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Driving Resiliency. Leveraging Investment. Showcasing Innovation. Revised DRAFT Vision Plan February 2018


CHARLESTOWN EAST BOSTON WEST END BEACON HILL

ALLSTON BRIGHTON

BACK BAY FENWAY

NORTH END DOWNTOWN DEER ISLAND

CHINATOWN SOUTH BOSTON WATERFRONT

SOUTH END

LONGWOOD

SOUTH BOSTON

MISSION HILL

ROXBURY

HARBOR ISLANDS JAMAICA PLAIN

DORCHESTER

WEST ROXBURY

ROSLINDALE MATTAPAN

HYDE PARK

Boston The City Upon a Hill The Cradle of Liberty The Athens of America The Hub City of Champions


Table of Contents “When Americans are called on to innovate, that’s what we do.” Barack Obama

01

“Those who say it can’t be done are usually interrupted by others doing it.” James A. Baldwin

05

Driving Planning into Action: rexBoston

04

Accelerating resiliency, leveraging private investment, creating an international exposition

02

Proposed Tracks

11

Cool, Clean, Connect, Construct, Converse

03

City Zone Maps & Experiences

17

An evolving demonstration of civic climate action throughout every Boston neighborhood

04

Hamburg & Other Case Studies

29

Drawing inspiration from recent and historical worldwide expositions and exemplars

Partnership of Many

41

A hub for agencies, organizations, institutions, research groups, and educational initiatives; a magnet for all

06

Business Plan

45

Leveraging private investment through catalyzing subsidies, services, and branding

07

Regulatory Innovation & Adaptation

50

A test bed for transformational zoning regulations, design guidelines, development through competitive selection

08

Next Steps

54

Branding, funding, outreach to build momentum for rolling phases, 2020, 2025, 2030

09

Resources

58

Further reading

10

Glossary Take note of some key terms

62


DRIVING PLANNING INTO ACTION: rexBoston

At this critical time for climate action, Boston is uniquely positioned as a world leader. “We are committed to addressing climate change head on and will accelerate Boston’s efforts to become carbon neutral by 2050,” Mayor Martin J. Walsh vowed in his first term of office. In concert with this pledge, in just two years, the Walsh administration has produced multiple world-class studies – including Climate Ready Boston, Go Boston, Resilient Boston, and Imagine Boston 2030 – demonstrating a planning focus unprecedented in the City’s history.

provide 80 percent of the world’s energy. Unfortunately, many forecasts agree that global carbon emissions are likely to get worse before they get better, rising by approximately a third by 2035. To meet the Paris Climate Accord by 2050, as reaffirmed by Boston among 25 of the C40 networked resilient cities globally, carbon emissions need to fall rather than rise while accommodating significant growth – a really tough challenge. If we fail to act now, the challenge will only get tougher.

But planning alone is not enough. Real solutions need to be realized – fast – especially as worldwide development proliferates, severe climate events continue to mount and fossil fuels still

rexBoston – which stands for resiliency exemplified – is an evolving living-learning demonstration of innovative resilient solutions over a 12-year period, culminating in 2030. rexBoston kicks planning into

4 Chapter Image Source: Massachusettes Office of Travel and Tourism (MOTT) on Flickr

Driving Planning into Action


01 action. If Climate Ready Boston uses the best available science to depict the most likely climate impacts and assess the city’s vulnerabilities, rexBoston – a full-on response to Climate Ready Boston – is a continuing city-wide display of ingenuity and resourcefulness that will enable the City to thrive, not just survive, in a climate-altered future.

resiliency exemplified

exposition experience experiment exploration

At once an exposition, experience, experiment and exploration, rexBoston will: Attract international visitors, including government leaders, investors, developers, professionals, scientists and students; Provide a focus for investment, partnerships and emerging markets; Stimulate exceptional design, technology and community; Advance the art and science of resiliency through design excellence; and Accelerate a worldwide movement that embraces clean energy and climate resilience, not as a policy initiative but as matter of better living, good business and great design.

rexBoston is an evolving resiliency exposition at a city-wide scale. Five tracks and phased showcases in 2020, 2025 and 2030 will feature exemplary projects and initiatives across every neighborhood. Presenting practical carbon mitigation and climate adaptation solutions, the rexBoston exemplars will be both instructive and inspirational, advancing the city’s values and strengths as a green leader. Active community engagement will ensure that local priorities and preferences shape design and development. Public education and community events will instill leadership, connections, and resources that propel resilience and equity for decades to come. rexBoston is a resiliency experience. It fosters resiliency as a way of life for residents and as an example for visitors.

5


rexBoston is a resiliency exploration. In a physical sense, it will encourage residents and visitors to navigate the city with a greater understanding of climate-related risks and solutions. rexBoston will inspire people across all demographics to explore

the exemplars together. It will encourage designers, technologists and investors to explore multi-disciplinary solutions, and push the public and private sectors to explore partnerships. rexBoston projects will encourage interdisciplinary thinking and create incentives for approaching resilience in new, innovative ways, through many different lenses. It will inspire creativity throughout the city, providing opportunities to learn and be involved at any scale.

Why Boston?

Boston has earned a reputation as a pioneering green city for its leadership role among the 100 Resilient Cities around the world. All eyes are on Boston, ranked by some as the #1 green city in America, to lean into carbon mitigation and climate adaptation while enhancing economic growth as well as livability and equitability.

education program

green roof mixed use

new homes

urban farm

district energy

public outdoor spaces

raised first floor

bioswale

6

energy solutions and climate adaptation strategies will be entirely successful when first implemented. rexBoston encourages innovative thinking and highlights progress. It provides opportunities to advance ideas that can be piloted, tested and refined through experimentation. Cutting edge ideas often require multiple iterations to get right, and rexBoston is the platform for propelling experimentation.

rexBoston is a resiliency experiment. While many historical expositions and livinglearning experiments throughout the world serve as useful precedents, none are at the city-wide scale of rexBoston. It is a bold, pro-active approach to a challenge of unprecedented magnitude. Not all clean

bike paths

Driving Planning Into Action: rexBoston

Solutions from rexBoston are not temporary tourist attractions, but rather permanent improvements that shape the city’s evolving character and culture. Resiliency experienced as bettering the quality of life for everyone will no longer be seen as a survival mechanism, but as a sustainable future. Residents and visitors will experience rexBoston as part of daily life, interacting with exemplary features everywhere they go. rexBoston will become an intrinsic part of what makes the city enjoyable, attractive, convenient, engaging and exciting to live in and visit.


Why Now?

Boston has a history of innovation. Known as the “Athens of America,” Boston is worldrenowned for spreading new ideas, from the American Revolution and 18th and 19th century Industrial Revolution, including manufacturing, shipping, and railroads, to 20th and 21st century advances in technology, finance, medicine and education. Many first-of-a-kind achievements have expanded Boston’s reputation for boldness and leadership across many fields and endeavors.

Proactive growth is the key to achieving resiliency expeditiously. Cities that have been affected by climate-related events receive FEMA money, but have to rebuild before they can grow. Boston has the opportunity to minimize devastating losses by using our resources to act quickly and efficiently. Human nature causes many to rebuild what was there before. rexBoston pushes for proactive development, which will promote innovative, resilient solutions, which are far better than any reconstruction scenario.

Boston has a tradition of landworks and infrastructure. It has met the challenges of every era with impressive engineering and large-scale adaptation of its shorelines, topography, facilities and systems to promote economic prosperity and improve the quality of life for its citizens. Boston’s topographic history and design excellence are inextricably linked with the city’s success. Climate adaptation will critically rely on this tradition of landworks and infrastructure.

rexBoston Relates to City Initiatives

Supporting the goals of Climate Ready Boston, Go Boston, Resilient Boston, and Imagine Boston 2030, rexBoston’s physical manifestation encompasses the entire waterfront and extends to every neighborhood, addressing the city’s greatest vulnerabilities and disproportionately at-risk residents.

Climate Ready Boston uses the best available science to assess the likely impacts of climate change throughout the City of Boston. It outlines three main climate threats: urban heat, sea level rise, and extreme weather including heavy rainfall and storm surges. The goals of the report and its associated outreach program are to create a consensus upon which to develop resiliency plans and to provide education through peer leadership and community learning events. The report presents the challenges of climate change in a coherent and comprehensive way while generally suggesting layered physical solutions and policy initiatives. The City of Boston is currently working with professional consultant teams to utilize the Climate Ready Boston data to guide resilient development in several neighborhoods, focusing on major flood entry points. Outreach to residents of the considered neighborhoods presents areaspecific challenges and collects feedback on suggested projects and locations.

living shoreline

waterfront park

shaded bike lane

drainage network

floodable first floor

wind turbines

farmers market

manufactured wetlands

protected subway

electric bus lines

expanded tree canopy

solar array

retrofit homes

7


rexBoston was conceived as a response to Climate Ready Boston. Projects will comply with Climate Ready Boston projections and assessed vulnerabilities to connect as closely as possible with the data and ideas presented. The results of the ongoing neighborhood studies can be showcased as part of the expo. rexBoston will also connect with the policy initiatives outlined by the report in its work towards changing city and state regulations to advance resilient development.

Driving Planning Into Action: rexBoston

rexBoston’s education goals tie in closely with Climate Ready Boston programs, such as its community planning meetings and peer learning initiatives. Through cobranded outreach with Climate Ready Boston programs and the City of Boston, rexBoston will provide opportunities for engagement with resilience.

8

report’s environment and energy goals stress the importance of multiple benefit protection, which align with rexBoston’s focus on creating networks of solutions to achieve goals on a neighborhood scale. rexBoston also fits in with Imagine Boston’s time line to be implemented by Boston’s anniversary in 2030, and will amplify its commitment to becoming a spotlight of resilient development. It can work within Imagine Boston’s framework to showcase ways in which other civic and social improvements can increase resiliency. Resilient Boston, subtitled An Equitable and Connected City, was created based on a partnership with 100 Resilient Cities. The report focuses on connecting Boston’s resiliency goals with racial equity. The

Source: City of Boston

Source: City of Boston

Source: Go Boston

Imagine Boston 2030 is a comprehensive development and policy initiative, detailing a vision for a more equitable, connected city. It is a plan for inclusive growth over the next fifteen years that is considerate of all of Boston’s most pressing issues. The plan was shaped by feedback and input from 12,000 residents. Boston plans to continue leveraging this positive trend in community engagement and city growth to further the projects outlined by the plan as they advance through their phases. Imagine Boston 2030 outlines a complete and layered approach to resiliency. The


document identifies risk factors which may impact Boston: economic inequality, climate change and environmental stresses, terrorism, community trauma, health inequities, educational opportunity and achievement gaps, aging and inequitable infrastructure, and systemic racism. Climate justice is key to resiliency. rexBoston projects are envisioned across every one of Boston’s neighborhoods, with rexBoston project subsidies expected to respond to the needs of each community. To the extent projects can help make the city resilient to multiple stresses, not just climate change, the City will be stronger. rexBoston as an initiative could nest within the framework of Resilient Boston, as a part of its adaptive vision, by incorporating initiatives and

community organizations, but prioritizing parks, buildings, and infrastructure. Physical interventions will promote the values expressed in the report and help make the complex social questions more understandable. rexBoston will consider how physical threats from rising sea levels and other climate issues can be turned into spaces that benefit society and enhance racial equity. rexBoston aims to do what the City cannot easily do on its own – reward selected projects with subsidies and services, license rights to participate in an international exposition, and manage a robust database supporting project research and education. By marshalling City, State and Federal

resources, together with philanthropy, rexBoston also serves as an efficient funding conduit.

Branding rexBoston Citywide

rexBoston’s goal is to stimulate and aggregate exemplars under a single brand. The more coherent the featured projects and initiatives, the better they will serve to accelerate climate resilience, promote research and education, and strengthen community. rexBoston requires strong branding in order to ensure that its vision of district-level resilience is understandable and inviting to all. By collating projects and initiatives under one larger brand, the reach, accessibility, strength and progress of all resiliency plans will be exponentially more visible to residents, visitors, and potential partners, inspiring the possibilities and innovations of Boston’s collective future and community. rexBoston’s branding will focus on promoting resiliency on several levels: rexBoston Resilience exemplified, a permanent demonstration of civic climate action through innovative design, technology and community. The umbrella and platform for all projects, partnerships, initiatives, and overall progressions in resilience. rexBoston exemplars Sites to explore, initiatives to experience, living-learning experiments, each and all exemplifying civic climate action.

Source: Resilient Boston

9


rexBoston partnership A development corporation providing assistance and development services to drive civic climate action through public-private investment; also responsible for the selection, branding, presentation and publication of rexBoston exemplars and events. rexBoston institute An affiliated research organization focused on education, training, and academic partnerships. rexBoston honor awards Public recognition for exceptional demonstrations of civic climate action excellence.

Leveraging Private Investment

A close precedent for rexBoston, the 2013 international building exposition IBA

rexBoston would also increase revenues from visitors coming from outside the region. rexBoston would spur the creation of construction and permanent jobs and encourage job training for enterprises advanced by the resiliency movement, including clean energy.

CHAPTER 01 KEY TAKEAWAYS ① rexBoston is “resiliency exemplified” – an ongoing demonstration of civic climate action through design, technology and community – at once an exposition, experience, experiment and exploration with resilience as its unifying focus. ② rexBoston aims to drive planning into action – in support of the City’s recent planning initiatives including Climate Ready Boston, Go Boston, Resilient Boston, and Imagine Boston 2030. ③ rexBoston builds on the City’s reputation as the #1 green city in America, its reputation for innovation, and its tradition of landworks and infrastructure.

Driving Planning Into Action: rexBoston

10

Hamburg in Germany, leveraged four private dollars for every single public dollar invested. rexBoston would have similar aspirations for economic leverage. Additionally, rexBoston would sponsor a 100 percent “Buy Local” campaign, similar to stimulus provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment act of 2009. Studies show that every dollar kept in the state generates four additional dollars.

④ rexBoston is focused on climate justice as a key aspect of resiliency. ⑤ rexBoston will rely on branding and economic leverage to spur city-wide exemplars and drive innovation.

Source: Climate Ready Boston


COOL

CLEAN

CONNECT

CONSTRUCT

CONVERSE

PROPOSED TRACKS rexBoston is a framework for a climate-

resilient city. It will be a showcase of innovation, where visitors will be able to envision what real city life might look like in the future world of climate change. Equally innovative is rexBoston’s commitment to social resilience as well as climate resilience. The scope of rexBoston was developed after analysis of the threats to the city’s resilience and how we can solve them. In its simplest form, rexBoston is a consideration of these five issues: urban heat, obstacles to mobility, energy use, flooding risks, and community engagement. The following “tracks” serve as an organizational method for categorizing projects in a way that the general public can easily understand and see parallels and crossovers between them.

Cool

Focus Issue The projects in this track help to mitigate the urban heat island effect. Cities experience a much greater degree of temperature rise than rural areas due to increased development and density, lack of green space and abundance of pavement, and local industrial and transit activities. Heat islands tend to trap heat at night, even as temperatures in neighboring areas decrease. Heat islands tend to trap heat at night – though the mean annual temperature in an urban area is typically up to 5⁰F higher than in its rural neighbors, the difference can be up to 22⁰F on cloudless nights. In a heat wave, with three or more very hot days over 90⁰F in a row, the heat is especially dangerous when it does not break at night.

02 In addition, overall temperatures are rising. Climate Ready Boston research shows an increase in the number of very hot days (high temperatures over 90⁰F) from the current average of 11 days annually to as many as 90 by the end of the century – almost the entire summer. Very hot days increase the strain on electrical infrastructure to provide for cooling: EPA research shows that every degree of temperature rise is met with a 1.5-2 percent increase in energy demand2. As temperatures rise and the number of annual hot days increases, cities are at a greater risk of experiencing power failures and rolling blackouts. Children, the elderly, those with chronic illness, and the homeless are the most vulnerable populations to heat-related illness and mortality. People living in poverty are

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Proposed Tracks

Harbor Baths in Copenhagen, Denmark. Source: Naotake Murayama on Flickr)

Boston Public Garden. Source: Kevin Zolkiewicz on Flickr

less likely to have adequate cooling systems in their homes, which increases their risk of injury during a heat wave.

Resilient Solutions rexBoston envisions a city that can respond to rising temperatures and an increase in hot days in ways that are accessible, equitable, and sustainable. General retrofits and improvements such as reflective roofing, cross-ventilation, and window shading can help reduce the temperature of individual buildings. Green space and cool pavements trap less heat than traditional pavements and can lead to an overall reduction in urban heat.

12 3

City of Boston. 2017. GoBoston 2030, pg. 36.

A building can be designed for passive regulation: heating and cooling without the use of climate control systems. Passive systems decrease energy loads and lower the risk of blackouts. In the case of power failure, a passive building can maintain a comfortable temperature, while a traditional building may become uncomfortably hot. Community cooling centers – public buildings that open their doors as shelters during heat waves – can provide a place of refuge for those without access to air conditioning. Fountains and spray areas, pools, and water features in parks are all equitable ways to help people stay cool. Potential projects: harbor baths, passive living buildings, new urban green space

Connect

Focus Issue The projects in this track focus on movement in the City of Boston and facilitating choice between different modes of transportation. In 2014, 46 percent of Bostonians drove to work3. GoBoston wants to cut that percentage in half by encouraging use of public transit, walking, and biking to work. These modes of transportation should be as attractive or more attractive to commuters than driving in the future. Today’s public transit can be overcrowded and does not reach all residents of the city, particularly in low-income neighborhoods. Buses have


Bike lanes in Canada. Source: Jeff Arsenault on Flickr

Complete street rendering with bus lane. Source: Woodward Complete Streets.

to wait in traffic, which is unpredictable and makes bus schedules unreliable, and commuting by bus can take just as long as driving a private car. It is often inaccessible or cost-prohibitive for some to commute on the T. Without proper infrastructure, riding a bike to work can be dangerous and discouraging to prospective riders. Projects in this track will mitigate traffic and congestion in Boston. The longer people spend waiting in traffic, the more greenhouse gases are emitted. Idling cars also contribute to heat island effects. Facilitating choice between modes of transportation increases equity for all residents while creating a more sustainable, green city.

Resilient Solutions In a resilient city, there should be no barriers to choosing biking, walking, or taking the T over driving to work or school. rexBoston will work within the GoBoston framework to encourage public transportation, and the transition to greener and more complete streets. Alternative forms of transit should be more accessible, equitable, and attractive to commuters. GoBoston promotes an expansion of the MBTA, increasing the Hubway system, and a network of complete streets with designated bike and transit lanes. The percentage of Bostonians who commute by bike doubled in the last ten years to 2.4 percent, and shows further potential for growth. rexBoston will work within the Boston Bikes framework

4

City of Boston. 2017. GoBoston 2030, pg. 44.

and alongside communities to fast track development of bike lanes and mobility networks. Cities experience great economic losses when residents cannot get to work. By the 2070s, 432 miles of road in Boston will be within the floodplain of a five-foot storm surge, as well as large portions of all T lines4. Increasing the resiliency of T stations and the mass transit system will make it easier for people to get to work during flood and snow events or evacuate in the case of severe storm emergencies. Potential projects: pedestrian and complete streets, bike-friendly public transit, resilient subway stations

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Amsterdam Turbines Source: Patona, Wikimedia Commons

Smartflower solar generators turn to follow the sun. Source: Smartflower Energy GmbH

electricity for extended periods of time can be dangerous, particularly to vulnerable populations.

Clean

Proposed Tracks

Focus Issue The projects in this track align with Boston’s plan to reach carbon neutrality by 2050. Commercial energy generation emits more greenhouse gases than transportation and home energy use combined6. By shifting to renewable energy, the city can reduce its carbon emissions while also improving air quality and resiliency. Many energy generation facilities in Boston lie within the future floodplain. If the city is unprepared in the case of a flood, residents may lose power. Blackouts that leave residents without access to food and water, phone service, climate control, and

Resilient Solutions rexBoston will work within the Greenovate Boston framework to reduce emissions by incorporating net-zero buildings and projects with generative potential. Though all buildings in the exposition will be designed sustainable, projects implemented under the Clean rack will demonstrate extraordinary commitment to remain carbon neutral or negative, producing as much or more energy than they use. rexBoston will promote innovations in solar and wind technology and small energy

14 City of Boston. 2013. Community Greenhouse Gas Inventory 2005-2013. City of Boston. 2017. Climate Ready Boston, pg. 67. 7 The BPDA conducted a study with MIT to locate potential microgrid projects. Boston Planning and Development Agency. 2016. Boston Community Energy Study. 5 6

networks such as microgrids and district energy systems. New technology including battery storage and photovoltaic films will be tested and displayed at exposition sites. Retrofits to existing energy generation facilities can increase flood resilience and decrease the risk of blackouts. District energy, microgrids and personal energy systems allow for a building to island from the grid and remain operational in the case of an emergency7. Potential projects: solar retrofits, net zero and net positive buildings, alternative fuel demonstrations, wind and solar farms


Floodable “water square” in Rotterdam, Netherlands. Source: Rotterdam Center for Resilient Delta Cities.

Resilient waterfront park. Source: Hargreaves Associates

areas can help slow and absorb flood waters. Multifunctional green spaces with absorptive or retentive capabilities enhance communities while mitigating flood damage and urban heat. Retention cells release water gradually into the ground or retain it until it can be released into the sewer.

Construct

Focus Issue The projects in this category focus on mitigating and adapting to flooding from sea level rise and cloudburst inundation. In the next few decades, Boston’s coastal areas will see increased flood risk from high tides and storm surges. King tides, which occur several times a year, already overtop the city’s lowest-lying coastal infrastructure. Cloudburst inundation from heavy rainfall overloads sewers, leading to backflow into streets which can exacerbate flooding in inland areas. As sea levels continue to rise and changes in global climate produce more severe storms, the severity and frequency of routine floods will increase.

8

Without adequate preparation for flooding, Boston risks billions of dollars in real estate and economic losses, particularly in areas of rapid development, such as the Seaport Innovation District8. In addition, severe storms and flooding produce long-lasting impacts on socially vulnerable populations. If flood protection is sold as a luxury, residents who cannot afford expensive retrofits will be hit especially hard by severe storms. A comprehensive network of protection is necessary to serve all residents. Resilient Solutions rexBoston will present innovative technology and designs that reduce damage and prevent flooding in coastal buildings. Implementing blue/green infrastructure in vulnerable

South Boston risks $19.5 billion in real estate to flooding by 2070. City of Boston. 2017. Climate Ready: South Boston, pg. 2.

By adapting to sea level rise rather than retreating from it, Boston will continue to thrive as a coastal city. rexBoston projects will showcase the potential for continued growth even in the face of future flooding, and help envision what life in a future resilient city might look like. Potential projects: bioswale parks, floating buildings, floodable ground floors

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Converse

Focus Issue The projects in this track focus on people and the intersection of environmental and social resilience. rexBoston wants to be a complete project that grows from the ground up, featuring involvement and innovation from all over the city. Communities should be involved in the discussion and decisionmaking process to make sure they are appropriately served. rexBoston will be accessible to people of all demographics.

GoBoston engagement surveying. Source: GoBoston 2030

Resilient Solutions rexBoston will host and sponsor events and learning opportunities for building community and engaging with residents. Localized charrettes and forums give residents a voice and create a connected and socially resilient city. Multilingual communications and programming, opportunities for people of all ages, and accessibility should be prioritized in order for these projects to have the widest impact.

Proposed Tracks

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Climate change disproportionately affects marginalized communities, but is often not met with adequate concern, and development often leads to displacement of low-income residents. rexBoston should work closely with community organizers to involve these neighborhoods through accessible outreach and new programs customized by communities to meet their needs.

A resilient city should ensure that all neighborhoods are protected and no one Berkeley Community Garden. Source: Tobias Wolf (Edible Urbanism)

has to travel far from home for access to shelters, transportation, food, and essentials. Climate justice for all residents ensures that projects do not displace residents from their communities, and provide equal opportunity and protection for all residents. rexBoston will partner with community organizations to create community leadership around issues of resiliency and climate justice and provide contacts and networks of aid, opportunity and assistance to vulnerable populations. Potential projects multilingual neighborhood forums, community events for all ages, retrofit funding programs

CHAPTER 02 KEY TAKEAWAYS ①rexBoston will be presented in easy-to-understand tracks that focus on five resiliency issues. ⑥ These tracks unite projects around the city into one brand of resiliency for people to visit and experience. ③ Within each track, there are opportunities for different types of projects and solutions.


CITY ZONE MAPS & EXPERIENCE rexBoston’s focus is on city-wide

adaptation, and will locate sites and events in all neighborhoods. As a showcase, intended to attract attention to resilience, it will need a central area of sites that are easy to access in a single visit. The Inner Zone demonstrates the local scale of the projects, and also shows enhanced transportation routes that will ease travel from site to site. Though the following maps are separated into an Inner and Outer Zone, rexBoston wants to ensure that the inner harbor is not a focus area. rexBoston’s phased-out structure will ensure that the design process can be shaped by ongoing community feedback and engagement throughout all stages of development, creating projects that are accessible and fully considerate of everyone

affected. It allows time for regulatory adaptations to take effect, which will facilitate resilient implementation in the later phases. Phase One, to begin in 2020, will be a showcase of existing exemplars. Boston is already home to a wealth of projects and sites with sustainable and resilient features, and rexBoston wants to leverage its strengths to create an interest in resiliency. Phase Two, slated for 2025, will focus on independent projects that at the beginning of rexBoston will have been in planning. Assistance from rexBoston and its partners can ensure that these projects go forward with resilience in mind. Phase Three, by 2030, will showcase a broader, district-wide approach to resilience.

03 It will encompass all of the projects from previous phases to demonstrate neighborhood-scale protection, as well as introducing newly branded projects created under the guidance of rexBoston. All projects on the following maps are expected to change before any phases are finalized. The following are only examples of the resilient and sustainable development underway in Boston. By the first phase of the expo, more projects will exist and different projects will be in planning. As such, this document only presents a visualization of an idea. The current iteration of the maps should suggest the idea of completeness and district-wide implementation, with the takeaway being number and concentration of projects and a general citywide dispersion.

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Inner Zone RESILIENT WATERFRONT MAP 31

19 12

29

11

CHARLESTOWN

5

6

1

15

9 EAST BOSTON

25

16

7

21

29

13 8

26 NORTH END

24

29

6 10

3 14 30

27 3

28

22

DOWNTOWN

33

17

34 6

2 23

4

4

A LIVING SHOWCASE OF RESILIENT DESIGN, TECHNOLOGY & COMMUNITY

18 32

Phase 1 (Existing)

20

Phase 2 (Planned) SOUTH BOSTON WATERFRONT

29

Phase 3 (Proposed) Base map data from MASSGIS datalayers


COOL mitigating extreme heat with green spaces and water features

CLEAN promoting carbon neutrality with renewable energy

CONNECT

CONSTRUCT

CONVERSE

transitioning to greener transport and linking communities

adapting to increased flooding and living with water

opening paths for dialogue and increasing climate justice

1

Bremen Street Park

7

Logan Clean Fuel Bus

13

East Boston Greenway

19

Spaulding Rehab Hospital

29

Climate Ready Boston

2

Dewey Square Pilot Garden

8

North End Energy Microgrid

14

Connect Historic Boston

20

General Electric Headquarters

30

Greenovate Boston

3

Greenway Fountains

9

Wind Tree Energy Park

15

Central Square Park

21

Clippership Wharf

31

E. Boston Library Expansion

4

Atlantic Wharf Green Roof

10

Tidal Energy Harvesting

16

Charlestown Pedestrian Bridge

22

Aquarium Retrofit

32

S. Boston Transport Plan

23

South Station Retrofit

24

Porzio Park Retention

25

Charles River Community Park

33

Inner Harbor Initiatives

26

East Boston Greenway Cap

27

Columbus Park Retention

28

Boston Harbor Floating Village

34

Resilient Zoning

5

6

Parking Lot Tree Canopy

Harbor Baths

11

12

Rooftop Solar Plant

Net Positive Neighborhood

17

18

Inner Harbor Ferry Expansion

Congress Compete Street


Outer Zone RESILIENT BOSTON MAP 36 9

18

INNER ZONE

38

24 34 42

2

2

41

3

2 7

39

25 2

11 2

44

2

28

22

22

10 17

27 20 6

16

37

2

32

14

40

35

31 22

33

8

23 2 22

2

12

21 43

30 2

4

13

26

5

29

2 A LIVING SHOWCASE OF RESILIENT DESIGN, TECHNOLOGY & AND COMMUNITY

2 2 15

2

19

Phase 1 Existing Phase 2 Planned Phase 3 Proposed Base map data from MASSGIS datalayers


COOL mitigating heat island effect and responding to rising temperatures

1

2

WGBH Sustainable Roof

Spray Parks, Decks, Fountains

3

Raymond V Mellone Park

4

Residential Green Roofs

5

Multi-Use Recreational Park

6

Roof Sprinkler Cooling System

7

8

White Roofs

Sustainable Urban Farms

CLEAN reducing greenhouse emissions and striving for carbon neutrality

9

Wind Tech Testing Center

CONNECT

CONVERSE

transitioning to greener transport and linking communities

adapting to increased flooding and living with water

opening paths for dialogue and increasing climate justice

19

29

Pope John Paul II Park

39

Fenway Sustainability

30

Washington Irving School

31

Suffolk Downs

32

Outer Harbor Barrier

40

DOT Ave Community Planning

33

Inner Harbor Barrier

41

Emergency Protocol Committee

34

Charles River Dam Retrofit

35

Widett Circle Resilient Redesign

42

Sustainability Workshops

43

Homeowner Resilience Edu

44

rexBoston Response Board

Neponset River Greenway

10

Umass Boston Solar Roof

20

Southwest Corridor Park

11

888 Boylston

21

Boston Bikes

22

Small Complete Streets

12

CONSTRUCT

Deer Island Wastewater Plant

23

S Bay Harbor Trail/Melnea Cass

13

Renewable Energy Microgrid

14

Castle Island Substation

24

Rutherford Ave to Sullivan Sq

15

Readville Energy Plant

25

Comm. Ave Complete Street

16

Outer Barrier Wind Farm

26

Fairmount Greenway

17

Tidal Harvest Farm

37

18

Autoport Solar Farm

38 27

Columbia Rd Complete Street

28

Dorchester St Complete Street

36

Charlestown Resilient Park

Moakley Park Resilient Redesign E Boston Living Shoreline


Existing and Planned Exemplars

Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital

Source: Urban Land Institute

Source: www.aiachicago.org Location Charlestown Phase Completed Spring 2013 Architect Perkins + Will Owner Partners Health Care Established where the Little Mystic Channel meets the Inner Boston Harbor on old Boston Navy Yard, Spaulding’s waterfront location is vulnerable to the effects of climate change, especially coastal flooding. The proximity to the harbor is valuable for a hospital that specializes in spinal cord injuries because interaction with water and outdoors is a key part of their rehab program. With rising sea levels Spaulding had to be designed to protect against flood damage while maintaining access to the water.

City Zone Maps & Experience

Clippership Wharf

Hurricane Katrina occurred during Spaulding’s design, providing a horrifying precedent of major flooding and its effects on crucial infrastructure like hospitals. In response to this, Spaulding’s design team raised the building 30 inches above the 500-year flood level, acknowledging that rising sea levels will change flood predictions.1 There are large berms of granite and a substantial drainage network to prevent floodwaters from reaching the building. The first floor is also designed to minimize flood damage, and important equipment was put on the roof to maintain operations during a storm. It is capable of sheltering-in-place, so that in the event of a flood, patients do not need to evacuate. Spaulding is also designed to be highly energy efficient and emit significantly less carbon than most hospitals. The combination of a co-generative combined heat and power system, high-performance glass with exterior shading, expansive natural daylighting, and a green roof, reduce the buildings need for energy, cutting its energy use intensity to about half of the average American hospital.2 Spaulding is one of the most resilient hospitals in the country, and it is an excellent model for the rest of Boston, especially in terms of coastal flood resilience.

22 1,2

Resilient Design Institute

Location East Boston Phase Opening Fall 2018 Architect The Architectural Team Owner Lendlease This mixed-use development is under construction on a 12-acre underutilized waterfront site in East Boston. Located next to Maverick Square, the complex will include four buildings with 478 residential units, and 30,200 square feet of retail, dining, and public space. It is a three-minute train ride from Downtown Boston, with access to bike storage, ride sharing cars, and water taxi service. Clippership Wharf’s most impressive feature is its “living shoreline,” an interactive waterfront that both engages the community and protects from floodwaters. It includes a harbor walk, kayak launch, floating docks, and public parks that are integrated with tide pools, salt marshes, and an old concrete seawall acting as a buffer zone for rising tides. On top of that, the buildings are raised about 9 feet above the ground and 24 feet above Boston City Base to account for coastal flooding. This project is a great example of coastal resilience, and the “living shoreline” is an approach that could be utilized in Boston’s many waterfront communities. Designing for climate change in a publicly accessible and engaging way is exactly what Boston needs; a way to protect our city while getting the community involved and informed. Clippership Wharf is striving for a minimum of LEED Gold; it will host solar panels on 50 percent of its roof space, and have a high performance building envelope, lighting, and HVAC systems. Under rexBoston, there would be an emphasis on renewable energy and commitment to eliminating emissions. rexBoston will push new construction to employ clean energy sources to achieve Boston’s goal of becoming carbon neutral.


General Electric Headquarters

Boston Area Hospitals Source: www.aiachicago.org

Source: The Boston Globe Location Fort Point Phase 1st Phase Completed Early 2018 Architect Gensler Owner General Electric GE’s new 390,000 square foot headquarters, dubbed the “Innovation Point,” will be built within one of Boston’s most vulnerable floodplains, the Fort Point channel neighborhood of South Boston. To accommodate for this, all ground floors will be elevated four and a half feet. This includes the two existing warehouse buildings, which will be renovated from the second floor up, leaving the first floor floodable. In addition, all critical electrical and mechanical systems will be built on the roof. The new building also boasts several resilient features that will make it LEED Version 4 compliant. The most prominent feature is its “solar veil,” a façade of solar panels that also provides exterior shading. The facade will also have the capability to capture rainwater for reuse within the building. It will have high-efficiency heating, cooling, and lighting systems, green roofs, and limited parking to encourage public transportation, walking, and biking for the daily commutes of the general electric employees working within.

Location City-Wide Phase Projected Completion 2025 Architect Various Owner Various Boston Area Hospitals partnered with Health Care Without Harm to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Between 2011 and 2015, they lowered emissions by 29 percent, with another 4 percent projected by 2020. This is the equivalent of taking 42,220 cars off the road for a year. These reductions came from significant investment in renewable energy, including hydropower, wind turbine, and solar energy farms. The goal is to be net carbon positive by 2025. Boston hospitals total 22 million square feet, the equivalent of over 18 Prudential Buildings. They are leaders in carbon neutrality, proving that large-scale buildings can still function normally and be profitable while being green. For example, Boston Medical Center saves $8 million a year with its efficient systems. Some hospitals invest this saved money into resilient power systems to withstand harsh conditions, maintaining service to patients during extreme storm events.

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MWRA, Wastewater Treatment Plant, Deer Island Source: Inframanage

by on-site, renewable generation. It produces enough energy on-site to power over 1,000 homes annually. Deer Island employs several forms of self-generative, renewable energy throughout its campus, including wind turbines, solar panels, bio-generated steam turbines and hydro turbines. In total, Deer Island’s renewable self-generated energy systems save the MWRA $15 million in fuel oil costs and $2.8 million in electricity costs.

Renewable Energy Generated Hydro 32%

Location Deer Island Phase Opened 1995, regular updates Owner Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) Located on Deer Island, a peninsula off the town of Winthrop, the facility is the second largest wastewater treatment plant in the country, and services 43 communities in greater Boston, treating an average of 365 gallons of wastewater every day. Deer Island is one of the biggest users of electricity in the Northeast, at 18 MW per year. That is the equivalent of powering 2,000 homes for a year. Despite this, it currently self-generates 26 percent of its electricity needs and more than 50 percent of the facility’s energy demand is provided

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Source: greenroofs.com

City Zone Maps & Experience

Fenway Park

Heat

Solar 12% Steam 47%

Percentage Renewable

26%

100%

Electricity

Wind 9% >50%

Total Energy

Fenway Park is one of the most sustainable stadiums in Major League Baseball, and they are a great precedent for other sports teams and entertainment venues around Boston to be carbon conscious. It is the oldest professional baseball park in the country, yet the Red Sox were the first team to install solar thermal panels on the roof of their stadium. Energy from these solar panels replaces 37 percent of gas used to heat water throughout the park, saving eighteen tons of CO2 annually. Fenway also holds a carbon neutral game every year on Earth Day, using renewable energy from solar farms and hydro facilities in the region. Fenway also emphasizes public transportation and biking as the greenest and most convenient ways to get to the park, with a free bike valet for visitors to have a safe place to leave them during the game. They hired a “green team” to install and manage recycling bins throughout the park, and replaced all concourse and ramp lights with LEDs.

Location Fenway Phase Completed Owner Boston Red Sox

In addition to working towards carbon neutrality, the stadium opened a rooftop garden in 2015 named “Fenway Farms.” It is a 5,000 square foot garden that annually harvests 4,000 lbs of produce that is used in food products sold in the EMC Club. The green roof also helps with thermal performance because it replaced an underutilized black rubber membrane roof, and it absorbs stormwater that would otherwise run off. A key component of Fenway’s sustainability is that it is used to educate local youth on the importance of caring for the environment through tours and classes. It is an accessible way for kids to understand sustainability when it is in the context of their favorite sports team.


Massport Source: Massport Location State-Wide Phase Ongoing Architect Various Owner Massport The Massachusetts Port Authority runs several ports across the state, the largest being Boston Logan Airport. They have been a pioneer in exploring how to make transportation networks more sustainable, with annual sustainability management plans to track progress. Their approach is broken down into smaller initiatives: air quality, climate change adaptation and resilience, renewable energy, sustainability management, sustainable transportation, water quality, and environmental management policy.

MassDOT Source: The Boston Globe Location State-Wide Phase Ongoing Owner MassDOT

Massport prioritizes clean air for the environment and for public health, and have had programs in place since 1999 to keep the air as clean as possible. Their Alternative Fuel Vehicle Program converted all ground service equipment and fleet vehicles to either compressed natural gas or electricity. These efforts helped lower nitrogen dioxide emissions at Logan by 28 percent since 1999. Logan has also worked to make flights more efficient by increasing the number of passengers on each plane, and reducing the number of flights per day. Their current goal is to cut emissions 40 percent below 2012 levels by 2020. In addition to clean transportation, Massport has installed a total of 916 kW of renewable wind and solar power at Logan and Hanscom airports, which is the equivalent of powering 162 homes for a year. Many of these projects are pilots to study potential expansion. Other sustainable features include Terminal A, the first LEED-certified airline terminal in the world, a runway paved with with “warm-mix� asphalt that reduces environmental impact, and rainwater harvesting. In terms of climate resiliency, Logan has invested in short term flood protection such as custom flood-proof doors and water level sensors. They have long term plans to move all critical equipment away from potential floodwaters, and to upgrade emergency power and communication systems to withstand the climate. Massport sets an example for environmentally aware large-scale infrastructure.

The Massachusetts Department of Transportation has taken on several environmental projects with the goal of becoming more reliable, cost effective, and resilient through preparing for climate change. Initiatives in environmental stewardship include expanding the hybrid, electric, and biodiesel vehicles in its maintenance fleet. Construction and material innovation utilizes warm mix asphalt and recycled tires to reduce energy required to build and repair roads. In terms of flood resilience, there is significant focus on the Central Artery Tunnel, with extensive modeling, simulations, and research to determine the threats posed due to sea level rise and extreme storms. The Highway Right-of-Way Project is a plan to install at least 6 MW of solar PV generation along underutilized stand land next to highways. 6 MW of solar panels can renewably generate 7.8 million kW hours of electricity per year, which could power 1,285 homes. This would eliminate 6.8 million pounds of carbon emissions annually. 2.5 MW have been installed at five sites in Framingham, Natick, and Plymouth, with 1.8 MW under construction, and 3.5 MW more in planning. Renewable energy infrastructure is a productive use of underutilized land. The Highway Right-of-Way project sets an example for other sites deemed unsafe, such as along highways, railroads, and brownfields tp be used efficiently. MassDOT is an example of state-wide leadership in resilience and sustainability.

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Branding

rexBoston should have a cohesive brand that can be presented over a broad range of applications. This should include all communications put out by rexBoston and co-branding partners, including emails and paper communication and a compelling social media presence. The brand will have to be readable on location as well, on site signage and events and as part of citywide advertising. It can also be used on merchandise sold at informational centers or given out to participants on tours.

A thorough brand will exemplify an awareness of the climate, expose an understanding of and commitment for the scope of the project, and provide the necessary connections for all parts of a community, all while conveying hope for the city’s future. It links together the disparate concepts into a cohesive district wide fabric. rexBoston’s branding will be memorable, so that it may engage the whole community, spur action, and be a credible source of information for Boston’s climate plan.

Exposure is also part of a good brand—the proper outlets, sources and proponents of rexBoston must be identified in order to successfully advertise to the community and potential partners. The brand needs to be unique so that people understand its difference. A salient branding strategy will be welcoming and unimposing, and should stress the idea that Boston’s resilience plan will be community-driven and engaging.

Symbols Explored for Development of rexBoston Branding

Key Words: action, humble, proactive, fluid, dynamic, moving, community, home, education

NEIGHBORHOOD Diversity, Community KNOT

BOND

CIRCLE

GATHER

MIXED

MIXED

SHELTER

COMMUNICATE

FIRE

FIRE PIT

PATH

CITY HUB

WATERFRONT

PUZZLE

WEB

CONNECTIVITY Greenlinks, Transportation INTERSECTION

HUB

NETWORK

CONVERGE

START/END

OPEN SPACE Trees, Parks, Gathering

City Zone Maps & Experience

CIRCLE

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OPENING

DOOR

FRAME

GRASS

OPEN/CLOSED

LEAF

CLOSED ENERGY LOOPS Zero Waste, Clean Energy, CO2 Reduction, Efficiency CYCLE

FLOW

CONNECT

SYMBIOSIS

SKYLINE

MOBIUS

MORPH

GRADIENT

CIRCLES

CLIMATE Rising Tides, Superstorms, Cloudburst Innundation, Rising Temperatures, Heat Islands WATER DROP

FLAME

THERMOMETER

FLOOD

RISE

RAIN

HEAT SIGNATURE

WAVES

BALANCE

YIN-YANG

REFRACT

RESILIENCE Recovery, Emergency, Stability, Flexibility WAVES

RIPPLE

BOUNCE

STORM

SUN

DROP ON LEAF

SPRING

REFLECTION

DROP

CLOUDS


rexBoston will be an experience that makes resilient thinking accessible, exciting, and enjoyable by all. Boston draws approximately 25 million visitors every year, which presents opportunities to promote issues of climate and social resiliency. It will evolve the image and legacy of the city as a beacon of resilience and an innovation destination for rest of the world. rexBoston plans to facilitate exploration, ensure visitor comfort, and enhance understanding of resilience for both visitors and residents.

Visitor Experience

Information Center rexBoston will feature a resilient information center to provide resources that will shape the way that visitors interact with projects. It will be designed to be a gathering point for visitors and a launching point for tours, housing the greater site map, interactive exhibits, offices for rexBoston staff, and event space. In later phases, a resiliency district will take shape around the information center, showing visitors a small sample of what life could look like in a resilient city. By the final phase, the district will have become a populated urban center. The information center will sit at the heart of this district and direct visitors through the area, with signage explaining the regulations, research, and adaptations that went into the process, and how it could be replicable in other neighborhoods throughout the city.

Mobile Application The official rexBoston app will put the experience into the visitors’ hands. Acting as a paperless guide, it will be a customizable collection of maps, informational pages, and audio guides for self touring. Projects will be tagged by track and by defining attributes, allowing users to filter through them in either list or map form, tailoring experiences to individual interests. Users will be able to select specific sites to visit, that the app will generate into an optimized GPS route. A calendar of events from rexBoston and its partners will be available, with an option to develop events into a personalized schedule. The app also allows users to access full informational web pages simply by scanning a QR code located at each site, which will prompt the user to select an audio tour or written transcription, along with site photos, phase plans, and available data about the project. Technical white papers can be accessed from within the app or online. rexBoston is encouraging full integration with social media. Sites will have Snapchat geofilters, instagram tags, and twitter handles so that users can share their visits and experiences. Checking-in and posting photos will be encouraged, as user photos would be displayed on the rexBoston website and at the information center. Not only does checking-in on social media create interest within networks, but it also provides important interest data that will prioritize development of popular projects. Potential App Interface

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neighborhood, or custom tours of their own preference with the app, allowing visitors to see projects at their own pace. rexBoston staff will also provide guided tours including walking site tours, neighborhood biking tours, or bus tours of larger areas. Tours will take place at various stages of design and construction, and can be tailored to the needs of interested groups. Construction tours showcasing the design process would be available to interested parties such as architects and construction companies.

City Zone Maps & Experience

Source: Lily Huang on Flickr

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Sites The strength of rexBoston is in its breadth and diversity of projects citywide. Travel between projects will be accessible and efficient. As part of the Connect track, all sites will be integrated with public transit, Hubway stations, and bike lanes. Project sites will be denoted with signs explaining their resilient features. Detailed descriptions in tour books or online will present potential activities and opportunities at each site, complete with phasing information and site photos. Tours Touring rexBoston will be accessible to all and have public and professional appeal. rexBoston aims to present an equitable experience by creating ways to enjoy customizable guided or self-led tours. Visitors can choose to tour rexBoston by track,

As rexBoston develops through its phases, a resiliency trail similar to Boston’s historic Freedom Trail can be created amongst them, allowing casual visitors the opportunity to see many types of projects in a short amount of time without prior planning. Though not all rexBoston projects could be located on a single tour route, a trail through certain neighborhoods would illustrate the importance of district-wide implementation.

Children & Family

rexBoston will be accessible to all ages. Children will grow up with rexBoston, interacting with it throughout its phases. rexBoston recognizes the importance of resilience education for children; and will work with local schools to integrate climate change and resiliency into the curriculum. Schools can use rexBoston as an opportunity for learning outside the classroom, and will be encouraged to participate in competitions and projects to inspire students to tackle these issues from an early age.

Resident Opportunity & Benefits

rexBoston’s projects will be designed to improve quality of life as well as resilience. They will prevent negative impacts and will hire from within the city for site workers, tour guides, and leadership roles. rexBoston will create jobs and provide training in sustainability-related fields, increasing social resiliency. rexBoston will encourage local interest by incorporating education initiatives into the planning process. It will prioritize low-impact implementation, ensuring development does not disrupt daily life. Residents will interact with projects in their neighborhoods, benefit from improved transportation, and participate in related events. It will make living in Boston overall more attractive, exciting, and equitable.

CHAPTER 03 KEY TAKEAWAYS ① rexBoston is citywide, open to visitors and residents of all neighborhoods. ② rexBoston needs a cohesive brand to promote awareness and understanding. ③ Visitors will experience rexBoston as a customizable, engaging attraction. ④ rexBoston will promote resilience while improving overall quality of life.


HAMBURG & OTHER CASE STUDIES IBA Hamburg 2013

rexBoston is largely based off a successful German tradition: the International Building Exhibition (IBA). For over 100 years, various iterations of the IBA have experimented in a changing society, through an exhibition format. A focus on permanent buildings and infrastructure insured lasting benefits to the community. The island of Wilhelmsburg in Hamburg posed great opportunity because of damages caused by flooding in 1962. The IBA Hamburg sought to patch this community through its cultural sensitivity and action. The IBA Hamburg left a positive legacy for the local community, with an ultimate goal of benefitting Wilhelmsburg. While physical improvements are the most apparent, there

04

was also benefit educationally, both for locals and visitors. Information available online and onsite provided more details in pamphlets, papers, and information boards. Even after the official end of the events connected to the IBA, the area still acts as an attraction for visitors and locals. Renovations benefitted the community, and new public programs and parks help demonstrate the look and feel of a sustainable community. rexBoston can use similar strategies, but further enhance the learning opportunities of projects. Post occupancy studies and statistics can evaluate the effectiveness and success of projects. Scientific knowledge and projections will improve and the context will shift with culture. These and other factors can continue to inform spaces and usage. The symbol of the IBA, a man leaping over the river Elbe from the city center to the area of Wilhelmsburg.

Images by the authors if not otherwise noted

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An Inclusive Laboratory

An international building exhibition can be a testing ground for many new concepts in building technologies, systems, and ways of living. In addition to projects dispersed throughout the community, a central location in Wilhelmsburg became a sustainable district featuring various experimental projects like the Soft Haus, Smart is Green house, and the headquarters of the State Ministry of Urban Development and Environment.

An interactive map inside the IBA Dock Source: IBA Hamburg

The State Ministry for Urban Development and Environment.

This process moved discussions out of the theoretical realm and instead sought to implement solutions and find out how people would actually interact in these urban spaces. Shifting focus to the physical buildings and infrastructure provided experiences to people, an essential step in climate and social resiliency.

Hamburg & Other Case Studies

Aerial view of the resilient district in Central Wilhelmsburg Source: IBA Hamburg

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A low impact tram provided transportation around the expo. Source: IBA Hamburg

The IBA Dock was the hub for events and information on the process of each project. Source: www.area-arch.it


Themes

IBA Hamburg contains over 70 projects (mostly buildings, but some research and planning exists) throughout Wilhelmsburg. The projects fit in three categories: Cities and Climate Change responded to unfavorable topography and the belief that cities both cause climate change and contain the most victims; Metrozones dealt with the in-between spaces as opportunities for integration of working and living; and Cosmopolis focused on diversity as a strength. Additionally, the value of knowledge, culture, and globalization were leveraged to create high quality urban districts. The projects examine benefits to the local culture and quality of life, while also promoting experimentation.

Map of projects published by the IBA for the presentation year. Source: IBA Hamburg

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The Framework

Two managing directors led the process while a Participation Council of residents and politicians brought in public input. A Board of Directors provided oversight and a Board of Trustees brought in experts. The interdisciplinary approach captured the diverse opinions and cultures present in an urban environment.

The Georg-Wilhelm-Courtyards is an affordable, familyoriented live/work complex. Source: german-architects

The Soft Haus experiments with flexible solar panels.

The Energy Bunker: a WWII flak tower converted into a district energy plant.

Smart is Green experiments with vegetation and photovoltaic panels.

Hamburg & Other Case Studies

In 2008, a series of competitions produced ideas and a master plan. The implementation and construction phase began in 2009, and in 2010 the IBA celebrated an interim presentation year. Events, exhibitions, and tours drew in 240,000 visitors. 2013 was the final presentation year, bringing 420,000 visitors to the area.

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The Water Houses demonstrate how water locations can be used as residential areas.


History of the Exposition

While rexBoston primarily modifies the IBA model, there is also a rich history of World Expositions. Both have a legacy of innovation through science, art, and technology, attracting visitors and sparking new ideas. Additionally, an exhibition or exposition can spur more excitement and energy than traditional development, focusing a city’s attention towards a collective vision and date.

A Brief Timeline of Expos

1851 The Great Exhibition London The first international exhibition of manufactured products, hosted in the newly constructed Crystal Palace in Hyde Park

1876 The Philadelphia Centennial Featured Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone

1960 the EPCOT Orlando An Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow imagined by Walt Disney and intended to be a permanent world’s fair

1957 IBA Stalinhalle Berlin Germany East Berlin responded to the Interbau of West Berlin by creating the “first socialist street”

1962 Man in the Space Age Seattle Showcased how science impacted everyday life

2000 Expo Hannover Germany Pavilions considered environmental and social impact/re-use with themes of the future of labor, the environment, and health & nutrition

Source: BIE website and IBA website

Both the IBA and the World Exposition renew the urban fabric through exploration of design and architecture based on the time and context. The concentrated explorations get adapted and implemented in other places as visitors bring ideas home and other cities see how the innovations have benefited the original city.

The traditional World Exposition model only lasts for a set time frame. While some monuments remain in place, such as the Eiffel Tower from the 1889 Paris Expo, the buildings and initiatives which make up the exposition typically only exist temporarily. This approach spreads new ideas to visitors, but does not have as many benefits to the local population, and was not resilient past the length of the exposition.

1889 Paris Expo France Celebrated the French Revolution and explored the use of iron, resulting in the Eiffel Tower

1957 IBA Iterbau Berlin Germany Produced a collection of residential buildings within parks

2008 Expo Zaragoza Spain Relied on solar and wind power

1893 World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago Henry Ford saw the internal combustion engine

1901 IBA Darmstadt Mathildenhohe The first International Building Exhibition, established a practice of initiating growth and development

1939 1927 Building the World of IBA Weissenhof Tomorrow, New York City Colony Stuttgart The President of the Architects such as Le United States appeared Corbusier, Water Gropius, on television for the and Mies Van der Rohe first time explored how modern and industrial homes would look and feel

2010 IBA Furst-Puckler-Region Germany Old coal mines were filled with water to create a lake district

2010 IBA Saxony-Anhalt Germany Renewal spread out across an entire state

1904 The Louisiana Purchase, St. Louis International pavilions replicated monuments from their country of origin

1915 The Panama Canal, San Fransisco Celebrated rebuilding after the 1906 earthquake

2015 Expo Milan Italy Based around sustainable food

2017 Expo Astana Kazakhstan Focused on the future of energy

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A Boston Expo

The typology of an international building exhibition offers various benefits to an existing community while drawing attention and knowledge from abroad. An expo allows people of all ages and cultures to explore the topic of resiliency. The explicit focus on climate, society, and innovation directs the design process towards more effective and equitable solutions. Experiences within these projects can help uncover what it feels like to stand on a floating building or bike through a bioretention park. Giving tangible evidence of the reason for resiliency may help people

Sharing Our City

see that all architecture and urbanism can be centered around life, providing benefit to society, individuals, and ecology.

While physical examples of resiliency can draw global travelers, rexBoston can also encourage local civic engagement. An expo would not only boost the outward appearance of Boston, but would also shift the inward realities of the city.

rexBoston will combine the strength of both models to celebrate globalization and the intercultural world. Intelligent phasing will draw regional and international visitors to temporary experiences which showcase what the future of our cities can look like, and permanent additions can enhance local communities. The combination will establish a model of optimistic and equitable progress in climate and social resilience.

22.9

2014 Domestic Trips to Boston Freedom Trail Red Sox 2013 International Trips New England Aquarium

Hamburg & Other Case Studies

Museum of Science Museum of Fine Arts

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Celtics Bruins Patriots

Students enjoying the Freedom Trail Source: thefreedomtrail.org

4.0

2.1 2.9

1.4

.53 .72 .76 1.2 1.4

.34

Revolution

Attendance in millions. 2016 if not otherwise noted.

Domestic Trips and International Trips from 2014 Annual Report by Massachusettes Office of Travel and Tourism Attendance of Boston museums from: https://www.bostonusa.com/media/statistics-reports/ Attendance statistics of sports teams from ESPN

Exhibitions and other events have the distinct quality of connecting various groups towards a collective vision. This moment of focus encourages involvement from those not typically interested or able to be involved in the longer process of design and construction. For these reasons, milestone events through phases can draw visitors to the city. Connections between Boston and the world, like those through the United States Climate Alliance and the Sister Cities program, and collaborations such as MIT Media Lab and HafenCity University, can be utilized to promote cultural exchange. National and global partnerships can help build bridges amongst communities, encouraging communications and tourism. Boston’s historic cultural significance already draws visitors to the city, so linking projects to well-known areas can increase the visitation and impact. Projects should also seek to benefit the communities in Boston; The success will ultimately be measured by how well projects function in everyday life, responding to the current needs of the city as well as providing public benefit.


.65

2.5

3.2 1

.51

1.7 .6

2013 Hamburg

.55

2.5

1851 London

Expos do more than showcase new designs and concepts. The events draw visitors from around the globe to see the achievements, and encourage the interaction and exchange of ideas and culture. Boston will become a hub of sustainable and resilient practices, drawing people in to participate in a larger discussion. While traditional expos draw in visitors during a limited schedule, Boston will continue to be a destination for designers and innovators, as the projects will become permanent additions and adaptations to the fabric of the city.

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1962 Seattle

will monitor progress of the implementation strategies, allowing designers, both local and global, to learn and improve through these feedback loops to push resiliency further.

9

18.1

1915 San Francisco 2000 Hannover

In order to evaluate the resilient impact of rexBoston as well as the typology of an international building exhibition, post occupancy evaluations and performance data will be important for rexBoston. These tools

18.8

2015 Milan

21.5

Boston Approximate Annual Visitation

Transparency will maintain the link amongst Bostonians created in the participatory planning processes, maintaining the trust and involvement garnered in the initial steps of rexBoston. All of these principles ensure Bostonians have a right to their city. Information will be made accessible through various media forms. Experiences should bridge all aspects of the design process: pre-planning and design, construction, and completed projects. Visitors will be able to see the benefits of an inclusive approach.

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1889 Paris

32.2

visitors (in millions) approximate city population during exhibition year (in millions)

Expo visitor statistics from BIE

NE Aquarium Touch Tank. Source: S. Cheng

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Hamburg & Other Case Studies

HafenCity, Hamburg

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Similarities to Boston: The South Boston Waterfront was also an industrial area which has been redeveloped in recent years. However, Boston has not adopted the stringent sustainability goals of Hamburg. rexBoston can utilize the positive growth trends in the city while advocating for strategies to increase climate and social resiliency.

South Boston Waterfront 0.62 square miles area 5.5 miles waterfront paths 17.8 million ft2 new GFA 16 projects completed 24 projects underway 6,636 new residential units 42,000 projected employees 12,000 projected residents

Hafencity 0.9 square miles area 6.5 miles waterfront paths 24.9 million ft2 new GFA 62 projects completed 70 projects underway 6,500-7,000 new residential units 45,000 projected employees 13,000 projected residents

Founded 1863 (orig. Sandtorhafen) Population 2016 3,275 Municipal Area 0.9 square miles

GFA, Projects, Residential Source: BPDA (since 2000) Projections Source: 2013 census data times growth trends of employment and population from IB 2030 for a 2030 date

Source: HafenCity Hamburg (since 2000) Projections upon completion of all existing projects

During roughly the same timeline as the IBA Hamburg 2013, a parallel but distinct process was occurring accross the river Elbe: the renewal of HafenCity. The historic industrial port became underutilized with the construction of a port across the Elbe to accommodate new shipping methods. After several years of studies and planning, a masterplan was approved on 2000, setting down guiding principles for development.

With generous public space on the first floor, the raised grades of streets and paths prevent flooding while giving public access to the waterfront.

While not an IBA or expo, the plans considered a district-wide approach, rather than focusing on just a few exemplary buildings. the framework required flood protection, public space, programmatic variety, and other principles. The example shows what proper zoning and optimistic vision can do to transform an industrial space into a vibrant urban area.

residence office road

food shop

path

raised level flood protection

path Historic warehouses preserved by moving uses out of lower floors along the canal.

The Unilever Headquarters

Marco Polo Plaza.


Copenhagen, Denmark Source: worldarchitecture.org Founded 1167 Population 2016 763,908 Municipal Area 33.36 square miles Boston, for comparison: Founded 1630 Population 2017 687,584 Municipal Area 89.63 square miles Copenhagen is a low-lying port city and the capital and cultural center of Denmark. It is comparable in siting and population to Boston, and has also experienced massive amounts of infilling since its foundation. Both cities are located on oceanic waterfronts, and are made up of separated land masses connected by bridges and fill. Both cities will also have to face the effects of sea level rise and climate change to their newly developed shorelines in the near future. Development has taken a sharp upward turn since the beginning of the 21st century. The population is now growing at a rate of 1,000 residents per month. Extensive housing and infrastructure improvements are being undertaken, particularly around the waterfront. Previously industrial sites are being transformed into new mixed-use neighborhoods, changing the city named København or “merchant’s harbor” from a place of industry and commerce to a place of life. Even as the city develops, Copenhagen continues to be one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world. It has the world’s highest modal share of bicyclists at 42 percent

(compare to Boston’s 2 percent bicycle share). Bicycle and pedestrian streets, paths, and bridges connect all areas of the city with multimodal transit. Copenhagen’s bicycle strategy takes an all-or-nothing approach, building on the belief that a single disadvantage will deter residents from cycling. Its focus on completeness and reliability across all modes of transit has led to a city where car owners are a minority, and drivers represent the smallest share of commuters. Cloudburst inundation poses an immediate threat to the city. Copenhagen has experienced two 1,000-year storms since 2010, causing widespread flooding. Like Boston, Copenhagen’s sewer systems are undersized for storms of this magnitude and back up in the case of heavy rainfall, sending water back into the streets. Copenhagen released a cloudburst adaptation plan in 2016, reinforcing its commitment to implementing adaptive infrastructure.

What the Danes are doing:

Sankt Annæ Plads (Saint Ann’s Square) Once an ordinary city street, the square was transformed into a pilot project for stormwater retention. Street parking was removed in order to develop a park that serves as a basin to retain and reinfiltrate stormwater. Slanting the pavement down towards the center causes water to flow away from buildings and into the green street. Klimakvarter (Climate District) The masterplan for this innovative neighborhood resiliency experiment was adopted by the city to be implemented in Østerbro in the next few years. It creates green streets with retentive plazas to connect and protect residential community while invigorating a previously underserved area.

Middelgrunden offshore wind farm.

Inderhavnsbroen (Inner Harbor Bridge) Opened in 2016, this innovative new drawbridge combines bicycle and pedestrian lanes to promote safety and ease of access for human-powered transit. Separated inbound and outbound lanes prevent collisions. When in operation, the “kissing bridge” splits down the middle and the two kissing sides slide back towards the land, exposing the sailing channel in between. Middelgrunden (Middle Ground) A 20-turbine offshore wind farm in the Øresund channel that separates Sweden and Denmark, supplying 40 MW, or 4 percent of Copenhagen’s power. It is community energy, with 10,000 investors owning 50 percent of the project. The country gets 60 percent of its electricity and 29 percent of its total energy from renewables, with a goal to increase to 85 percent by 2050. Tåsinge Plads (Taasinge Square) Water is the primary attraction in this square, in a residential neighborhood in Østerbro. The “water gardens”, designed to fill with water in the case of heavy rain, show off flood-hardy plants. The square is populated with water-themed activities, including shelters shaped like umbrellas and seating shaped like water droplets. Human-powered fountains nestle into the pavers, pumping up sprays of the collected water when pedaled. Islands Brygge (Iceland’s Quay) The location of the famous harbor baths, this waterfront oasis became a community gem when it was redeveloped with a boardwalk swimming area and a harborfront park. It provides free community cooling and a safe place to swim, as well as a flood adapted harbor walk lined with shops, restaurants, and water-based activities.

Taasinge Square. Source: worldarchitecture.org

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Rotterdam, Netherlands Benthemplein. Source: De Urbanstein

Hamburg & Other Case Studies

Founded 1340 Population 2017 633,471 Municipal Area 125.79 square miles

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Rotterdam is a delta city, built at the meeting point of the Meuse and Rhine rivers and the North Sea. It is the Netherlands’ second largest city, and Europe’s largest port. Its location at the mouth of two rivers makes it comparable to Boston, as well as nearly equal in size and population. Both cities have also been shaped by infilling, land which is now at risk of flooding from sea level rise. Formerly an industrial shipping harbor, the inner port of Rotterdam is redeveloping into a hub of design, culture, and climate innovation. The new port, built on fill in the North Sea, has left large areas of former shipping yard prime for development. The waterfront is now experiencing rapid development, creating an architectural boom as the city rushes to keep up. World-renowned for architecture since the 1980s, much of this recent growth will be at risk as global sea levels rise. 80 percent of Rotterdam lies below sea level. For centuries, the Netherlands have relied on canals, dams, and dikes to hold back the river and sea. In the coming century, Rotterdam will adapt these familiar methods to the increased pace of change. Their new plan involves creating safe, adapted spaces to let the water in, with new canals, water-dependent parks, and riverbank engineering. The city plans to use these traditional Dutch water management practices to deal with sea level rise, while the Maeslantkering, Rotterdam’s massive harbor barrier, protects the city from catastrophic storm surges.

Of the threats posed by climate change, flooding from sea level rise is by far the most pressing. Rotterdam will also experience cloudburst inundation from increased rainfall, more frequent droughts, and saltwater intrusion into the freshwater river, harming the fresh drinking water. In 2016, the city released Resilient Rotterdam, which includes reports, initiatives, specific projects and goals. Their plan is to develop adaptive, evolving infrastructure, to transform the city over time from business as usual to fully resilient city. Their strategy is to begin by implementing “no complaints” solutions right away, such as parks and green roofs, while slowly working resilient design into city planning over the coming decades. Rotterdam’s goals for the future are ambitious: total climate resilience by 2025. The plan also details Rotterdam’s other goals of diversity, social resiliency, connectivity, technological growth, and clean energy.

What the Dutch are doing:

ROAD (Rotterdam Capture and Storage Demonstration Project) One of the first of its kind in the world, Rotterdam’s plan for CO2 recapture is ambitious. The comprehensive system will take in CO2 from a Rotterdam energy plant and store it under the North Sea, in a depleted natural gas reservoir. Additional CO2 is used in local greenhouses. Benthemplein (Water Square) Now globally popular, the floodable water square was developed as Rotterdam’s answer to cloudburst inundation. Plazas, parks, and sporting courts during dry weather, these squares are designed to fill with water during heavy rainfall. Some feature water-dependent uses such as fountains and splash gardens.

Museumpark. Source: Water & Wastewater International

Museumpark Rotterdam Water Storage Stationed beneath an underground parking garage is a stormwater storage facility with a capacity of 2.6 million gallons. Buildings with a double purpose are common in the densely developed city, but a facility of this scale is unprecedented in the Netherlands. The facility was built to take in excess water from canals before it spills into the streets and can hold enough stormwater to fill four Olympic swimming pools. Roofscape Rotterdam has embarked on a recent initiative to incorporate as many sustainable roofs as possible. Rotterdam’s roofs come in four colors: green, blue, red, and yellow. These four roof types represent opportunity in a dense city. Green roofs are vegetated for cooling. Blue roofs represent water-capture potential. Red roofs can be used for leisure and recreation. Yellow roofs have the potential to house solar or wind energy. Maeslantkering (Maeslant Barrier) Rotterdam built a barrier across its harbor to withstand storm surge from a .01 percent chance storm. Its deployment is computerized, automatically closing if a predicted storm surge exceeds 3 meters. It is backed up with generators to ensure that it will remain operational in a storm. The barrier, which is one of the world’s largest moving objects, is expected to close every 5 years by the midcentury as severe storms increase. It is tested every year to ensure that it can both close and open, as floodwaters can become trapped on either side during a severe storm. Drijvend Paviljoen (Floating Pavilion) This unique event space floats atop the river like three bubbles. The pavilion rises and falls with the tides. It serves also as a precedent for many other floating buildings in planning.

Drijvend Paviljoen. Source: pbs.twimg.com


Seoul, South Korea Seoul Museum of Art. Source: inhabitat.com

Founded 18 BC (orig. Wiryeseong) Population 2017 10,197,604 Municipal Area 233.7 square miles The Cheonggyecheon restoration project revitalized a former stream that for decades had been covered by an overpass, including an 18-lane highway. Through public investment by the city government of Seoul, this 6-mile long waterway was uncapped and the urban environment significantly enhanced, bringing new life to the downtown. Real estate values along the linear green space and water park increased by 30 percent to 70 percent. This project unleashed the city’s development potential and was critical for creating a new future for the heart of Seoul. The Cheonggyecheon restoration project catalyzed the redevelopment of Seoul’s inner city areas. It also gave momentum to transportation reform. For its wide impacts and enduring success, this project can serve as a model for cities around the world. The project emanated from planning initiatives including the Downtown Development Plan (2004), Seoul Master Plan 2020 (2004), and Urban Renaissance Master Plan (2007). By the 1960’s, the Cheonggyecheon stream had become ill-suited to the needs of Seoul’s population of 2.4 million. Seriously polluted and prone to flooding, the stream which had long served industrial purposes was in serious need of reinvention. Today, the recreated Cheonggyecheon stream serves the current population which has swollen to 10 million while responding to increased climate challenges.

There were many project challenges. Initially, removal of the 18-lane elevated highway that stood over the Cheonggyecheon stream did not seem feasible. Yet the area suffered from massive traffic volumes and high levels of congestion. Seoul’s key sewage and drainage facility for flood prevention was also located under the stream. When it rained, rainwater was discharged to the Han River. Area businesses resisted any project which would cause substantial disruption. For a number of years in the early 2000s, the project seemed like an impossible dream. Finally, it was discovered that major corrosion in the highway’s steel frame construction, as well as structural flaws in its upper plate, would cost substantial sums for continuing maintenance and repair work. In addition, the load-carrying capacity of worn-out concrete beams was found to be insufficient to handle increasing traffic. Public opinion over what should be done was peaked during the city elections of 2002, when a new visionary mayor was elected to office. The restoration plans were prepared with exceptional speed. They included specific measures to restore the Cheonggyecheon’s natural environment and create a more humane public space. The scope include improvements to restore and landscape the stream, secure water resources, treat sewage, handle traffic, construct bridges, restore historical assets, and manage public relations. The fast-moving planning process overlapped with construction phases. Construction work started in July 1, 2003, and the total construction cost was the equivalent

Cheonggyecheon. Source: cityclock.org

of $345 million (U.S.) The project schedule needed to coincide with the mayor’s four-year term of office. The most powerful opposition to the restoration concerned transportation planning. Business owners objected to removal of the highway. In response, the city government created circular-route buses, increased parking fees to discourage traffic, put a strict stop to illegal parking, and introduced reversible and one-way lanes to address citizen concerns. The city then enhanced the capacity of its bus and subway system. After the project was complete, the share of private cars in the downtown traffic volume decreased from 21 percent to 15 percent, and the share of public transit, walking and biking increased. The most dramatic impact of the Cheonggyecheon stream restoration was the increased real estate valued and various new developments in the surrounding downtown area. Land prices increased by 15 percent. Rents increased by 30 percent. Real estate values increased by as much as 70 percent. Land use changes favored commercial and business uses. Pedestrian volume increased markedly. A total of 163 million have visited the area. The Cheonggyecheon stream is now popular with tourists. Restoration of the stream shifted the city’s economy toward financial and professional services. It has also promoted the city’s resilience by upgrading rainwater detention and conveyance. This ambitious vision for a people-oriented, sustainable urban environment was accomplished in just three years.

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New York City Source: OneNYC

Hamburg & Other Case Studies

Founded 1624 Population 2016 8,537,673 Municipal Area 304.6 square miles

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On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy hit New York City, causing widespread damage from flooding, wind, fire, and power outages. The storm caused 53 deaths and $32 billion in damage and losses. Sandy coincided with the city’s maximum high spring tide, causing a 14 foot storm surge that flooded buildings and transportation throughout the city. Being a Northeastern coastal city, Boston is not so different from New York, and Sandy could have just as easily had the same effects on Boston if it had hit during high tide. Boston is unprepared just as New York was. We need to learn from New York’s regrowth, and work with the same urgency so that we are ready for a similar event instead of rebuilding from one. New York released their resiliency plan, OneNYC, in April 2015. It addressed many of the same concerns in Boston including growth, equity, sustainability, and resiliency. With the recent release of Boston’s resiliency plan Resilient Boston, we can look to New York and hold ourselves to the same standard. Since the release of OneNYC, yearly follow up reports detail their progress and goals. While many of the solutions proposed are still being envisioned, many resilient projects have been completed, and the city has launched a comprehensive website and map showing each project’s location and status. Boston can learn from these progress reports as a way to keep the community involved and informed. Also, we can

learn from the actual types of projects and initiatives New York is working on to build a more resilient city. As part of their sustainability vision, they are aiming to install one gigawatt of solar panels on sites across the city by 2030, and so far they have installed over 100 megawatts. They have designed or constructed over 3,800 green infrastructure projects since 2011, and planted over a million trees. New York has successfully expanded bike sharing and installed 18.5 miles of protected bike lanes. They have successfully cleaned up 577 brownfield lots and constructed 3,600 affordable housing units on them, with plans to double the amount of housing. The city currently has several dozen coastal resilience projects at various stages of completion. These include two waterfront parks with large scale protective green and gray infrastructure.

Armored Levee. Source: OneNYC

What New York is doing:

The Armored Levee on the East Shore of Staten Island will protect a 4-mile long strip of waterfront with a buried seawall and levee. It will provide open space and access to the waterfront, and is designed to provide a 300-year level protection. Construction is expected to begin in 2019. The East Side Coastal Resiliency Project will protect 2.4-miles along the water with a floodable public park. It will protect over 100,000 residents in the area from flooding. Construction is expected to begin in 2019. Green Building Programs includes the NYC Carbon Challenge, Retrofit Accelorator and Community Retrofit programs, which are an ongoing initiatives to reduce carbon emissions by converting buildings to cleaner fuels, improve energy efficiency, and conserve water usage. So far they have assisted more than 7,000 buildings, reducing over 300,000 metric tons of CO2. Community Parks Initiative NYC Parks has begun construction on 28 community park projects, with 21 more in design phases. Several will open in 2017, providing more community open space, while reducing heat island effect. NYC Facilities Explorer This online, publicly accessible tool informs the community about the city’s resiliency progress. It has up-to-date information about specific accomplishments and progress concerning the OneNYC report, and interactive maps showing location, phase, and status. It is a great way of tracking the city’s accountability relevant to resiliency.

East Side Coastal Resiliency Project. Source: OneNYC

CHAPTER 04 KEY TAKEAWAYS ① rexBoston takes inspiration from the green building exposition IBA Hamburg. ② Expositions have showcased innovation for hundreds of years. ③ Expositions benefit communities and connect people of many ages and cultures. ④ Resilient cities and examples of district-wide resiliency planning exist around the world. Other cities are working towards resiliency both proactively and reactively.


PARTNERSHIP OF MANY rexBoston is a project by Boston, for

own commitments to resiliency. Being a rexBoston partner will be a badge of honor and a sign of dedication to environmental and social resilience.

Boston. It aims to reach people in all communities with its commitment to transparency, equity, and accessibility. Successful city planning is the product of collaboration and innovation from many. rexBoston will be the uniting factor for a diverse population of people and organizations to work towards a more environmentally and socially resilient city. Partnerships will provide additional visitor demographics, outreach, inspiration, and programming. In return, partner organizations will offer ideas for projects, gain exposure for their cause, and obtain a wealth of resources and connections to aid in their own endeavors. Having rexBoston partners will not only provide support and programming, but also help solidify other organization’s

05 Government

rexBoston will fit within the context of the city’s other planning initiatives: Imagine Boston 2030, GoBoston, Boston Bikes, Greenovate, and Climate Ready Boston. It is not intended to replace any of the work that is currently happening, but build resiliency into the projects already identified, making room for additional development within the framework of these reports. rexBoston also seeks the support of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. This backing will raise Boston up as a beacon of innovation, and will set a worldwide Volunteers with Southie Trees. Source: New England Grassroots Environment Fund

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precedent for coastal resiliency. Results from the city lab in Boston can be replicated in other coastal cities and towns throughout the state. Proposed projects and improvements to existing infrastructure rely on the involvement of the state government, such as the MBTA, Massport, and DOER. Boston’s neighbors are directly impacted by the same issues, and should also be considered partners in rexBoston’s events. rexBoston wants to involve Cambridge, Chelsea, Quincy, Everett, Winthrop, Brookline, and other neighboring and coastal municipalities in the process.

Partnerships

In recent years, the city has undertaken a number of major initiatives designed to increase equity and resiliency in the city. rexBoston’s goal is not to single-handedly craft and implement a resilience plan for the city - it is simply a collective branding and promotion strategy, as well as a method for community outreach and engagement. Through collaboration with these other initiatives and organizations, rexBoston can become a project that is fully considered and connected with city planning at all scales.

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mapping software and the associated studies created by the Trust for Public Land for guidance with identifying areas of concern.

rexBoston gains access to broad networks of communication, research, expertise, and funding.

Organizations

Local organizations: Boston is made up of 23 unique, vibrant neighborhoods, each with its own environmental and social concerns and goals. Local community organizations and green action teams are already at work throughout the city to inspire neighborhoodscale conversation and action around issues of climate, justice, and sustainability. rexBoston will harness the power of these local groups to ensure that all communities are engaged in the process of creating a resilient city that is equitable, accessible, and considerate of all needs.

rexBoston will partner with non-profit organizations to expand the scope of all parties’ work. Partnering with organizations focused on social and environmental issues will create opportunities to introduce new perspectives, and will help to create a more comprehensive idea of resilience. Organizations that partner with rexBoston can use this platform to extend the reach of their own programming by incorporating their events and initiatives. By partnering with organizations, many of which have large local constituent groups,

Locally, state-wide, and nationally, governments are increasingly considering climate resilience in their planning efforts. These efforts were instrumental in shaping the idea of rexBoston, and presenting a multivalent approach to resilience that Boston can use to guide future development. In particular, rexBoston commends the GIS Citizens rally outside the State House in support of solar energy. Source: Boston Climate Action Network


Institutions

Science and art institutions attract millions of visitors annually. Attractions like the Aquarium and the Museum of Science bring in children of all ages, from all around the state, the nation and the world. By introducing rexBoston programming and exhibitions within these institutions, the expo can expand its reach to residents and tourists alike. Institutional partners can provide spaces to host events and special exhibitions, and support rexBoston programming by co-branding at satellite exhibits around the city. In becoming a rexBoston partner, institutions solidify their commitment to resiliency.

Research Groups

rexBoston encourages interdisciplinary thinking and consideration of programs of resiliency and environmental justice throughout all fields. There should be opportunities for researchers and people of all ages and walks of life to pursue projects. Engineering & Design rexBoston will solicit innovative engineering and design ideas through RFPs, charrettes, and competitions. Designed solutions will merge the arts and sciences to create buildings and spaces that lead to resilient communities and enhanced neighborhoods. Opportunities include creating experimental building typologies and materials, pilot projects, and exploring alternate forms of energy generation.

Environment & Ecology rexBoston is an ideal venue to undertake any kind of environmental research project. Researchers will have the unique opportunity to have their work shape project decisions, and a focus on innovation will provide opportunities for labs testing new building typologies and materials to showcase their groundbreaking work. Social Sciences rexBoston provides opportunities for people interested in climate justice and social resilience to conduct studies on specific communities over a period of years with assistance from community organizers, as improvements are planned and developed. Business & Economy Researchers in business and economics can study the economic effects of the expo, including the benefits of projected increases in tourism, changes to rents and insurance rates as a result of adjusted flood risk, and issues of environmental justice, displacement, and community development.

Biology students at Northeastern conduct fishery research in Nahant. Source: Northeastern University

Law & Policy As rexBoston’s goal is to showcase new ideas, there will be a need to create legal protection for expo innovations, including a patent policy. Legal and policy researchers can analyze and study these public policy changes and recommend courses of action. rexBoston is also advocating for changes to regulatory development laws, including zoning codes, which would need research to be adjusted. Scientists present new sustainable materials at the PopTech Ecomaterials Innovation Lab. Source: John Santerre (Flickr)

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Academe

Boston is a major hub for educational institutions from kindergarten to postgraduate. If rexBoston partners with these institutions, educational experiences will be shaped and enhanced by new programming. Field trips and study tours to rexBoston sites can be incorporated into a new climate curriculum based on learning by experience. rexBoston will provide a unique opportunity for students to be directly involved in research, development, design, and implementation of the many projects. It creates a platform for activities, special studies, charrettes and competitions, showcases of student work, outreach and volunteer opportunities, internships, and employment. University partners can use the exposition as a living laboratory, engaging students in research and development of solutions to real-world problems.

Fellowships Fundraising and corporate partnership can fund the creation of rexBoston fellowships. rexBoston will provide compensation for universities to hire students with a focus on resilience to author the expo’s publications and provide research and support. It will include compounding and routinely publishing data from rexBoston and keeping with the expo’s goal of transparency and equity throughout its lifespan.

Corporations

Corporate partnership will play an important role in the financing of projects. rexBoston can offer partner corporations opportunities for advertising and sponsorship. Individual projects within the expo may be sponsored privately upon finalization. Corporations interested in providing funding can discuss co-branding or sponsorship opportunities. Corporations, particularly land owners,

can provide space for pilot projects and programming. rexBoston urges developers and building and land owners to consider partnership, particularly those with coastal properties or properties in a floodplain. Corporations that partner with rexBoston will be cementing their commitment to resiliency and environmental sustainability.

Economic Growth

It is essential to shape the economic model to benefit the city and its people. The elements of consideration would include development, job opportunities, and capital flow. Investment opportunities will gain the attention of companies both local and global. While global partnerships are beneficial, it is important to maintain a local economy and not rely too heavily on global investments.

CHAPTER 05 KEY TAKEAWAYS ① rexBoston will be made possible through partnership with the city and a wide variety of groups and organizations. ② Partners will provide projects, funding sources, and vehicles of outreach for rexBoston.

Partnerships

③ rexBoston will provide opportunities for interdisciplinary research.

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Students presenting energy research at an MIT Energy Night. Source: MIT Energy Club

④ rexBoston will spur economic growth in the city. Boston students march. Source: Peter Bowden (Flickr)


BUSINESS PLAN Over a period of a dozen years, rexBoston will amass and invest an opportunity fund of approximately $150 million. rexBoston professional services of approximately $2 million annually and project subsidies of approximately $8 million annually will seek to leverage ten times this amount or $100 million in private investment annually in pursuit of effective climate solutions that engender growth, forestall losses and inspire others to follow. Whereas Climate Ready Boston estimates $137 million of annualized losses due to severely damaging floods by 2030, rexBoston aims to catalyze nearly this level of pro-active investment annually before 2030. With annual milestones and a phased exposition culminating in 2030, rexBoston will simultaneously:

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Serve as an accelerator by providing financial and development assistance to qualifying rexBoston projects based on a competitive selection process;

expedient – drive innovation, leverage investment and showcase resilience. Its ends are conveyed by the hashtags “#rexthriving,” “#400more years.

Create a world stage by producing a branded, city-wide, international resiliency exposition which showcases rexBoston projects through an immersive urban experience and digital “app”;

Overview

Build a playbook for resilient development – by compiling design, construction and operational details for all rexBoston projects in a robust database that can be readily shared and studied.

rexBoston will encourage, fund and support exemplary projects through a competitive selection process. Projects may be located on property that is publicly owned, privately owned, or controlled through public-private partnership. Projects may be existing, under construction or planned. To solicit projects, rexBoston will identify potential project sites and issue Requests for Proposals (RFP’s) with selection criteria that prioritize:

The promise of rexBoston is suggested by its name, “rex,” which is short for “resiliency exemplified.” Its means are direct and

Resiliency solutions, net zero and advanced high-performance buildings, integrated delivery by developer-designer-contractor,

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teams, economic development including, construction and permanent job growth, community co-benefits, commitment to supporting public education and academic research. It is anticipated that ten projects will be selected each year. Over a dozen years, a total of 130 projects will extend across all 23 neighborhoods. Ideally, each will be located in a different neighborhood and all five tracks will be represented by at least one project. With this approach, each phase of the threephase international resiliency exposition will feature an increasing number of projects:

rexBoston projects will be selected by the 60-member Advisory Board comprised of hands-on industry experts in advanced highperformance buildings, clean energy, coastal resiliency, climate-adapted open space, low-carbon transportation and blue-green infrastructure. Projects are envisioned in five tracks or categories: Cool – mitigating heat island effect Clean – promoting clean energy

2020 – Phase 1 30 initial projects, some of which may be under design or construction

Connect – advancing low carbon transportation

2025 – Phase 2 50 new projects, 80 total

Construct – resilient structures including infrastructure and buildings

2030 – Phase 3 50 new projects, 130 total Selected projects will receive financial assistance in the form of a grant as well as a range of development and consultation services aimed at expediting planning, design and implementation. Services will be adapted to the needs of each project and may include: State and local permitting assistance, including creative regulatory approaches; grant research, writing and administration; tax credit approvals (historic, brownfields, new markets); planning including market research and trend analysis; environmental assessment and remediation; technical support; project management; construction

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management; real estate sales and leasing; small business assistance (SBA 504 loan program).

Converse – strengthening community and culture The process of qualifying rexBoston projects will entail five steps: Step 1 Working closely with the City, rexBoston staff will amass a database of prospective projects and encourage potential project proponents to respond to Requests for Proposal (RFP). Step 2 rexBoston staff will tabulate and summarize RFP responses, ranking them for review by the Advisory Board.

Step 3 The Advisory Board will evaluate the ranking of the RFP responses and conduct interviews, thereafter voting to recommend to the Steering Committee a slate of rexBoston projects together with levels of funding and proposed development services. Step 4 The Steering Committee will review the recommendations of the Advisory Board, and by majority vote, consider the recommendations as a slate and either ratify the Advisory Board’s recommendations or suggest adjustments, fully distributing the available capital funding each year. Funded projects may be in planning, design or under construction. Step 5 Proponents of designated rexBoston projects will have 30 days to execute a service/licensing agreement with rexBoston staff. In the unlikely event that agreements are not reached, funds will be redeployed to projects on the waiting list. For most projects, rexBoston will provide permitting assistance to expedite review and approvals, working closely with city, state and federal regulators. For many projects, rexBoston will also offer development advice with the aim of encouraging technical innovation, design creativity, integrated solutions, and community co-benefits. In certain instances, rexBoston may provide temporary oversight and control of parcels designated for resiliency improvements, particularly those that are publically-owned


and in need of infrastructure investment to optimize their development potential. In these instances, rexBoston may serve as a fiduciary for the City and proponent and conduit for public and philanthropic funding aimed at leveraging maximum private investment for carbon mitigation and climate adaptation. The goal will be to leverage private investment equal to at least 50 percent of total project cost. Examples from HafenCity in Hamburg, Germany suggest that it may be possible to sell improved Cityowned parcels for nearly the full cost of the improvements, replenishing the City’s coffers and leveraging close to 100 percent private investment.

International Exposition

rexBoston will organize and sponsor a three-phased exposition for the years 2020, 2025 and 2030. The last phase coincides with the City’s 400th anniversary as well as the Imagine Boston 2030 planning horizon. Leading up to each opening, rexBoston will establish and promote brand identity for all projects, existing and planned, from physical signage and events to publications and social media. rexBoston will ensure that the brand extends to all neighborhoods and is accessible in multiple languages, fostering inclusivity among residents and engagement by international visitors and researchers.

Research Database

rexBoston will maintain a database of potential sites and project information.

Initially, rexBoston will analyze a robust inventory of GIS-based information about City-owned parcels, other publicallyowned parcels and abutting parcels. As resiliency projects are completed, rexBoston will compile project information in a standardized format, linking project images, project narratives, and technical information.

Governance

rexBoston is envisioned as a publiclysupported, privately-sustained, membershipbased, non-profit development corporation dedicated to a public mission – accelerating carbon mitigation, climate adaptation and climate justice throughout Boston in support of the City’s Climate Ready Boston, Go Boston, Resilient Boston, and Imagine Boston 2030 initiatives. rexBoston is unique:

Memoranda of Understanding

rexBoston will work in close cooperation and consultation with the City, State and Green Ribbon Commission, guided by Memoranda of Understanding (MOU’s), while maintaining its status as a non-profit corporation with its own governance. rexBoston will build on the City’s, State’s and Green Ribbon Commission’s on-going planning and benchmarking initiatives and seek to convert them into action.

Steering Committee

Unlike a typical community development corporation focused on transforming just one locale, rexBoston will promote gamechanging ideas and projects in each and every one of Boston’s 23 neighborhoods.

rexBoston will be governed by a 30-member Steering Committee comprised of public, private and non-profit leaders appointed for a three-year term. Term limits shall be staggered such that each year, one-third or 10 of the Steering Committee members will be up for re-election. Staff will propose a slate of Steering Committee members. Dues-paying members will ratify the slate at the annual meeting. The Steering Committee will meet monthly. Initially, the rexBoston Steering Committee may be the Green Ribbon Commission, in whole or in part, with additional or substitute seats designated for appointed representatives of various organizations.

And unlike a typical advocacy organization, rexBoston will sell licensing fees to participants in exchange for the rights to organize a three-phase international exposition, collect data and disseminate research.

The Steering Committee will be responsible for principally two activities – fundraising and disposing of funds. In the first instance, the Steering Committee will cultivate philanthropic grants and corporate donations as applied for by the rexBoston staff. In the

Unlike a typical philanthropic organization, rexBoston will channel both capital and development advisory services to spur inspiring and instructive exemplars.

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second instance, the Steering Committee will ratify the award of financial and technical assistance to rexBoston projects as recommended by the rexBoston Advisory Board. Steering Committee members must demonstrate proven fundraising capabilities and prospective donor relationships as this will be vital to rexBoston’s ability to subsidize projects.

Advisory Board

rexBoston will be served by a 60-member Advisory Board comprised of industry experts in advanced high-performance buildings, clean energy, coastal resiliency, climate-adapted open space, low-carbon transportation, blue-green infrastructure and real estate, as well as Climate Ready Boston Leaders and other neighborhood leaders active in community development, each appointed for a six-year term. Term limits shall be staggered such that every other year, one-third or 20 of the Advisory Board members will be up for re-election. The Advisory Board will meet at least twice annually. The Advisory Board shall be elected by the Steering Committee. Initially, the rexBoston Advisory Board may be the Climate Ready Boston Leaders with representatives from CREW, NAIOP, and Urban Land Institute, in whole or in part, with additional or substitute seats designated for appointed representatives of various neighborhoods, agencies and organizations.

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The Advisory Board will be responsible for principally two activities in consultation with the rexBoston staff – cultivating potential rexBoston proposals and presenting to the Steering Committee an annual slate of recommended rexBoston projects together with proposed financial and technical assistance for each project. From time to time, rexBoston staff may ask certain Advisory Board members to review draft Requests for Proposals (RFP’s), assist in the evaluation of RFP responses, and attend meetings of the Steering Committee.

Operations & Finance Staff & Overhead Expenses On a day-to-basis, rexBoston will be administered by a dozen staff – half specializing in real estate and project implementation, half specializing in communications and public education. The Chief Executive Officer will be selected for a 12-year commitment through 2030, when the third and final phase of the rexBoston exposition opens. Certain professional services such as grant writing, regulatory relief and energy modeling may be outsourced, for which an annual budget of $500,000 is allocated. Total personnel expenses (salaries and fringe benefits) are budgeted at $1.5 million annually. Additional temporary staff may be needed during exposition years. The rexBoston organization will require typical office fit-up and overhead expenses.

An office space of 3,000 to 5,000 square feet at a rental rate of $30 to $50 per square foot is anticipated, with annual rent of $150,000. The space should be studio-like with open space for working collaboratively over largescale maps and drawings. Other operating expenses include utilities, cleaning, recycling, legal (corporate documents, service contracts), insurance (general business), security (alarm), computer leases, software licenses, computer service contract, and supplies. A one-time expense of $300,000 is budgeted for office-fit-up. Total annual expenses covering personnel and overhead are anticipated to be approximately $2.3 million. Membership Dues & Service-Licensing Fees rexBoston is proposed as an organization of city-wide property owners, business owners, individuals and students whose recurring dues help fund operating expenses. Total dues income is projected to be $1.4 million annually. rexBoston members will have voting rights to ratify the Steering Committee in accordance with a slate prepared by rexBoston staff. Members will also receive an invitation to the annual meeting, notice of public-private development opportunities, and priority admission to rexBoston events. Annual dues are projected to total $1.4 million. rexBoston will derive additional operating income from service & licensing fees, event sponsorships and event registration fees. rexBoston licensing fees will allow each


competitively selected project to participate in its branded identity program in return for a cooperation agreement obligating each property owner to participate the international resiliency exposition and research activities. rexBoston service fees, earned directly or through sub-contracted third-parties, will cover mutually agreeable development and consultation services aimed at expediting planning, design and implementation of each rexBoston project. Services will be adapted to the needs of each project and may include: Project origination (planning, including market analysis and trend analysis)

Annual Funding of Project Subsidies rexBoston’s projects will funded by a pool of fewer, larger transactions each having a significant direct impact in realizing climate solutions. All contributions – government funding, foundation grants, corporate donations and private philanthropy – will garner the spotlight at rexBoston events. Total grant income is expected to be $8.25 million annually from the following donors: Federal DOE, FEMA State CZM, CEC, MWRA, DOER, Massport Private foundation (lead) 1 Private foundations 3

Project entitlement (state and local permitting assistance, including creative regulatory approaches)

Corporate donors (lead) 5

Project enabling (related facility improvements, environmental assessment and remediation)

Charitable contributors 100

Incentive support (grant research, writing and administration) Technical support (design coordination, project management, construction management) Brokerage fees (property sales and leasing) Branded identity packages (licensed signage, logos, displays) Total annual income from dues and fees is anticipated to be approximately $2.6 million, in balance with personnel and operating costs.

Corporate donors 50 Charitable contributors (lead) 10 Crowd-sourced funding 100,000 rexBoston will promote public education and technical research by performing outreach to academic institutions and educational organization. rexBoston will seek corporate sponsorships to organize an annual conference that highlights development activity, technical innovation and research initiatives. Further, rexBoston will develop and manage a visitor center that demonstrates resiliency and serves to orient visitors to the exposition, provide guided tours and answer inquiries to promote public education and professional research, and manage press communications and academic affiliations.

CHAPTER 07 KEY TAKEAWAYS ① rexBoston is a 12-year initiative culminating in 2030 so as to coordinate with Imagine Boston 2030 and Climate Ready Boston. ② Each year, a total of $8M is awarded to 10 projects each receiving $800k on average. ③ By the opening of Phase 1 in 2020, the exposition will include a total of 30 built projects. ④ By the opening of Phase 2 in 2025, another 50 projects will be completed for a total of 80. 5 By the opening of Phase 3 in 2030, another 50 will be completed for a total of 130, averaging 6 per neighborhood. 6 Annual income of $10.8M, escalated at 2% per year, is derived from grants, service and licensing fees, event fees and membership dues. 7 Annual expenses of $10.5M, escalated at 2% per year, covers $2.3M in personnel and indirect expenses plus $8.25M for projects and events. 8 The net operating income is positive in all but 5 years, the first 2 years and 3 exposition opening years, when it is negative. 9 The running balance is positive for 8 years starting in 2023, with a $1.2M ending balance in 2030. 10 The level of grant support is closely matched to the outlays for projects and events.

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REGULATORY INNOVATION & ADAPTATION rexBoston is planning for the future.

Today’s building codes and regulations are insufficient in the changing world. As sea levels and temperatures rise, the way in which cities grow and develop have to change as well. Boston’s regulatory infrastructure was created under the misconception that climate and sea level would remain constant, but as climate change reshapes the fabric of Boston’s coastline, the building and planning codes that currently exist must progress towards resilient development. With this knowledge, rexBoston will extend its focus on innovation to include necessary changes to building and planning policy.

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Current building codes for floodplain development rely on historical data that assumes future risk from past extreme

Chapter Image Source: Poptech on Flickr

Floating neighborhood in the Netherlands. Source: Richard Tulloch


07 events. However, sea level rise and climate change is occurring at an exponential rate and on such a global scale that it is nearly impossible to predict. Rising tides will dramatically increase flood risks, far past present FEMA estimates that Boston’s current building code considers. rexBoston believes that it should be faster and easier to develop resiliently, and that innovative features should be a benefit to the approval process rather than a hindrance. Any changes to the zoning and approval process will work to update risk requirements, dismantle roadblocks to resilient development, and encourage innovative design. In addition, changes should ensure that development continues in a way that enhances social resiliency as well as climate change to prevent resident

displacement and flooding to nearby properties (for example, a berm that does not redirect the displaced floodwater away from neighboring areas). The proposed changes will not only allow the planned projects to be realized, but will help to make Boston’s continued commitment to resiliency possible for years to come.

Proposed Zoning Changes

rexBoston will encourage new building types and technologies, some of which may not be permitted under current zoning laws. For example, floating buildings are currently only allowed if their use is water-dependent. For rexBoston, floating buildings demonstrate the potential for expanded multi-use development, and demonstrate resilience in their ability to move with the tide.

The current floodplain boundaries defining Article 25 Flood Hazard Districts are based on FEMA estimates for a 100-year-flood from 2008. These are severely outdated, failing to take into account future sea level rise. The state building code also relies on estimates from past data should be updated with the floodplain described in the most recent future projection models. rexBoston recommends that zoning and building codes be updated to use the floodplain identified by Climate Ready Boston, which considers future sea level rise and storm surge, to create the boundaries of Flood Hazard Districts. In addition to considering flood hazard protection, the BPDA should consider instituting Climate Resiliency Districts, in which zoning codes and regulatory processes

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Regulatory Innovation & Adaptation

are altered to encourage district-wide climate protection. These districts should represent above and beyond commitment to resilient design and planning and be used to text resilience innovations. Districts should be delineated based on immediate and longterm flood risk, urban heat concentration, and risk to health and economy. In a Climate Resiliency District, all buildings should be designed to a higher standard of resilience than identified in present building codes. Thousand-year flood predictions or lateterm flood projections should be used to develop requirements for elevation. Development and retrofitting for resilience and sustainability will be expedited, with additional incentives and programs created to encourage developers to exceed the resilience standards defined by the zoning code.

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recommended LEED rating for new buildings could be raised, to promote resilience and sustainability thinking across all building scales. All buildings regardless of size should be required to complete the Climate Change Preparedness and Resiliency Checklist, which should detail all measures taken to ensure protection from extreme heat and flooding. The checklist should be updated to provide solutions, and create new standards for projects to address in order to mitigate impacts to surrounding buildings. Additional measures for resiliency and sustainability could include mandating that large buildings as defined by Article 80 be built with

Article 80 of the zoning code provides additional considerations for large buildings over 50,000 gross square feet, and addresses within it environmental impact and climate resiliency, including a checklist that requires developers to address resiliency to certain climate impacts. Though Article 80 includes considerations for resiliency, rexBoston is encouraging the BPDA to consider changes that promote climate resiliency and mitigate neighborhood-scale impacts of new developments. The minimum square footage required to comply with LEED standards as defined by Article 80 could be decreased to include more projects, or the Source: BPDA

capacity for solar installation or vegetated roofs. The Groundwater Conservation Overlay District regulations from Article 32 should be updated to consider floodwater as stormwater as it applies to retention and recharge requirements. rexBoston also recommends that the BPDA consider applying mandatory on-site drainage and percentage of permeable ground standards to new large projects. Emergency Response Plan rexBoston will also push to include code requirements for emergency response access and shelter potential. Building and zoning


codes should mandate the development of emergency response plans, including at a minimum proximity to places of refuge and shelters with appropriate capacity. In addition, updates could require that any new community centers and public buildings be equipped for shelter potential.

Approval Process

Measures should be implemented to fast-track development and permitting of resilient designs for a more time-efficient approval process. As an incentive for including sustainable and resilient features, resilient buildings be eligible for expedition of this process.

Energy development is also typically held up by regulatory roadblocks. In order to encourage energy system resiliency and continued action towards Boston’s goal of carbon neutrality, regulations should be eased when implementing renewable energy as part of a project, as well as regulations governing microgrids and district energy systems for easier permitting and approval.

Existing Buildings

For existing buildings that may not comply with the updated current building codes, particularly those in the floodplain, rexBoston promotes mandates and incentives to have them retrofitted for resilience. rexBoston will help to develop a

retrofit schedule for buildings in the future floodplain, including residential and lowincome, with the goal to have all buildings climate ready by the mid-term. Proven ways to incentivize retrofits include potential tax abatement programs. rexBoston recommends offering tax cuts for retrofitted buildings, or allowing tax rebates to be given back specifically to pay for retrofit projects to be undertaken within one year. In other waterfront cities, a retrofit on resale program has proved effective in increasing resiliency. Under this program, buyers and owners will be required to create a plan for retrofitting before the building can be legally sold.

CHAPTER 07 KEY TAKEAWAYS ① rexBoston will encourage changes to the zoning and permitting process. ② rexBoston will make recommendations for changes and will form a group to see them through. ③ Approval and other permitting processes should be expedited in order to encourage resilient development.

Source: Poptech on Flickr

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NEXT STEPS The full potential of the vision plan as presented in this report will take at least 12 years to be realized. In order for rexBoston to gain initial traction and build momentum based on early support by various individuals and groups, at least six steps are needed:

1. Gain Strong City Support 2. Constitute a Steering Committee 3. Form an Advisory Board 4. Establish a rexBoston Organization 5. Identify Property Ownership 6. Implement Incentives & Regulatory Reform

54 Chapter Image Source: Peter Hershey on Unsplash

1. Gain Strong City Support

The City has much to gain from the rexBoston idea which advances the landmark Climate Ready Boston and Imagine Boston 2030 studies. The idea builds on Boston’s reputation as the #1 green city in America, its history of innovation, and its tradition of landworks and infrastructure. It enhances Boston as a desirable place to invest, develop and visit, promoting job growth and revenues. It also keeps Boston on the forefront of research and education, creating a living-learning laboratory that will accelerate advances that can lead to ever better climate adaptation solutions.

2. Constitute a Steering Committee A steering committee would represent a broad cross-section of stakeholders committed to driving climate action and

who can shape the evolving vision. It would be similar to the Green Ribbon Commission, if not the committee itself, which represents public and private sectors across a broad spectrum of expertise, experience and interests. The role of the steering committee would be shape the evolving vision, continually adjusting the concept to take advantage of opportunities and overcome obstacles.

3. Form an Advisory Board

If the steering committee might be thought of as the “brains,” the Advisory Board is the “muscle.” This Advisory Board should be a multi-disciplinary, inclusive group representing the types of project participants – who can help identify sites, suggest projects, generate RFP’s, evaluate RFP responses, select exemplars and generally implement the vision.


08 4. Establish a rexBoston Organization Establish a rexBoston organization and staff to build the brand, handle communications, perform research, manage a project database, draft RFP’s, and convene meetings and events. In concept, the rexBoston organization is a single-purpose non-profit business development corporation, similar to an economic and industrial development or community development corporation. Like IBA Hamburg, which employed a staff of 65 at its peak, the rexBoston organization would have the ability to channel public and private resources as well as raise philanthropic funding. Paid and volunteer rexBoston staff would work in close consultation with the Advisory Board to help identify sites, suggest projects, generate RFP’s, evaluate RFP responses and select exemplars.

5. Identify Property Ownership

Identify public and private property owners for sites with potential to become resilient exemplars. The maps included in this report suggest nearly 80 locations for promising resiliency solutions. Research is necessary to identify property ownership corresponding to these potential exemplars, and might be conducted using data provided by the city’s assessor’s office or The Trust for Public Land digital planning tool. The research results should be maintained in a database. To the extent possible, the research should capture key features of the sites including a plot plan, acreage, grading, existing structures, utility services, nearest public transit, and nearby amenities.

6. Implement Incentives & Regulatory Reform

Implementing development incentives and regulatory reform will encourage rexBoston projects. While some projects may be possible to realize “as of right,” development and permitting incentives will encourage project teams to realize extraordinary results. Financial incentives might be realized through a revolving pool of public money initially used to upgrade infrastructure and later returned to the pool in the form of proceeds from the sale of public land. Permitting incentives might be shaped as “stretch” regulations. Public land may be rezoned as “resiliency districts.” Consider land assemblies or land swaps as might be necessary or desirable to realize certain rexBoston projects.

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advance vision

city

steering committee

throughout Boston’s neighborhoods, making known the ways the living-learning showcase can benefit the city on a local scale. In addition to public outreach, presentations will detail climate challenges and potential and planned solutions, and create and gauge interest in programming. These can be included as part of outreach for potential partnership and requests for proposals once requests for proposals are issued.

Organization

residents and business owners

select exemplars

rexBoston staff

project teams

realize vision

implement

guide

advisory board

Next Steps

Outreach

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rexBoston should be widely discussed at community forums and public events, using the Climate Ready Boston leaders as ambassadors of this new idea. By presenting this information at community events, news of rexBoston can quickly spread the word

Once initial leadership is established, rexBoston will reach out to partner organizations with an invitation to join a steering committee, consisting of members from a variety of professions, including designers, scientists, and engineers. This committee would oversee and evaluate all aspects of projects. Residents and local business owners would also elect representatives to ensure that the needs and strengths of the community are properly considered. These delegates can actively participate in the shaping of solutions, and would also present possibilities to members of their neighborhoods for feedback. rexBoston will provide volunteer opportunities and permanent staffing positions. It should hire a diverse set of individuals matching the general demographic of the city. These employees would be responsible for day-to-day operations, marketing, and other elements necessary to organize the expo. Various groups and committees would be formed for

design, development, and implementation. Following the lead of and collaborating with existing initiatives and community organizations will be essential. rexBoston will rely in part on volunteers for general upkeep tasks such as local park and swale maintenance, gardening, and tree planting. This is an opportunity for community members, particularly youth groups, to get involved with resilience and sustainability in their own neighborhoods. rexBoston will establish a presence in schools and make itself known to organizations such as academic and local green teams to generate volunteer interest

Project Implementation

An interdisciplinary group selected based on its response to an RFP would be responsible for the entire design and construction process. Initial insights and public opinions will be provided by the advisory board, and this entity will continue to supervise the individual teams in order to maintain the vision of the district-wide plan. The evolution of a concept will, however, be driven forward by the interdisciplinary team. This process would apply for projects containing an RFP. However, other projects which are initiative or research based would have a more open planning process. An extensive network of partnerships will be built in order to coordinate the process and help minimize disruption of neighborhoods during construction phases. Traffic closures


Source: James Ennis on Flickr

Source: Greenovate Boston

or other setbacks will be minimized, and supplemental transportation routes or temporary-use structures will be used to maintain connectivity and neighborhood culture. The process itself can be used to help explain the process of building resiliency and sustainability. Additionally, public input can respond to design and construction processes in order to form new methods which will be more environmentally friendly and socially just.

rexBoston is ambitious. In order for the city to adapt to climate change, Boston will have to take visionary measures.

CHAPTER 08 KEY TAKEAWAYS

Boston faces a very real threat in this coming century. The climate is changing at an exponential rate, and the risks of continuing “business as usual” are only increasing as sea levels rise. rexBoston is about seeing a threat as an opportunity. It is an investment in our city’s future. It is the belief that our city, no matter how great the challenge, will rise above and come out stronger.

② rexBoston will be shepherded by a steering committee similar to or perhaps the Green Ribbon Commission itself.

Starting the Engine

rexBoston will create an unprecedented level of community engagement in Boston. It will showcase and spur innovation from all over the city. It will drive education and research around issues of climate and resilience, and it will change the fabric of the city on a level that has never been attempted before.

rexBoston will hasten Boston’s resilient future, making carbon neutrality and climate action a matter of good business, better living and great design. Through its leadership, Boston is on the right path. rexBoston can drive planning into action and bring people together in a shared endeavor.

① rexBoston’s realization requires six next steps, starting with strong city support.

③ rexBoston will implemented by an Advisory Board who help spur projects and write RFP’s ④ Organized as a nonprofit, business development corporation, rexBoston will utilize paid and volunteer staff. 57


RESOURCES Climate Ready Boston (CRB) is an initiative to develop resilient responses to climate change. City of Boston. Imagine Boston 2030 Boston’s first citywide plan in 50 years. City of Boston. Greenovate Boston an initiative to make Boston a healthy, thriving, and innovative city and to eliminate pollution. City of Boston. GoBoston 2030 an initiative of the Boston Transportation Department to develop a system of more accessible and efficient transportation. Its goal is to create safe and reliable access to all parts of the city. Boston Bikes city planning and community engagement initiative to make Boston an increasingly bicycle-friendly city. Boston Transportation Department. MWRA the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority provides water and sewer services to 61 Boston communities, specializing in selfgenerated renewable energy. MassDOT Sustainable Transportation a segment of the Massachusetts Department of Transportation which focuses on climate resilience, renewable energy, and greenhouse gas reduction.

58 Chapter Image Source: Janko Ferlic on Unsplash

MassPort Sustainability a segment of the Massachusetts Port Authority focusing on adapting Logan Airport to be more sustainable and climate resilient. Boston.gov information about city events, departments, news and announcements, and programs and initiatives Boston Public Works Department Keep Boston Moving – information and events related to the construction, maintenance, cleaning, and use of public infrastructure throughout Boston. BPDA the Boston Planning and Development Agency website includes information for all projects underway in Boston, including planning, zoning, and neighborhood development. Boston CAN the Boston Climate Action Network is a community organizing effort to engage residents citywide in issues of sustainability and climate change. Vision Zero Boston chapter of a national initiative to end roadway fatalities, promote mindful alternative transportation, and improve traffic safety. Allston-Brighton CDC supports Allston-Brighton residents in initiatives


09 to guide development, create affordable housing and community leadership, and protect open space and community assets.

safe, sustainable, and affordable spaces in South Dorchester, focusing on community development and social equity.

Alternatives for Community and Environment/Roxbury

Environmental Empowerment Project (ACE/REEP) empowering low income communities – particularly youth volunteers – to work for systematic change in environmental legislation that negatively affects their neighborhoods.

Back Bay Green Initiative part of the Neighborhood Association of the Back Bay, informing and assisting the community of the Back Bay on conserving resources and energy, while preserving and protecting both local green space and the environment. Boston Complete Streets A website that details all of the complete street projects in Boston with links to further reading, images of plans, and information about phases. Boston Living with Water This competition considered the challenges of adapting to climate change and rising sea levels at three sites specifically chosen for their vulnerability and where winning solutions can influence future redevelopment activities. Climate Change Action Brookline educates residents of Brookline about lowering their emissions through simple everyday choices by canvassing and community events. Codman Square NDC building a community through the creation of

Green Schools Initiative a collaborative project by students, teachers, parents, and lawmakers to build a new environmental curriculum for Boston public schools and improve overall school sustainability and climate awareness. Green Streets Initiative promotes sustainable, active transport in Cambridge and beyond through monthly Walk/Ride Days. Greening Rozzie a volunteer organization dedicated to making Roslindale more active, cohesive, and sustainable. Their goals include: increasing green space, promoting community farming and composting, creating healthier homes, reducing emissions and car use, reducing waste, conserving water, and providing information to help residents become aware and involved in community sustainability.

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Jamaica Plain Forum free public engagement series centered around a variety of world issues including the environment. The forum incorporates speakers, workshops, and films intended to inspire community, conversations and civic engagement.

and Environmental Design (LEED) system, with educational resources for becoming LEED certified.

JP New Economy Transition creates opportunities for organizations and individuals to come together in conversation and action around climate change, community resiliency, and initiatives to promote equity and sustainability in Jamaica Plain. Dedicated to breaking down barriers and promoting leadership.

Rebuild by Design re-imagining the way communities find solutions for today’s large-scale, complex problems.

Neighborhood of Affordable Housing dedicated to supporting East Boston communities seeking to incorporate environmental justice, affordable housing, and economic and leadership development into their planning initiatives. Chelsea Creek Action Group Partnership part of NOAH, this volunteer group is dedicated to cleaning and reclaiming the second-most contaminated waterway in the state to strengthen the community and the overall environment. Planet Southie South Boston residents united to build a greener community and inspire impactful action around their neighborhood. Action Teams work hands-on for causes like more efficient transit, climate justice, community gardens, planting trees, and spreading information about Climate Ready Boston. South Boston Grows volunteer farmers engaging their community through urban farming and community meals. Dedicated to spreading food justice by providing fresh produce for all.

Resources

West Roxbury Saves Energy a community organization dedicated to sharing information, resources, and strategies for minimizing West Roxbury’s environmental impact and making positive, informed choices to reduce energy use in residents’ everyday lives.

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MIT Senseable City Lab research about urban behavior to try to understand and improve cities. Changing Places- MIT Media Lab explores mobility and human interactions in urban spaces. USGBC The U.S. Green Building Council created the Leadership in Energy

Building Green helping architects, designers and other sustainability professionals make their projects greener and healthier.

Resilience by Design University building an open-sourced interdisciplinary curriculum for a fundamentals course about design and resilience planning. Resilient Design Institute works to advance sustainability through a focus on resiliency. Health Care Without Harm an organization improving the health care sector to make it more resilient and sustainable. BIE the Bureau International des Expositions is the overseer and regulator of international expos, and has historical information and pictures on its website. UNFCCC founded in 1994, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sets an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge posed by climate change. It recognizes that the climate system is a shared resource whose stability can be affected by industrial and other emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The Convention enjoys near universal membership, with 189 countries having ratified. Under the Convention, governments gather and share information on greenhouse gas emissions, national policies and best practices, launch national strategies for addressing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to expected impacts, including the provision of financial and technological support to developing countries, and cooperate in preparing for adaptation to the impacts of climate change. IPCC the International Panel on Climate Change. NOAA the National Hurricane Center. 100RC pioneered by the Rockefeller Foundation, 100 Resilient Cities is dedicated to helping cities around the world become more resilient to the physical, social, and economic challenges of the 21st century.


Energy STAR a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency voluntary program that helps businesses and individuals save money and protect our climate through superior energy efficiency.

Climate Change Data Boston after the current administration removed climate data from the EPA website, the information was reposted by the City of Boston.

Tools

“Cloudburst Management Plan” City of Copenhagen.

2030 Pallet explains various sustainable design principles. AIA. Climate Smart Cities Boston Metro Mayors tools to help green infrastructure planning for a low-carbon, resilient Boston. Includes GIS info and outside sources collected on one map of Boston with interactive layers Includes many types of information: water taxis, hubway stations, mbta, temperature maps, flooding maps, collision data, trees, green space, land use, subwater sheds, hospitals, ems, fire stations, police, shelters, planned and current bike routes, satellite facilities and services, academic institutions, dams, aqueducts, dependent population facilities, social mapping, topography, wetlands, soil permeability, vacant lots, contaminated soil, water table depth ...etc. Includes layers of mapped analyzed results based on projected scenarios. Climate Smart Cities Story Maps include experiences of community members on map. Hubway Data Visualization contest sponsored by the city to create a platform to visualize Hubway ridership and analyze trip data. Surging Seas interactive visualization of flood risks.

“Financing Resilience: The Big Challenge” GZA. “Good, Better, Best: the City of Copenhagen’s Bicycle Strategy 2011-2025” City of Copenhagen. “IBA Meets IBA” IBA Hamburg 2013. “Reducing Urban Heat islands: Compendium of strategies. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency” EPA. “Rotterdam Climate Change Adaptation Strategy” Rotterdam Climate Initiative. “Shifting Priorities, Finding Places: How Media Lab and HafenCity University researchers are tackling the refugee crisis in Hamburg, using algorithms and LEGO bricks” Published on Medium.

Books Cradle to Cradle by William McDonough. Exploring new concepts of capitalism based on eliminating the concept of waste. Gaining Ground: A History of Landmaking in Boston by Nancy Seasholes.

Publications “Boston Bike Network Plan: Report and 30-year vision for bicycle infrastructure development” Boston Transportation Department. “Boston Community Energy Survey” Boston Planning and Development Agency, MIT City Lab. “The Blueprint: A Preview of the Principles and Framework for Boston’s Resilience Strategy” City of Boston. “Building Resilience in Boston: Best Practices for Climate Adaptation and Resilience for Existing Buildings” Boston Society of Architects. “The Conservative Case for Carbon Dividends” Climate Leadership Council.

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GLOSSARY Abrupt Climate Change sudden (on the order of decades), large changes in some major component of the climate system, with rapid, widespread effects.

recommended in areas where flood waters could flow at significant velocities (usually greater than four feet per second) or could contain ice or other debris.

Adaptation adjustment or preparation of natural or human systems to a new or changing environment which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities.

Carbon Dioxide a naturally occurring gas, and also a by-product of burning fossil fuels and biomass, as well as land-use changes and other industrial processes. It is the principal human caused greenhouse gas that affects the Earth’s radiative balance. It is the reference gas against which other greenhouse gases are measured and therefore has a Global Warming Potential of 1.

Adaptive Capacity the ability of a system to adjust to climate change to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences. Anthropogenic Climate Change climate change with the presumption of human influence, usually warming. Berm an artificially raised swath of land. Bio-swale landscaped drainage channels designed to capture and filter storm-water. Breakaway Wall walls enclosing the area below an elevated structure that are designated to break away before transmitting damaging forces to the structure and its foundation. Breakaway walls are required by the NFIP regulations in coastal high hazard areas (V-Zones) and are

62 Chapter Image Source: Osman Rana on Unsplash

Carbon Footprint the total amount of greenhouse gases that are emitted into the atmosphere each year by a person, family, building, organization, or company. A persons carbon footprint includes greenhouse gas emissions from fuel that an individual burns directly, such as by heating a home or riding in a car, and from producing the goods or services that the individual uses, including emissions from power plants that make electricity, factories that make products, and landfills where trash gets sent.


10 Carbon Neutrality achieved by offsetting emissions by including renewable energy, planting trees, or taking action to make no net release of carbon dioxide. Carbon Sink any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas, or aerosol from the atmosphere. Carbon Sequestration the process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and storing it in a solid or liquid form. Check Valve valve that allows water to flow in one direction but automatically closes when the direction of flow is reversed. Climate the average and variations of weather in a region over long periods of time. Climate Justice removing discrimination and bias from climate action, ensuring access to opportunity for the socially vulnerable. Using threats of climate to provide larger public improvement. Closure Shield made of strong material, such as metal or wood, it is used to temporarily close openings in levees, floodwalls, and/or dry, flood-proofed buildings.

Cloudburst Inundation an extreme amount of precipitation over a short period of time which causes inland flooding. Coastal High Hazard Area area of special flood hazard that extends from offshore to the inland limit of a primary frontal dune along an open coast, and any other area subject to high-velocity wave action from storms or seismic sources. Complete Street a street designed to create the safest possible experience approach through incorporating sidewalks, bike lanes, transportation, and safe crossing zones. Desertification the degradation of land in arid and dry sub-humid areas, resulting primarily from natural activities and influenced by climatic variations. Development in ecological terms, a basic property of all life to fulfill potential, but limited to quantitative measurement in economic terms. Direct Emissions the actual emissions of a building’s energy use that occurs at the power plant which generates the electricity, not at the building using the electricity.

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District Energy System decentralized production of heating and cooling distributed throughout several buildings. Dry Flood-proofing protecting a building by sealing its exterior walls to prevent the entry of flood waters. Emissions Scenario Low global emissions reduced by less than a third of current levels by 2050 and brought to zero by about 2080 (CRB). Medium emissions remain at current level through 2050 and are slowly reduced in the second half of the century (CRB). High business as usual (CRB). Energy Portfolio the different types of energy sources that supply a building or area. Flash Flood flood that rises very quickly and usually is characterized by high flow velocities. Flash floods often result from intense rainfall over a small area. Flood Depth height of flood waters above the surface of the ground at a given point. Flood Frequency probability, expressed as a percentage, that a flood of a given size will be equaled or exceeded in any given year. The flood that has a 1-percent probability of being equaled or exceeded in any given year is often referred to as the 100-year flood. Similarly, the floods that have a 2-percent probability (1 in 50) and a 0.2-percent (1 in 500) of being equaled or exceeded in any year are referred to as the 50-year flood and the 500-year flood, respectively. Flood Fringe the portion of the floodplain that lies beyond the floodway and serves as a temporary storage area for flood waters during a flood. This section receives waters that are shallower and of lower velocities than those of the floodway.

Glossary

Floodplain an area of low lying land susceptible to flooding.

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Floodwall artificial barrier designed to prevent high water from reaching land or entering a building.

Gate Valve valve that permits flow in either direction when open, and prevents flow in either direction when closed. A gate valve must be operated either manually or electrically. Global Climate Change a change in global or regional climate patterns, sometimes occur naturally. Global Warming (GW) the warming trend over the several centuries due to human activity, mainly by CO2 emissions. Green Infrastructure connects green space with water management strategies to create natural solutions to climate effects. Green Linkages corridors of sheltered paths, trails, and other landscaped green space through urban areas, creating connections between parks. Green Roof a roof planted with vegetation which helps insulate the building, drain rainwater, and clean the air. Greenhouse Gases gases which absorb and emit heat, raising the temperature of the earth. Primary gases are carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane. Harbor Barrier an operable gate designed to close off a harbor against flooding from king tides or storm surges. Harbor Bath a safe swimming area in an urban harbor. Hazard Mitigation action taken to reduce or eliminate long-term risk to people and property from hazards such as floods, earthquakes, and fires. Heat Wave three or more consecutive days experiencing high temperatures over 90 degrees, often combined with excessive humidity. Hydrodynamic Force force exerted by moving water; including positive frontal pressure against the structure, drag effect along the sides, and negative pressures on the downstream side. Hydrologic Cycle the process of evaporation, vertical and horizontal transport of vapor, condensation, precipitation, and the flow of water from continents to oceans. It is a major factor in determining climate through its influence on surface vegetation, the clouds, snow and ice, and soil moisture.


Hydrostatic Force force exerted by water at rest, including lateral pressure on walls and uplift (buoyancy) on floors. Impervious Soils soils that resist penetration by water. Impervious Surface mainly artificial structures such as pavement and rooftops that are covered by impenetrable materials such as asphalt, concrete, brick or stone.

The Paris Agreement a non-binding commitment by 153 countries to limit temperature rise by well below two degrees Celcius from pre-industrial time. Formed at the Paris Climate Conference in 2015, sometimes referred to as COP21. Passive Regulation the ability of a building to regulate temperature without the use of energy.

Indirect Emissions emissions of greenhouse gases that occur as a result of the generation of electricity used in that building.

Peaking Greenhouse Emissions the year in which the amount of emissions start reducing.

Industrial Revolution a period of rapid industrial growth with social and economic consequences, beginning in Europe during the second half of the 18th century and spreading to other countries. Marks the beginning of a rapid increase in combustion of fossil fuels and related emissions of carbon dioxide.

Permeable Paving pervious concrete, porous asphalt, paving stones, or concrete or plastic-based pavers that allow stormwater to percolate and infiltrate the surface areas. Permeable Soils soils that water can easily penetrate and spread through.

Inundation submergence of land by water, particularly on the coast.

Probability

Invasive Species introduced species that adversely affect the habitats and bioregions they invade economically, environmentally, and/or ecologically. Islanding the capacity of a building or power system to be selfsustaining in the case of an emergency. King Tide (Wicked High Tide) an especially high tide event occurring twice a year, when there is an alignment of the gravitational pull between the sun and moon. Living Shoreline a strategy enhancing native vegetation and ecological features while protecting from flooding.

Low 1% Chance, 100-Year Flood. High 10% Chance, 10-Year Flood. Rain Garden a depressed planted bed designed to capture runoff water from an impervious surface such as a parking lot or a roof. Relative Sea Level Rise the increase in ocean water levels at a specific location, taking into account both global sea level rise and local factors, such as local subsidence and uplift. Relative sea level rise is measured with respect to a specified vertical datum relative to the land, which may also be changing elevation over time.

Microgrid a small-scale, localized energy system capable of operating separately from the power grid.

Renewable Energy energy resources that are naturally replenishing such as biomass, hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, ocean thermal, wave action, and tidal action.

Mitigation an intervention to reduce a negative impact; it includes strategies to reduce greenhouse gas sources and emissions and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks.

Resilience a capability to anticipate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from significant multi-hazard threats with minimum damage to social well-being, the economy, and the environment.

Modal Share the percentage of people commuting to work or school via a given mode of transportation.

Resilient District an area with layered resilient features which can be self-sustaining.

Net Positive producing more energy than one consumes.

Retention Pond an artificial basin created to temporarily hold stormwater after a rain event.

Net Zero producing energy equal to consumption.

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Retrofit make changes to existing building to protect it from flooding or other hazards. Salt Water Intrusion displacement of fresh or ground water by the advance of salt water due to its greater density, usually in coastal and estuarine areas. Scour process by which flood waters remove soil around objects that obstruct flow, such as the foundation walls of a house. Sea Level Rise (SLR) the global increase in sea levels, causing a general shoreline retreat, new tidal patterns, and increased flooding risks. Sea Surface Temperature the temperature in the top several feet of the ocean, measured by ships, buoys and drifters. Generally where heat is stored. Sensitivity the degree to which a system is affected, either adversely or beneficially, by climate variability or change. The effect may be direct (e.g., a change in crop yield in response to a change in the mean, range or variability of temperature) or indirect (e.g., damages caused by an increase in the frequency of coastal flooding due to sea level rise). Socially Vulnerable groups with less access to opportunities such as minorities, children, elderly, and disabled persons. Spray Park a space with fountains and shallow water features which can be used for recreation and cooling off. Streamflow the volume of water that moves over a designated point over a fixed period of time. It is often expressed as ft3 per second. Storm Surge unusually high sea levels as a result of increased wind associated with storms.

Glossary

Storm Water Flooding the excess of water caused by a storm’s rain backing up drainage systems. Sump Pump device used to remove water from seepage or rainfall that collects in areas protected by a levee, floodwall, or dry flood-proofing. In addition, a sump pump is often part of a standard house drainage system that removes water that collects below a basement floor. Superstorms/Severe Storms a large-scale, unusual weather event such as a hurricane or Nor’easter.

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Sustainability a network of life which includes people in the ecology. Term Near before 2030 (CRB). Mid before 2050 (CRB). Long before 2070 (CRB). Thermal Expansion the increase in volume (and decrease in density) that results from warming water. A warming of the ocean leads to an expansion of the ocean volume, which leads to an increase in sea level. Thermohaline Circulation Large scale density-driven circulation in the ocean, caused by differences in temperature and salinity. In the North Atlantic the thermohaline circulation consists of warm surface water flowing northward and cold deep water flowing southward, resulting in a net poleward transport of heat. The surface water sinks in highly restricted sinking regions located in high latitudes. Tidal Energy a form of hydropower which converts the energy from the rise and fall of the tide into electricity. Urban Heat Island describes the increased temperature experienced by metropolitan cities relative to neighboring rural areas. Energy use and materials like concrete have a tendency to trap heat during the day and prevent cooling at night. Vulnerability the degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. White Roof roofs with light colors reflect more of the sun’s rays, therefore reducing heat buildup and subsequently the energy required to cool a building. Wind Tree a small wind turbine with green “leaves” that can catch slight breezes to generate electricity. 100-Year Flood Levels severe flood levels with a one-in-100 likelihood of occurring in any given year. Also known as base flood.


Thank You

The Vision Plan for rexBoston crystallized as a result of thought-provoking experiences, conversations and publications involving experts from many fields, including the following:

Rabinkin, Kim Vermeer, Gail Sullivan, Veronica Eady, Melissa Schrock, Caitlin Cameron, Amanda Roe, Christina McPike, Silvia Rimolo, Susan McCabe Messier, Laura Hadley);

The 13-member delegation of the CREW Boston Boston-Hamburg Learning Exchange (Donna Denio, Kim Vermeer, Marty Jones, Gale Candaras, Ellen Watts, Jennifer Marrapese, Nancy Ludwig, Iram Farooq, Laura Armstrong, Martine Dione, Deb Hall, Maureen McCaffrey, Silvia Rimolo);

Green Ribbon Commission leaders (John Cleveland, Amy Longsworth);

The international Boston Living with Water competition organizers (Austin Blackmon, John Dalzell, Gretchen Rabinkin, Julie Wormser), and winning participants (Daniel Bernstein, Ellen Watts, Nikul Patel, Jaime McGavin, Caitlin Gilman, Pete Hanley, Matt Calvey, Stephanie Goldberg, Mark Reed, Francesco Lanza); The Boston Harbor Association and Sasaki Associates authors of “Designing with Water: Creative Solutions from Around the Globe� authors (Crystal Aiken, Nina Chase, Jason Hellendrung, Julie Wormser) and project team (Gina Ford, Chris Merritt, Anna Scherling, Ruth Siegel, Michael Travilla, Cary Walker); The 20-member delegation of the Boston Climate Bridge Boston-Copenhagen Learning Exchange (Ellen Watts, Diane Gray, Donna Denio, Isabel Klubasch, Barbara Landau, Abigail Roberts, Mary Gardill, Susanne Rasmussen, Jennifer Marrapese, Gretchen

Boston Planning & Development Agency leaders (Sara Myerson, Richard McGuinness); City of Boston Environment Department leaders (Austin Blackmon, Mia Mansfield, Jessica Feldish, Kara Runsten) and authors of Climate Ready Boston and The Boston Research Advisory Group Report; Members of the the Boston Harbor Now Climate Task Force, formerly The Boston Harbor Association Climate Preparedness Committee (Julie Wormser, Jill Valdes Horwood, Stephanie Kruel, Julie Conroy, Bud Ris, Sarah Finnie Robinson, John Sullivan, Wayne Cobleigh, Ellen Watts, Barbara Landau, David Levy, Sam Merrill, Charlayne Murrell-Smith, Charlie Norris, Nancy Wheatley). Special thanks to Julie Wormser and Gretchen Rabinkin for their collaboration and to the Massachusetts Clean Energy Center and Smith College for scholarship support.


Ellen Watts Architerra Architerra 2017 Summer Interns Giancarlo Greco Norwich University class of 2018 Anna Arscott University of Massachusetts Amherst class of 2018 Olivia Messenger Smith College class of 2018 Samantha Veldhuis Massachusetts College of Art and Design class of 2017 #rexBoston #rexthriving #400moreyears

Profile for rexBoston

rexBoston revised DRAFT Vision Plan February 2018  

rexBoston revised DRAFT Vision Plan February 2018  

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