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AUSTRALIA & NZ Volume 1 | Issue 3 | 2014 |



UNDER CONTROL How smart controls can help Australia put light only where it’s needed PAGE 64

THE 30 RULES OF GOOD LIGHTING Everything you need to know to get it right every time PAGE 62

REVIEWED: The latest LED tubes and candle lamps


Lighting Glass & Machined Components F O R




Glasslite Pty Ltd An Australian company with two product divisions:

Glasslite Lighting Glass AMC Machined Components Providing key components and services for a wide range of applications in the lighting industry, to name a few: Architectural, Commercial, Industrial and T Technical lighting.






The future has arrived



n this issue of Lux Review Australia we investigate the use of controls. There has been a lot of discussion about the development of lighting control systems and their application in the commercial lighting sector. Some say the extinction of the traditional light switch and wall-mounted triac dimmer is inevitable. Others say new control technology will never replace the basic light switch. There will always be a need for reliable manual access to light when you need it, and many existing control systems are too complex to be relied on for general lighting applications. We have seen a flood of new companies entering the lighting industry from the electronics sector – Citizen, LG and Toshiba just to name a few. The IT sector will be the next new player. IT specialists will bring to New technologies the lighting industry a new generation of control using internet and Wi-Fi technologies. will bring solutions to systems These new control systems will use light fittings to age-old problems” provide communication networks in a building. IT and advances in data networking will bring solutions to age-old problems, such as finding a free parking space in a busy shopping centre car park. Light fitting manufacturers will offer building owners extra services after the fittings have been installed, such as security monitoring. Turn to page 24 for Steve Hare’s view on matching the right controls solution to the right application, page 64 for Lance Stewart’s report on the death of the ‘dimmersaurs’ and page 66 for a cutting-edge controls case study at a London office building. Other topics we cover in this issue include the recent road lighting conference in Auckland and some great low-energy lighting projects in Brisbane, Melbourne and Perth. I hope you enjoy reading this issue. Our goal at Lux Review Australia is to produce an informative magazine for the lighting industry. We value your feedback. Please send in your comments, news or anything you feel we should cover in future issues.


– the team DOUG GALVIN Publisher e: t: +61 7 3121 3095 f: +61 7 3283 2977 m: +61 417 417 005 ROBERT BAIN Editor e: t: +44 (0)20 3283 4387 m: +44 (0)7720 677 538 KATHRINE ANKER Deputy editor e: t: 020 3283 4387

JOANNE JORDAN Administration manager e: t: +61 7 3121 3095 f: +61 7 3283 2977 ROBERTA BONTEMPO Account manager e: m: +44 (0) 7713 567288 PETER ROWLEDGE Commercial director e: t: +44 (0) 203 283 4387 m: +44 (0) 7740 110261 EMILY CROUCH Art editor e: t: +44 (0)20 3283 4387

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2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |





Issue 03 2014 Features


171 COLLINS STREET, MELBOURNE 16 Modern façade and common area lighting saves energy in this heritage-listed building

COUNTRY REPORT: CHINA 50 Local and overseas companies want to piece of the action in China, with its 1.4 billion customers



LIGHT+BUILDING 2014 54 A look at the hottest products and the most important trends from the megashow in Europe


THE 30 RULES OF GOOD LIGHTING 62 How to look like an expert – years of lighting industry experience distilled into 30 simple tips


Aglo brings a colour-rendering index of 95 to Henry Bucks’ flagship store

CONTROLS 64 Natural selection favours digital dimming – and is the scourge of the ‘dimmersaurs’

THE GROVE PRECINCT SQUARE, WA 40 Three local councils in WA join forces to show the benefits of energy-efficient lighting

WESTERN TRANSIT SHED, LONDON 66 Architect Hoare Lea practices what it preaches at its offices in the King’s Cross district of London


42 How lighting cut electrical load by 5.5MW for one South African property owner


68 Does LED lighting technology really deserve its reputation as a ‘green’ light source?

WALMART 46 Why the world’s biggest retailer is making LEDs the de facto solution for lighting its stores

LIGHTING’S PROBLEMS 72 Just when will the lighting industry solve its 10 most persistent problems?

The annual event projects colour on to the buildings along the shore of the city

MARINA BAY SANDS, SINGAPORE Lines of light emphasise the geometry of the event plaza at Singapore’s Marina Bay Sands


News Opinion Your letters Interview Design clinic Lighting economist Reviewed: LED tubes Reviewed: candle lamps Technical briefing Upcoming events Lux videos

08 22 32 34 74 79 83 86 92 95 98

We review the latest LED candle lamps

86 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |




EURO DISTRIBUTOR MOVES INTO AUSTRALIA Form and Light has been appointed to distribute Sololuce, Vulkan and Barthelme products in Australia and New Zealand. Sololuce is an Italian manufacturer of architectural fixtures, German company Vulkan specialises in street and area lighting, and Barthelme, also from Germany, makes LED strip and accent lighting.

LACK OF LIGHT HELPED CAUSE PLANE DEATH An unlit airstrip where a pilot died in an attempted ‘bush landing’ should not have been used at night, transport safety officials said. A relative of the pilot had tried to guide the plane in to the airstrip at Boxwood, near Melbourne, using the headlights of a car, the Australian Associated Press reported. But the plane clipped trees before crashing to the ground, killing the unnamed pilot.

CHINESE LED MAKERS CLIMB THE RANKS A Chinese company has made it into the world’s top 10 LED suppliers for the first time. MLS Electronics climbed from 14th to 10th place in the global LED market between 2012 and 2013. IHS Technology predicts that suppliers such as Osram and Cree will increasingly feel the effects of Chinese competition ‘Since 2011, most of the new LED production capacity has occurred in China,’ said Jamie Fox, principal LED analyst for IHS.

Airport scheme supports other services A wireless lighting network at Newark Airport in the US has shown how the lighting infrastructure can be expanded to embrace security and other services. The airport system can monitor the movement of people and vehicles and might, in the future, check travellers in for their flights and send them coffee coupons. Hugh Martin of Sensity Systems, which is providing monitoring technology for the connected lighting system at Newark Airport, said surveillance and security were the main attractions, but added: ‘There are a lot of things you can do with the information. You could make data available to users of smartphones, such as the number of parking spaces available in the parking lot.’ Sam Woodward of Havells Sylvania said the prevalence of sensors, wiring and fittings means that lighting ‘owns the ceiling’ in many buildings, can potentially be at the heart of new connected systems encompassing other building services and technologies.

Martin said lighting could form the basis of a new ‘data-rich environment’ in the same way that the railway system was the underlying infrastructure that supported earlier communications systems such as the telegraph. He added that new technologies such as control systems for car parks can be expensive to install because a new network installed for the service. ‘We manage all that for them,’ he said. ‘It’s a tremendous cost benefit for the developers.’

Lighting to help McDonald’s cut energy Switch attracts investors use by a fifth


Australian entrepreneur Phil Bosua has raised $12.7 million from venture capitalists in Silicon Valley to turn his Wi-Fi connected smart switch idea into a product. Bosua told Fairfax Media that some the money would go towards hiring engineers, marketing, and sales people to help ‘create the best Internet of Things company in the world’. He said his smart switch will have rechargeable batteries, and connect lamps and other devices in the home via Wi-Fi. ‘It could also open and close blinds and alert you if someone’s at your door,’ Bosua said. Bosua’s firm sells LIFX, a Wi-Fi enabled, multicolour LED lamp controlled by a smartphone.

BE PART OF IT | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

Lighting ‘owns the ceiling’ in most buildings

Fast food chain McDonald’s has said it will improve energy efficiency in company-owned restaurants by 20 per cent by 2020. The prime 2020 ‘planet’ goal is to increase efficiency by 20 per cent in seven of the company’s top markets. The strategy report is sparse on details but mentions LED lighting: ‘We have identified a portfolio of energy-efficient solutions… such as high efficiency exhaust fans and LED walk-in refrigerator lighting.’ McDonald’s owns 19 per cent of the restaurants in the seven markets affected – Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, the UK and the US.

Want to be a serious player in Europe’s most dynamic lighting market? Join over 200 leading exhibitors at the UK’s biggest lighting show.



Solar project brings off-grid light to Papua New Guinea A World Bank project is set to bring off-grid solar lighting to more than half a million people in Papua New Guinea. Ninety per cent of people in the country have no electricity and therefore no reliable light, so they cannot carry out household chores, read, or do business outside daylight hours. The International Finance Corporation, the funding arm of the World Bank, has started a scheme to bring safe and affordable off-grid solar lighting to more than half a million islanders. ‘This will not only improve living conditions for residents but will also will boost business, allow children to study, cut household costs, and help women stay safe on the streets,’ says IFC operations officer Liam Grealish. The project, part of the Lighting Global

This month in numbers



The scheme should benefit students and small businesses



campaign, will meet the needs of low-income households and micro-enterprises, said Karin Finkelston, the IFC’s vice-president for Asia-Pacific. ‘Sustainable lighting power will support the kind of growth in the country that benefits all, especially those who work hard to improve their livelihoods by studying or setting up small enterprises.’

Venues for this summer’s football World Cup in Brazil have had a lighting upgrade before the games. Nine of the 12 World Cup stadiums will be fitted with lighting from Philips. Of these, five will be using Philips’ ArenaVision metal halide pitch lighting, which is designed for HDTV, 3D and super slowmotion cameras. Philips’ pitch lighting was supplied for Fonte Nova, Castelão, Arena Pantanal, Arena da Baixada and Arena das Dunas. Façade lighting was installed at Maracanã in Rio de Janeiro, Arena Pantanal, Beira Rio, Fonte Nova and Arena da Baixada. Osram was involved in the lighting of seven stadiums, including what it claims is the world’s biggest LED screen at Arena Corinthians in São Paulo. Belgium’s Schréder also lit some of the venues, including Mineirão Stadium in Belo Horizonte.






For more information and to book your stand, contact Roberta Bontempo +44 (0) 20 3283 4387 |


2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |




Aurora opens Sydney showroom Aurora has opened a new showroom in Sydney to serve the Australian market. The move follows Aurora’s acquisition of Australia-based Lighting Group last year. The company welcomed architects, lighting designers, wholesalers, engineers and energyefficiency professionals to a launch event at the showroom in June. The 330m2 site serves as a demonstration centre for Aurora’s low-energy LED lighting solutions for the Australian market. ‘This showroom is different from anything Australia has ever seen,’ said Paul Johnson, Aurora’s international development director, ‘with technology that foreshadows the future of lighting’. Visitors to the showroom opening got a preview of Aurora’s latest innovations in light engines and connectivity for intelligent lighting. The manufacturer’s proprietary technologies include ICDOB (integrated circuit driver-on-


LEDs boost student alertness like T5 Increasing LED light levels boost pupils’ cortisol levels by the same amount as fluorescent light, and slightly faster, says Fagerhult’s lighting academy. The academy found that levels of cortisol – the hormone that keeps us awake – among students at a university in Sweden increased in LED-lit environments with luminance levels of 100cd/m2. The study was based on earlier research by the academy in 2009, with T5 fixtures, that showed cortisol levels in students’ blood increased when they were exposed to high luminance in the morning and early afternoon. Academy director Henrik Clausen said: ‘People started asking if LED would have the same effect, so we had to repeat our research.’ The facility is now studying the effect of elevated hormone levels on students’ grades.

board), CrystalCool (super-thin active heatsinks), LEDchroic (LED optics to mimic the appearance of halogen) and Colour Xchange (tunable white). The products it is introducing to the Australian market include AOne lamps and control, M, C and D series downlights, and VersiTile LED flat panels. OWatch Aurora’s video of the launch at

OSRAM TO LIGHT VATICAN MUSEUMS Osram is to supply lighting to the Vatican City’s museums under a five-year framework agreement. The German lighting giant has already supplied LED lighting for the Sistine Chapel. The scheme uses 7,000 LEDs and is designed to conserve the artwork, while providing 10 times as much light as the previous scheme, and only using 60 per cent of the energy.


The showroom demonstrates Aurora’s latest low-energy solutions

OLEDs ‘could become cheaper than LEDs’

Fortune has named Philips CEO Frans van Houten as one of the world’s 25 top ‘eco-innovators’. The US business magazine pointed to Philips’ leadership role in the LED lighting revolution, in particular its use of ‘pay per lux’ models, whereby customers pay Philips a regular fee to handle their entire lighting service.


The cost of producing OLEDs could fall lower than that of producing LEDs – if they were made on a larger scale, an OLED researcher has said. Professor Poopathy Kathirgamanathan of Brunel University in the UK said: ‘If you can produce a 77-inch OLED TV display, you can also produce a 77-inch OLED lighting panel – at a much lower price.’ Kathirgamanathan, who leads the Organic Electronics Group in the Wolfson Centre for Materials Processing at Brunel University, was addressing an audience of leaders of small and medium-sized businesses . He added: ’OLEDs can produce a very high colour-rendering index compared with LEDs… the reason OLED is expensive at the moment is just the scale of manufacturing.’

TCP International has succeeded in its second attempt to turn itself into a public company, raising $84 million through an initial public offering (IPO). Following an aborted IPO in 2012, the company moved its HQ from Shanghai to Switzerland and refiled. The total raised falls short of the $106 million originally anticipated.

CONTROLS MARKET ‘TO REACH $60BN’ Sales of lighting control products are expected to reach $60 billion by 2020, according to a report from analysts Markets and Markets. The highest growth will be in commercial and industrial applications, says the report. Public and government buildings are high on the list of current adopters, because of the pressure on public bodies to save energy.

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


PEOPLE RICK MORRISON has been appointed national design manager for Citelum. Based in Queensland, he will primarily be overseeing the Sunshine Coast Council public lighting management contract. Light Project has opened for business in Asia with the appointment of MAX LIN, who will be based in Taipei and Hong Kong. The Australian architectural lighting company now offers services in Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and China. Robus has announced a number of new appointments at its head office. They include MALWINA ALBINSKA, product development co-ordinator, SINEAD MOONEY, administration assistant in the research and development group, and EVA NOLAN, who becomes internal sales representative.


Farewell to the dimmersaurs – long may they rest in pieces” page 64 | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3


Lighting companies embrace Apple’s ‘smart home’ scheme Several lighting companies have signed up to make products that are compatible with Apple’s recently introduced HomeKit app, a ‘smart home’ system that can be operated from an iPad or iPhone. The HomeKit framework can communicate with domestic hardware – such as lighting, heating, door locks and webcams – that has been certified as ‘Made for iPhone/iPad/iPod’ (MFi). The connected devices can then be grouped into ‘scenes’ and controlled together for the user’s desired morning routine, bedtime environment or any other scenario. According to Philips Lighting’s CEO, Eric Rondolat, Philips’ Hue range of connected lighting products will be among the first products to be compatible with Apple’s HomeKit. Rondolat said: ‘HomeKit will allow us to further enhance the Philips Hue lighting experience

by making it simpler to securely pair devices throughout the house and control them using Siri.’ Cree and Osram will also be producing MFi-certified products for HomeKit. A spokesperson for Cree said: ‘We’re thrilled to be developing lighting that will work with Apple’s new HomeKit Accessory Protocol. We believe that enabling simplicity in lighting is the first and best step to driving value for the consumer, and collaborating with innovative companies like Apple will help Cree reach even more consumers to drive 100 per cent adoption of LED lighting.’ Samsung also has a ‘smart home’ system to control its Zigbee and Bluetooth-enabled lamps using other devices in the home. Google’s Android so far has no equivalent, although Google recently bought Nest – a maker of smart thermostats and other devices.


Lighting gets smart at Frankfurt Light + Building 2014 showed that LED is no longer a novelty or a selling point – the future is in products that do something more. Lux Review checked out hundreds of new products at the show that are pushing the boundaries of what lighting can do. Many companies are seeing a future in fixtures, and turning their attention away from lamps, or reinventing lamps as ‘smart’ products with builtin intelligence and control. Anil Gupta, COO of Havells Sylvania, told Lux Review Australia: ‘Because the life of LEDs is far greater than that of traditional lamps, we will see in the next two to three years that the market for lamps will grow very fast, and then continue to decline because the replacement market will not be there. By that time, the fixtures market for LED lighting will be taking over because new buildings will all have fixtures with LEDs.’ Meanwhile, wired control systems are being replaced by wireless alternatives with companies such as Osram, Philips, Havells Sylvania, Samsung, Harvard and Lucibel demonstrating their latest wireless ‘smart’ lighting products.

Fixtures and controls were the big news at Light + Building

‘The market is moving away from a centrally controlled, addressable paradigm to more autonomous systems that are completely wireless and require no commissioning,’ said Danny Bishop of Organic Response. François Seguineau, head of Toshiba’s lighting business in Europe, said: ‘We try to provide “smart ready” lighting, which allows each luminaire to be connected to systems that manage energy, including cooling and heating. It will allow new players to enter the LED market, not just to produce light but to transfer information.’

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Past meets present Situated in the ‘Paris’ end of Melbourne, 171 Collins Street combines the heritage-listed Mayfair building with a modern development. Bates Smart Architects created a stunning combination of the contemporary and the traditional. The development consists of a tower building with 18 occupiable floors, and a nine-storey atrium providing natural light. Electrolight was commissioned to design specialist lighting to the ground floor common areas and the Mayfair building’s heritage façade, using fittings from Erco, Flos, KKDC and Meyer. The stone walls are evenly illuminated, and warm metal halide lamps create warmth. A glowing line at the base of the stone wall, created from a recess with frosted glass diffuser and internal LED strip, visually defines entry, atrium and lobby perimeter. The building achieved a six-star Green Star and five-star Nabers energy rating, as well as winning an award from the International Association of Lighting Designers (IALD). | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3


2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


Sydney in a new light Sydney Opera House and other landmarks along the shore of the city have been transformed into a giant display for this year’s Vivid Sydney event. Every year, Vivid Sydney brings together light designers, artists and musicians to create innovative light sculptures, projections and installations that use the city as a canvas. Highlights included the spectacular artwork projected on to the sails of Sydney Opera House by 59 Productions, described as a ‘journey through time’. Art and design collective Danny Rose turned the façade of the Customs House into a series of massive ‘sculptures’ depicting musical instruments that could be ‘played’ in real time. Sky Flower is an interactive light sculpture by light artist Simon Brockwell, with equipment supplied and co-ordinated by Robe. Public talks, industry seminars, conferences, workshops and debates also took place alongside the music programme. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

James Morgan


2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


Down by the bay The event plaza at Singapore’s Marina Bay Sands resort projects out into the bay, and is made up of six linear sections that can be raised or lowered to create a tiered platform facing either in towards the land, or out towards the water. The lighting was designed by Douglas Brennan of Project Lighting Design Singapore, who approached ACDC with a brief to provide appropriate illumination that maintained an uninterrupted open surface, with no intrusive columns or bollards, but also provided enough light for circulation paths and steps. The design comprises lines of light in the ground that emphasise the geometry of the space. This was achieved using ACDC’s Vista linear LED marker light, designed for shallow-depth installations. It offers a clean, minimal appearance, discreet during the daytime, and with no individual LED spots visible when lit. It also has very low surface heat, important in a pedestrian area. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3


2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


Australia and NZ need to be smart about

STREETLIGHTS The Road Lighting 2014 conference in Auckland demonstrated the challenges facing Australia and New Zealand with regard to streetlighting standards


t the inaugural Road Lighting conference in Auckland in March, speakers from Australia, the UK and the US shared their real life experience, trials and research, to temper the hype surrounding LED streetlighting. Los Angeles streetlighting boss Ed Ebrahimian spoke about the city’s LED project, revealing that there have been only 400 faults in the last four years from its 140,000 LED streetlights – and none of those was down to the LED chips. Margaret Newman, former chief of staff at the New York City Department of Transportation, spoke about the city’s decision to rollout 250,000 LED fixtures.

Positive response Ed Smalley, one of the top people behind Seattle’s LED streetlighting programme, described the approach to sharing information on streetlighting inventories and light levels across the US. This has proven valuable in helping everyone to understand what is required and also enables the smaller authorities to buy at the same price as the larger ones. What was really interesting about these projects was the significant positive public response from the change from high-pressure sodium to LED. Paul Gowans, lighting manager for Sydney, demonstrated how the city was ahead of the curve and had already transformed the city centre with LED technology that both saves energy and provides higher light levels. Nancy Clanton, chair of the IES Outdoor Environmental Lighting Committee and IES Mesopic Committee presented results of a trial in which 250W high-pressure sodium cobra-head streetlights were replaced with 146W LEDs and dimmed to 25 per cent. The public were then interviewed and found that the LED installation created stronger feelings of safety. A similar test was also used by Dr Gibbons to test driver reaction times and they found that the LED in comparison to HPS created shorter reaction times on drivers. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

This road in Glenbrook, New Zealand has gone from high-pressure sodium to LED

This study is leading to a radical rethink of North American lighting standards and raises the question of whether authorities in the US are overlighting their roads. But even though we’ve just beaten them in cricket, it seems the Brits are leading the way when it comes to standards for LED streetlighting. Nigel Parry of Orangetek and Alistair Scott from the UK’s Institution of Lighting Professionals outlined the changes being seen in road lighting in the UK, changing to both LED and CMS technology and how a flexible approach by the standards committee has been a significant catalyst for this change. Nigel Parry said: ‘The local standard in Australia and New Zealand needs to change – and change quickly – to allow the take up of both LED and CMS technology within the next two years.’ This was picked up by Dr Ron Gibbons of Virginia Tech, a past president of the Illuminating Society of North America. His advice to Australia and New Zealand on how best to make sure our standard adapts to this rapidly changing industry with our standards was: ‘Steal it.’ ‘The Americans are planning to steal from the British and so Australia and New Zealand should steal from the US,’ Gibbons said, prompting applause from the audience of 200-plus lighting professionals. Adam Carey of Citelum said: ‘New Zealanders are acutely aware of the activities going on in the Standards Australia process, particularly to ASNZS1158.6. If Australia continues to advocate for its own standards, then I fear the rest of the world, including New Zealand, are going to leave it to its own mess. We risk missing the innovation and competition Australia deserves.’ OThanks to Nigel Parry and Adam Carey for their reports from the conference


Letter from Brisbane STEVE HARE EYE LIGHTING

Choosing the right switch Far too much emphasis is placed on choosing buzzword-compliant lighting controls rather than establishing exactly who will be using them, and how likely they are to realise the potential benefits


t is widely said in the lighting industry that controls are the future. I agree. For decades people have been pointing to all of those office lights illuminating empty desks at night in every city around the world. But have we started switching them off? No. I can’t think of a more blatant waste of energy. We simply can’t rely on human intervention to turn lights off every night in an office or other communal building. The only way we can ensure that this energy is not wasted is to use control systems. I am by no means an expert in this field. I have had my fair share of exposure to control systems, but I am no boffin. But most of us don’t need to be. What we need to be able to do, as an industry, is to become effective in the application of the technology available. This is the art of assessing the advantages and disadvantages of the available systems to effectively implement The librarian a system that is suitable for the application in hand. at my high school The ‘application’ of a control system would work out is not just a spreadsheet assessment how to turn all the of weighted benefits. The control system is the interface between the lights on and turn user and the lighting system. There them all off again are certain operations it will do that and use controls the people in the space will not know about, but there are many operations to do little else” that they will want to be in control of. So who is controlling the lighting? If you are lighting an IT company’s office, use a state of the art control system with an LCD touchscreen or control via an ipad. However, if the end user is not so tech savvy then something simpler would be more appropriate. I think of the librarian at my high school, a lovely soul who would do anything to help you, but would she use all the benefits of a touchscreen interfaced lighting system? I imagine she would work out how to turn them all on and all off again and use it to do little else. To use established control systems as an example, Dali has been widely accepted as the lighting control system protocol for


STEVE HARE, systems engineer, EYE LIGHTING | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

many years. It offers many benefits over 1-10V and DSI. The main functional difference is that Dali allows each light fixture to be independently addressed and, therefore, independently controlled. But in application, do many people really need independent control of every light fitting? This is where the ‘art’ of matching a control system to the application is important. There must be hundreds of expensive and versatile lighting control systems around the world that do not offer the end user any benefit over a cheaper, simpler system because of the people using it. You may be able to retrieve the exact burn hours of every lamp, for example, but if the facility manager doesn’t know how to use this, or even know it’s available, where is the benefit? (I would like to add that I am not writing this article to disparage Dali, it just makes for a good reference that many of us can relate to.) Why does this mismatch happen? What is wrong with the procurement process that so often results in the installed system not delivering the best value for a customer? The task ahead in matching up the right control system to the right end user is going to get more difficult before it gets easier. My advice to end users looking to upgrade or implement a control system is simple: think about what you want the system to do for you, not about how the system works or what the system has, or physically is. Whether it uses infrared, a mesh network, ZigBee or IPV6, these facts all represent system pros and cons for your application. The whole life cost of the lighting and control system is likely to be significant, not to mention the non-tangible benefits it can add, so give this system the priority it deserves at procurement stage. Employ specialist lighting consultants who can judge impartially which systems will work best for you. We’ve witnessed the boom in LED chip development. We are now in a boom phase for control systems. With it will come a plethora of different options and many hurdles to overcome, so do your homework and invest time to establish who will be using and managing the control system. And if you are illuminating empty desks at night, please contact your preferred lighting consultant immediately.

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China, where anything is possible The variation in the quality of lighting in China – and how well it is understood – is huge


he LED lighting market in Asia Pacific witnessed growth of 28 per cent from 2011 to 2012, and this rapid expansion is predicted to go on for several more years. LED lighting penetration is set to increase from 16.8 per cent in 2012 to 50 per cent by 2017, and market revenue is expected to grow to nearly $16 billion in 2017. China is playing a key role in this growth and is one of the ‘hot spots’ in the Asia Pacific region, along with Australia, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and India.

Front runner One of the reasons for China’s position as a front runner in the growth of LED manufacturing and consumption is that it is at an advanced stage of phasing out inefficient lamps. Taiwan started phasing out incandescent lamps in 2010 to achieve a full ban by the end of 2012. Hong Kong has begun an energy-efficiency labelling scheme Major lighting for LED lamps and China has banned projects in China’s imports and sales of incandescent lamps of 15W and above, hoping to larger cities are eradicate them completely by 2016. among the best China is undergoing a move from linear fluorescent lighting to in the world. The widespread use of LED. As well as same can’t be increasing demand for lighting thanks said of lighting to urbanisation and rapid population growth, there is also significant regulation” infrastructure investment by the government, particularly with the construction of high-speed highways. This is spurring on the growth of low-energy lighting. China is the major centre for LED lighting manufacturers, and as a result offers abundant choice both in terms of quality and price. The local market seems saturated with what Europeans regard as unregulated product. This means that global brands like Megaman focus attention on China’s project-based business, rather than on the domestic mass market, putting together fixture and light source packages for major installations. Obviously in a country with such a diverse economy as China,

‘‘ | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

lighting sophistication varies widely, depending on whether you’re talking about a rural community or a megacity. However, overall, China is becoming more sophisticated in its purchasing patterns, as disposable income increases and the population embraces the power of branding. In fact in the larger cities, major lighting projects are seen as some of the best in the world in terms of both technological quality and innovation. The same can’t be said of lighting regulation. Although there is the CCC product quality mark, lighting regulation is not well enforced. With this in mind, Megaman chooses to follow international standards, even within China, that are supervised by international bodies such as the IEC, UL and Energy Star. Market surveillance – both in Europe and China – leaves much to be desired, so it is the consumer that drives demand, based on the quality of LED product they are willing to purchase. The context is dramatically different in East and West, and this tends to drive a demand for lower quality, lower priced LED lighting in the Chinese mass market. Everything is possible in China when it comes to quality. There are lighting manufacturers making the most innovative LED lamp technology in the world and then there are myriad small lighting companies churning out LED sources for the mass market. With such enormous price pressure in the domestic market, it is easy to find a major complex in Shanghai with the best-of-the-best in terms of high quality LED lighting situated near to a small lighting store selling budget LEDs for the price of a Big Mac.

Import export It is estimated that 40 per cent of global LED sales and revenue is in China; so much of the revenue of Chinese lighting manufacturers is accounted for by exports to other countries. At present, Asian manufacturers have the edge when exporting, as pricing is a key factor for customers. However, as the home economy continues to develop, there is debate as to the longer term future of China’s competitiveness. Although China is no longer the cheapest labour market it is still relatively inexpensive and thanks to the expertise in the semiconductor industry, it now has refined techniques that will offset increasing employee costs for many years to come.

Controlling LED Smoothly From the light source. To the system. To the user interface With our extensive range of products, including LED drivers, modules and intelligent lighting control solutions, you can smoothly and effectively control your choice of luminaires. Visit or email us at for more information.


Ray Molony The industry’s time to shine Ray Molony, founder of Lux Review


id you know that 2014 is the international year of family farming, buses, small island developing states, crystallography and solidarity with the people of Palestine? Me neither. In case you’re wondering who decides these things, it’s the United Nations. Ban Ki-moon and his team assess lots of ideas and requests, and the final say probably goes to Bono or Angelina Jolie. Whoever decides, they’ve gone and done us in the built environment’ is officially part of the remit. the lighting business a big favour because they’ve Marsha and John, I salute you. nominated 2015 as the International Year of Light Sadly, there’s no real funding from Unesco, and Light-based Technologies. the bit of the UN that actually co-ordinates Bit of a mouthful, but I’m sure Angelina won’t the International Year events. Instead, most mind if we leave out the last bit and just call it activities will be at the country level, co-ordinated the International Year of Light. If it raises the by national committees. The IALD says it plans to profile of lighting the way it did use the International Year of Light to for crystallography (2013) or the raise the profile of the lighting design You have rapprochement of cultures (2010) profession, bring more attention to then it will be truly brilliant. lighting in general and publicise to admire the The chiefs of the International the role of proper lighting, properly foresight of the Association of Lighting Designers designed, in ensuring human comfort IALD – and Philips were so excited when they found and productivity. out that we were going to get our All God’s work, I’m sure you’ll agree. – for recognising very own year that they phoned up You have to admire the foresight the potential of the United Nations: and vision of the IALD – and indeed the Year of Light” IALD: ‘It’s brilliant you guys are Philips – for recognising the potential going to celebrate lighting, the built of the Year of Light and getting in environment and all that…’ early to shape the programme. Ban: ‘How did you get my number?’ In fairness, they are not the only people who IALD: ‘We got in touch to see how we can have latched on to the IYL (as it will no doubt be get involved and help make the Year of referred to in the coming months). Many national Light a big success and raise the profile of associations are considering it, and even some architectural lighting…’ governments are interested. The Sparc International Ban (or whoever it was): ‘Never heard of it…’ Lighting Event in Sydney in May is an opportunity It turns out that the UN had never really heard for Australia to be part of it. of architectural lighting and didn’t realise it was The thing is, raising the profile of lighting does an industry. In their minds, the Year of Light was translate into actual hard business. We’ve seen about science and research – that kind of thing. that over the past decade. So the International Year The good news is that Marsha Turner and of Light (not forgetting light-based technologies John Martin of the IALD managed to explain to obviously) is a golden opportunity for everyone the powers that be about our industry and how who loves lighting to use the UN nomination to important it is, and got it included. help achieve the IALD’s laudable aims at a local level. Even better, the IALD has agreed to pony up And if 2015 doesn’t quite meet our expectations, a not-insubstantial wad of cash to sponsor the we can always lend our support to the UN’s International Year of Light. Philips Lighting is nomination for 2016: the International Year of Pulses. also on board as a patron sponsor. And ‘light in Lentil, anyone?











Reality check Gobbledygook or Googledygook? Gordon Routledge, Lux Review Australia’s resident lighting expert, tackles another lighting myth


obbledygook; a word that, says the Oxford perhaps some other emerging protocol to talk to English Dictionary, means ‘Language that is each other, but ultimately you will interact with and meaningless or is made unintelligible by the control them over the internet. All of this seems a excessive use of technical terms’. bit futuristic, and it is difficult to imagine how you Gobbledygook has been sweeping across the will interact with your internet-enabled lights at lighting industry for years. It started with the term the same time as your internet-enabled washing ‘city beautification,’ which literally means lighting up machine. Why would you want to? buildings in a city. It has now evolved into ‘liveable Okay, time to hand over to an organisation that can cities’, what was once more commonly known as make sense of all this. What we need is a company ‘better street lighting’. Worried about the amount that sees the future, one that has already changed of daylight in your office, or the blue light from your the way we interact and is used to harvesting vast computer screen? You need some ‘human-centric quantities of data: Google. lighting’, which used to be known as lighting design In January this year, Google purchased a small – or common sense. start-up company – founded in 2010 The latest piece of gobbledygook by former Apple executives – called to enter the lighting dictionary Nest Labs. Nest makes an internetThe internet is ‘connected lighting.’ It has connected, self-learning thermostat of things is not taken me some time to get my and, more recently, interneta passing fad, it head around what connected connected smoke alarms. Nest set lighting actually is; it certainly out to make unloved devices useful is the realisation isn’t connected in the way lighting and, learning from the Apple model, that the protocol used to be connected, with wires. has done an inspiring job with sleek that connects us It appears connected lighting designs that are easy to install, set must include some form of all is the internet” up and live with. So what will Google smartphone application so do with all this data? Is the fact you can interact with lights. that I regularly burn toast – or that when my wife turns the heating up, For example, a colourI turn it down – really useful? Perhaps not. However, changing lamp that flashes when you get a letting utility companies turn down my heating when tweet, or lights that know your location in it knows I’m not at home – or when the power grid the supermarket and send you a recipe idea is experiencing heavy demand – in exchange for a for your dinner. discount, will be attractive. In reality, ‘connected lighting’ is part of a much bigger global megatrend that is So there we have it – what we need is less gobbledygook and a sprinkling of Googledygook to ‘the internet of things’ – please excuse the help us make sense of the world ahead. Perhaps, gobbledygook. It is estimated that, by 2025, more than 26 billion devices will be connected in the future, lights will truly be connected and automatically react to what we are doing; the to the internet, that’s nearly four devices trick will be in doing this in a way that is easy and for every person on the planet. Incidentally, intuitive, something that is sadly missing from electricity meters will be one of the first arrivals lighting controls today. on the Internet of Things as smart meters are It’s a tough job and with Google cash wafting rolled out to every UK home by 2020. around, if I had the answer I wouldn’t be writing The internet of things is not a passing fad, it this column now. Still not convinced the internet of is the realisation that the common protocol that things will be big business? Then why did Google connects us all is the internet. Yes, lights will still pay $3.4 billion for Nest? be wired together and may use Dali or ZigBee or


FOLLOW GORDON ON TWITTER @gordonroutledge | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

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PIYUSH AGGARWALA Business development manager, Supreme Components International

CHINESE COMPETITION In response to a Lux news story about LED makers facing growing competition from China

Hang on a second. We, predominantly the industrialised northern hemisphere countries, shifted production of LEDs to China more than a decade ago. While the Chinese were producing global-branded lamps (Philips et al), that was OK, but when a Chinese company climbs on the bus with self-branded products, that is suddenly a problem? Like it was never going to happen? We chase cheap labour and low costs and then presume not to understand the inevitable outcome of that action. You don’t need to be a Marxist to know when capitalism starts to eat itself. The reason this has always mattered is the same reason Henry Ford paid his workforce enough to buy the damned cars they were making – without that circular economy, Ford had no market. So now we see what happens when you shift your home-built electronics industry halfway around the world. Don’t look so surprised! We can always go and live in China – they might even have jobs for us. JOHN BULLOCK John Bullock Lighting Design and GreenSpec Light


Customs House, Sydney illuminated for the city’s Vivid festival earlier this year. Photo by Louise Kelly.

Build quality is crucial but we’re seeing signs of big improvements. Clearly China is a production source that needs to be monitored. It’s difficult for many manufacturers to compete on price, given labour cost differential. If all this drives the wholesale adoption of LED, then that is a greater benefit – both for energy consumption and carbon emissions.

and smart, nobody can be a threat. The ones who feel the threat do so because they didn’t catch up. We can all work together to make the LED lighting cake bigger.

MARK SAIT Director,

The LED market in the AsiaPacific region is about to see a major upsurge. Everything will have to be replaced eventually, so it is inevitable that there will be a much bigger market for LED products. With the growth in the LED market, we might start to see more bans on incandescent lamps. Although it is only Australia that enforces the mandatory replacement of incandescent lamps at the moment, I believe the other

Chinese manufacturers make LED lamps more affordable for poorer people. Western companies can focus on the high-end commercial lighting market. Also, some of the Chinese manufacturers have published new designs and unique products, which introduce innovation to the market. If you are really innovative

Join the discussion in the Lighting Talk group on LinkedIn | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

countries in the region will follow in the next five to seven years.

PASCAL HU Overseas sales manager, Signcomplex


I make floodlights, have done for some time, but it worries me when I open up a lot of the cheap imported lights produced in China. I will not go into detail but I have opened up many that have no cable clamp, allowing the cable to be stripped inside the body. I have seen such low quality with zero internal earthing and no insulation on terminal blocks, or simple crimps used to make connections. Let us not even start with steel screws, thinner castings (high copper content ones), and copy diodes, overdriven. Not to mention drivers glued into the housing instead of on gear trays, factories using non-polyfoam packaging to protect in transit... the list goes on. BARRIE VESTY Operations director, Auraled Lighting

A TIME FOR LIGHT As I’m sure you know, the United Nations General Assembly 68th Session proclaimed 2015 the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies. With great indignation, we

Join thousands of lighting professionals to chew over the biggest issues facing the industry, including quality, safety and intellectual property


found that in the Prospectus – An International Year of Light – lighting designers are not mentioned at all. Light is only considered as an element of the physics or optics, or worse as a noise for astronomical observations. This is a profound injustice; the fact that lighting design is not recognised as one of the cornerstones of the event is an omission that must to be changed altogether. For this reason, the Italian Lighting Designers’ professional network, in special partnership with the Social Light Movement, launched the campaign #LightUp2015 International Year of Light – to raise awareness with as many people as possible and to ask

all professional associations to work together ensuring that 2015 will also be the year of the lighting designers. Today the petition has been signed by just over 1,200 supporters living in 60 different countries around the world. The petition letter was delivered to the associations when the 1,000th signature was received, but the signature collection will be open until December 2014 and can be found at Let’s #LightUp2015! CHIARA CARUCCI Lighting designer

WHAT IS THE MOST SUITABLE COLOUR TEMPERATURE FOR RETAIL? I would say 5000K, so the area looks bright, inviting and clean. Andrew Hogston UK business development manager, DDI Group I would use different cuts with high CRI. This will bring the colours of the products out. A high R9 will help with meat products. Too high a colour temperature will make products look saturated. Brendon Airey Lightsense


IN RESPONSE TO RAY MOLONY’S ARTICLE ‘30 RULES OF GOOD LIGHTING’ (ON P62 OF THIS ISSUE)S Urbain du Plessis COO, energy efficiency at Greenearth Energy Superb condensed wisdom! You could add: ‘Consider that you are going to live with the decision for many years to come.’ Achraf Bouchaala self-employed It’s an amazing article, especially ‘no-one has ever acted on my advice’. This is my principal problem. Paul Clay visual artist and designer A pleasure to read. Especially ‘don’t light the floor’. One sees this time and again with residential relights. One very small thing I might add: I always like to check the R6 too for LEDs because there tends to be such a cyan valley, and R6 is about the closest. Gary Winten, Entrepreneur Nice. Sums up many years of learning on an A4 sheet. Valid points that lighting designers and interior designers alike have been (re) presenting for donkey’s years. Trouble is: how can this become publicly known other than by getting a number of calendar manufacturers to emblazon one point a day as a header on every single page? ;-)

Do you want a single colour temperature, or a mix? You can light the verticals and architectural visual features in warm light, and fresh fruit in a cooler light. Breads in warm lights, meats in specialist lights. You can make it look like everything is warm, even though the fruit is cool. Thomas Paterson Director, lighting design, Lux Populi SA de CV Spectrum, not CCT, is the key. LEDs have Ras and CCTs all over the place. 4000, 5000 or 5500K looks different across various vendors. Michael Ng Global Lighting Association If it is 5000K and you are selling surfwear at a beach promenade, then maybe yes. If it is chocolates around Christmas then no. The choice of light depends on the kind of shop. Ivo Rutten Head of new business development, Philips Join thousands of lighting professionals in our Lighting Talk group on LinkedIn:

On LinkedIn, click on Interests, then Groups, and search for Lighting Talk. Or go straight to

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |



Quality, price and reputation are the qualities we look for in products and suppliers” | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3


Michael Sheehan Engineering services manager, Jones Lang LaSalle

Finding the right products can be tough Central Plaza One is a 48-storey building and annex, with more than 20 tenants and 1,800 people. I’m in charge of operations, so I juggle a lot of capital expenditure, ensure a high level of risk compliancy, and run the building from day to day. It does have its challenges. My role includes looking at lighting upgrades and power consumption. One of my biggest challenges with lighting is finding a product that will be efficient, but also reliable. It would be helpful if manufacturers and suppliers made more information available that showcases new technologies. I have a lot of priorities to balance It’s all about balancing efficiency, cost and reliability. Some of our fittings are installed as high as 16 metres and we do not want to be hiring boom lifts every second week to access them. We research and seek professional advice on what we look to install before going to market. When we’re researching a product or supplier, quality, price and reputation are the qualities that we look for. Our tenants love simple controls When tenants leave and there’s old lighting, we strip the entire floor back to open plan and install mechanical upgrades that include sensors. That way, when new tenants come in the lights turn on and off automatically and the tenants pay about half as much for electricity. They love it. A major upgrade like this can only really be done when a tenant moves out because it’s very intrusive work. Some tenants have tried cheaper LED options, but they’re not reliable and the savings weren’t true savings. There’s still plenty of work to do Our main objectives with new installations are to reduce the energy consumption significantly through the best available technology. We are working on a foyer lighting upgrade, and it’s a challenging project because of the almost 2,000 light fittings and the location of the lights in the foyer core and in the ceiling three floors up. Other lighting projects include upgrades in the plant rooms. We’re looking at EnLighten products for these rooms. It’s still very much in the concept stage, but when looking at lighting for this room, one factor we have to consider is the safety of automatic lighting for rooms with people working in them. We are proud of the recent car park and emergency exit lighting installation, which has received a lot of attention from both tenants and colleagues. Everyone’s very pleased with the result.

We’ve had our share of bad experiences with LEDs Our initial uses of LED lighting were not very successful and in some cases did not achieve the expected outcomes in regards to energy consumption and longevity of product. In some cases the lighting had to be removed. However we are trialling some LED lights to replace a blue neon light feature that adorns the top of the building. This light feature will have a colour change control system built into it. Tenants need to be part of your energy-saving efforts We love working with our tenants. We hold quarterly environmental and sustainable management committee meetings with them to share initiatives in the workplace and implement changes that can be introduced by all tenants. As we track all data, at the meeting we can run through how much energy each tenant is using. At one of these meetings we took the tenants ‘back of house’ so they could understand what we’re doing. We had a lot of good feedback from that meeting.

CUTTING COSTS IN THE CAR PARK Michael Sheehan has recently overseen a $240,000 upgrade to the car park in the basement of Central Plaza One. The building has 257 car park spaces, spread over four floors with 24 hour lighting, so the switch from fluorescent tubes to LED lights with sensors has made a big difference to the energy usage of the space. The energy savings are predicted to be 84 per cent, with a payback of just over three years. The lighting upgrade, along with a number of other upgrades in the building, has led to a 4.5-star Nabers rating (see Jargonbuster, p92). It has also enabled Sheehan to apply for a $7,000 rebate under the Energex Positive Payback scheme.

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


Looking like a million

BUCKS Henry Bucks’ flagship store in Melbourne has a smart new LED scheme thanks to Aglo. The CRI of the scheme is 95, so the clothes look great. Robert Bain reports


ashion retailers know that making clothes look great in store is everything. And Henry Bucks showcases menswear from the likes of Hackett, Pringle, Barbour and Stefano Ricci – alongside its own brands – so the overall look of the stores has to match that of the clothes. The company has seven stores across Australia, with its flagship outlet in the central business district of Melbourne – where Henry Buck opened his first shop in 1890.

True colours Local company Red Design, working on behalf of Henry Bucks, approached lighting supplier Aglo to create a high-quality lighting installation with excellent colour rendering for the store. The lighting had to provide a comfortable, glarefree environment that made customers feel welcome. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

95 CRI


The LED scheme shows the designer clothes in the best light, regardless of ambient light or ceiling conďŹ guration

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


The more welcome they feel, the longer they’re likely to spend in the store. Different concepts were required for the ground floor, which has an exposed ceiling, and the basement, which has a plaster ceiling. The ground floor has windows on to the street, the basement has no windows. Both floors presented different lighting challenges.

Effective combination A combination of track-mounted spotlights on the ground floor, and twin, recessed adjustable | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

All the LED sources in the scheme have a CRI of 95 and are incorporated in fixtures designed by Aglo

downlights were used throughout the scheme. All the fixtures incorporate LED sources from Cree. The colour rendering index of the sources was 95, to ensure customers can judge the appearance of the clothing on display accurately.

Efficient fixtures Technical lighting fixtures for the project were designed, assembled and configured by Aglo, using LEDs from Cree and drivers from Tridonic. The result is a great-looking store, and a scheme that’s highly efficient in its energy use.



The lighting had to provide a glare-free environment that made customers feel welcome’



KIDSTORE, WESTFIELD FOUNTAIN GATE SHOPPING CENTRE For the Kidstore fitout at Westfield Fountain Gate Shopping Centre, Satelight produced some impressive pendant lights. The bright yellow internal fabric contrasts with the white exterior of the lampshade. A block-out white material was used to ensure the exterior was consistently white even when the lights are illuminated. The effective use of colour creates a playful look and ties in with the inviting feel of this retail space.

2 PARENTS ROOM, CANBERRA CENTRE The parents’ room at the Canberra Centre is a little sanctuary for parents and their children. The interior is cleverly designed with comfortable seating and wall-mounted toys close to basins, toilets and change tables. To add to the interior, Satelight supplied black Helio S pendant lights. A cluster of these metal can-style lights is above the main seating area with another Helio S light highlights a large basin.

3 PASPALEY PEARL BOUTIQUE, CROWN CASINO, MELBOURNE At Paspaley ‘s pearl boutique in Melbourne’s crown Casino the company worked with architect Carbondale and lighting designer Mindseye to capture the brand’s image. Each display has its own lighting treatment. Mindseye’s approach to the façade was inspired by Paspaley’s strandstringing technique. Fortynine strands of LEDs are fitted behind frosted glass framed by mirrors.

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


An education in

EFFICIENCY A trio of local councils in WA have joined forces to demonstrate the benefits of efficient lighting. Annie Waddington-Feather reports


he Grove Precinct in Perth’s western suburbs is a joint project of Cottesloe, Peppermint Grove and Mosman Park councils and incorporates an eco-library, a community learning centre and the Shire of Peppermint Grove administration offices. In 2007, the councils decided to replace the small library and hired architects Cox Howlett and Bailey Woodland, and lighting and electrical consultant ETC to tackle the project. After consulting the community, it became clear that residents wanted the new building to have as many green features as possible. Fortunately the project attracted $1.5 million from the Commonwealth Government’s Green Precincts Fund – although the total cost was $18.4 million. The area of the building is about 2,000m2.

Demonstration project As well as saving energy and cutting maintenance, it was important that the high-profile building continue to demonstrate its energy-saving features to the public. ‘It is very much an educative role, complementary to the educational role of libraries in general,’ says Debra Burn, the Grove’s manager of library services. Sebastian Corvaia, director and lighting design manager at ETC, says: ‘Budget constraints and the need to deliver value to users and community were the greatest challenges of the project.’ Lighting energy efficiency is ensured by extensive use of daylight and the dimmable T5 fluorescent sources. The lighting control system includes strategically located sensors that dim rows of lights in different daylight zones. This system alone should save about 17,000kWh a year. Metal halide spots and local LED task lights also help ensure efficiency. Light sources have been carefully chosen to suit mounting heights and local illumination requirements. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

‘The versatility of the interior spaces meant the lighting needed to respond to both traditional print and electronic media,’ says Corvaia. ‘Glare from both daylight and electrical lighting had to be considered. This was done through the choice of suitable luminaires and sun-shading devices.’ The result is that library users often comment on how much they enjoy working in a building with an abundance of daylight. ‘The building was designed and built before affordable LED lighting systems became available and the three councils are considering the benefits of moving to this low-energy light source,’ says Burn.

Outdoor activities The extensive exterior areas include the building entrance and forecourt, the children’s playground and public access. ‘Each of these areas has different lighting criteria that require unique lighting design solutions,’ says Corvaia. ‘Cost and energy efficiency were also significant factors.’ Although the scheme had to comply with the technical requirements for outdoor pedestrian lighting set out in AS 1158, the need to create an inviting and stimulating visual environment was another factor. Although the precinct has low crime, it was important that the lighting eliminated any ‘perceptions of fear’. Lighting solutions adopted throughout the external areas include: Forecourt OGround-wash lights to the entry pathways OTotem lights to steps and ramps OLigman underwater LEDs to the central artwork OLow-glare spots to the main entry area Pathways OPole-mounted lights along Stirling Hwy and Leake Street


The scheme saves energy but also creates an inviting and stimulating visual environment


OLow-glare bollards to the eastern public laneway/ right of way ORecessed floor-wash lights to entry ramp

OLow-glare spots to the northern side ORGB LED spots built into concrete elements to illuminate the northern sun screen

Greenwalls and gardens ORecessed uplights ORecessed floor-wash lights

The building has won several awards, including the ‘Energy Smart’ category of the 2012 National Awards for Local Government. Both the interior and exterior lighting schemes at Grove Precinct received Awards of Commendation from the IES.

Library breakout space OLight cube seats

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


Keeping the

LIGHTS ON Robert Bain finds out how lighting helped one South African property owner slash its electrical load by a massive 5.5 megawatts, and help the country avoid blackouts


outh Africa is one of the biggest coal producers in the world. But it’s short of electricity. Supply hasn’t kept up with demand in the country, and in 2008 things got so bad that national energy provider Eskom had to resort to rolling blackouts. Lights went off for hours at a time in homes, businesses and industry over several weeks, forcing many of the mines that underpin the country’s economy to temporarily shut down.

WATCH THE VIDEO Watch Aurora’s video on the Growthpoint project at | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

Since then things have been better, and the country enjoyed six years without blackouts (a run broken only when this year’s persistent rain disrupted coal supplies). The smoother ride has been thanks in large part to Eskom helping its customers make big reductions in electricity consumption – and lighting has been a key part of the solution.

Cutting demand ‘To address the situation, we built, and are building, a lot of new power stations,’ says Andrew Etzinger, head of customer services at electricity provider Eskom. ‘But it’s not enough.’ ‘We needed an aggressive demand-side management programme to bring down demand for electricity to a level where we could keep the lights on.’ Property developer Growthpoint was one of the energy users to benefit from funding from Eskom to get its energy consumption down, and lighting was one of the key ways to do it, says Essop Basha, the firm’s head of utilities and sustainability. ‘The nice thing about lighting is that it is the low-hanging fruit in terms of achieving considerable energy savings instantly with appropriate LED technology,’ Basha said. ‘Lighting is a more precise science [than other energy-saving measures]. There are a certain number of variables, and if you’ve got those variables right, you can actually calculate your

Lighting is one of the easiest ways to save energy, says Growthpoint’s Essop Basha


This shopping centre is just one of more than 100 sites to be upgraded


ROI, your reduction in carbon emissions, and your energy savings.’ Growthpoint approached lighting manufacturer Aurora, which conducted energy-saving audits at a number of sites and put together a bundle of energysaving products to suit the needs of Growthpoint and its tenants. In a $4 million project, Aurora provided more than 100,000 energy-efficient lamps and light fittings for 157 of Growthpoint’s properties, including shopping centres, offices and industrial buildings. Aurora also advised on lighting design and helped to manage the project.

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |



Lighting is the low-hanging fruit of energy savings” Essop Basha, Growthpoint

Around 60,000 T8 tubes were converted to T5, as were 17,000 1200x600 panels. Sixteen thousand 50W halogen downlights were replaced with Aurora LED fittings, and 8,500 400W mercury vapour high bays were convert to 200W metal halide using equipment from Venture.

Huge savings

Installing new lowenergy fittings at an industrial site


5,500kW DEMAND REDUCTION | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3


million kWh

The low-energy lighting project reduced Growthpoint’s electrical load by 5,500 kilowatts and slashed annual energy consumption by 23 million kWh – savings which were verified independently by the University of Johannesburg. It has helped Eskom to reduce demand across the country by 591,000 kW in 2012-13. Basha said: ‘The challenge was finding a partner that would actually make decisions quickly, would listen to our needs and be able to bring in product over and above their own offering where there was a particular product that they didn’t have. Aurora met all these conditions, they provided a good solution, and they provided the kind of backing and support that we were comfortable with from a warranty point of view.’


As simple as it sounds

Introducing the new Director® DR8 MK2 LED, the next generation of remote controlled luminaire from RCL.

Individually adjustable in pan, tilt and dim level using a simple handheld controller, the Director® DR8 MK2 is ideal for double height spaces due to

its high output and precision floor level adjustability. Bold styling and high versatility set this spotlight apart, while its compact design allows for seamless integration into troughs just 200mm wide. Available in a choice of beamwidths including a very narrow 8° with a peak intensity of 51,000cd and a colour rendering of CRI 92 as standard.



GOES GLOBAL with LEDs The world’s biggest retailer has been an LED advocate for over a decade, but after its latest rollout, LEDs will be the de facto solution for general lighting throughout its stores worldwide. Mark Faithfull reports


o matter which way you dice it, Walmart is simply enormous. The largest retail operation in the world, its more than 245 million weekly customers shop in more than 11,300 stores under 71 different banners in 27 countries. In its fiscal year 2014, Walmart notched up sales of over $503 billion, helping it employ more than two million staff worldwide. That makes it the biggest employer in the world. Needless to say, anything Walmart does by way of global specification and procurement is going to be significant. In late April, Walmart made an announcement about lighting – LEDs to be precise – as the retailer affirmed plans to purchase LED ceiling lighting fixtures for new ‘supercenters’ – large scale, general merchandise and grocery stores – in the US, stores in Asia, Latin America and the UK. The new fixtures will use 40 per cent less energy than lighting sources historically used in Walmart stores and are part of the retailer’s goal to reduce by 20 per cent the number of kilowatt-hours (kWh) used per square metre to operate Walmart’s buildings by 2020. Walmart’s motivations are twofold – first, it decided a number of years ago to take a market-leading position in sustainability in the retail sector across all its various facets; second, lower energy consumption equals lower energy costs, a significant factor in the low-margin world of value retailing, especially when energy is second only to staffing in operational costs. At the time of the announcement, Doug McMillon, president and chief executive officer of Walmart, declared: ‘We have worked to find and scale energyefficient LED lighting solutions that are cost effective | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

and high quality, and now, working with GE, we’re paving the way to make this a mainstream solution for the retail industry. LEDs have become an integral part of our energy-efficiency model for our stores and play a key role in achieving our overall sustainability goals. Just as important, the energy cost savings coming from these innovations will help us maintain low prices.’ Indeed, LEDs are nothing new for Walmart. The company first started testing LEDs over a decade ago, first with coloured signage, then with chiller and freezer unit lighting, where – working with GE – the companies managed to deliver a product with a three-year payback. As Charles Zimmerman, head of international design and construction at Walmart, told Lux Review Australia: ‘The energy efficiency and the additional advantages of removing heat output meant we started an immediate rollout, retrofitting around 500 stores yearly in the US, plus stores overseas.

Stores in the US, Mexico, the UK and beyond are involved in the LED rollout


Asda is playing a big part in Walmart’s global LED lighting rollout

‘Now we’re on generation six of those LEDs and they consume just 17 per cent of the energy of those generation one LEDs. The change is so dramatic that we are replacing the originals, even though they are still working, because of the huge leap in technology.’ The impact of this initiative is now worldwide and Zimmerman wants this latest programme to have a similarly universal impact. ‘When I go around the world looking at competitor stores, I can’t recall the last time I saw a refrigerator which wasn’t lit with LEDs,’ he says. ‘That’s the same influence we’d like to achieve with this general lighting rollout and we’re happy to share what we’re doing with any store group, including competitors.’ The decision to install GE LED lighting is the result of a pilot programme at Walmart’s first all-LED supercenter in South Euclid, Ohio, which launched

in October 2013. This pilot helped the company gauge the quality and efficiency of the GE fixtures and to evaluate the return on investment, with the Luminatio IS Series luminaires predominantly used for the ceiling application. Not only is it the final component of the switchover to LED, it is also the most significant by far. The main sales floor lighting represents about 90 per cent of the total lighting use in each building, so the implementation will reduce total energy use per store by more than five per cent in the US alone. Installation of the GE LED ceiling lighting begins at Walmart’s wholly-owned UK subsidiary Asda, with 10 new stores scheduled this year. Brazil will have 30 store remodels; Central America 10 new stores; China 24 new stores; Mexico 37 new stores and the US 30 new stores. In most of these regions, energy

Walmart’s LED history 2003 Starts using LEDs in store signage


2005 Installs first LED freezer case lights



Installs first LED car park lighting in US




First LED sales floor lighting at stores in US and Mexico


Opens first 100 per cent LED-lit store in Euclid, Ohio

Reveals plan to light more than 150 stores with LEDs



2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |



620,000,000kWh will be saved over the next decade

savings of between 40 and 50 per cent are expected. This somewhat oversimplifies the reality. In fact, some parts of the world are ahead of others – China and Japan are already LED-only for new builds and the UK’s Asda is also well down the LED road, and opened its first all-LED store last year. Zimmerman says that the new-build programme will dictate implementation, with the UK and US beginning to see the change by the summer and autumn respectively. The move to LED ceiling lighting in the US is expected to save about 340,000kWh for each store, representing more than $36,000 in savings per year per store. With 200 new Walmart stores adopting the new GE LED ceiling lighting over the next two years, this adds up to total energy savings of 620 million kilowatt-hours over the next decade. Walmart has also undergone a programme to replace T5 fluorescent fittings with LEDs throughout its distribution centre network. This effort, combined with the installation of more efficient liquid circulation pumps for some refrigeration systems, led to a decrease of more than 30 million kilowatt-hours and savings of over US$2 million (€1.46 million). The full retrofit of LEDs in the distribution centre network is expected to be completed in 2016.




EXPECTED ENERGY SAVINGS | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3


Lumination IS Series luminaires from GE are the backbone of the lighting upgrade plan

‘To look at our drive for energy reduction you really need to look at two major pillars,’ says Charles Zimmerman, Walmart’s head of international design and construction at Bentonville, Arkansas-based Walmart. ‘Firstly, our former CEO Lee Scott set us off on a massive sustainability programme in 2005 and LEDs fit into that. But if you go back to our founder Sam Walton, you’ll see he was obsessed with reducing costs and, after labour, energy is our second largest cost.’ Zimmerman says that as LED technology became viable both from a performance and an energy perspective, so it has been introduced to the stores. It has taken until now for the retailer to be happy that general lighting could be produced and perform to the necessary levels – to the required budget. ‘You have to consider that as such a huge business we can leverage economies of scale, so we sat down with GE, set them an aggressive target and then we tested out systems in trial projects last year, notably an all-LED store in Ohio,’ he says. The rollout will travel at different speeds, in part driven by new-build programmes and in part by regional differences. ‘China has been all LED since 2009, Japan retrofitted two years ago,’ says Zimmerman. ‘In the US we’ll focus on new builds and then we’ll look at retrofit, but as you can imagine we have an enormous store estate.’ Some of the smaller stores, operating shorter hours, will not be adapted. ‘We have some stores where their size, trading hours and the fact that daylight harvesting further reduces burning hours means it just doesn’t stack up,’ he explains. But Zimmerman also notes that the LED programme is changing the way the retailer is thinking about lighting. ‘As a sector we’ve been pretty conservative with lighting,’ he says. ‘Up until now the lighting has been indirect, but we’re looking at using direct lighting and getting more of that onto the face of the merchandise, which means we can forget about worrying about how much light is hitting the floor. So it’s about more than saving costs and the environment, it’s about creating better lit stores.’

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2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


1.4 BILLION customers… and counting Tobias Gourlay looks at how local and overseas companies are tapping into the enormous opportunities to be found in today’s China


sk the lighting person on the street in Boston or Berlin what they think about China’s place in the industry and you could end up with a disparaging comment – probably about the inferior quality of some LED products it produces, possibly about the value of the warranties that accompany them. Ask a lighting professional with first-hand experience of the Chinese market and you’ll get a very different response. By making the most of the cheap labour available there and incorporating the best technology, manufacturers with a base in China can compete around the world on both price and quality, says James Hunter Johnston of NVC.

Global brands NVC is the largest lighting manufacturer in China. It is unusual among Chinese lighting businesses in pursuing global brand recognition. ‘Chinese lighting companies are not prominent on the world stage and do not differentiate themselves from others,’ advises Hunter Johnston. ‘Those few Chinese lighting manufacturers who do have a presence overseas mostly operate as OEM suppliers to well-known western brands, or are suppliers to a wide range of wholesale and trading companies under multiple brands.’ Therein, perhaps, lies the root of China’s image problem. Although NVC has a growing international presence – it operates through subsidiaries and exclusive distributors in 40 countries – three-quarters of its global turnover comes from its home market. It still ‘sells a lot more inside China than outside,’ says Hunter Johnston, and there’s little reason to believe that will change any time soon. Growth in China’s lighting market, where fortunes are so deeply entwined with those of the construction industry, pre-dates the emergence | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

in recent decades of a Chinese middle class that is often credited with driving an expansion in national purchasing power. When Deng Xiaoping initiated economic reforms more than 30 years ago, city dwellers made up just 20 per cent of the population. Since then, China’s cities have gained a net 500 million people and urbanites are now in the majority – the World Bank expects them to make up 70 per cent of the total by 2030. Of these city dwellers, 40 per cent are categorised as middle class. ‘Urbanisation has fuelled the growth of the lighting market in large cities especially,’ says Hunter Johnston, ‘with recent year-on-year demand growth of about 15 per cent – double the current rate of overall economic growth’. The government of Xi Jinping is refocusing attention from the biggest metropolises to smaller cities, but Hunter Johnston expects growth to continue at current rates. These smaller cities must also advance in other areas. In order to connect almost every urban centre with a population of at least 500,000, the national high-speed rail network is scheduled to grow more than 4,000 miles by 2020. It is an example of a type of large-scale construction project regularly commissioned in China. While component makers who manufacture in China distribute their wares locally as well as overseas, luminaire manufacturers tend to focus on exporting – often because they lack the distribution networks to market their products locally.


The burgeoning middle class in cities like Shanghai is a ripe market for quality lighting products

COUNTRY REPORT For those with the ability to service the local market, the swift uptake of LED technology has been impressive. ‘The switch to LED has been faster than elsewhere in the world,’ says Charles D’Haussy, OEM and Asia sales vice-president for Lucibel LED Lighting. ‘From €15bn ($22bn) last year, the Chinese LED market should reach €23bn ($33bn) by 2020.’ With the overall domestic lighting market growing robustly, there’s room for traditional lighting manufacturers to remain on the scene, according to Mandy Wong, overseas business director of the Guangdong Lighting Trade Association. ‘For a period of time, traditional lighting products – especially



Product similarity is a very serious issue in lighting manufacturing here”


Mandy Wong Guandong Lighting Trade Association

energy-efficient lighting products – will co-exist in the market with LED products.’ Wong characterises the national lighting market as one of ‘large numbers of small-scale producers’. According to D’Haussy, domestic firms tend to do best in volume-driven consumer lighting segments. ‘We see lots of their production labelled in DIY stores – that’s where they are kings.’ Such bricks-andmortar outlets are under attack, however. ‘On the residential side, the online purchase of lighting is very strong – mainly through Taobao or’ Inferior products with short lifetimes or bad colour rendering are still available and, although D’Haussy says they are fading from China’s consumer market, quality remains an issue for more knowledgeable buyers. ‘Local businesses are yet to impose themselves on professional fixture design and controlled lighting solutions because visitors to lighting trade shows in China and Europe can clearly see the gap between European and Chinese manufacturers.’ But buyers in China are not choosing office and retail LEDs for their energy or maintenance-saving qualities. ‘Chinese professionals are after style

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |



The switch to LED has been faster in China than elsewhere in the world” Charles D’Haussy, Lucibel

Manufacturing LEDs at Osram’s new factory in Wuxi

and image,’ says D’Haussy and, with the cost of retail space rising fast, occupants are going all out to catch the eye of consumers. ‘The brighter the better.’ Insofar as branding is important to image, domestic firms are at a disadvantage. ‘Product similarity is a very serious issue in lighting manufacturing here,’ says Wong. With features such as emergency lighting and dimming not yet widely supplied or demanded, and in a market that offers less robust protection of intellectual property rights than elsewhere, it’s hard to build a reputation on the quality of your technology. ‘There’s not much control for lighting being specified by architects or designers,’ confirms D’Haussy. ‘But this should come at a later stage.’ For the moment, foreign brands remain in high demand because ‘pre-sale services, a solution-based approach and design are trump cards’. Among local manufacturers, intense price-focused competition can be the only way for a business to make its name. ‘Price war is the worst and least healthy way for them to do this,’ says Wong, noting the high bankruptcy rates among small Chinese firms. If the quality of China’s internal lighting supply does not break new ground, the unprecedented quantities involved in meeting the market’s demand for lighting have global ramifications. ‘The volume of demand is so high now that European customers are benefiting from – and riding on the back of – China’s economies of scale,’ says Hunter Johnston. With prices at home failing to cover costs, Chinese manufacturers have started to export in greater numbers and China has become an influencer on the global market. One of the results of the rapid growth of the domestic market is a ‘well-developed network of experienced LED luminaire manufacturers’, many of whom can, says Hunter Johnston, ‘supply | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

European-quality products at very competitive prices. So, far from it becoming harder for China-based firms to compete, in some respects it is becoming easier.’ Traditionally, colour temperatures used for lighting in China have been much higher than in, say, northern Europe, where offices would normally be lit with 3500-4000K. But exposure to Chinese exports with higher colour temperatures has sparked a change in taste. ‘Now it is common to use 5000K [in Europe],’ confirms Hunter Johnston. In return, European and North American construction standards have informed China’s Green Building Design Label, which it is hoped will drive long-term energy efficiency higher up the list of priorities. ‘It pushes the market to higher-quality and smarter lighting design,’ says D’Haussy, ‘although not much has been implemented yet.’ The implementation of any sort of standard across a market as large and segmented as China’s can be tricky. ‘Many people tend to approach China as a single market. In fact it is a patchwork of submarkets – from geographical and maturity points of view,’ says D’Haussy. Hunter Johnston concurs. ‘As with every market, there is a top, middle and bottom. As we would expect, their purchasing patterns are different: the top end is educated and wants quality products, while the middle and bottom are more concerned with price and have difficulty assessing brand or quality.’ So the next time someone stops you in the street to ask about the state of the lighting market in China, there will be some explaining to do. In the meantime, keep an eye on exactly how suppliers there approach the next step: control technology. ‘After the hardware improvements,’ advises D’Haussy, ‘the second phase of innovation in LED lighting is in the software. Like all of us, the Chinese industry needs to focus on controls and the overall lighting experience.’ There is reason to believe it can rise to the challenge. ‘China is as capable of making as highquality fittings as Germany or the UK,’ asserts Hunter Johnston. ‘Whether Chinese factories do so or not is a function of the care with which their customers specify what they require. Quality is not inspected into products; it is designed and specified in.’


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The 10 hottest new products at

LIGHT + BUILDING 2014 The Lux Review Australia team joined more than 200,000 people at this year’s Light + Building show in Frankfurt. We spent the week scouring the halls to find the most exciting new kit on show for 2014. Here’s our top 10…




A highly original idea by designer Dean Skira brought to life by iGuzzini’s talented optical engineers. Trick is that rare thing, a completely new LED form factor. When off, it’s an unassuming little circle (or semicircle) sticking out from a surface. Switch it on, and it projects an unbroken 360-degree band of light around the ceiling, walls and floor. You can even tune it to skip the wall it’s mounted on, and just light the opposite wall, ceiling and floor.


COELUX SKY LIGHT Born from 10 years of research by physicists at Italy’s University of Insubria, CoeLux is an artificial skylight, designed to bring the outdoors indoors. It does this by recreating the diffusion of sunlight through the earth’s atmosphere, thanks to optical nanomaterials that produce Rayleigh scattering (which is what makes the sky blue). It’s the first skylight that really recreates a sunny sky. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

Sitting quietly in the corner of the Osram stand was this LED tube, which produces 215 lm/W (OK, 205 lm/W once you take into account driver losses) at 3000K and 90 CRI. That’s pretty impressive. It does this by combining red LED chips with blue ones, phosphor-converted to green. Osram isn’t selling it at the moment – it’s just a prototype – but the company says it could be ready to ship at the end of next year.



Remember Harry Potter’s magic map, which shows every person in Hogwarts as a moving dot? Well, Philips’ new indoor positioning technology is a bit like that, only on an iPad. LED luminaires equipped with special drivers transmit a unique identifying code in the form of tiny modulations in the light they emit. It’s invisible to the human eye, but can be picked up by the camera on your smartphone or tablet – just download the app and the devices triangulates your position with astonishing accuracy. Some say it’s a solution in search of a problem, but it’s a pretty cool solution nonetheless.




SAMSUNG SMART LAMP This was just one of countless ‘smart’ lamps on show at this year’s Light + Building, but it stood out because of the ease with which it can be integrated into Samsung’s Smart Home system, which manages all kinds of devices. You can get your lights to turn on when you come home, flash when your phone rings, or dim when you turn the TV on.

This latest creation from the legendary Italian luminaire designer is more than just a lookalike of iGuzzini’s Laser Blade. Even in a shallow recess, this strip of mini LED downlights is almost completely glare free, thanks to silicon cut-off cones with integrated optics. We were very impressed, and we’ve got a feeling topend retailers will be too.


Xicato’s LED modules were already pretty impressive, and now they’ve managed to squeeze even more cleverness into that tiny package. The latest incarnation features dimming control and intelligence, thanks to built-in sensors that respond to temperature and presence. All the XIM module needs is a 48V power supply and you’re away – no need for a driver. It’s just one example of lighting getting smarter.






The onward march of the mid-power LED continues with Samsung’s new Flip Chip. It’s a tiny chip with an adhered cell film and no plastic mould, so it can be made in smaller sizes and driven at higher currents. Making mid-power LEDs with a similar phosphor structure to higher power ones also means better optical control and more precise colour tolerance – all of which helps Samsung to drive down the cost per lumen.


Instead of getting involved in the great wireless controls land-grab, Aurora has simply produced a range of products compatible with various third-party systems, and sat back to let others fight it out. The AOne module is quite happy with ZigBee, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi systems. Lux Review Australia tips its hat to Aurora for deftly staking its territory in the wireless game without adding to the already endless list of control systems being launched at L+B. The world doesn’t need 101 control systems: it just needs a handful of good ones.



Supplied on 28-metre rolls, Osram’s PrevaLED Flex Linear is designed to take the pain out of assembling LED luminaires, so they’re as easy for OEMs to make as fluorescent products. As well as providing unbroken light, it’s also flexible, opening up new design possibilities, some of which were on show at Osram’s stand. And with efficacy of up to 140 lm/W it keeps energy consumption low too.

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


The view from

FRANKFURT MANFRED RAFFLER COO, OMS ‘We’re identifying at the moment four major trends in lighting, which are linked to global trends: light and safety, energy saving, light and psychology and humancentric lighting. ‘My summary from Frankfurt is that people are not focusing so much on the lumen per watt ratio in the LED sector as they were two years ago. We see a strong concentration on light quality in applications, as well as intelligent lighting management systems. Additionally, companies are taking much more care about other benefits of light the value it can add to our lives. ‘Other industry trends that are clearly visible are dynamic and personalised lighting solutions, exploring the benefits of LED lighting more and more. ‘The market penetration of lighting management systems is just starting – many people are still used to turning lights on and off or, at most, dimming them. Active market education from the lighting industry is essential for faster adaptation. ‘We have to make the systems easier to install, commission and operate. The focus on real human needs will also bring down the costs and make the total cost of ownership more attractive. ‘Behind all this, we can expect exciting market development over the next months and years. The “LEDification” and digitalisation of lighting are historic opportunities that offer a bright future.’ | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

The latest innovations from OMS


eadquartered in Slovakia, OMS has risen to become the fastest-growing lighting company in Europe, with more than 1,000 employees. It’s R&D centre, known as the Lighting Innovation Center, comprises 120 experts who play an integral role in advancing the future of LED in Europe. The company’s new strategy and vision is to focus on creating smart lighting solutions that will improve people’s lives and environments. OMS’s mission is to become the trusted lighting partner for a growing number of leading organisations worldwide in the retail, school, industrial and public lighting sectors by offering lighting education, trendsetting lighting products and professional lighting services. In its fifth year as a Light + Building exhibitor, OMS invited trendsetting lighting designers to a captivating 360° experience in the power of the right light. ‘OMS’s presence at Light + Building 2014 reflects how it has grown to become an important influencer in the global lighting space,’ said CEO Vladimir Levarsky.

WATCH THE VIDEO Head to for Lux Review’s video report on OMS from Light + Building


What are the biggest trends shaking up the world of

LIGHTING? Lux Review asked business leaders at Frankfurt what’s on their minds


The changes we’re seeing are certainly driven by the LED revolution. We have seen it in colour rendering, in lighting output, in light quality, and there have been big steps forward with LED lighting.”

Amy Huntington, Philips

Mark Oliver Schreiter, Erco


It’s not just about LED – we have already passed that step. Now what we need to do is apply this technology to all of our different needs. LED has generated a lot of doubt in the market, so a lot of people still don’t know how to get value from fittings. What we need is more training.” Ignasi Cusidó Codina, Lamp


I think the lighting industry has changed at a rapid pace. Looking at the benefits of LED, the return on LED technology is now obvious.”


Knowledge among customers about why they want LED is very variable. We try to produce good solutions based on the knowledge we have about their needs. If you go two or four years back, it was focused on technology. Now it is more about the utilisation of the technology on behalf of the end users.”


What I’m seeing is a general convergence in the industry. There’s a blurring between the light source and light fixture making; everybody is doing everything.” Fred Bass, Megaman


Kjelle Stamnes, Glamox

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |



The market is still widening. We see more and more products which are cost-driven, where standards and quality are going down, where good is good enough. And then, as in other industries, we see more education in the area of engineering, where people understand the details better and expect performance.”


The adoption of the very best in electronics is absolutely key. I think everybody has realised now that it’s not just about the LED component and the focus on LED only. You can’t say ‘that’s a good system because that’s a particular manufacturer’s LED’, it’s about the whole system.”

Klaus-Peter Siemssen, Selux

‘‘ ‘‘

Jon Estell, Ridi


There was a time when, as part of the sales cycle, you had to go educate your customers about what an LED was, and how to use it. Now the customer knows what to do. What we have to focus on is making sure we’re meeting their needs by really understanding what the lighting market needs.” Lawrence Madanda, LG Innotek

Because of the life of LEDs being far greater than that of traditional lamps, we will see in the next two-to-three years that the market for lamps will grow very fast, and then continue to decline because the replacement market will not be there. By that time, the fixtures market for LED lighting will be taking over because new buildings will all have fixtures with LEDs.” Anil Gupta, Havells-Sylvania

In Japan, LEDs were introduced at an early stage for spaces that require lighting for extended periods, and for outdoors. Now, with the improved efficiency and low cost, factories, offices and retail outlets can now also make use of LEDs. I don’t think LEDs are as prevalent in Europe yet, but I expect we’ll see the same transition.” Kunihiko Endo, Endo | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3


The trend at Frankfurt is very clear. On one side, there is a focus on the quality of light – two years ago, people were focusing on the efficacy, bringing the lumen per watt ratio up as high as possible. There is also a big focus on controllability of light, and on taking 100 per cent advantage of LED technology.” Manfred Raffler, OMS


The view from

FRANKFURT ANIL GUPTA CHIEF OPERATING OFFICER, HAVELLS SYLVANIA ‘What we’re seeing in the market is that customers are expecting a digital approach to lighting. LEDs were introduced about four or five years ago in general lighting, and now we’re seeing the maturing of that, with a lot of LEDs coming into products. ‘Because of digital technology coming into lighting, people are expecting a lot of connectivity and control, not only to save energy, but also to enhance the perception and the overall ambience of the light being provided. That’s the expectation in the market and now our whole teams including R&D are focusing on catering to those needs. ‘We have a lot of new products in our own setup which are catering to these needs; lighting products that are connected, communicating with each other and saving energy. This is a new wave in lighting technology. ‘What we’re experiencing with lamps is that more and more LED lamps are coming in. This will continue to grow as long as the replacement market grows, however because of the life of LEDs being far greater than traditional lamps, this market will grow very fast and then start to decline because the replacement market will not be there. By that time the fixtures market for LED lighting will be taking over because new builds will all have new luminaires with LEDs. ‘We’re seeing the convergence of lamps and luminaires, because new builds will already have LED solutions. There is a lot of convergence, it’s not the old separate fixtures and lamp.’

What’s new from Havells Sylvania at L+B


mong the products on show from Havells Sylvania at Light + Building was the new Optimo spotlight range from the company’s Lumiance brand, which is designed for retail. Marc Lemmens, senior marketing manager for Lumiance at Havells Sylvania, told Lux Review Australia: ‘This is one of the highlights of what we’re showing this year. It comes with a wide variety of different light sources, different sizes, and the customer can customise the outer appearance of the product and at the same time have a high-performance spotlight for the demands of retail. It’s already going into one of the major retailers in Europe and actually the world, so it’s proven its’ worth in the marketplace.’ Sylvania also launched a brand new AR111 retrofit lamp with a single light point, instead of a number of visible points. The company says it is proud to be producing an LED replacement for the popular AR111 format which has the same light output and mimics the anti-glare properties of the halogen version that it is designed to replace.

WATCH THE VIDEO Head to for Lux Review Australia’s video report on Havells Sylvania from Light + Building

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |

2014 19-20 November 2014 | ExCeL London


THE BIGGEST AND BEST LIGHTING EVENT… For stand bookings contact Roberta Bontempo on +44 (0)20 3283 4387 |


Bigger, better venue… Late night opening… Exciting design events … New interactive formats… Raft of new exhibitors…

Get the date in your diary now


The thirty rules of good

LIGHTING Do friends and relatives badger you for advice about lighting? Ray Molony distills years of experience into 30 simple rules


ike most people in the lighting business, I’m often asked by acquaintances for advice. Usually, my friend’s building project has come to a crucial stage. I receive an email with the subject line ‘Urgent lighting advice’, links to a department store’s website and the comment, ‘What do you think of these???’ Needless to say, at this stage no-one wants to hear me spouting off about design concepts or reinterpretations of the architecture. They want me to endorse their tasteful choice of luminaires. My brother and his wife once proudly showed me their expensive installation of Chinese LED downlights that put splodgy pools of light on the carpet and nowhere else. ‘Very contemporary,’ I said. No-one, as far as I know, has ever acted on my advice. So I thought I’d compile a list of some general principles of lighting for my acquaintances to ignore. These are not all mine; most are accepted orthodoxies. And they’re general principles – for each a professional could come up with a further list of caveats and addendums. But if you follow them, I believe you’ll create a far better scheme than the average. And if it stops someone spending a fortune on downlights, I’ll have done my job. 1 Use a professional lighting consultant if the budget permits. 2 Think first about the lighting you want to achieve rather than the technology. 3 Maximise daylight if you can. 4 Light for the people who’ll use the space and their tasks. 5 Invest in the interior: the secret of good lighting is having good stuff to light.

6 7 8 9

Batch buying will help ensure colour consistency

23 | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

Layer the light: ambient, then accent and task. Light the walls rather than the floor. Light the ceiling rather than the floor. Don’t be afraid of darkness (at least pools of relative darkness). 10 Never ‘floodlight’ a building – you’ll flatten it. 11 For exteriors, pick out architectural details unseen in the day. 12 Be brave enough to use colour in any scheme, but only as an element. 13 Don’t obsess about uniformity; it’s overrated. 14 Follow the codes and regs, but they’re no substitute for common sense. 15 The most efficient light is the one you’re not using – use design to reduce energy use. 16 It’s better to use lots of low-output lights rather than a few higher-powered ones. 17 Conceal or integrate the majority of light sources. 18 For groups of pendants or wall lights, use odd numbers of fittings such as three, five or seven to achieve the ‘harmony of repetition’. It works! 19 It’s better to use pendants decoratively rather than as the workhorses of a scheme. 20 Consider control at the outset – different tasks and times of day need different light levels and even colour temperatures. 21 If the controls aren’t simple to use, they won’t be used. Give users four labelled buttons (‘meeting’, ‘presentations’, ‘lunch’, for example, and an ‘off’). 22 Don’t assume compatibility between lamps, drivers and dimming controllers: test them. 23 Buy lamps (and even LED luminaires) in batches to ensure they match in colour and output. 24 Don’t assume a high CRI number will ensure good colour rendering (it doesn’t include strong reds,


Don’t forget – daylight has an important role



Concealed light sources showcase the lit objects

18 11


Odd numbers of fittings work better than even-numbered groups

Reveal by night features that are invisible by day

Pendants are best used as decorative elements

for instance). Find out the product’s R9 value. 25 Buy from reputable manufacturers – otherwise it’s a false economy. 26 Don’t be mis-sold by optimistic maintenance factors. You don’t want a dim space in three years’ time. 27 Know what warranty you’re getting by reading the small print. Better still, write your own. 28 Future-proof your project: Make sure you can replace failed lights with matching kit. 29 If there’s no maintenance plan, assume the scheme won’t be maintained. 30 Finally, if you can’t find all the numbers you need on a spec sheet, don’t buy the product.

21 What you touch is what you get – if controls aren’t simple enough, they won’t get used

27 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


How the


Lance Stewart charts the end of the age of analogue controls and the inexorable rise of digital dimming DMX512 was spreading in the entertainment industry faster than a punter with a backstage pass.

Evolving to entertain


ometime in the dim, dark past – in the days when analogue controls ruled and mighty dimmersaurs hugged walls throughout entire continents – someone told me that the age of the phase-chopping behemoths would come to an end. Analogue control cables would become digitally diminutive and every luminaire would have a microchip brain. Different tribes of lights and controls would commune openly and with complete understanding. The dimmersaurs would be extinct. A decade or so later, as the last walls were being reinforced to support dimmersaurus ridiculous, | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

True, DMX devices were slavish things, but they were great listeners (they only learnt to talk back recently with the advent of RDM over DMX). They were quick to do what they were told and it didn’t matter if their controllers were Finnish or Australian or Chinese, as long as they were well made. With 512 channels to a ‘universe’, DMX was the first truly open digital lighting protocol to succeed on the global stage. DMX was even implanted into 12-channel dimmersaurs. In the world of entertainment, DMX became as big as a lead actor’s ego – and ubiquitous. But in


the commercial sector, the rampant global success of DMX hardly raised an eyebrow. After all, there was no such thing as a DMX ballast. There still isn’t. Proprietary digital protocols dominated well into the 1990s: jabbering away in fluent DyNetian and C-Bussian and Lutronish. Of course you couldn’t have a decent conversation with a DyNetian if you were from the Land of Lutron; the lights were kept dumb and the dimmersaurs hung on. Fast forward a few years and wiser heads prevailed, with the rise of Dali (the Digital Addressable Lighting Interface – see page 76). Ballasts were given brains and the intelligence would, surreally perhaps, be called Dali. Which hardly raised an eyebrow in the green rooms of DMX-land. After all, there was no such thing as a Dali moving light. There still isn’t.

Can you hear me?

I still have one Dynetian dimmersaur from World Expo ’88 dimming some dichros in my lounge. But I also have one that is only a shell – inside is a smaller, cheaper and smarter Control Freak Dali controller that is doing a lot more lighting control with a lot less.

Another byte for Dali Nowadays there is e-Dali, which adds another byte to Dali’s two-byte commands for manufacturerreserved functions, and a suite of Dali sub-standards for everything from LEDs to sequencers. Sure, Dali’s 64 device line is more like a suburb when you compare it to a DMX universe. But you can have plenty of suburbs, so Dali is scalable to any number of luminaires. And if you don’t need Dali’s bidirectional communication, you can use broadcast mode – in which case nothing has to be programmed, it will all just work. Provided the right people integrate Dali for you, it will be robust and reliable. There are still DMX and Dali dimmersaurs and


Added abilities Dali looked a lot like Tridonic’s DSI with its Manchester encoding and DC operating voltage, but with the added ability to address devices individually and in groups, plus bidirectional communication, distributed intelligence and loads of settings. Suddenly, even C-Bussian and DyNetian were being translated into Dali, along with infrared, serial and just about everything else. A Dali device (usually a luminaire) knew if its lamp had failed. It could belong to groups and store scene levels, and it could have various other useful settings stored and individually adjusted. Despite its operating voltage (9.5-22.5V DC at idle high), you could treat it as mains voltage so its cables could hang out with the big guys from the land of AC mains – which is just as well, considering it is entirely possible for it to give you quite a shock if it’s miswired (I have first-hand experience). The early days of Dali were… interesting. Those of us who were making DMX and had learned to add Dali to the mix found that not everyone made it to the same recipe – and some were deliberately poisoning their offerings to make Dali unpalatable. But all that eventually ended and Dali began to work a treat, no matter whose Dali lights were connected together. Analogue controls (like 0-10V), proprietary protocols and dimmersaurs are still clinging on. Hell,

perhaps some of the dumber dimmersaurs are still being mounted on walls in Belarus and Cuba and North Korea, like the trophy heads taken by great white hunters in days gone by. Who knows? So all power to the open protocols of Dali and of DMX, where everyone’s an individual. And farewell to the dimmersaurs – long may they rest in pieces. Lance Stewart is managing director of Creative Lighting

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


Hoare Lea’s office benefits from lots of natural light

Control that

JUST WORKS The lighting controls at Hoare Lea’s offices are simple and easy – thanks to a lot of hard work behind the scenes. Robert Bain reports


he old Victorian train sheds near London’s King’s Cross station stood derelict for years after they fell out of use. Now, the Western Transit Shed, a heritage-listed building, has been converted to offices as part of a redevelopment of the whole area, with its top floor housing the engineering firm Hoare Lea. Hoare Lea chose the building partly because of the daylight that floods through large skylights in its ceiling. It aimed to create an energy-efficient modern workspace for 165 staff, which highlighted the building’s heritage features. Last year the company won a Lux Award for the office’s lighting design. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

The large rooflights provide daylight for ambient lighting, with daylight-linked blinds for when it gets too bright, and luminaires supply more light. In the area beneath the mezzanine, ambient light comes from ceiling-mounted lines of light. The reception area is lit in a warm 3000K, with the rest of the office in 4000K. Tracks incorporate direct/ indirect luminaires as well as sensors, emergency lighting and decorative pendants in breakout areas. Meeting have feature colour-changing panels with a number of scene-setting options (including a sunrise to sunset sequence). The scheme incorporates luminaires from ACDC, Fagerhult, NJO, Optelma and Traxon, plus controls hardware from Mode and software from iCensia. But with so much natural light coming in, it’s the controls that really make this project special. The control system use both Dali and DMX elements, so individual luminaires and groups of luminaires can be addressed.


Watch our video report on the Western Transit Shed’s lighting at

Energy consumption is low, with an operational load of around 7.45W/m2. Hoare Lea’s lighting design partner Dominic Meyrick told Lux Review Australia: ‘Our vision with this building was to maximise its potential. When it was built in the 1860s, there was no artificial lighting to speak of, so you had these large areas of skylight to let natural light flood in. That is a feature throughout this building, and the key thing was to maximise that natural light. Lighting control has been key in this space. The most important thing is the control of the artificial light as the natural light comes in. ‘At half past six everything dims down to 25 per cent, on the assumption that people are starting to leave, but if you’re still here you can go to a website with a plan of the office and click on your zones to put it back up to full. We also have a “last man out” switch to turn everything off. ‘Our priority here was to show clients what was possible with artificial and natural light. There are lots of schemes where daylight control has been put in, and in a lot of cases they just don’t work. The critical thing here was to make sure that the relationship between the artificial and natural lighting worked without a blip. To do that, you have to work quite hard. ‘With lighting control you can either go for dictatorship or communism: either you retain complete control yourself and nobody else can touch it, or you let everybody control it. We’ve gone for the communist system. Anybody who works ENERGY DASHBOARD here can download the software to an iPhone or iPad. What we hope is that people behave responsibly and don’t 2 switch off each other’s lights. It’s a really ‘EXCELLENT’ OPERATIONAL nice office to work in, RATING LOAD and we’ve had lots of positive feedback.’

7.45 W/m




BE CRYSTAL CLEAR ABOUT WHAT YOU WANT YOUR CONTROLS TO DO ‘To ensure that controls work, you need a very, very clear brief of what you want systems to do. Then you have to go to the market and clarify with the various people you talk to what their systems can and can’t do. One of the problems that crops up is that the brief from the client isn’t always clear because they don’t really understand buildings or know what they want. So we advise them and make sure they understand what they‘re buying.’


IF A SUPPLIER TELLS YOU THEY CAN DO EVERYTHING, DON’T BELIEVE THEM ‘Go to the controls industry and get them to tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. Sometimes companies have systems that promise to do everything, and our experience here is that they don’t. So you have to buy one bit from one person, one bit from another person and another bit from another person in order to do all the things you want to do.’


DON’T SCRIMP: THINK 25 PER CENT OF YOUR BUDGET, NOT 10 PER CENT ‘Traditionally with a luminaire purchase, if you had £100,000 ($181,000) for example, you’d spend maybe £90,000 on luminaires and £10,000 on control. Here we spent that £90,000 on artificial lighting but we spent about £25,000 on controls. We bumped up our controls budget to make sure we minimise our energy use when we’ve got lots of natural light coming in.’


MAKE THE INTERFACE REALLY SIMPLE ‘The user interface is the key to good lighting control. In our meeting rooms we use iPads to control scene setting, and rather than using ambiguous terms like “mood” or “presentation” to label each scene, we just have a picture – what do you want it to look like? We spent two and a half years developing the interface – that’s a heck of a lot of effort by a lot of people. But that’s what you’ve got to do.’

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


THE LIFE AND TIMES of an LED product Sustainability is a major selling point of LED lighting, but are those green credentials deserved? John Bullock finds out where LEDs came from – and where they’re going


he LED is the runaway success story of modern electronics. It’s not just the lighting industry – LEDs are taking over automotive lighting and flat-screen TVs, not forgetting smartphones, computers, light-up Santas and flashing Madonnas. It’s difficult to find figures for LED lighting, but I came across these figures for TVs: the average LED TV has around 1,500 LEDs inside it. It has been estimated that the global market for LED TVs is around 100 million units a year, and growing. Do the sums and that’s a material weight of 34 million kilos of LEDs – per year. And the architectural lighting market will dwarf those figures. If you take at face value the vague claims made about LEDs being ‘environmentally friendly’, then this seems like great news. Sadly it’s not that simple. The working end of LED technology is a very strange world indeed. The growth of semiconductor technology (not just LEDs) has driven a massive increase in the extraction and processing of all sorts of odd metals to meet the demands of this new industry. But when it gets to the final product, there’s barely anything there. To make all these little LEDs, we’re ripping raw materials out of the earth at a head-spinning rate. One of the most common versions of LED chip used


Just throwing LEDs away to landfill could make the LED revolution a short-lived one” | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

Ah, it’s so tiny... what possible environmental harm could an LED do?

in lighting is the InGaN chip. This uses the usual gallium nitride structure, but it also contains indium. And while gallium is reported to exist in untold reserves around the planet, indium is already on the ‘at risk’ register, with 20 years’ worth of reserves. So – yes – LEDs are environmentally friendly should you happen to swallow one, but just throwing them away to landfill could make the LED revolution short-lived. And let’s not forget that most LED units contain lead, copper and nickel – all contaminants. It’s reckoned that 95 per cent of an LED chip can be recycled and put back into the materials supply chain. But it takes a bit of effort. Straight recycling involves crushing all those tiny LED chips and then separating out the various materials through a series of increasingly chemical processes. The extraction


process produces gallium and indium with around 99 per cent purity, but that’s not good enough for the semiconductor industry. Further refining is needed, and that involves immersion in sulphuric acid and other tasty solutions. Of course, one of the issues that we need to sort out is what kind of quantity of used LED chips are needed for these recycling processes to make commercial sense. How many shovelfuls of LEDs do you need to chuck into the ‘cleansing fire’ for a worthwhile outcome? Are we talking alchemists’ crucibles here, or vast fiery furnaces? We can’t afford to wait until the raw materials become commercially scarce and therefore costsensitive – we need to get these processes sorted out now.

Inside story Let’s take a closer look at what goes on inside an LED luminaire. The Quartet downlight from High Technology Lighting, designed by my good friend Thomas Holgeth, is designed and built in the UK. It uses a Xicato LED module and sound commercial reasoning has determined that some of the components have been made overseas, though to a UK design specification. Apart from its excellent lighting performance, it’s an elegant piece of design – and you can take it apart with a set of Allen keys, which is what I’ve done. Xicato, like a number of other companies, uses ‘remote phosphor’ technology to produce its topquality illumination. It means that there is far less wastage in chip production, which suits me fine. If you were to take a hacksaw to the LED module (not recommended), this is what you would find. It’s a closed system – each component is reliant on every other component to deliver the desired performance. It all happens in a circular aluminium housing. Inside, there’s a circular chamber, topped by a phosphor disc. At the bottom of the chamber, mounted on a dinky circuit board, is a ring of LED chips (it’s not unlike a technical version of a matryoshka doll). The complete downlight weighs in at 500g, but the Lurking inside your downlight is an LED module like the ones below from GE and Xicato

Cargo ships loaded with rare earths ready to be shipped from China


LED module weighs just 54g (I’ve always wondered whether the LED is actually drawing its energy from a parallel universe – now I’m sure of it). And I’ve just read that 40 per cent of the energy used by LEDs is lost as heat. Let’s take a look at this phosphor disc in more detail. The light from the LED chips knocks around inside what Xicato calls the internal optical mixing cavity before hitting the ceiling of the chamber – which is the phosphor disc. Xicato’s discs are made of glass, though other transparent materials, such as plastics, are in common use. The transparent disc is coated with a phosphor mix, which determines the colour properties of the module. Remote phosphor technology (RPT) means that the ring of blue LED chips sitting in the bottom of the chamber don’t need to be so sophisticated because the heavy lifting is happening at the phosphor interface. Remote phosphor isn’t everyone’s cup of tea; questions are raised about the impact on luminous efficacy, and the stability of the phosphor and disc material over time. But I always prefer something that can be stripped down and reduced to its constituent parts. The material content of an individual LED module is tiny – one might be tempted to say insignificant (of the 54g Xicato module, most is taken up with the aluminium housing). But the manufacture of LED chips is counted in billions, and the demand for arsenic, gallium, indium, and the rare-earth elements cerium, europium, gadolinium, lanthanum, terbium and yttrium, has accelerated at an unprecedented rate – to the extent that the global reserves of

A cross-section of a Xicato module, with blue LEDs positioned beneath a remote phosphor layer

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


some of these elements is already a concern. Organisations such as Recolight have plans for the collection and recycling of LEDs, which is good news. But I still have the sense that we’re running very quickly down a one-way street towards materials scarcity. And there’s only an empty hole in the ground at the end of it. There are two chief reasons why we need to learn how to recycle LED content effectively. First, we can’t rely on the continued extraction of these metals, because they may not be there to extract, or countries that have them may impose export bans so they can hold on to them for domestic markets. Second, although the nasty stuff (arsenic, lead) tends to be embedded into the LED construction, they will, in many years’ time, eventually leach into the soil and groundwater. We’re unlikely to be around by then, but someone will. And let me float another idea here. Convincing arguments for the switch to LEDs are usually built around energy payback times and lifetime guarantees. But I’m more interested in what happens when a building refurbishment removes luminaires well before the end of their LED module’s useful life. Do we really have to send all that ‘light-in-potential’ into the recycling merry-go-round? I’d like a more dynamic approach to the LED – making new use of old modules that still have, say, 50 per cent of their active life. It would be an interesting take on the Aladdin story: ‘Old lamps for new!’

The heat is on Coming back to that Quartet downlight, let’s see what else is in there. It turns out that almost half of the 500g weight is taken up by the heatsink. Most

Could heatsinks, like this one on Wila’s Alphabet product, be reused? | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

High Technology’s Quartet downlight – deconstructed

commercial heatsinks are made of aluminium; a friendly metal which can be worked easily, recycled and reworked repeatedly. It’s reckoned that 75 per cent of the aluminium produced since the 19th century is still in productive use, though with demand set to increase from 40 million tonnes to 70 million tonnes by 2020, over two-thirds of that demand will have to come from primary sources, and that will mean an increase in bauxite mining. This is not a good thing, as you will know if your garden overlooks a bauxite mine. As an industry, we can be rightly proud of our record on materials recycling. But the LED is a game-changer, and we need a more interventionist procedure. I find the idea of smelting down an engineered block of aluminium after 10 or 20 years to be profligate. If heatsinks are available off-the-shelf, why do they have to be newly minted? Why can’t we simply remove the many thousands of used heatsinks that will come on-stream from around 2020 onwards and just re-use them? They may be bigger than needed, but the world won’t be any smaller and light fittings won’t need to be any smaller than they are at present. Just a thought. O Next time: John Bullock considers how LED lighting products are packaged, and the energy they consume


Lighting’s 10 great unsolved


Ray Molony looks at the 10 biggest things left on the lighting industry’s to-do list, and wonders whether we’ll ever tick them off



The colour rendering index (or CRI) is a number on a scale of 0-100 that indicates how well a light source will render colours. For instance, a sodium streetlight, with an average CRI of 24, will render them badly, but a good fluorescent, with an index of 85, will render them well. However it’s becoming increasingly clear that the system – developed in the 1930s – is no longer fit for purpose. Strong reds aren’t included in the standard eight sample hues and halogen, with a CRI of 100, is allegedly ‘perfect’. Scientists have developed alternative systems, but the industry simply can’t agree what to do. Prospect for a solution: Finding a solution is one thing, getting everyone to agree on it is another.


DIMMING COMPATIBILITY If those fancy MR16 LED lamps you’ve just installed flash when you try to dim them, then you’ve just stumbled across the lighting industry’s Achilles’ heel: dimming compatibility. The wall dimmer won’t talk to the transformer that won’t talk to the lamp. Why not? Because they’re all trying to do different things. The wall dimmer is happily chopping up the waveform, the transformer is desperately trying to maintain the voltage at 12V and the lamp’s internal driver is battling to keep the current at 350mA. And no-one is winning. Least of all, you, the customer. Prospect for a solution: ‘Smart’ dimmers offer hope, but we’ll have to wait for old tech to work its way out of the system.


2 HOW TO MAKE ELECTRONICS LAST What the lighting industry won’t tell you is that the electronics that controls light sources and luminaires often isn’t good enough to go the distance. The space probe Voyager 1 may still be working 27 years after launch, but lighting equipment makers struggle to get a box of circuitry to last five years. This problem is coming into sharp focus with the advent of long-lasting LEDs: if your LED fitting fails, it’ll be because of the electronics. The capacitor is often blamed as the weak link, but in reality it’s just a factor. With some justification, manufacturers blame the heat in a sealed luminaire. Prospect for a solution: When customers are prepared to pay for quality – that is, never.


Surely better lighting must mean less crime, mustn’t it? Well, not really. The industry is desperate for a document it can drop on a government minister’s desk that shows definitively that lighting cuts crime. The problem is that no such document exists: or at least, for every study that suggests lighting cuts crime, there’s another saying it doesn’t – or even (gasp) that it contributes to a rise. When improved lighting is installed in a trouble spot, you just can’t rely on criminals to do the decent thing and commit less crime. Sure, lighting can sometimes displace crime and make CCTV more effective, and it seems to dramatically reduce the fear of crime, which is no bad thing, but it’s not the panacea the industry wants. Prospect for a solution: Criminally small. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3




Fluorescent lamps work in a three-step cause-and-effect process: an electric current passed through the tube excites mercury vapour in the gas, and the mercury produces short-wave ultraviolet light that makes the phosphor coating on the inside of the bulb glow. Simples! The problem is the toxic mercury, which often ends up in landfill if the lamps are not recycled properly. Coming up with a suitable alternative has baffled the finest brains in the business – and now mercury-free LEDs have arrived, most have given up the search. Prospect for a solution: Looks like mercury will be with us for as long as fluorescent lighting is.



Inventors Humphrey Davy and Thomas Edison battled the problem of heat in lighting back in the nineteenth century, and you could argue we’re not that much further forward now. To a manufacturer, heat equals inefficiency – any electrical power you put into a light that comes out as heat as wasted. And although the arrival of LEDs has solved many of the thornier problems of lighting, heat isn’t one of them. That’s why tiny LEDs need massive lumps of metal to stay cool. But the industry isn’t even agreed about whether heatsinks should run hot or cold. Prospect for a solution: Not getting much warmer.

8 7


Each time the biennial lighting show in Frankfurt comes around, the word is put out that ‘this is the year that organic LEDs come of age’. Except that they don’t, and we’re told to come back in two years. The big manufacturers have invested millions in OLED research in the hope that it will be a complementary technology to LEDs and now no-one wants to admit that the latter can do everything the former can do three times as efficiently and at a fraction of the price. It’s a shame: the prospect of windows that turn into lights at night is a tantalising one. Prospect for a solution: The answer is always just over the horizon…


In case you missed the memo, the lighting control industry is going wireless. Hurrah! Yes, that’s right, just when you’ve got your head around Dali they go and change it again. Get ready for the format war. Dali is a widely agreed standard for wired lighting control (and can be used with wireless interfaces), but there isn’t a standard for wireless controls. So which flavour do you want? Wi-Fi, ZigBee, Bluetooth, wireless DMX, a proprietary system? Hurry up! As you’d imagine, each has its own benefits, limitations and security issues. Who said specifying lighting was easy? Prospect for a solution: Call us when the format war’s over.



For decades, lighting professionals and academics have known that blue light is the Special One. The trouble is, no-one is agreed on what exactly is special about it. We know it has a unique effect on the human body, but where that research points us isn’t yet totally clear. In certain circumstances, it’s good for us (it can help us stay alert, for instance), but at other times it’s hazardous to health (in high doses it can damage our retinas). If we can get definitive research and establish exactly how blue light can help us, then it will inform the lighting of the future. Prospect for a solution: There’s (blue) light at the end of the tunnel.



Because people buy lighting for their homes, they think of lighting in certain ways: it’s a simple science, lights are cheap commodities, you only need one light per room, operating costs don’t matter, the visual effect isn’t important. You can see the effects of this mindset in any retail area. The industry has tried to educate the wider world about paybacks, operating costs, colour rendering, glare, design and control but it’s had limited success. The problem is that lighting is a complex science (and art) and it doesn’t lend itself to soundbites. Prospect for a solution: We’re working on it.

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


Alan Tulla considers ways to light a staircase other than a ceiling pendant above the landing





CLINIC Staircases


he staircases in most homes and many offices are lit simply by a luminaire on the ceiling. However, where you have an interesting architectural space or where ceiling mounting is not possible, you need a different approach. One of the hardest things to decide is the illumination level on the stairs. What little guidance there is can be confusing. For a workplace, standards generally recommend about 100 lx, but for a staircase, the guidance can be as low as 20 lx. All three options here give at least 120 lx on the treads. As far as I know, there is no recommendation for lighting staircases in private houses. Do readers know of any? Our staircase is about a metre wide. There are nine steps, a short landing and another nine steps. I have added a bit of ‘invisible’ background lighting to mimic spill light from the adjacent corridors. The staircase is wood, so I used light sources that are rated at 2700K. It’s always worth considering the CCT of your source in relation to the colour of the décor and furnishings. Lastly, never forget the electrical contractor. Someone has to feed a wire to each luminaire. You need to think about how they might be able to do it. Maybe the staircase will have to have the cabling installed during its construction. Alternatively, most luminaire manufacturers will supply their units with long flying leads. If the driver/control gear is not built in, where will it go?

Next time, Alan looks at another lighting challenge | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

This uses a small, recessed light in the wall – one for each tread. Wider staircases often use a luminaire on either side. A common variation is to light only alternate treads. This is fine if there is some other background lighting, but if the recessed luminaires are the only illumination, this solution can be treacherous for people who are visually impaired. You need as narrow a beam as you can get. A wide angle one, maybe with a frosted glass, puts too much illumination close to the luminaire. The option shown has a 30-degree beam (2 x 15) and, in my opinion, is a touch too wide. This option adds some contrast and drama. You also get a clear, sparkling line of light up one side of the staircase. There are four units on the landing, so changes in level are easily recognised, even without background lighting. Maybe a disadvantage is that this solution does not work with wide steps unless you put a fitting on each side.

TECH SPEC Luminaires Single LED, recessed unit Optical control Clear, toughened glass Arrangement One per tread Average horizontal illuminance on tread 314 lx; riser, 76 lx Electrical load for nine steps 9W Pros Contrast looks good in this location Cons May be difficult to install; not much light on the riser






A really nice solution for stairs is to have a line of LEDs under each nosing (the bit sticking out at the front of each step). Depending on the strength of the material used on the tread, the luminaire can be recessed or surface mounted. You can buy flexible lengths of IP-rated LED strip that you can simply glue on the underside of the nose. However, it’s better to have some kind of extra mechanical protection for the LEDs so they won’t get damaged when the stairs are cleaned. This option puts a lot of light on both the riser and the stair tread. If possible, use a strip with a fairly wide angle so that you get enough light across the whole of the tread. If the riser is short and the tread deep, you will not get enough illumination on the nose. Some LED strips produce a lot of light; maybe too much for this application. 1W per metre should be fine.

This has the lowest running costs and perhaps the lowest capital cost. Depending on your personal preference, you might think it is the best looking (I do). The recessed wall units have a high-power LED with a controlled optic to limit the beam spread. Although there are far fewer luminaires used, there is still clear delineation of the staircase and landing. This option also puts more light on the surroundings, and the surfaces are much more uniformly illuminated. The flipside of this is that some people might consider the appearance a bit lacking in contrast. The option works best when you have an attractive material for the stairs. You need to make sure that the luminaires are not too widely spaced, otherwise you get shadows on the risers.



Luminaires LED strip under nosing Optical control None except clear protective cover Arrangement Full width under each nosing Average horizontal illuminance on tread 132 lx; riser, 510 lx Electrical load for nine steps 7W Pros Works with any width of staircase Cons Think carefully about how to fix the strip to the nosing

Luminaires Single 2W LED in recessed wall unit Optical control Safety glass Arrangement Three luminaires per nine treads plus two on the landing Average horizontal illuminance on tread 127 lx; riser, 132 lx. Electrical load for nine steps 6W Pros Lowest electrical consumption; best looking Cons Fairly conventional

Want to see your company’s products and branding featured in Lux’s Design Clinic? Contact Roberta Bontempo to discuss sponsorship opportunities at

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


10 things you should know

ABOUT Everything you need to know about the digital control protocol and how it can help



DALI is the Digital Addressable Lighting Interface. It enables easy and intelligent management of lighting equipment. The DALI protocol is managed under the internationally recognised IEC standard 62386 and is promoted by the DALI working party, part of the electrical manufacturers’ association ZVEI. The working party promotes the development and use of the protocol, as well as working to recruit members and make sure the DALI logo is properly used. DALI members include well-known lighting companies such as Philips, Osram, Helvar, Tridonic, Schneider, Mackwell, Lutron, Insta, Panasonic, Acuity and LG. The organisation aims to improve understanding of DALI in the market, and is working to become more dynamic and accessible to all industry stakeholders, with information available to members and non-members through a variety of channels.



The standard 62386 describes the protocol for communications and control of lighting equipment. This includes control gear (not just ballasts but also LED drivers, switching devices, emergency inverters, colour control and so on) and control devices (buttons, rotaries and sliders, presence detectors, light sensors…) as well as the requirements for bus power supplies, which may be | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

standalone devices or integrated with control gear or control devices.



The key feature of DALI is the uniformity of the standard and interoperability with a range of system components. No other standard in the lighting industry is as open and futureproof. In principle, a DALI lighting system can have components from many different suppliers, all working from the same standard. To support the ‘open protocol’ philosophy, DALI plans to create training forums to explain the fundamentals of DALI for contractors.

Mackwell, Helvar and Tridonic are among the makers of DALI-compatible drivers



Due to the growth of LED, the increasing demand for energy saving and growing awareness of lighting control systems, DALI has become more important than ever before. Today, with almost 110 international members, DALI is a global standard for professional digital lighting.



Compared to a fixed output installation, the dimming and individual control capability provided by DALI enables considerable energy savings. In combination with dimmable drivers, presence and daylight sensors, energy savings of up to 80 per cent can be achieved. If the operation of the lighting is to be rearranged or regrouped, the costs per circuit in a fixed output system could be four times higher than those in a


DALI system. The ability to send queries and obtain replies – two-way communication – can greatly reduce maintenance costs. For example, DALI allows automatic testing and reporting of monthly function tests of emergency lighting. In addition, energy consumption and lamp condition can be checked for each luminaire, very easily and at no additional cost.



The DALI trademark is an indication that the product is compliant. The logo and text may be used on products and product literature by DALI members, if the product has successfully passed the official tests. A list of members can be found at




A DALI lighting control system can be as simple as a single luminaire containing a driver and a sensor. The same luminaire could be connected with other DALI devices to form a larger system – and DALI systems don’t stop at a few rooms. Using gateways, multiple DALI subnets can be connected into seamless systems, allowing many thousands of devices to be connected in a single system. This allows the strengths of DALI as a dedicated lighting control protocol to be used. A good example of this is the 2014 DALI award winner, the World Trade Centre in Abu Dhabi (pictured).



The official DALI test system helps manufacturers ensure their DALIcompliant products will have the highest levels of interoperability with other compliant products. Testing can be done either by an approved test house or by DALI members themselves. Later this year, DALI will require test results to be uploaded to the DALI website, so checks can be carried out before use of the logo is granted. This will also allow members to list their compliant products in a searchable database.

Abu Dhabi’s World Trade Centre won an award for its innovative use of DALI-based lighting control from Helvar

Lichtvision’s ProbitLab can be used to test control gear



The DALI protocol includes definitions of commands, reactions of devices to these commands, and requirements for devices. Wireless can be used in a DALI system – for example by using an interface (gateway) between the wireless devices such as buttons and sensors, and the DALI network. This can provide the convenience of wireless together with the reliability and low cost of wired connections to luminaires. Interfaces to many protocols are available, and more are still being added. Examples include TCP/IP, BACnet and KNX. The standard states that the DALI protocol is designed to sit below the level of a building management system.



DALI’s road map is about much more than just fluorescent ballasts. Already the standard includes LED drivers, emergency devices and other control gear devices, and in the future DALI will encompass all types of lighting control products, including PIR sensors, rotary control and user interfaces.




+49 (0)69 6302 220

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


Controls save energy and money, and can improve the environment for building occupiers


Why you need controls…

AND WHY YOU DON’T It’s a truism that lighting controls will save energy and money – but for some projects that may not be enough to satisfy the bean counters, who expect a rapid return on investment. Dave Tilley explains why


We must all remember the person sitting alone in an office having to wave their arms or stand up because the lights have turned off. Unfortunately, this is what a significant number of those in the commercial property sector remember when they think of controls. To consider the benefits and challenges of lighting controls, I have outlined a few examples. Example 1. Daylight controls in an office with good daylight. The first consideration is the luminaires – are they dimmable? In most cases, luminaires in offices that do not have a lighting control system are not dimmable and could be switch-start or HF. Therefore a daylight sensor will have to be set at a specific lux level for on/off function. While this system will provide a degree of energy efficiency, it is possible that the on/off function will affect staff performance, particularly on cloudy days.


n the search for ultimate energy efficiency, lighting controls play a big part – but adoption seems to be lower than expected. There are two principal barriers: O the level of understanding and general education, and O the perception of high cost and limited benefit. The complexity of a lighting controls installation is largely determined by the project type – new build, refurbishment or retrofit. For new-build projects, all the requirements of the lighting control system can be accounted for in the building design. On the other hand, refurbishment or retrofit projects demand extra installation work, this can result in significant additional cost, which in turn reduces the benefit of lighting controls – or simply takes the project over budget. But let’s start at the beginning. The first question is, ‘why do you want lighting controls?’ This may seem strange, but there are numerous lighting control systems that are never used by the people who occupy the space. This may simply be the result of a lack of training or knowledge, but it could be that there is no need for the controls. This brings me to the first and most important issue when considering lighting controls: the control system must deliver tangible benefits to the occupiers and it must be designed to reflect the way the space is used.


Occupancy sensors with short-cycle switching could reduce lamp life and increase maintenance costs 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


Microsoft’s offices in Stockholm use dimmable LED drivers from Harvard


300 2 x 58W T8 WITH


= 310,000kWh SAVED As well as the light (lux) balance, a timer has to be introduced. Without this device, the luminaires will remain on all night. Perhaps this is the reason so many offices are illuminated at night. The on/off frequency is another thing to be considered. An occupancy sensor in a toilet is often set to switch off after five minutes; this is of course to maximise energy efficiency. The problem is that short-cycle switching will reduce the lamp life, which in turn increases maintenance costs. It should be said this issue is negated when controlling LED sources. Example 2. Sensor control in a car park Take a car park with 300 2 x 58W switch-start luminaires operating 24/7. Gear losses add another 20 per cent. If these are replaced with 2 x 35W T5 luminaires, the annual energy saving will be 182,000kWh, which represents a 50 per cent energy saving. Based on an off-peak energy cost of $0.12/kWh and an installed price of $70,000, the estimated ROI will be just over three years. If the same luminaire is fitted with an occupancy sensor, the saving increases to 310,000kWh, or $37,200. Even with an increased luminaire cost, the estimated ROI is reduced to less than two years. Assuming the sensors are calibrated correctly, there will also be an improved maintenance factor.


ROI is longer if lights don’t operate 24/7

Clearly, in this example energy efficiency through the introduction of lighting controls has a significant benefit. However, if the car park’s lighting only operated 60 per cent of the time, sensor technology would less helpful, in terms of improving the ROI. In fact, the ROI would be extended beyond the point of being economically viable.

Important considerations The simple fact is that lighting designers and consultants have to understand the application and use of the space to determine | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

whether a lighting control system is economically viable – and if it is, how it should be configured. Project planning is an essential part of managing lighting control systems, and the process will often require the collaboration of numerous professional disciplines. Although new build has the benefit of lighting control integration, often the building is not occupied or the final office layouts are not known. This means that without a programmable lighting control system, it would be difficult to install a sensible and viable lighting control system. Lighting control systems integrated with a building management system are more complex to manage and can affect the potential to tailor lighting for individuals and small groups. Unfortunately, the lighting control system is a capital cost – and the potential energy savings are an element of the operational costs. As discussed in previous articles, the disconnect between capital and operational costs could have an impact on the installation and quality of a lighting control system.

THE LIGHTING ECONOMIST’S VERDICT Of course, lighting controls have value in terms of both energy efficiency and the quality of the illuminated environment. The problem, as with many aspects of lighting design, is the application and management of the specified control system. As long as sub-standard lighting control schemes are being installed, the lighting industry will suffer the impact. Lighting control systems must add value to the space and its occupants. This demands an understanding of the tasks and activities being performed and the structure of the space. Simply to look for energy efficiency will not encourage the adoption of lighting controls. If the industry wants the installation of controls to increase, a more holistic approach to specification must be applied. You can contact Dave Tilley at

Meet your target market of architects, interior designers, builders, dealers, retailers, institutional buyers and government authorities.

18 – 21 September 2014 Pragati Maidan, New Delhi

For further information, please contact: | +91 9990 10 1000

Exhibit Partners:




Technical editor Alan Tulla weighs up the potential of six LED lamps designed to replace T8 fluorescent tubes – and is pleasantly surprised


etrofit LED tubes have their advocates and their detractors. Some see them as a great energy-saving solution, others as an unsatisfactory compromise with all sorts of niggling problems. This month we’ve reviewed a selection of six LED tubes that you could use to replace a standard 36W T8 fluorescent tube. They all look similar, but come with a range of outputs, colour temperatures and so on, so buyers need to decide what their priorities are. We sent samples of all the tubes to independent test laboratory Lux-TSI, which tested them for colour rendering, colour temperature, beam angle, lumen output, spectral power distribution, flicker and stroboscopic effects. They also looked at electrical characteristics such as power, power factor, luminous efficacy and startup time. All but one of the LED tubes were designed to replace a T8 fluorescent lamp on wire-wound gear. The fluorescent starter canister also has to be replaced by an LED one that is, in effect, just a short circuit. Note that recent legislation requires all new T8 luminaires to be supplied with an electronic ballast. You can also purchase retrofit LED tubes specifically for use with an electronic ballast, and manufacturers of some tubes say they will work on both types of gear. Broadly speaking, these LED tubes work by having a mini driver (not to be confused with the actress) inside the end of the tube. This receives, through the two lamp cap pins, either mains voltage (by rewiring and bypassing the ballast) or the output voltage from the ballast (typically about 120V). This latter method has the advantage that no rewiring is involved but it does mean that some power is lost

Spectral irradiance (arb)

0.03 0.025

through the ballast. An old wire-wound ballast might lose 5-10W whereas an electronic one might only lose 1 or 2W. Another method is to have a remote driver, which should lead to greater reliability and longer life, but that’s another story. Installation sheets The information given in the installation sheets provided by the six manufactureres varied enormously. Any installation sheet should cover basic issues such as electrical safety, wiring diagrams, exclusions and so on. Some didn’t even include a wiring diagram. Top marks go to Osram with its five-page, fully illustrated document, complete with safety and application notes setting out where LED tubes are – and are not – suitable. Technical data We were pleased (and maybe just a little surprised) that the test results from Lux-TSI generally confirmed the light output, CRI, CCT and electrical data given on the manufacturers’ data sheets. We only tested one lamp from each supplier, but we have no reason to suppose they was not representative of their general production. The measured results were all within ±5 per cent of the values stated. Colour temperature All but one of the tubes we tested was advertised as 4000K. Of these, the warmest we measured was 3872K and the coolest was 4008K. All in all, pretty close to the mark, considering that most people can’t spot a difference of ±100K. Colour rendering For general lighting applications, BS EN 12464 recommends a CRI greater than 80. Lux-TSI’s results showed nearly all the tubes had a CRI in the range of 83-86.

0.02 0.015 0.01

Run-up time and output All the tubes reached 95 per cent light output within 0.15 of a second, which for all intents and purposes is instant.

0.005 0 380











Wavelength (nm)


Typical spectral power distribution for a 4000K tube with CRI of 85

Electrical characteristics All the tubes tested had a power factor greater than 0.9 and the measured power consumption was as stated in the technical

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


literature. Check whether your tube is dimmable – most aren’t. Flicker is one of those characteristics that is easy to measure and quantify; the lab reports extend to five pages for each tube. However, the human response is much more subjective and depends not only on the age and condition of the eye, but also ‘softer’ aspects such as how annoying or acceptable the flicker actually is. The general conclusion to be drawn from these tests is that if you find the existing T8 installation flickers, then you will most probably find the LED replacement to be the same or slightly worse.

Thousands of LED tubes are being used to replace fluorescent on the Paris Metro

Pricing Understandably, it’s tough to pin suppliers down to a price for a particular LED tube. The quantity required is obviously one reason. Another is that for a commodity product such as this in a competitive market, discounts can vary enormously – we have seen the same tube selling for $55 and $125 from different suppliers. The lesson is to shop around and remember that on-line purchasing may not be the cheapest option. If you can get one from a reputable supplier for less than $35 you’ve got a deal. If it’s more than about $65, start asking questions.

Photo: Hugo Hébrard

Big thanks to Lux-TSI for helping us out with the product testing. +44 1656 864618

Reviewed: LED tubes AURORA


It’s always worthwhile looking at what Aurora has to offer. They usually have some quite clever technology hidden away in their products. This does everything you would expect it to and is available in a wide range of lengths, CCTs and frosted or clear covers.

This unit performed fairly well and its measured lumen output and lm/W were higher than stated in CLD’s data sheet. Bravo – it’s not often that LED performance is understated.

POWER 21.5W OUTPUT 1,924 lm EFFICACY 89 lm/W CRI 84 CCT 3939K


A great product, as you’d expect from Aurora

POWER 20.2W OUTPUT 2,051 lm EFFICACY 102 lm/W CRI 83 CCT4008K


Good performance backed by solid data | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3



The story behind this tube is that it was originally developed for the US Navy, so as well as having good optical performance, it had to be extremely robust. This version has been value engineered to produce an extremely affordable unit but still with a five-year guarantee.


Sylvania’s ToLEDo tube, made in Germany, is available in a standard and Superia range. The latter has higher light output and consumes a bit more power. Output is the highest of the tubes we looked at, although the efficacy is the second lowest. The data that came with the tube could have been more comprehensive.



Osram has a huge range of LED retrofit tubes for just about every type and combination of control gear. We tested the SubstiTube Advanced. We measured the 600mm version which gave 110 lm/W and a CRI of 84 (with plenty in the important R9 range). A good tube from a reputable supplier. Osram was also the best in terms of accompanying technical and installation data.

Toshiba’s E-Core range extends from 3000K to a chilly 6500K (although we measured it as a slightly warmer 6284K). Even at that colour temperature, the R9 value for saturated reds was higher than many of the other manufacturers’ 4000K versions.

POWER 17.1W OUTPUT 1,838 lm EFFICACY 107 lm/W CRI 83 CCT3939K


This lamp has good pedigree

POWER 24.6W OUTPUT 2,358 lm EFFICACY 96 lm/W CRI 85 CCT 3923K


A sound choice

POWER 9.7W OUTPUT 1,068 lm EFFICACY 110 lm/W CRI 84 CCT 3872K


A great product, supplied with comprehensive information

POWER 17W OUTPUT 1,770 lm EFFICACY 104 lm/W CRI 86 CCT 6284K


Great for colour

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |




Alan Tulla looks at a selection of long-lasting LED candle lamps and gives his verdict


id you know that the word chandelier comes from the Old French ‘chandelle’ meaning candle? We have come a long way since then and their appearance and output has changed almost out of all recognition. I’m told that a real wax candle emits about half a lumen per watt and so the introduction of tungsten filament imitations emitting 10 lm/w was a real advance in lighting efficiency. You can still buy filament candle lamps from your local DIY store, but the lamps are halogen which makes them about 33 per cent more efficient than the standard filament version. The halogen ones have a 2,000 hour life; which is a lot more than can be said for a real candle. Filament lamps Makers of candle lamps have found different ways of mimicking incandescents and real flames | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

are also totally dimmable and recyclable. Of course, they are still desperately inefficient compared with any modern light source. LED candle lamps are gaining popularity because of the energy savings they offer, as well as not having to be replaced so often, which is important as they’re often used in large numbers, and in difficult-to-reach fittings. In a way, ‘candle lamp’ is a misnomer because they look nothing like a candle. The 10 retrofit LED candle lamps we are testing this month mostly strive to look like a conventional filament candle lamp in terms of shape, size and appearance. Cool and warm Many of the standard version lamps had a colour temperature of 3000K which, in my opinion, is rather cool for a candle lamp – 2700K looks more like a filament lamp. Mind you, some LED candle lamps are available in 4500K options. Lord knows why. Unless the lamps are hidden behind a plaster uplight or lampshade, their appearance by day is as important as by night. You can see from the photos that some are quite attractive and some, well, aren’t. You need to consider the direction the light is emitted. Modern halogen candle lamps emit most light sideways whereas the older ones directed the light more up and down. Similarly, these LED versions differed in where the light is emitted, so keep that in mind. You should also consider the light output. The higher wattage ones are pretty bright if you look at them directly. More light isn’t necessarily better. To keep the comparisons simple, we did not test the dimming performance and, wherever possible, we used a clear glass version. Unfortunately, the lamps come in different wattages and there isn’t a common one available, so you need to look at both the power consumption and lumen output when making comparisons.


Reviewed: candle lamps STOCK STANDARD HALOGEN





This is the starting point that everyone else is comparing themselves to. Before this, it was incandescent, and before that, it was actual candles.


We have tested this lamp with a range of dimmers and it performed very well; reducing the light output smoothly from 100 per cent to almost zero without flickering. All Bell’s lamps are dimmable as standard. It gives an attractive light at night. By day, the silvery support to the crown gives a bit of sparkle.


Like many of the candle lamps, this has an acrylic rod inside to spread the light, except that this one has no frosting. This causes a small shadow on a surface such as a lampshade directly above the lamp. The packaging stated a colour temperature of 3000-3500K, although it looked warmer to us.


This lamp comes with bases in brass, bronze and silver finishes to go with chandeliers. The LEDs are mounted on three ‘wings’ which are visible in the clear glass versions (a frosted version is coming soon). Almost all the light is emitted sideways and there is a small shadow above the lamp. However, the visible LED chips add sparkle.


This is an attractive lamp both day and night. There is a clear, sharply cut ‘crown’ inside which produces a lot of sparkle and pattern on adjacent surfaces. There is also a prismed base inside to further break up the light. It’s clearly been designed by someone who cares about appearance as well as performance and value.



Reliable and attractive


A solid retrofit option


A unique look


Deserves to sell well

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


Reviewed: candle lamps SYLVANIA TOLEDO




VERBATIM LED CLASSIC | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

A noticeable difference about this lamp is the white base which is larger than the clear top. Again, there is a clear acrylic insert (with a white conical top) which directs the light sideways rather than up. The data sheet claims a life of more than 50,000 switchings, so this is a good choice if you want to turn it on and off a lot.



A resilient choice

By day, this is an unobtrusive lamp. There is a clear acrylic rod inside with a frosted top, so the top half is hardly noticeable. Switched on, most of the light is emitted straight upwards. However, it emits a lot of light so it also looks bright from the side too. You also get some interesting reflected shapes inside the glass bulb.


The unit we tested is one from a huge range of lamps from BLTC. An attractive feature of this lamp is that the base is very small – you mainly see the frosted glass. In my opinion, the 2700K CCT is preferable to the 3000K of some others. The beam spread is fairly uniform and the rated life is longer than most of those tested.


This looks like an old squirrel cage lamp. When switched on, you see four vertical ‘filaments’ of light. It is markedly different in appearance from other LED candles and has a much smaller base. When switched off, the wafer-thin filaments are an orange colour. UKLED claims values over 100 lm/W for the complete range.


This is different from the rest in that its CCT is a very warm 1900K. The optics also help to make it look like a candle flame. The colour rendering is a close to tungsten as you are likely to get. One disadvantage is its low light output, although Verbatim also has a range of 2700K lamps which give more light.


Does the job


A nice lamp for a nice price


Full marks for looking different



Ideal for museums and heritage



AURORA EXPANDS ITS M SERIES Aurora has added new models to its M series of integrated LED fire-rated downlights, adding the M7 and M5 to the established M10. This means all the features of the M10 are available at 7W (up to 435 lumens) and 5W (up to 315 lumens), providing greater energy savings where less intensity of light output is required. The M series is the only product of its kind with a dimmable HVLED light source powered by an IC driver-on-board, removing the need for an external driver and electrolytic capacitors. In addition to fixed, adjustable and baffle versions, the M series includes RGB, Colour Xchange, emergency, trimless, and wireless ZigBee options.

LED STREETLIGHT CONTROLS FROM VOSSLOH SCHWABE AND GRAH LIGHTING European LED lighting company Grah Lighting has worked with Vossloh Schwabe, a member of the Panasonic group, to incorporate control modules in its LSL luminaires. Light management systems enable centralised control of individual luminaires. The system makes it possible to get regular feedback data from luminaires about their energy consumption, current, power, voltage, temperature, lighting hours and other metrics. Grah’s products are available in Australia through distributor Gigavision. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 23

CREATIVE LIGHTING UPGRADES ADDICT TOOL Creative Lighting is marking the 10th anniversary of its Addict Dali commissioning tool with the introduction of an advanced version. Addict is a portable device for use in commissioning and maintaining Dali installations. It can back up and store settings and used saved settings to program new Dali devices. It can also be used with existing Dali installations for testing and fault finding, and is able to continuously ‘sniff’ the Dali line to a PC. The new version, V2.15-sys, can disable and re-enable Tridonic sensors in luminaires, and provides DMX512 and RDM compatibility.

HESS LAUNCHES VAREDO IN AUSTRALIA Hess’s Varedo outdoor luminaire is now available in Australia. The product is equipped with up to three Levo LED modules and comes in 23, 46 and 69W versions with colour temperatures of 3000, 4000 or 5600K. A Levo LED module contains 14 high-power LEDs and offers excellent heat management, achieved through a thermal connection between the LED unit and the luminaire housing. The luminaire can be controlled using Hess’s proprietary dimming system DIMEasy or via the control system DIMPro. DIMEasy allows simple nighttime dimming with or without a control line, while DIMPro offers a wide range of control options and various dimming profiles.


To appear on these pages please contact

ROBUST LED LIGHTING BY McGEOCH TECHNOLOGY McGeoch Technology’s Endurance LED lighting is designed for hazardous area applications. The lights are Atex approved and produced with a marinestandard aluminium enclosure. They can be used in any zone 1 and 21 area in environments ranging from oil and gas to open cast mines, petrochemical plants and distilleries. Endurance lighting is designed for use on global mains supplies and is an easily fitted direct replacement for fluorescent units. It is available in 55, 30 and 17W versions, and emergency units with battery back-up are available for the 55 and 30W models. The 17W option can be supplied in a slimline design.

WILA INTRODUCES GENERAL-PURPOSE ALPHABET ZONO Wila has expanded its Alphabet range of luminaires with Alphabet Zono, a collection of high performance downlights for general illumination. Available in round and square formats, the products can deliver up to 3370 Llm of usable light with a luminaire efficiency of up to 105 Llm/W. The downlights are particularly suited to VDU applications, with a cut-off angle of 30 degrees to block out glare and a unified glare rating (UGR) of less than 19 to ensure visual comfort.

WE-EF’S NEW LED POST TOP LUMINAIRE The RMC320 LED post-top luminaire from WE-EF is a slim, elegant product with mounting accessories that make it ideal for residential areas or historic urban settings. The luminaire is fitted with an 18-LED array and a lens system providing a choice of beam distributions – from S60, S65, and S70 for side throw to A60 and R65 lenses for forward throw. The luminaire’s connected rating is up to 54W, with luminous flux of up to 6,236 lm and two colour temperatures (3000 and 4000K).

MODULAR LINEAR LED LIGHTING BY WILA Wila’s Linic is a range of linear LED luminaires based on flexibility. Available in both recessed and surface-mounted versions, the continuous light lines are easy to combine, and angular connectors in both standard and custom lengths allow for project-specific solutions. Luminaire luminous flux of up to 1750 Llm per running metre is available and luminaire efficiency can reach 83 Llm/W. The colour rendering index exceeds 80, and two colour temperatures – 3000 and 4000K – are available. One version with a microprismatic cover has a unified glare rating (UGR) of less than 19, making it suitable for use with VDU workstations.

2014 Volume 1 Issue 23 |




People who work in lighting don’t half talk some gobbledygook. Here’s what they mean...




The kilowatt-hour is a unit of energy equal to 1,000 watt-hours. That’s what a 1,000W device uses in one hour – or what a 1W device uses in 1,000 hours. It’s the unit that your electricity bill is counted in.

The Digital Addressable Lighting Interface is a protocol for lighting controls and dimming agreed by major manufacturers. It is set out in the technical standard IEC 62386, and promoted by the Dali working party, part of electrical manufacturers’ association ZVEI. Products that are compliant with Dali carry the Dali logo.

Constant current driver Constant current drivers are electronic components that are used with LED luminaires. Their purpose is to maintain a constant current to the LEDs (in contrast, a transformer maintains a constant voltage). Drivers can be built into the luminaire or mounted remotely, and they often incorporate other functions such as dimming. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3

PIR Short for passive infrared. PIR sensors are electronic sensors that measure infrared light radiating from objects in their field of view. It can detect heat from objects that is undetectable by humans. PIR sensors are one of the main technologies used for presence and absence detection, in order to turn lights on and off when people are or aren’t there.

CFL Popularly referred to as energysaving lamps, compact fluorescent lamps have a poor image because of perceived deficiencies in colour, power and the time it takes them to reach full output. But massive improvements have been made in all these areas thanks to substantial investment by the big lamp manufacturers.

CRI Short for colour-rendering index, CRI is the ability of a light source to show the colours of objects properly. Lamps with poor colour rendering will distort some colours, which may mean you end up with brown socks when you wanted green ones. The higher the CRI, on a 0-100 scale, the more accurately the lamp will show colours.

Disruptive Innovation 4 Core Technologies


in association with


Pulse-width modulation PWM is a technique used to control the power supplied to electrical devices such as LEDs. The supply voltage (and current) is switched on and off many times per second, and the average power delivered to the load can be varied by changing the proportion of the time the voltage is on. This technique can be used to dim LEDs.


An IP (index of protection) rating tells you the amount of protection a luminaire or other piece of equipment has against things getting in – including dust, dirt and water as well as hands and fingers. For example, a fitting rated IP22 will prevent the insertion of fingers and will not be damaged if exposed to dripping water.

The National Australian Built Environment Rating System measures the environmental performance of Australian buildings. As well as energy efficiency, it looks at things like water use, and the impact of a building on the environment. Buildings get a rating from one to six – six is great, one not so great. Nabers is managed nationally by the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage.



Higher quality, brighter light for longer™

Controlled, even light distribution

No separate driver

Superior colour rendering

High-pressure sodium lamps (or SON lamps) are gas discharge lamps that use sodium in an excited state to produce light, and are often used for streetlighting. They produce a yellow light and have poor colour rendering. But they are efficient, often reaching about 100 lm/W. Higher-powered 600W versions can reach 150 lm/W.


Nabers rating

Colour temperature describes whether a light source appears ‘warm’ or ‘cool’ – indicated by the correlated colour temperature (CCT). Lamps with a warm appearance have a CCT of 2700-3000K, and are considered appropriate for domestic settings; cooler lamps might be 4000K, and are used more often in offices and retail. The higher the colour temperature, the ‘cooler’ the appearance. Don’t ask.


Watch Aurora’s animation explaining LED life and the term L70 at

Our team of insightful experts enjoy sharing knowledge about our innovations in lighting

Available online at

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |







18-19 AUGUST MELBOURNE CONVENTION & EXHIBITION CENTRE After a hugely successful inaugural event in 2013, where more than 250 lighting professionals convened to network and discuss hot topics, the Australian Smart Lighting Summit 2014 is set to be even bigger and better.

4-6 SEPTEMBER ENLIGHTENMENT SEMINAR GOLD COAST, AUSTRALIA The Enlightenment: The Basics Of Efficient Lighting course provides fundamental lighting knowledge and basic lighting principles for people who work in or close to the lighting industry. The next course takes place in September over three consecutive days at the Mercure Gold Coast. 18-21 SEPTEMBER 2014 LIGHT INDIA 2014 NEW DELHI, INDIA Organised by Messe Frankfurt in association with Elcoma, this international show gives visitors an opportunity to meet high-level buyers from the Indian lighting industry. 27-30 OCTOBER 2014 HONG KONG INTERNATIONAL LIGHTING FAIR (AUTUMN EDITION) HONG KONG, CHINA The largest autumn lighting fair in Asia. Exhibits include LED and ‘green’ lighting; interior, exterior and commercial lighting; and lighting accessories.

3-5 NOVEMBER 2014 LIGHT MIDDLE EAST DUBAI, UAE This event, organised by Messe Frankfurt, is a conference and exhibition that covers lighting design and technology. 24-25 NOVEMBER 2014 MIDDLE EAST SMART LIGHTING AND ENERGY SUMMIT ABU DHABI, UAE The Middle East’s premier event for discussion of energy efficiency and other trends that influence the region’s lighting sector. 27-29 MAY 2015 SPARC 2015 SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA The Sparc event takes place during the first week of Vivid Sydney and will have a line-up of worldclass speakers in the lighting world, as well as an exhibition of more than 100 Australian and international companies that will demonstrate the latest in lighting technology. Sparc will culminate in a Gala Dinner at Sydney Town Hall on 29 May.


2014 Get the date in your diary now! LuxLive is back for a fourth time this year, and it’s going to be bigger and better than ever. We’re pleased to announce that LuxLive is moving for the first time to Excel London, the capital’s most modern exhibition venue. The world-class Excel London is a purpose-built exhibition space with superb facilities, as seen during the Olympic Games in 2012. Don’t miss the UK’s premiere lighting event.

To see your event included in this section, contact Lux Review’s events editor Miriam Hier at

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |

Explore and Connect


Is the luminaire



Lux Review Australia is bringing together the top experts to discuss connected lighting


n the future, we’re told, luminaires won’t simply illuminate a space; they’ll monitor, measure and controls our world, How soon is this future? If we in the lighting industry don’t do it, who will? What will be the early applications? What do Australian fixture makers need to do now to get into this market? How will smart lighting affect the value chain? These are some of the questions our panel of manufacturers from Australia and New Zealand will address at our forum, taking place alongside the Hong Kong International Lighting Fair in October.

can be used to improve how we use buildings. Smart luminaires are already operating in installations around the world and the big manufacturers are rapidly preparing for this, a second revolution in lighting. But not everyone’s agreed on what connected lighting is and what exactly it means for Australian manufacturers. The forum will allow the leading players in Australia and New Zealand to give their view on the connected lighting world and the challenges it will undoubtedly throw up for lighting manufacturers.

Prepare for the future They’ll consider how they need to prepare for a future in which their products are smart, multifunctional and connected. The theme of the massive Light + Building show in Frankfurt in April was all about control: fittings that respond to their environment, sense their surroundings and the activity around them, talk to each other and other devices and generate data that

LUX REVIEW AUSTRALIA CONNECTED LIGHTING FORUM ™BdcYVn',DXidWZg'%&)!*#(%eb ™=dc\@dc\8dckZci^dcVcY:m]^W^i^dc8ZcigZ ™8dciVXiYdj\#\Vak^c5ajmgZk^Zl#Xdb#Vj[dg bdgZ^c[dgbVi^dc

2014 Volume 1 Issue 3 |


Lux Review’s latest


Lux Review’s YouTube channel has racked up more than 40,000 views – here are the latest must-see videos

1. HOW TO RILE A LIGHTING DESIGNER Someone tells two lighting designers that they’re not qualified to make decisions about lighting controls. Watch what happens next.


Is the light switch dead? Will li-fi take off soon? And what is the potential for innovations in data management? Lux Review asks the experts at the Lighting Fixture Design conference 4. LIGHTING BOSSES TALK SHOP AT LIGHT + BUILDING

Lux Review asks top CEOs at Light + Building about smart lighting and other industry trends. Where is the industry heading?


Experts from all parts of the industry get together to share their experiences with the latest lighting control technology and share some fascinating case studies


The Lux Review team roams the halls of Light + Building 2014 seeking out the best new products on show in a series of two special reports from Frankfurt


Why have LEDs been slow to take off in retail? And what do end users to do counter dodgy specs? Facility managers, designers and manufacturers discuss the challenges and trends in retail lighting. 7. CHRISTIAN SCHRAFT SETS OUT HIS PLANS FOR HAVELLS-SYLVANIA

Havells-Sylvania’s new European boss speaks exclusively to Lux Review about the challenges facing commercial lighting and his plans for the future



Visitors to LuxLive explain why the show is the must-attend event for specifiers and users of energy-efficient lighting. Join them in London on 19-20 November.

With this year’s awards on the horizon, we’ve taken a look at the winners of the Lux Awards 2013 – fresh from the stage at the Westminster Park Plaza. Will 2014 be your year?


Top CEOs, experts and observers give their take on the rapidly changing Chinese market. What are the drivers and major trends? | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 3


ITALO EVOLUTION WITHOUT LIMIT Now even more powerful. Italo now guarantees 10% more luminous flux then previous versions.

Functionality, versatility and a wide variety of optics features ITALO 1, ITALO 2 and ITALO 3: same design in three different sizes for a variety of equipment designed to light up high traffic urban and suburban roads. ITALO is equipped with a full range of optics able to accomplish all the different installation geometries. The High Performance Optic™ featured in the Italo Series delivers optimal uniformity and glare free light distribution. Thanks to the replaceable optical modules ITALO series is “Future Proof” guaranteed.



Transparency – The Illusion of Zero Gravity Highly efficient pendant LED luminaire. Architecture of light and transparency. 15mm visible frame. Built-in Light Control Structure (LCS). Combination of direct and indirect light. Light statement in the room: minimalist and clear cut.

Lux Review Australia & NZ - Issue 3  

The Australian journal of energy-efficient lighting and design

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