Deer, Alberta to take on a teaching world. Thanks to mentors like Marty position at Red Deer College. From Oordt, we carry these riches forward. time to time he ventures outside of Alberta to Spain, Mexico and Costa (This story about Lorne Daniel’s Rica with extended stays in Victoria, mentor is reprinted here with the British Columbia. Access his blog permission of the author, and here. appeared originally in Life As A Human: The Online Magazine for

“My favourite poem is the one that starts ‘Thirty days hath September’ because it actually tells you something.” ~ Groucho Marx (1890-1977) ~ American comedian, actor and host of You Bet Your Life Biography

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Funding Opportunities for Coaching, Mentoring and Peer Assistance Projects

This month 13 funding opportunities are listed that have the potential to support peer assistance, mentoring and coaching projects. Writing a proposal for any of these grants and awards can be a time-consuming and intimidating task. If you'd like help from an expert to craft your proposal for funding, we recommend contacting Launie Gratto of He can help decipher the requirements and write a proposal that has a much higher likelihood of making the cut. For grant-writing tips visit The Journal. For further assistance in locating funding for youthbased projects associated with peer, mentor or coach work, visit the Connect for Kids Toolkit for Funding. Peer Bulletin No. 202

(1) TurnAround Persistently Low Achieving Secondary Schools to NEW Improve Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Success (“GEAR UPâ€? provides support for U.S.A.-based school culture-changing innovations such as coaching, mentoring and peer assistance that will support eligible low income students, including students with disabilities, in order to help them improve their academic achievement, obtain a secondary school diploma, and prepare them to succeed in postsecondary education. The estimated available funds equals $102 million. Anticipated number of awards: 88. The deadline for applications is July 14, 2011. Details available online. (2) Pathways to Responsible NEW Fatherhood Grants have been announced by the US Department of Health & Human Services to support demonstration projects that promote responsible fatherhood, especially the use of peer support, mentoring, or coaching for low income dads. The goal must be to help fathers build mutually supportive and long-lasting relationships with their children, the mothers of their children, and assist them to become more financially self-suďŹƒcient. The deadlines for grant applications is July 28, 2011. Apply online here. (3) Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) Global Challenge is a competition to find solutions to improve student outcomes in U.S.-based K-12 education. Entrants can submit an idea for evaluation by the community and a panel of expert judges for a chance to win from a pool of $250,000 in cash and prizes. Winning ideas will also be considered for development 46

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and onging financial support from HMH. All educators, thought leaders and parents are eligible to submit ideas. The deadline for applications is July 15, 2011. Full details are available online. (4) CIBC Youthvision Scholarship Program provides a post-secondary scholarship valued at up to $36,000, as well as summer internships starting in grade 10 until the completion of university or college. To be eligible, students in Canada must be in grade 10 and taking part in a mentoring program with either Big Brothers Big Sisters of Canada or YMCA Canada. A recent evaluation of the program showed that almost all recipients, parents and mentors agreed that awarding the scholarship early in the students’ high school careers (Grade 10) relieved financial stress, built confidence and selfesteem, and encouraged independence. Students reported being able to do more in-depth life and educational planning, and ultimately, being motivated to do better. Additional details about application procedures and dates is available online.

between $CDN35,000-42,000/year. The project, known as "MY Regent Park," wants to create a number of multidisciplinary teams that will include a youth mentor to engage youth aged 11-18 who are at-risk of becoming involved in gang activities or who are currently involved in gang activities. Details about responsibilities, qualifications, and the agencies involved can be found here. (6) Pepsi Refresh Everything Project Grants are available in a monthly competition to individuals and organizations with innovative project ideas, including peer assistance and mentoring, to help develop character and establish service-based perspectives. At the beginning of each month Pepsi assesses the first 1,000 applications received and then creates an online voting system. Grants vary in size and each month approximately $1.3 million (US) will be awarded. Details online. Questions can be directed to Young America at (700) 768-2784 or email.

(7) The Institute of Coaching (IOC), aďŹƒliated with the McLean Hospital & (5) Youth Mentors are required by a Harvard Medical School, distributes grants consortium of social service and non-profit to fund coaching research studies. The agencies in the City of Toronto (Canada). Institute of Coaching is supported by the The agencies have initiated a call for five generosity of the Harnisch Foundation. paid positions as Youth Mentors. These The Institute is funded to provide up to are full-time positions with salaries of

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$100,000 per year for coaching research. The Institute website provides information about the dierent grants available, a list of past recipients, and details on how to apply. (8) The Reader's Digest Foundation Make It Matter Grants is a program that honors individuals from around the world who are taking action and giving back to their communities in a significant way. Each month Reader's Digest magazine will profile an individual who has made a significant contribution to his or her community, through peer assistance, peer mentoring or other informal ways on helping, and provide a financial contribution. A form for making an application is available at http:// (9) The Tiger Woods Foundation provides grants that focus on under-served youth ages 5-17 in the USA. The grants are in the average range of $2,500-$25,000. Year-round mentoring and peer tutoring are approved program areas they fund. Deadlines for applications are four-times per year. For more information go here.

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(10) Reducing Risk Behaviors by Promoting Positive Youth Development small research project grants are available to institutions and organizations that propose to enhance understanding about eective positive youth development programs (such as mentoring and peer assistance) and the mechanisms for positive health and developmental outcomes. Non-profit organizations, small businesses, and a variety of educational institutions in the USA and other countries (including Canada, Great Britain and Australia) are eligible to apply. Grant size will vary. This program will expire September 8, 2011. Applications can only be submitted electronically, and details are available online. For more information contact: Mario Martinez by email: (11) Initiative for Maximizing Student Development is a grant program established to increase the number of under-represented faculty, investigators and students engaged in biomedical and behavioral research, and to broaden the opportunities for their participation in biomedical and behavioral research. Mostly this means providing support to students pursuing their doctorates in this area, and funding is available for the 48

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initiation of new academic developmental activities as well as the expansion, enhancement, and/or improvement of existing activities. Such activities can include peer support, mentoring and coaching services and programs to improve the preparation of undergraduates for admission to research doctoral degree programs, and preparation of doctoral students for successful research careers or both. Approximately $5 million is available, and the total amount to be awarded and the number of awards will depend on the quality, duration, and costs of the applications received. Public and state and private institutions of higher education are eligible to apply. More information is available online. Submission deadline for is January 25, 2012. (13) Drug Abuse Prevention Intervention Research is a grant program through the US National Institutes of Health to encourage research applications from institutions, organizations, and small businesses both within and outside the USA that propose to advance the science of drug abuse and drug-related HIV prevention through 1) the development of novel prevention

approaches, including mentoring, peer assistance, and coaching; 2) the testing of novel and adapted prevention intervention approaches; 3) the elucidation of processes associated with the selection, adoption, adaptation, implementation, sustainability, and financing of empirically validated interventions; and 4) the development of new methodologies suitable for the design and analysis of prevention research studies. Research programs can focus on the role of new technology-assisted interventions, such as the Internet and wireless communication to prevent drug abuse. A variety of organizations both in and outside of the USA are eligible for funding. Research grants can cover a five-year span, and initial funding applications must be submitted prior to September 8, 2011. More information is available online. (14) The Coca-Cola Foundation supports projects that provide youth with educational opportunities to become productive citizens, including mentoring, coaching, and peer assistance projects. The Foundation is interested in unique solutions to problems that impede successful programs. Grants are typically

“The only people who claim that money is not important are people who have enough money so that they are relieved of the ugly burden of thinking about it.� ~ Joyce Carol Oates ~ American author Biography Peer Bulletin No. 202


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made to public and private colleges and universities, elementary and secondary schools, teacher-training programs, educational programs for minority students and global educational programs. Projects that focus on staying in school and student retention are supported. All applications must be submitted online.

the Mentoring Resource Center's Mentoring Forum. This forum is for discussion of fund development, marketing, branding, new funding streams, and other information related to keeping US-based youth mentoring programs thriving over time. Access the Forum here.

(15) Funding for Youth-Based Mentoring Program Sustainability can be found in the comprehensive and continuously updated list maintained by “A handful of psychologists like Barbara Held who wrote Stop Smiling, Start Kvetching: A 5-Step Guide to Creative Complaining (,, are starting to think about optimism and pessimism in new ways. Instead of condemning all pessimistic thoughts as harmful and self-defeating, they are discovering that healthy doses of pessimism can be crucial to overcoming psychological obstacles and achieving personal goals. So called 'defensive pessimism'—a psychological stance that involves accepting the fact that things can go drastically wrong and defensively preparing for that eventuality—may be the best offense when it comes to achieving positive outcomes. Moreover, the unprecedented pressure from popular culture to accentuate the positive could actually be making us unhappier (as is a main point in Barbara Ehrenreich's Bright-sided: How the Relentless Promotion of Positive Thinking Has Undermined America (,,” ~ From Bergsma, A. (September 2010). No silver linings, please. ODE Magazine, 8, 5, 63-67.

If any Peer Resources Network members would like to determine whether they are ‘defensive pessimists’ or optimists, take this 10-item quiz created by psychology professor Judith Norem at Wellesley College: Psychology/Norem/Quiz/quiz.html Professor Norem is the author of the 2001 book: The Positive Power of Negative Thinking. New York (,, and teaches the Psychology of Optimism and Pessimism at Wellesley College. Peer Bulletin No. 202


July 5, 2011

Research and Resources to Guide Professional Practice

Peer Resources scans the professional and popular literature for articles, books, videos and other useful reference materials. Brief synopses of the work as well as citation details are available in a searchable format at articles. Our goals are to assist PRN members to find the latest research and to help members identify studies or resources that would be useful in their own work. Some articles are available to PRN members through special arrangements with the authors/publishers. Other articles may be available through our subscription services. Contact Peer Resources to enquire about specific access. Another resource for depth analysis of coaching research and the implications of the research for daily practice has been created by Kerryn Griffiths. For access to her practical insights and analysis of key coaching studies, visit her website. Peer Bulletin No. 202

Germain, M. (2011). Formal mentoring relationships and attachment theory: Implications for human resource development. Human Resource Development Review, 10, 2, 123-150. An attachment theory perspective of mentoring is presented to explain the degree of functionality of a mentor-partner formal match in an organizational setting. By focusing on Bowlby’s behavioral system of attachment and its triarchic taxonomy of secure, avoidant, and anxious-ambivalent attachment, previous conceptualizations are expanded by illuminating relational concepts that mentors and supervisors could use to facilitate employee learning and development. A short attachment style assessment and a mentor-partner attachment style pairing guide are presented.

Ghosh, R., Dierkes, S., & Falletta, S. (2011). Incivility spiral in mentoring relationships: Reconceptualizing negative mentoring as deviant workplace behavior. Advances in Developing Human Resources 13, 1, 22-39. Mentoring is typically viewed as a positive interaction between a mentor and partner; however, a few researchers have focused on the things that can go wrong or negative relationship outcomes. The authors in this study showed how negative actions by the mentor can lead to negative responses by the partner and those responses are then carried over into the workplace. The authors suggest that HR professionals have an important role to play in making sure that a code of conduct is in place and practiced at the beginning of any formal mentoring relationship. (The complete study is available to Peer Resources Network members.)

Kogan, S.M., Brody, G.H., & Chen, Y. (2011). Natural mentoring processes deter externalizing problems among rural African American emerging adults: A prospective analysis. American Journal of Community Psychology (Online First, 4 February 2011). 51

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A model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school and again 18 months later. Emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression.

adults were breaking rules or being aggressive when they were 19 or 20.

Lizzio, A., Demptster, N., & Neumann, R. (2011). Pathways to formal and informal student leadership: The influence of peer and teacher-student relationships and level of school identification on students’ motivations. Journal of Leadership in Education, 14, 1, 85-102.

These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intra-personal processes, a future orientation and selfregulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress. The authors conclude that community mentors can help rural African-American youths reduce anger or avoid legal problems and substance abuse, mentoring relationships were even more powerful for young adults experiencing hardship, and the better the youth-mentor relationship was, the less likely the young

Leadership capacity-building is a key factor in sustainable school improvement, and the leadership contribution of students is an integral part of an authentic distributed conception of school leadership. A sample of 167 Australian public school Grade 11 students (average age 16.6 years) completed a self-report survey of their perceptions and motivations. Results showed that the quality of peer relations was the most influential factor in shaping students' 'sense of school.' In addition, students motivation to be involved in leadership appears to be reciprocal, that is, their willingness to act as leaders is related to the extent that they are treated by the school as such. The authors conclude that a school culture

“Optimists and pessimists differ only on the date of the end of the world.” ~ Stanislaw Jerzy Lec (1909-1966) ~ Polish poet Biography

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which emphasizes fair and respectful interactions between teachers and administration is arguably more likely to facilitate the civic identity and motivations of its staff. Accordingly, if staff receive fair and respectful treatment they may be, in turn, more likely to treat students with respect. Similarly, if staff feel more positively about the school they may be more likely to model and encourage students’ civic behaviour. Thus a fundamental component of school culture that facilitates student citizenship and leadership may well be the fair and just interpersonal behaviour of its formal leadership team. (This article is available to Peer Resources Network members.)

Rajuana, R., Tuchina, I., & Zuckermann, T. (2011). Mentoring the mentors: First-order descriptions of Experience-in-context. The New Educator, 7, 2, 172 - 190. Following worldwide trends in an effort to combat attrition rates of novice

teachers, mentoring of new teachers has become a common practice. However, not all experienced teachers have the supervision and leadership skills necessary to guide new teachers through their first difficult year. In order to solve this problem, various programs have been established to provide mentor teachers with the skills and knowledge necessary to support new teachers. While there is a proliferation of research and theoretical articles pertaining to mentoring, there is a scarcity of literature dealing with the training of mentors. The purpose of this article is to make a contribution to this neglected area of study by presenting some examples of innovative practical techniques designed to link theory with practice. Data of mentor teachers' written assignments are presented as evidence of the link between theory learned and practical implementation from the perspective of the participants.

The Editorial Staff of the Peer Bulletin pulls the quotes that appear in each issue from a variety of sources. Some readers have even wondered why we bother with the content between the quotes. Another great source of inspirational quotes is Simple Truths. They’ve created a new three-minute movie called Great Quotes from Great Leaders, and it is available for viewing here.

Peer Bulletin No. 202


July 5 , 2011

Current Books Available for Review ★The “God” in Coaching: The Key to a Happy Life by Peer Resources Network member Dr. Betska K-Burr (454 pages, hardcover) ★Advancing Executive Coaching: Setting the Course for Successful Leadership Coaching by Gina Hernez-Broome & Lisa A. Boyce (Editors) (480 pages, hardcover) Books are available for review by Peer Resources Network members. In exchange, members receive the book at no cost. Guidelines for completing a review and a list of other books available, here. If any PRN member would like to receive any of these books in exchange for providing a review, just email Rey Carr at (Unfortunately, due to increases in international mailing costs, we are only able to extend this book for review exchange offer to PRN members in North America.)

The Power of a Dream: Your Dream is Still Possible by Peter Legge (208 pages, softcover) The Leadership Coaching Sourcebook: A Guide to the Executive Coaching Literature by J.K. Nelson, L.A. Boyce, G. Hernez-Broome, K. Ely, and G.A. DiRosa (136 pages, softcover) From Therapist to Coach: How to Leverage Your Clinical Expertise to Build a Thriving Coaching Practice by David Steele (202 pages, softcover) Global Coaching: An Integrated Approach for Long-Lasting Results by Philippe Rosinski (266 pages, softcover) Values-Based Coaching: A Guide for Social Workers and Other Human Service Professionals by Peer Resources Network member Marilyn Edelson (291 pages, softcover) Mind Your Own Biz: Discover the Secrets to Creating a Successful Coaching Business by Janet Slack (95 pages, ebook) Positive Psychology Coaching: Putting the Science of Happiness to Work for Your Clients by Robert Biswas-Diener and Ben Dean (258 pages, hardcover)

★Added this month.

“A healthful hunger for a great idea is the beauty and blessedness of life.” ~ Jean Ingelow (1820-1897) ~ British poet and novelist Biography Peer Bulletin No. 202


July 5, 2011

Attend a Learning Event for Professional Growth and Development HIGHLIGHTED EVENTS

Our event listings only include coach, mentor or peer assistance inperson events that are three or more hours in length. We list telecourses or webinar events if they are led by PRN members. If you know of any upcoming events that meet either of the above two listing criteria, please let us know so that we can inform other members.



Peer Assistance

Mentoring Skills Workshop led by PRN members Perrone-Ambrose Associates, Inc.

Advanced Coaching Skill Development Training (19.5 ICF CCEs)

Peer Helping/ Peer Counseling/ Peer Education Train-the-Trainer Workshop

July 8, 2011

July 20-22, 2011

Aug 22-23, 2011

Deerfield, Illinois

Calgary, Alberta

San Francisco




Twelve additional mentoring events: mentorwks.html

Twenty additional coaching events: coachevents.html

Five additional peer assistance events: peerevents.html

“My father used to play with my brother and me in the yard. Mother would come out and say, ‘You’re tearing up the grass.’ ‘We’re not raising grass,’ Dad would reply. ‘We’re raising boys.’” ~ Harmon Killebrew (1936-2011) ~ Major League Baseball Hall of Fame member and mentor to Michael Cuddyer, Justin Morneau and many others Biography Peer Bulletin No. 202


July 5, 2011

Access to Previous Issues of The Peer Bulletin Previous issues of the Peer Bulletin are available in HTML and PDF versions, and are located in the password protected area of the Peer Resources web site. A userid and password are required to access previous issues.

connect with, or yield commissions to Peer Resources. All commissions are donated to a local charity for homeless youth, typically in December of each year.

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The Next Issue of the Peer Bulletin: August 2, 2011

Peer Bulletin No. 202



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