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AUSTRALIA Volume 1 | Issue 2 | 2014 |


LED lighting hits the streets








Time to get street smart DOUG GALVIN PUBLISHER

elcome to the second edition of Lux Review Australia. We’ve had a great response to our first issue so thanks to everyone for their feedback. In this issue a key focus is the streetlighting market in Australia and New Zealand. Streetlighting has played a key role in the development of the cities we live in. In 1882 Paris, France laid claim to the world’s first commercial application of electricity, in the form of a streetlight. New Zealand’s first public electric streetlighting installation was in August 1888 at Reefton, a bustling mining town on the west coast of the South Island, and a few months later, Tamworth in northern New South Wales became home to Australia’s first public electric streetlight. 126 years on and Australia has more than two million streetlights in service. Energy efficiency is The estimated annual energy cost of driving the current growth in public lighting in Australia exceeds $125 million (rising to more than $250m the streetlighting sector in include maintenance). Records Australia and New Zealand” ifforyou New Zealand show 330,000 streetlights consuming some $18 million worth of electricity. A draft report completed for the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) in 2011 recorded streetlighting as the single largest source of greenhouse gas emissions from local government. Understandably, they’re on the look out for efficiencies – and it’s this demand that’s driving the current growth in the sector. There has been much talk recently about streetlighting standards in Australia and New Zealand. The rapid development of the market has created the need for an informed debate on how best to apply new lighting technologies. At Lux Review Australia we’ll be supporting this debate by reporting on the issues and events that affect everyone from the supplier to the people on the street. It’s in all our interests that informed decisions are made about how they spend our tax money on public lighting. I hope you enjoy this second edition of Lux Review Australia.



– the team DOUG GALVIN Publisher e: t: +61 7 3121 3095 f: +61 7 3283 2977 m: +61 417 417 005 ROBERT BAIN Editor e: t: +44 (0)20 3283 4387 m: +44 (0)7720 677 538 KATHRINE ANKER Deputy editor e: t: 020 3283 4387 MARY-CLARE O’CONNOR Assistant editor e: t: 020 3283 4387

JOANNE JORDAN Administration manager e: t: +61 7 3121 3095 f: +61 7 3283 2977 ROBERTA BONTEMPO Account manager e: m: +44 (0) 7713 567288 LUCY WYKES Business development director e: t: +44 (0)20 3283 4387 m: +44 (0)7803 504320 EMILY CROUCH Art editor e: t: +44 (0)20 3283 4387

PRINTED BY MIRIAM HIER Events manager e: m: +44 (0)7882 224682

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No part of this publication may be reproduced without the written permission of the publishers. All rights reserved. Lux Review Australia is a controlled circulation magazine, available to selected executives with interests in lighting, who fall within the publisher’s terms of control. For those outside these terms, annual subscription is $240. See for details.

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |

LED Lighting for Smart Buildings This interactive guide illustrates some of the more imaginative ways in which the wide range of Thorn LED products can be used in offices, schools, shops, hotels, hospitals and other energy intensive industries. LED Lighting for Smart Building Experience also features: UÊ Õˆ`ˆ˜}Ê>Ài>Ê}Ո`iˆ˜iÃÊ>˜`Ê}œœ`Ê«À>V̈ÃiÊ>`ۈÃi UÊ ˆ}…̈˜}ÊVœ˜ÌÀœÃÊÀiVœ““i˜`>̈œ˜Ã UÊ ˜iÀ}ÞÊivwÊVˆi˜VÞʓ>`iÊi>ÃÞÊ UÊ œ“ˆ˜}Êܜ˜]ʘiÜÊ>˜`Êi݈Ã̈˜}Ê Ê«Àœ`ÕVÌÊÀ>˜}iÃÊ܈̅ʵՈVŽÊˆ˜ŽÃ UÊ


visit our smart building at:


It examines a series of spaces commonly encountered in a smart building, extending from the entrance hall to the back of house kitchen, giving you ideas on the most suitable LED lighting equipment. But, it’s not just a matter of supplying you with products; well before that happens it’s essential that you get the best possible design advice on how to select them and apply them to your best advantage.


Classrooms - one of the 24 building areas featured

That’s where our 15 ways to make energy efficient lighting easy icons and good practice pointers come in. The consideration of such information forms an integral part of the design process to yield the most appropriate LED lighting solution.

Scan below to download the brochure

Menlo3 Circular LED and Avenue F LED just two of the many new products featured





Issue 02 2014 Features






Two important war monuments have been lit using LEDs and solar panels

The Norwegian island of Svalbard sees no sunlight in the winter, so lighting is vital


16 Sculptures come alive with LED spotlights in one of Europe’s most famous cathedrals

RETAIL LIGHTING 54 How lighting can help support your brand and create the right feel in shops

MANNS WINES, JAPAN 18 Wine racks lit by concealed LED luminaires make for a cellar with a glowing ambience

Why CRI numbers don’t tell the whole story – especially when it comes to red

SÖLVESBORG BRIDGE, SWEDEN 20 Is Europe’s longest bike and footbridge also the most beautiful with its new lighting scheme?

Is wireless technology the future of lighting control?



How LED streetlights are helping Sydney’s suburbs cut their energy consumption





SENSORS 66 Lance Stewart sets out a sensible approach to using sensors



From the US to Somalia, cities are upgrading their streetlights with solid-state technology

We speak exclusively to the new boss of Thorn’s parent company, Zumtobel

WATERFRONT PLACE, BRISBANE 46 Brisbane’s most desirable address gets a lighting makeover

How light affects the body and why it’s important



News Analysis Opinion Your letters Interview: Lyle Cato Design clinic Lighting economist New products: LED lamps Reviewed: downlights Reviewed: wall washers Ask the doctor Technical briefing Upcoming events

08 22 26 36 38 72 75 78 80 84 90 94 97

We review the latest LED downlights


80 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |




CHENNAI STATIONS DARK Commuters are increasingly impatient with the poor lighting at train stations in the Indian city of Chennai , reports The Times of India. Despite lights being installed in shelters, large areas of platforms are left in darkness. A railway official said more lights are being installed.

US STREETLIGHT EXPERTS TO SPEAK IN SYDNEY Top streetlighting experts from the US will gather in Sydney on 18 March in an event sponsored by the SSROC Street Lighting Program, the City of Sydney, the Commonwealth Department of Industry and Lighting Council Australia. Speakers include Ed Ebrahimian of the City of Los Angeles and Edward Smalley, the chief architect of Seattle’s LED streetlighting. See page 97 for more information.

SAN DIEGO TO SAVE $280K WITH LEDS The US city of San Diego is to save more than a quarter of a million dollars annually by installing LEDs and controls. The new system will provide energy metering per light pole, allowing municipalities to pay for the energy they actually use.

US BULB BAN GOES UNNOTICED The majority of Americans haven’t realised that incandescent globes have been phased out, according to a survey by Osram Sylvania. Only four in ten were aware that the old lamps had been banned.

São Paulo to get the LED treatment Districts across São Paulo are upgrading to smart LED streetlights in the first of a series of pilot projects. The project, which covers 550,000 lighting points across the city, is prompted by a drive to reduce operating costs and carbon emissions. It aims to demonstrate the savings of installing LEDs and intelligent controls. Luminaire maker Illumatic is working with controls and metering specialist Cyan on the project. Last year the companies won a $150,000 order which included funding to adapt Cyan’s technology to meet Brazilian standards. Nelson d’Arrigo, general manager of Ilumatic, said: ‘We are pleased to be working with Cyan

technology on this project. The demand for intelligent lighting systems in Brazil is growing rapidly and we are taking the solution to market at the ideal time.’


Australian lighting professionals learn from international expert As councils ponder the move to LED streetlighting, worldrenowned expert Professor Georges Zissis has been sharing his knowledge with hundreds of Australian lighting professionals, in a series of seminars organised by Lighting Council Australia. Zissis, who leads the light and matter research group at the University of Toulouse in France, and helped develop the International Energy Agency’s performance guidance for LED lighting, spoke about the ‘dreams and nightmares’ of LED. The dreams are well known: high luminance, high efficacy, long life, ease of dimming… But there are plenty of problems too. These include a marked difference between LED efficacy and system efficacy; gulfs between claimed and tested performance and a mish-mash of conflicting standards. Another big issue is poor understanding of LEDs by installers, Zissis said. When installers in Europe were asked in a recent survey what effect a rise in ambient temperature would have on LEDs, the most common answer was that it would increase lifetime. Thirty per cent believed this, compared to only 22 per cent who answered correctly that it would decrease lifetime.

BE PART OF IT | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

More than half a million lights could go LED

Sales of hightech controls to treble by 2020 Offices across the world will be spending $5.9 billion a year on lighting control technology by 2020, says a report from Navigant Research. The report cites a rise in demand for controls and a growing number of electronics companies moving into the market as reasons for the increase. Established building controls companies have also been expanding their capabilities to include lighting controls, it said. With traditional lighting companies also offering a wider range of control products, prices are being pushed down by increases in supply.

Do you want to be a serious player in the UK lighting industry? Join over 200 leading exhibitors in Europe’s most dynamic lighting market.



Smart lights to help shoppers locate groceries Philips is piloting a Li-Fi system for retailers, which allows ‘intelligent’ LED lights in shop ceilings to communicate with shoppers through a smartphone app. The app alerts users to nearby offers and can point out the location of products the shopper is looking for. The connected retail lighting system is based on visual light communication, also known as Li-Fi. Luminaires are placed in a positioning grid and communicate with camera sensors in smartphones via modulations of the light that are invisible to the human eye. Each lighting fixture in the grid transmits information relevant to its position, allowing shoppers to receive highly targeted real-time offers and recipes on their phones as they stroll down the aisles. The system can also direct customers to the location of ingredients on their shopping list. ‘The advantage is that it’s a one-way system, connecting to the consumer as they are buying

something, as opposed to a two-way system which could reveal identities,’ said Menno Kleingeld, head of indoor lighting for EMEA at Philips. In December 2013, Philips launched a similar intelligent LED project at the Museum Boerhaave in Leiden, the Netherlands. The museum uses a connected lighting system to provide information on exhibits while visitors are viewing them. A spokesperson for Philips said: ‘The museum has enjoyed cutting edge lighting and indoor positioning technology integrated within its exhibition. They are hoping to receive more visitors as a result of this as the visitor learns much more about exhibits through this intelligent lighting system.’ Philips’ connected retail lighting system is currently being trialled in a number of retail stores. It was demonstrated at EuroShop in Düsseldorf, and will also be showcased at Light + Building 2014.

The biggest celebration of light and music in the Southern Hemisphere, Vivid Sydney, will see the city awash with colourful light from 23 May to 9 June. Projections will transform landmarks including the Opera House into light installations. Last year, the festival attracted over 800,000 people. Artists and manufacturers are encouraged to submit designs for Vivid 2014.

This month in numbers










For more information and to book your stand, contact Roberta Bontempo +44 (0) 20 3283 4387 |


2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |

LIGHT DEFINES THE EXPERIENCE Sรถlvesborg Bridge Sรถlvesborg, Sweden

Swedish design firm Ljusarkitektur used Lumenfacade luminaires to illuminate the longest bicycle and pedestrian bridge in Europe. Lighting Design: Ljusarkitektur




Retailers see potential in controls Intelligent LED lighting was the topic on everyone’s lips at Europe’s largest retail fair in Düsseldorf in February. From dimming and timers to Li-Fi that targets customers, manufacturers told Lux Review that smart lighting is the area where they expect to see the most exciting developments in the years ahead. ‘This year at EuroShop is the first time we are really seriously looking at lighting controls,’ said Stefan Grote, marketing manager of Ansorg, Germany. ‘Now you can switch on and off, and use dimming and timers. You can play with emotions, adapt the lighting to your brand and really create your own lighting.’ ‘The digitalisation of fittings is a big trend,’


Philips accused of ‘patent bullying’ A lighting supplier in France has accused Philips of ‘bullying’ his company for allegedly infringing its patents, and has called on other companies to join him in standing up to the Dutch giant. In an email sent to many in the industry, Dan Vesty of Danlite said: ‘Big Brother Philips are claiming a stake on my living.... Did they patent candlelight or even sunlight too?’ ‘I’m just a small guy, trying to make a decent living for my family, but I refuse to be bullied.’ He suggested other companies should come together to protest. ‘It may be a David and Goliath battle, but several Davids would help,’ Vesty wrote. Bjorn Teuwsen, director of communicatoins at Philips Intellectual Property & Standards, said: ‘We regret this feeling and observation, since Philips always approaches companies in a friendly manner and tries to discuss and determine in a cooperative way to what extent our patents are applicable to the products sold by that company... Philips has built a reputation of not only developing and selling technology, but also sharing its IP with other industry players. We strongly encourage companies to jointly meet with us, hear their possible concerns and clarify and explain our licensing program to them.’

Retail lighting is getting smarter, say exhibitors at EuroShop

said Aleksandar Rublek, lighting designer at Studio Rublek in the Netherlands. ‘Because of the miniaturisation made possible by LEDs, it’s always possible to make something new.’

Climate Group project to promote LED streetlights

EXPERTS SPEAK IN AUCKLAND Speakers from the US, Canada, UK, France and Australia joined 200 delegates at the Road Lighting 2014 conference in Auckland, NZ. The conference looked at the latest LED and control technologies, the impact of lighting on safety, and the issue of funding. The event was supported by the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority (EECA) and other bodies.

SAN FRANCISCO TRIALS SMART LIGHTING San Francisco is trialling smart street lighting controls. The San Francisco Public Utilities Commission has commissioned UK manufacturer Telensa to trial a central management system in two locations in the city. The trial will see information from traffic sensors used as part of a lighting solution linked to changing traffic flows.


The Climate Group and Philips have begun a global project to ‘identify and overcome the hurdles’ that prevent cities from adopting LED streetlighting. The initiative, launched at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, will look at financing, risk management, smart lighting, standards and quality, as well as considering the socioeconomic benefits of LED lighting. It will run until the autumn, with meetings planned in Brazil, China, Europe, the Middle East, India and the United States. Mark Kenber, CEO of the Climate Group, which is backed by companies and governments and works to reduce carbon emissions, said: ‘I want to see all new public lighting – both streetlighting and in public buildings – to be LED, or as efficient, by 2015.’ Harry Verhaar, global head of public affairs at Philips Lighting, said: ‘The urgency to combat climate change and the potential of energyefficient LED lighting to help tackle this has been recognised.’

Local governments in Western Australia are battling against troublesome cockatoos, which have been damaging streetlights and other infrastructure. Hundreds of the birds are plaguing several towns. Ian Carpenter, mayor of the City of Geraldton, told ABC the birds ‘make a nuisance out of themselves’ by picking the seals out of streetlights and nipping buds on trees. The city has now taken out a license to cull up to 400 of the birds.

ZUMTOBEL PONDERS PAY-AS-YOU-GO LIGHTING Zumtobel is considering following Philips into the world of payas-you-go lighting, where users pay a monthly bill covering all maintenance and energy bills over a number of years. ‘The customer rents it from us and we do all the rest,’ said Zumtobel CEO Ulrich Schumacher.

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |


PEOPLE BERKANT KOEPRUELUEGIL has joined Silica as business manager for lighting in Central Europe. He joins from Cree, where he held a number of senior sales and business development roles. JUSTIN KITE has been appointed as marketing manager of Tamlite Lighting. Kite joinsTamlite from Seco Tools UK. He has been brought on board by Tamlite to increase the company’s exposure as it continues to expand its offering of products for the projects and specification market. Technical Consumer Products (TCP) has appointed two new senior staffmembers. KEVIN NOLAN joins as UK and Ireland general manager while MARK POLLOWAY is appointed EMEA sales and marketing director. Polloway has over 20 years of senior sales and commercial management experience, including at Philips and GE Lighting. Nolan has worked in the technology market for 14 years, including senior positions at RS Components and Electrocomponents. His new role will focus on strengthening the company’s growth programme in the UK.


Good branding will gain the confidence and loyalty of a strong customer base” How to navigate retail lighting, page 54 | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2


Tridonic chief: We need to catch up on LEDs Tridonic CEO Alfred Felder has admitted the control gear giant has been ‘late’ to LEDs, and has vowed to turn the company into an LED-dominated business in six years. Currently a mere 19 per cent of the Austrian firm’s sales are based on solid-state technology. ‘Tridonic is going through a great change as the market is going from conventional to LED technology,‘ said Felder. ‘Tridonic started this change late – not too late, but late, and in the last 18 months we have been trying very, very hard to catch up with the LED technology.‘ The company has seen a sharp decline in sales

of conventional products such as T5 and HID ballasts, and LED developments have failed to plug the gap. However, Felder‘s restructuring in 2013, which included the appointment of new head of R&D, the ex-Philips LED engineer Sietze Jongmann, appears to have borne fruit: the proportion of revenues accounted for by LED-based products rose from 13 o 19 per cent in 2012/13. After a sharp drop of 6.7 per cent in revenue during 2011/12, sales fell again by 7.4 per cent to $566 million in 2012/13. Tridonic held its share of the European electronic ballast market at 25 per cent in 2012/13, but the market is contracting rapidly. The company quit the magnetic ballasts and transformers business in December.


Louis Poulsen returns to private equity hands Danish architectural lighting supplier Louis Poulsen is going back into private equity hands. The maker of the PH lamp has been acquired by Polaris Private Equity, having belonged to the Italian Targetti Sankey Group since 2007. Louis Poulsen’s day-to-day management team will remain the same. The company employs 450 staff with headquarters in Copenhagen, Denmark. Louis Poulsen’s 2013 revenue is expected to come to around $134 million, of which around 70 per cent is international sales. Søren Schøllhammer, vice president at Louis Poulsen, said: ‘We are pleased that, in Polaris, we have a financially strong

owner with extensive knowledge of our business and the ability to give Louis Poulsen the best conditions for focusing on continued development of the company and our unique products.’ Allan Bach Pedersen, partner at Polaris, said: ‘Louis Poulsen is a well-run business with strong development competencies, efficient and highly specialised production processes, and a prominent brand in Denmark and internationally.‘The company’s unique products and status as a design icon is a strong foundation for further growth, and we are looking forward to contributing to its development in the coming years.’

Philips and Osram sales now 1/3 LED LED products now make up one-third of lighting sales at Philips and Osram, the latest financial figures reveal. At Philips, revenue from LED-based products grew year-on-year by nearly half in the last quarter of 2013, rising from 25 to 34 per cent of total lighting sales. At Osram in the same period, revenue for LED products went from 26 to 33 per cent of the total. LEDs helped Philips’ lighting division grow more than twice as fast as the company as a whole in the three-month period. For the full year, lighting sales were flat, but LED sales – particularly LED chips and automotive products, continued to rise. Meanwhile Osram reported a ‘solid’ performance for the last three months of the year.

Smart, energy efficient lighting solutions From the light source. To the system. To the user interface. Helvar will be showcasing its Freedom in Lighting ethos at Light+Building (hall 4, stand B30) by presenting a number of innovative lighting solutions. From the latest in energy monitoring and building integration, to increased LED Driver platforms and DALI Colour Control, the stand will feature product demonstrations that sit at the forefront of modern technology.

Launching at Light + Building

Visit for more information or email us at

Hall 4.0 B30


A tribute in light A decommissioned Leopard tank and a solemn cenotaph stand in the Memorial Park in Palmerston, lit by LED floodlights against the backdrop of the Northern Territory’s colourful sunrises and sunsets. Tasked with finding an energy-friendly way to light up the monuments, Eggins Electrical trialled a range of LED luminaires from Thorn. The brief was to find one that could be made to fit into the existing solar panel battery system used to light up the rest of the park. Eventually the team settled on Thorn’s compact QBA LED luminaire, which uses 27W and emits 749lm. The tight beam angle ensures light does not reach the surrounding flora and fauna, thereby minimising waste. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2


2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |


History comes alive Milan Cathedral is one of Europe’s most famous buildings. The new museum and refurbished archive hold treasure troves that give insights into the cathedral’s history, spanning more than six centuries. LED spotlights from Zumtobel allow colour temperature to be selected, and replaceable optics can be individually adjusted to give the versatility required by different exhibits. To enhance the sculptures and avoid hard shadows, the designers used soft outline lenses and accent lighting directed from various positions. The light from the new LED luminaires is free of infrared, so it’s gentle on the exhibits. The luminaires fade into the background so the exhibition can take centre stage. The exhibition rooms are illuminated mainly by Zumtobel’s Arcos Xpert spotlights, Panos Infinity LED downlights as well as the Tecton continuous-row lighting system, and Linaria light lines are used in the side rooms. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2


2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |


A good vintage At Manns Wines’ winery in Komoro, Japan, bottles are displayed on shelves lit by concealed linear LEDs, creating a beautiful glowing ambience. The winery is getting more and more visitors thanks to the success of its wines, and has refurbished the cellar and private dining room where guests are entertained. The area is below ground, so good artificial lighting was crucial, and DPA was brought in to handle the design. Decorative table lights form a line along the wall, producing a relaxing atmosphere that draws guests into the tasting room. Original wine racks have been reused to create a display wall in the tasting room, with light emanating from beneath to create a pleasing pattern on the wall. Because the wine cellar’s ceiling could not be touched, lighting was designed at a low level, which is in keeping with traditional lighting in Japan. The scheme is dimmable, and has an electrical load of about 10W/m2. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2



2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |


Bridge of light The Sölvesborg Bridge is the longest bicycle and pedestrian bridge in Europe. Built in 2012, it reaches across the bay of Sölvesborg, connecting the centre of this Swedish town with a new housing district. To give it a unique night-time look, design firm Ljusarkitektur used colour-changing luminaires from Lumenpulse. Fixtures are mounted on the outside of the bridge, with a glare shield to hide the light sources. The light can be controlled to avoid disturbing the area’s wildlife, and can change colour to mark important events. Ljusarkitektur wanted to enhance the bridge’s landmark status without negative impact on the local habitat. ‘There is a rich bird life in the area that we didn’t want to disturb,’ says Lina Färje, lighting designer at Ljusarkitektur. The firm used just 24 luminaires with a narrow optic to graze the suspension cables and light the distinctive arches. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2


2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |


Analysis: Bankrupt Detroit embarks on LED upgrade When half the streetlights in your city are out of order, you can’t let a little thing like bankruptcy stand in the way of an upgrade. Lucy Fisher reports on Detroit’s LED project


hen it gets dark in Detroit, it gets really dark. About half of the city’s 88,000 streetlights are believed to be out of action – broken, vandalised or hit by copper theft. It’s just one symptom of Detroit’s painful decline. The once mighty car industry has moved on, as has much of its population. Behind them they’ve left a crumbling city with a spiraling crime rate. To top it all, the city went spectacularly bankrupt last year. In circumstances like these, you can see how streetlight maintenance might get overlooked. But despite not having any money, Detroit has now pushed streetlighting improvements to the top of its priority list, and is about to begin upgrading thousands of lights to LED. The Public Lighting Authority, set up in 2012 to get the city’s lighting back in shape, has raised US$60 million from bond sales to begin the work, and aims to raise a total of US$150-160 million. Thanks to a court ruling, those funds will not be affected by the city’s bankruptcy – whatever disgruntled creditors may say.  The project has its critics – hardly surprising given the city’s massive debts and long line of creditors. Yet, as an issue of public safety and sheer quality of life, the news has been welcomed by residents. Bob Berg, who handles publicity for the authority, says locals have been known to hug lighting crews and make them coffee as they work their A federal judge way around the city, assessing the cited Detroit’s antiquated system. dilapidated When federal judge Steven Rhodes affirmed the city’s eligibility streetlights as a for bankruptcy last summer, he cited prime example of Detroit’s dilapidated streetlights its decline” as a prime example of its decline, lamenting ‘the dark that the citizens of Detroit suffer day in, day out and the crime that results from that’. Traffic accidents – some fatal – have also been blamed on bad lighting. Detroit’s emergency manager Kevyn Orr said in an interview that ‘the lighting question is one of the foremost questions in the city’ because of its impact on public safety.


Work underway Upgrade work is already underway in test areas, and Odis Jones, executive director of the Public Lighting Authority, wants to get the job done swiftly, in 18 months rather than the three years originally mooted. The current high-pressure sodium lamps will be scrapped in favour of 150W LED fittings. The new lights will | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

Fewer, brighter streetlights will cut costs and improve illumination

be brighter, so fewer will be needed. There will be a light at every corner, plus one in the middle of any block that is more than about 100 metres long. ‘LED lights will provide brighter and more costefficient lighting for the city,’ said Jones. The legislation also requires the authority to make every effort to ensure local companies do the work.  Berg says the authority has been in touch with other cities that have undergone lighting upgrades, but Detroit’s predicament is somewhat unique. ‘They’ve talked to other cities, such as Los Angeles and Boston, but none of these cities has an infrastructure which is so deteriorated… Detroit has had a problem for a number of years. They just haven’t had the resources to fix it.’ As things stand, copper coil theft, failed lamps and maintenance issues leave streets dark, and residents feeling unsafe at night.  ‘People just feel better if the lights work,’ says Berg. Michigan Governor Rick Snyder agrees, saying the people of Detroit ‘will see tangible quality of life improvements in their neighborhoods’. ‘Enhancing lighting throughout the City of Detroit is one of the top priorities for both the state and the city and this financing clearly demonstrates that commitment, Snyder said. It is hoped the funding arrangement will serve as a model for other cities. However, the financing has taken some time to come to fruition, with lender Citigroup having sought assurance that money would not be redirected to creditors, pensioners or other parties. Not everyone was happy – Reuters reports that some bond holders, insurers, unions and retirees objected to the deal because it would leave the city with less cash – but on the whole, the bond deal has attracted surprisingly little controversy. Because of the unusual funding arrangement, the city wants the lights to have a 30-year life. ‘The debt has to be repaid,’ says Berg. ‘We’re not trying to build a Cadillac,’ says Jones. ‘Just a reliable Chevy.’


Analysis: Why love for LED streetlights is in the air (at last) The lighting industry is in the throes of romance. But it isn’t young couples who have been hit by Cupid’s arrow – it’s local authorities swooning over LED streetlights, writes Mary-Clare O’Connor


ydney is the latest major city to complete an upgrade of thousands of its streetlights with energy-efficient sources. Having spent $7 million on the three-year project, the New South Wales government is replacing 6,500 lights. It will be Australia’s first major LED streetlighting project, but probably not its last. Sydney’s decision to embrace LEDs could be as a result of the success other cities around the world are having replacing their conventional lights with energy-efficient alternatives. Los Angeles has the second largest municipal streetlighting system in the United States with over 200,000 streetlights, and provides illumination to more than 4,500 miles of streets. It recently underwent a retrofit of urban LED road lighting resulting in cost savings of $11 million a year in energy and maintenance, and even reported reductions in street crime. Cities all over the world are following suit. New York, Buenos Aires and Bangalore are among the major urban areas that have converted to LED. Although councils are increasingly embracing LEDs, the same cannot be said of some residents. Councils can often come up against angry homeowners going to extreme lengths to stop LEDs from being installed in their areas. Residents and mainstream media have slowed the uptake of LED streetlights, out of concern for the lighting not matching the character of the street, or fear that LEDs cause health problems. Nevertheless, councils are risking the ire of their residents by installing new technology. Salix Finance, a government-backed finance provider in the UK, thinks it knows why. The potential savings from public sector energy-efficiency projects financed by funding body Salix have passed $1.86 billion, the organisation says – and about a third of that comes from lighting. Salix’s loan scheme lets public sector organisations such as local authorities, schools and NHS trusts spread the cost of their energy upgrades, with lighting upgrades, including LEDs, proving to be one of the most popular options. So far, Salix funding has been used for more than 4,000 lighting projects. New sources of finance for energy-saving lighting projects in the public and private sectors are continuing to crop up. Green investment firm Goldfield Partners is the latest company to offer loans for lighting upgrades, | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

with the launch of a scheme aimed at public sector and low-risk private sector organisations. With concern for initial costs negated, more lighting managers in councils are having their heads turned by the benefits of energy-efficient streetlights. For energy managers in the UK, maintenance concerns have beaten the need to save money. Dave Franks of Westminster Council in London says that he can see the benefits. ‘We’re pursuing the dream of zero-maintenance LEDs,’ he says. ‘We work in the We’re finding most difficult environment in the LED products country. The simplest task is a that we’re more nightmare in London – the traffic is terrible. You’ve got to manage confident in, maintenance around that and it’s that are fit for difficult.’ purpose and do One local authority lighting manager who’s already fallen for what they say LEDs is Eddie Henry of London’s on the tin” Southwark Council. He says councils have only recently got a clear idea about the products they want to buy, which has led to an increase in uptake. ‘With LED technology being so new, the confidence wasn’t as high with the local authorities as it was with the manufacturers,’ he says. ‘But much of that is being ironed out with trials over the past few years and we’re finding LED products that we’re more confident in, that are fit for purpose and do what it says on the tin.’ Big city councils have led the way in the LED revolution, and where they go, smaller local authorities are sure to follow. Big budgets mean that cities have more freedom for trial and error, but now LEDs have established a loyal following, it won’t be long before all government authorities are looking at LEDs through rose-coloured glasses.


Darlinghurst Road in Kings Cross, Sydney, has been part of LED lighting trials

26 Letter from cape town

Letter from Cape Town Fergus tait iLLuminate Lights

Light on the horizon Cheap imports and closed minds have set back the cause of LEDs in South Africa – but it is not all doom and gloom


n South Africa, electricity costs have risen by an average (which are virtually unheard of) and will take the line of least of 25 per cent over the past six years, and will continue resistance, reverting to old, inefficient lighting in proposals to rise by eight per cent each year for the next five. to clients. They never mention the running costs or savings This is not an estimate; it has been guaranteed to South available with LEDs, and do not understand how to put African electricity supplier Eskom by the government. Pretty together a financial package with all the bonuses. frightening figures for the economy, as you can imagine. If you think I have painted a gloomy picture, try going north The plus side is that this offers huge opportunities for of the border. Zimbabwe manages to run without power for LED lighting and controls. But first let’s go back some seven long periods every day, and there’s a similar pattern in other to 10 years, when the African market was flooded with countries. Streetlights are more of a luxury than a necessity, Chinese LEDs of dubious quality – usually without guarantees. and when the lamps start to dim or pack up then that’s the The benefits were oversold and never lived up to the hype. way they stay. Again, price is the big issue and luxuries such From that time on, LEDs were a non-starter and most electrical as lights drop down the wish list. engineers wouldn’t specify them. To this day they are reluctant. You’d think Africa would turn to solar and solve all its As electricity prices continued to rise, energy problems, but the same old problem arises. saving moved off the back burner. Eskom The Chinese sold a considerable number began offering rebates for LEDs or CFL or of solar streetlights to Africa at knockdown The dead T8-to-T5 retrofit – always a sticking-plaster prices, which of course packed up after a Chinese solar answer to genuine long-term savings, I feel. short period. These dead streetlights stand streetlights are This was another setback for LEDs. The free there as monuments to the consequences of LED swap-out was usually a nasty 3W pale LED choosing price over quality. monuments to that replaced a 50W downlight. Of course this We need a new approach. Something that the effects of produced about the same light as a candle – fulfils the need for good, cost-effective, robust choosing price another black mark against LEDs. lights that require little maintenance, have solid The other huge problem is cost: the South warranties and do what they say on the tin. Not over quality” African rand has depreciated severely over the to mention thinking outside the box with regard past few years from approximately 6.5 to the US to financing and rollout, which just happens to dollar to about 10.5 now, which pushes LED prices way above be something we are starting to offer ourselves – so far with a those of traditional lighting – particularly when you add 20 lot of market take-up. We have introduced a model that funds per cent import duty, not to mention expensive freight. the lights to the client on a monthly basis, and after payment South African companies traditionally look at the bottom they are usually left with a 20 per cent saving. line, and the usual response to a quality lighting solution is It’s not all doom and gloom on the LED front. Several ‘it’s too expensive’ – even though the figures show payback engineering companies are seriously embracing LEDs. Arup, times normally less than 18 months, and long-term savings in for instance, is proposing LEDs for projects in other African energy costs. It’s a very real problem. countries. A good example in Cape Town is No 1 Silo Allan The South African mindset is difficult to overcome, Grey Building on the Waterfront, which is going to be a fiveparticularly when accountants consider lighting a necessary star rated green building. evil. The other problem is that existing, established lighting For those willing to keep plugging away in Africa, the companies do not really understand LED lighting and controls rewards can be huge – and they are not just financial.


Fergus tait director, iLLuminate Lights | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

28 Letter from hong kong

Letter from Hong Kong charLes d’haussy LucibeL Led Lighting

The dynamic potential of LEDs LED technology offers us exciting new ways to use light to promote health and wellbeing. The industry must embrace them


ED lighting is a unique platform for innovation. It addresses many challenges, including two that are particularly important for providing safe, comfortable light. Photobiological safety in lighting is outlined in the IEC/ EN 62471 standard, which Celma (the European federation of lighting industry associations) recommends its members follow. IEC/EN 62471 provides guidance for evaluating how hazardous light exposure can be to the eyes and skin of different people. The spectral range over which radiance should be considered is 300-1400 nm, since the retina is essentially protected outside this range. And LED light sources are no exception. Nowadays designers and system integrators pretty much incorporate this requirement, but it’s critical to keep education efforts up, especially when it comes to end user health and safety. Besides safety, a lighting design should be in line with our bodies’ The correct natural cycles, to let the whole value of modern lighting be realised. All life lighting at the on earth evolved in an environment correct time ruled by cycles – such as the daily not only makes cycles of light and dark, and the seasonal cycles that move our individuals more weather from warm to cold. You might alert but also imagine that our sophisticated and more motivated complex modern life means we are no longer influenced by these cycles. And and productive” yet our biological cycles are regulated by external factors such as light. Human rhythms showing recurrent daily changes are known as circadian rhythms. These are human biological clocks, marking moments for sleep, waking, and socialising. Light sets, resets and adjusts the body clock of everyone of us. This means biologically effective light must take into account colour temperature, illuminance, light direction and adaptability. The colour temperature of daylight varies dynamically from sunrise to sunset. Numerous studies have demonstrated that exposure to light at night-time suppresses the production of melatonin, the hormone that controls our sleep and wake cycles.


It is well established that short-wavelength blue light is the most melatonin-suppressive. LEDs are distinctly flexible. From the bluewhite of the semiconductor component to yellow and red hues of the phosphor, the spectrum of colours that can be produced is remarkable. That’s another feature we can exploit. Understanding the light waves and colour delivered and their timeline becomes critical in lighting design for office workers, shoppers or restaurant customers. Studies show that illuminance levels between 500 and 1500lx are biologically compelling. Light control systems and sensors allow lux levels to be adjusted through the day. The human eye is used to receiving light from above. At the conception stages, we should focus on mimicking the flow and behaviour of natural light. Adjusting angles and positioning the lights become critical. Room decorations, including the colours of floors and walls, should be considered in order not to spoil the intended effect. Large luminaires tend to work best at reproducing natural outdoor light. With this in mind, biologically effective lighting designs can be fine-tuned so that they are not noticed, because they fit in so well with visitors’ body clocks. Dynamic lighting initiatives are already underway. Thanks to intelligent controls and sensors, luminaires can be separately controlled and adjusted to support our natural biological circadian rhythms. Projects delivered in elderly homes showed improvements in wellness and sociability. In schools, thanks to adaptive and dynamic lighting solutions, students show longer periods of concentration and better results. Circadian cycles and illuminance are much more connected than they appear at first glance. The correct lighting at the correct time not only makes individuals more alert but also makes them more motivated and productive, and improves social lives. Dynamic lighting experience has to be the ultimate target of all our solutions and designs. Our industry should leverage all its capabilities and technological innovations to promote a dynamic, biologically efficient lighting experience. Accomplishing this mission will make lighting a central point of our lives again. LED lighting, in its hardware and software forms, is a platform for interactions and services that support our wellbeing.

charLes d’haussy, vice president, OEM and Asia sales, LucibeL Led Lighting | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

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When did quality become a tertiary function? When it comes to LEDs, you get what you pay for

Steve HARe SySteMS eNgINeeR, eye lIgHtINg


ED lighting has been with us for some time now and with it have come some great achievements and excellent lighting installations. It is a well-established light source and another weapon for a lighting designer or manufacturers’ arsenal. But has it improved lighting for the real end user: the employees, pedestrians, drivers and residents? In many cases, I fear not. One of the big advantages of LEDs is that they are very efficient, with chip efficacies over 140 lm/W even when run at a reasonable forward current. They are also very small – as near to a theoretical point source as we can get, which lends itself to efficient control of the light output and optical design. But these factors are also the downfall of LED. There is a mad rush for LED lighting. End users are specifying LED lighting because they want to save energy and it is this energy saving that has been the driving force behind the uptake of the new technology. Installations are being designed with quick payback in mind rather than with in-depth, As a crude, thought-through specifications that but by no means focus on the application and task incorrect, rule in hand. Considerations of colour quality, maintainability, reliability, glare of thumb, the and so on take a back seat because cheaper a fitting the spreadsheet says ‘Return on is, the lower the investment = 3.68 years’. Let’s put quality issues aside for quality” a moment and focus on the return on investment calculation. An ROI calculation is important to understand the financial feasibility of a project, but the calculation is only as good as the information put in and the experience of the operator. A major problem that arises when designing with payback and energy saving in mind is that the cost of the luminaire plays an important part. In a simple ROI calculation, if you double the cost of the fixture you double the payback period. As a crude, but by no means incorrect, rule of thumb, the cheaper the fitting is, the lower the quality. Luminaire costs are affected by all manner of inputs into their manufacture, but savings can be taken from where they shouldn’t


Steve HARe systems engineer eye lIgHtINg | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

be. The painting preparation could have been compromised, or the driver could be down-rated to squeeze every last watt out of it. Has the contact of dissimilar metals been eradicated throughout the fixture? Will the integrity of the IP rating last the lifetime of the luminaire? Items that are cheap are cheap for a reason. Quality and reliability can be heavily compromised by choosing the cheapest option, and you may not see your return on investment because half of the luminaires have already failed. The ROI model also favours the use of the most efficient luminaire available. The more lumens there are per dollar, the more effective it is. It is common knowledge that for an LED, the higher the colour temperature the higher the efficacy. So straight away, the best option even with what might be a good quality luminaire is the 6000K option. Then there is the mounting of the LED. Because the LED is directional, it shines the light in the right direction anyway, so you can mount it on the surface with a small plastic lens to control the light and not worry about having to use reflection. But then each luminaire is extremely glary and visible from any angle, whether you’re directly under the fitting or not. There is a reason high bay luminaires use a recessed lamp. Consideration should be given to the maximum shielding angle or cut-off angle to reduce glare, but using an LED with surface-mounted chips does not lend itself to good control. In fact, there is no shield at all. The coating on a HID lamp isn’t always there to improve colour quality, it can also be there to reduce glare or to change the photometric distribution. So if you follow the design principles of the ROI and choose the cheapest and most efficient product, you are unlikely to end up with a good quality, comfortable and reliable system. My experience is that this is not the fault of designers and consultants, but more a problem of the blind – or greedy – leading the blind. End users with little knowledge of lighting equipment are being sold stories by people who know just a little more, but enough to sound convincing and enough to be dangerous. We come across many potential clients who do not want to hear about LEDs because they’ve tried that and it looked terrible, was glary and uncomfortable or didn’t last for a year, let alone the 50,000 hours they were promised.




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Ray Molony Spy lights could make us the bad guys Ray Molony, founder of Lux Review


Systems, is now being licensed to luminaire ighting professionals and those with manufacturers, raising the prospect that installations responsibility for lighting have reason to feel like Newark may become commonplace – even the good about themselves. We are, after all, the norm – in the future. bringers of light, illuminating the spaces we inhabit, In Europe, the industry’s biggest manufacturer is chasing the dark. We are the good guys. also practising technological alchemy by blending But like the original ‘bringer of light’, Lucifer, are LED lighting, data collection and management we destined to lose our angelic status, to become to another purpose: marketing. At the EuroShop the fallen due to greed and envy? Are we set to exhibition in Düsseldorf, Philips unveiled an intelligent become the gimp of Big Data, the eyes and ears of LED in-store lighting system for retail applications Mass Surveillance? that communicates location-based information to You see, we have something that the Big Data shoppers via a smartphone app. guys want: ubiquity. Lights are almost everywhere The idea is that the lighting uses the app to people are. In every shop, every office, along every send special offers and information to the shopper, street. Lighting is a mass network of powered relevant to their location in points, wherever people are gathered. the store. A ready-made infrastructure that’s In Copenhagen, there are being coveted by those with Lighting is plans for a new network of LED less-than-altruistic intent. Lights, a ready-made streetlights to harvest data that will especially LED lights, have the in turn help identify traffic build-up potential to become the spies in the surveillance and even inform waste authorities sky, and the spymasters know it. infrastructure, when rubbish bins need collecting. It’s no pipe vision: lighting is today coveted by those Installations and applications like taking on extracurricular roles in realthese raise issues of privacy and world applications. with less-thanthe use of the data. These lights are For instance, Bexley Business altruistic intent” indeed spying on us; sometimes we Academy in the UK has become one don’t know it and sometimes we’re of the first installations in the world complicit in it. Mostly they have benign intent such of so-called Li-Fi, Wi-Fi delivered by the visible as cutting queues and identifying parking spaces, or light of LED fittings. The high-frequency, they’re just trying to sell us stuff. digital nature of LEDs means they lend But as we all now know, data can be mismanaged themselves perfectly to this form of delivery. and, at worst, end up the hands of those who would At Newark Airport in New Jersey, LED exploit it for malicious purpose. luminaires are part of a pioneering wireless Therefore it’s easy to imagine a dystopian future in network that can monitor the movement of which the lighting industry sleepwalks into an people and vehicles, the use of parking spaces ill-advised and corrupting relationship with Big Data. and the build-up of queues. It’s claimed it can Without debate or reflection on the ethics of this even identify ‘suspicious activity’ and send alerts seismic change in the intent and purpose of what to security staff. we do, this could easily happen incrementally. The luminaires contain custom chips and are I’m not blind to the enormous commercial connected to sensors, cameras and one another opportunity that awaits us. In fact, I’m excited by over a wireless network. As well as merely the possibilities of lighting doing more than just illuminating Terminal B at Newark, the lighting illuminating the world. But we should take on this collects and feeds an enormous amount of data new role with our eyes wide open, after a proper into software, which in turn can ‘mine’ this data debate and with accepted and agreed codes of to detect patterns. conduct. Let’s stay the good guys. The technology, created by US firm Sensity




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34 opinion gordon routledge

Reality check Designing reliable solid-state lighting isn’t rocket science... is it? Gordon Routledge, lighting expert and publisher of Lux Review, tackles another lighting myth


efficiency upgrade and the specific challenges of ompared with the world of space science, each installation. the lighting world is a rather simple One of the set questions for all entrants is: ‘Have scientific backwater. This was brought you had any problems with the lighting system home to me when I first visited Thorn Lighting in post installation?’ Another is: ‘What warranty the early 1990s. Back then the business was led arrangements do you have?’ by a robust character called Terry Smith. At the These are important questions, because the time, Thorn was being turned around after the value proposition for the investment hinges on the break-up of the EMI Group. Terry had focused lighting kit doing what it says on the tin. Having to on what was important for the business, and continually revisit a system that has not performed unnecessary R&D work was often cut down with can quickly blow the value away – especially the phrase: ‘We are not building f****** rockets.’ when it involves hiring access equipment. Well, perhaps it’s now time to re-evaluate the We have touched on the topic of warranties efforts of those who do build rockets. before, and my continued Not long ago the Voyager experience is that they fall 1 spacecraft became the first into two camps. Ones that are man-made object to leave the Building essentially window dressing to solar system. When it was being owners are support the sales process, which developed, mission planners acutely aware vanish as the project makes its calculated that the probe would way through the specification and last for five years. Well, a staggering of failures. In construction process. Then there 36 years later it is still working, many cases are those that are offered direct and is expected to keep going it’s their own to the building owner. These are until 2025 when its generators will essential to justify the investment no longer be able to supply reputations that in a new technology – I call enough power. Voyager are on the line” them ‘real’ warranties. Building contains more than a owners tend to remember the million individual electronic warranty because they live with the lighting components, a self-repairing computer system day by day, so they are acutely aware of system, data storage and sensitive failures and what they were promised. In many scientific instruments. During its life it cases it’s their own reputations on the line if the has been subject to huge extremes of investment in new technology fails. temperature, the stress of a rocket launch As the LED and controls revolution unfolds, the and huge doses of radiation, and yet it still warranty is going to become a big differentiator. It sends its data back to Earth. demonstrates the confidence a manufacturer has Every year I get to go on quite a journey in their system. We are already starting to see real myself as part of the judging for the warranties move from five to 10 years, and why Lux Awards – not perhaps clocking up not? If complex 1970s electronics can last in deep as many miles as Voyager, but still taking space for 36 years is it unreasonable to ask for a in world heritage sites, supermarkets, lighting system to last five or 10? It can be done. warehouses, shopping centres and leisure Yes, it comes down to the price and the amount venues. I’ve met people at the coal face of invested in R&D, and to the time to prove out the energy use reduction and those that live with warranty. Today we see products at all price points the lighting industry’s efforts, good and bad. offered with five-year warranties. Tomorrow we They have shared the often quite extensive will see whose products last the distance. value propositions used to justify an energy-


Follow Gordon on TwiTTer @gordonroutledge | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2


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LETTERS CHALLENGES FOR LEDS IN INDUSTRY The LED revolution is well underway, and there are some amazing solutions for lighting our working and living environments. But from our experiences of supplying the commercial and industrial sectors with both induction and LED lighting solutions, I would offer a warning to those rushing down the LED industrial lighting pathway: the glare factor and concentrated point source of high-power LED light could have workplace safety implications. The LED industry needs to focus on managing accidental impact on sight with some form of light dispersal to remove the blinding effect of LEDs. This has been well managed for LED in domestic and office situations below 30W. We know of factories and workplaces that have trialled LEDs and removed them, reverting to their original lighting. Others have thoroughly researched and tested options and chosen induction lighting, an old Tesla technology emerging as one of the more visually comfortable lighting solutions. We find that we supply more induction lighting into the workshop and industrial areas than LED, the main reason being lighting comfort and lower cap ex. Our focus is good lighting advice based on application. This is critical to customers, as their choice of lighting will be with them for a long time. We look forward to the day when industrial LED lighting is developed without the glare that can impact safety in environments where hand eye co-ordination is important. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

Ainsley Bartsfield took this great photo of the northern lights on a recent trip to Iceland. And if you think it’s easy to get a photo this good of the aurora, just try it for yourself.

Perhaps there are already solutions out there. GREG MCGARVIE Managing director, GetGreen, Melbourne, Australia

DESIGN PRODUCTS FOR ALL INSTALLERS In a response to the Lighting Talk discussion ‘How much should a manufacturer get involved with the end user?’ I think that with commercial wares, beta testing installation with electrical professionals is a major plus. Designing on a computer and overlooking the real world experience of a man on a ladder with a 20kg product can spoil the best engineered luminaire housing and running gear. Ballast, driver, lamp, and PCB replacements should go through trials with large-handed and gloved installers, even if only on a tabletop. I’ve never known an electrician who doesn’t have three or four more opinions about the design. The blurring between

professional, handyman, and average do-it-yourselfer requires new levels of empathic sensitivity by product designers and engineers. This is especially true in residential and light commercial products sold at home centres. Amateur installations are illegal or frowned upon but impossible to stop. Design for the best possible installer experience ought to be universal. The ‘voice of the user’ at all levels can only enhance the product and customer satisfaction. PETER WACHTER Designer, Peter Wachter Design Chicago, US

VALUE FOR MONEY SHOULDN’T MEAN CHEAP Whether it’s tendering for a project, offering alternatives to a client, pitching for lighting design work or putting together a proposal for product design work, ‘value for money’ should not mean ‘cheap’. How can we reverse the tendency to trade

only on price? I think one of the big challenges is that responsibility for design and build of any given project is driven down the chain, so the guy placing orders for products is so disconnected from the intent of the project (and very often building at a fixed price) that cheaper alternatives are sought. In most cases the alternatives are sought deliberately, because this is the only way that the electrical contractor makes money on the project. In the meantime, the client suffers with poor quality installations and we can stand back and say, ‘I told you so’. It’s not like we have not seen this before with LED MR16 and LED GU10. Now that the industry is dealing with LED luminaires, we are falling in to the same trap. I know there is no answer – it’s a shame that ultimately it’s the built environment that looks crap and the reputation of our industry that gets tarnished. Maybe if we can sort out a single global industry body to help protect the lighting industry, we can find ways of dealing with some of these issues with the pen (legislation) as opposed to the sword? SIMON FISHER Founder and director, F Mark Cambridgeshire, UK

ARE YOUR LEDS READY FOR HOSPITALS? Even when it’s clear that LEDs are safer, cheaper, and more efficient than halogen lamps, why do manufacturers struggle to build compliant fixtures for hospital and task lighting? It always starts by picking the wrong LED – one that has little red (i.e. the R9 value in the CRI). Physicians who rely on visual observations to treat blood-based life-threatening diseases such as cyanosis and


jaundice need a light source that is capable of rendering high quality colour – especially red. Without quality red, the output can yield a false life-threatening diagnosis. We assume that a high-CRI chip is hospital ready. Not always, because the CRI value doesn’t include the red in the CRI equation. So, even if the CRI could be 80, the R9 value could be 20. Don’t only rely on the CRI value, but definitely use it to shortlist your LEDs during your initial selection process. Start with a CRI of 85.  Also, there has been recent talk about selecting an LED that has an R9 above 60. Don’t rely on an R9 value greater than 60; it’s not bulletproof enough. For cyanosis observation index (COI) compliance, some LEDs fail even when the R9 is 65, while others don’t.  To guide your LED selection process, I recommend these three easy steps: shortlist the 85+ CRI LEDs using the LED manufacturer’s simulator tool (like Citiled’s HCRI simulator); select the LEDs that meet your needs; and get the spectral data for the LEDs, including the R9 and COI values. PIYUSH AGGARWALA Business development manager, Supreme Components International, Singapore

DOES IT DO WHAT IT SAYS ON THE BOX? Just because an LED luminaire manufacturer specifies a CCT on its cut sheets or product boxes, it doesn’t mean the wares have those numbers. It is not practical to check installed downlights in any form factor using an integrating sphere – the industry gold standard – but if it were up to a growing number of us, the use of calibrated handheld spectrometers would be

mandatory before people in charge sign off on a solid-state lighting installation. These fact-checking efforts should start with the product designers – then that information should be checked by a manufacturer’s QC before the information is sent to distributors and installers. The reality is that this ‘ideal’ protocol of assessments isn’t in place or effective. In our litigious society, lighting industry professionals are well advised to know the attributes of the wares they make or sell. Let both the buyer and seller beware. Or perhaps I should say: ‘Let them be informed.’ DENNIS MCCARTHY Excel LED Lighting, US

SELLING THE BENEFITS OF LEDs There’s been some discussion on lighting talk about Cree’s TV ads for its LED bulbs, and whether this is good for the industry. These adverts are great for the industry. They’re fun and engage non-lighting people with the benefits of this brilliant technology. The coffin was a great touch. More companies should be doing such things. The whole industry should be screaming about how fantastic this technology is. It’s not just a case of LEDs being the future; they’re the present. I hope everybody stops dillydallying around in fear of losing a history that we should be ready to let go of. MARIANA SUMMERS Independent lighting consultant, US


IS AUSTRALIA THE ONLY PLACE THAT CARES ABOUT THE CYANOSIS OBSERVATION INDEX? Piyush Aggarwala Business development manager at Supreme Components International

Why does Australia seem to be the only region that cares about the Cyanosis Observation Index (COI)?

James Benya Principal at Benya Burnett Consultancy

There is considerable talk about COI in Europe. I understand that Sweden may now require it in healthcare facilities, and it is under consideration in other countries. Very little interest so far in the US. Clifton Lemon Marketingconsultant

I learned about COI from Jim Benya and Deborah Burnett, they are pretty much the only people I know talking about it in lighting. James Benya Principal at Benya Burnett Consultancy

In Australia and NZ, COI compliance is required in healthcare facilities. Some European countries are adopting too. We just don’t care in the US – yet. Piyush Aggarwala Business development manager at Supreme Components International

But doesn’t a high R9 value in the CRI correlate with COI? My supplier was saying that an R9 > 60, which is typically what you see in CRI chips > 90, typically allow for the ‘chip’ to stay compliant with the COI.

James Benya Principal at Benya Burnett Consultancy

The COI determination formula requires good red at 660 nm, good cyan at 505 nm, and generally high CRI at CCT between 3300 and 5300K (if memory serves). Most high CRI chips are 2700K or 3000K and fail. Other chips fail due to lack of cyan response as well as deep reds.

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2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |

38 What I BelIeve LyLe cato, jupIters hoteL and casIno

Caption in here


As a casino, we need the outside of the building to look as good as the inside”

THE DETAILS | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

What I BelIeve 39

Lyle Cato Property operations manager, Jupiters Hotel and Casino

Casinos have complex lighting needs With one of the largest hotels in Australia, a busy gaming floor, conference facilities, a new theatre and large open spaces we need to consider a variety of different needs when determining the best lighting solution. Our restaurants and bars also each have a unique feel and atmosphere, so again lighting plays an important role in helping to deliver the different experiences to our guests. We also consider the safety of our guests and team at all times, so we make sure the external lighting and options for back of house areas meet stringent guidelines. Keeping all of this in mind certainly adds to the complexity of selecting the perfect product, but we are always able to find suitable lighting by working closely with managers across our business and also the suppliers.

I have been a strong advocate of lighting ever since. Our main priorities are cost efficiency and energy efficiency Environment and sustainability is a really important focus and priority across all of our properties and we’ve taken significant leaps forward in a very short period of time. Being a 24-hour business ,turning lights off isn’t always option, so when sourcing new lighting or carrying out upgrades our main priority isn’t just cost efficiency but energy efficiency as well. We have put a number of measures in place to ensure we have effective recycling practices in place. An example of this sustainability commitment is that light globes are taken offsite by waste contractors to be recycled separately.

You’ve got to create the right feel Being a casino and entertainment complex, we always aim to create a lot of atmosphere – and lighting is a fantastic way to add another dimension to this. We’ve recently introduced more colour inside the building by lighting up our roof sails in the atrium area as well as adding coloured lights in the roof line at the entrance to the property. To create a fantastic arrival experience we’ve also introduced colour-change lighting to the front of the building with rows of LEDs that greet guests as soon as the sun goes down.

The reliability of LED lighting is first rate In 2012 our theatre, designed for concerts, stage shows and special events, relaunched following a $20 million redevelopment. The general lighting in the revamped venue is LED while specifically designed lighting is used for stage appearance and visual effects. The lighting maintenance in Jupiters Theatre now is fantastic; we’ve had only one failure in two years so the reliability is first rate LED lighting has also been installed in the garden areas surrounding the property and these white lights have also proven extremely reliable. In terms of visual impact, the LEDS are also very effective particularly in the way they light up the palm tree-lined streets surrounding the Hotel.

Lighting has massive potential Lighting is a passion of mine and I think the more you look into it and discover its full potential and the exciting new technology, the more you want to cleverly incorporate it into every space. Before joining Jupiters I was an electrical supervisor at our sister property Treasury Casino and Hotel in Brisbane, and I instigated the colour change for the external lighting of the iconic heritage-listed building. This was my first major lighting project and I discovered it is the perfect medium to be able to completely change the look and feel of a building, while still respecting its appearance and design.

LED is most definitely our first port of call Our main priority now is implementing LED lighting across the entire business. LED is most definitely our first port of call for any new projects, upgrades or redevelopments we undergo in the future. If we’re unable to find suitable LED lighting for a certain project or area we will source something else, however so far we haven’t needed to. The flexibility, cost and energy efficiency, as well as the programing and colour change capabilities of LEDs make it our number one lighting preference.

Jupiters Hotel & Casino on the Gold Coast is an international resort with award-winning restaurants, bars and a convention centre. Jupiters recently worked with ULA Group and Aecom Sydney on a new lighting design for the property’s porte-cochère. The purpose of the project was to create an impressive visual

effect and to lower power consumption, increase lifespan, and reduce operating costs and carbon emissions. Anolis ArcDots, incorporating Cree RGBW multi chips, was used. The project involved 137 pieces of ArcDots being installed into the existing entrance ceiling which were then programmed and pixel-mapped to run video

effects in different setups and sequences 24 hours a day. An Ecue Lighting system activates the lighting show every evening. An additional 30 ArcSource 24MC fixtures were also installed in the ceiling to create rich saturated colours on the forecourt entrance and valet parking area.

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |

40 PROJECT nsw streetlIghtIng

The road

AHEAD Lux Review takes a look at how new LED streetlights are slashing energy consumption in Sydney’s suburbs


housands of streetlights across the suburbs of Sydney, the Central Coast and the Hunter Valley are switching to LED as part of a huge rollout aiming to slash energy consumption and save millions of dollars. Since announcing the project last year, Ausgrid has installed around 2,500 LED streetlights in the area. Forty-one local councils in New South Wales are going LED as part of the project, following in | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

the footsteps of the City of Sydney, which has also decided to replace more than 6,000 lights with LEDs (see box overleaf).

Big savings Ausgrid, which supplies electricity throughout the area, conducted LED streetlighting trials in 2012 and 2013 in eight locations in Sydney and the Central Coast, including streets in Balgowlah Heights and North Bondi. The trials involved replacing a mixture of mercury vapour and fluorescent lights with three different types of LED streetlights, studying actual energy use, performance under Australian conditions and the responses of residents and motorists. Results showed that electricity use was cut by between 43 and 70 per cent depending on the type of light



Public lighting is an essential service for the community that helps make our roads and public areas safer” Energy minister Chris Hartcher

This street in North Ryde has been part of the LED streetlighting trials

Photos: Anthony Fretwell

than 20 years, meaning councils will pay a lot less for both maintenance and power. Most streetlights in residential areas use between 46 and 95W and require regular globe replacements, whereas the LEDs to be installed use as little as 29W.’ The new LED streetlights will be assembled and supplied by locally-based Sylvania Lighting Australasia.

replaced. The biggest savings came on a street in Noraville, where an electrical load of nearly 600W for lighting was reduced to just 174W. On top of the impressive energy savings, maintenance costs proved to be minimal, and residents generally preferred the bright white light and improved distribution of the new LED lights. Ausgrid owns and maintains 250,000 streetlights on behalf of the 41 councils, and is encouraging them to invest in the new technology.

Essential lighting Energy minister Chris Hartcher said: ‘When a standard light on a suburban street fails and cannot be fixed, it will now be replaced with a super-efficient LED. The lifespan of LEDs is expected to be more

White light makes colours much clearer at night-time

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |


An electrical load of more than 500W was reduced to just 174W on this street in Mosman

UP TO 70% SAVINGS | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2



It will save a significant amount of money, without compromising on the quality of an important community service”

AustrAliA’s first lED city

Paul Myors, Ausgrid ‘Public lighting is an essential service for the community that helps make our roads and public areas safer for pedestrians and motorists,’ Hartcher said. ‘It’s great to see a local company at the forefront of this technology, helping to make a vital community service more efficient and cost effective. Based on Ausgrid’s predictions, Sylvania will be supplying about 10,000 LEDs a year.’ ‘Using LEDs as the standard replacement for streetlights is the first step towards employing this technology on a large scale.’

No compromise


LED streetlighting and controls are becoming increasingly popular the world over as a way to slash energy and maintenance costs, while improving light quality. Ausgrid’s Paul Myors said: ‘We have tested these lights to make sure they use less electricity and are easier to maintain. We are meeting with councils to go through the detail of the proposal. However, we know it will save them a significant amount of money, without compromising on the quality of an important community service.

An Ausgrid worker installs one of the new LED streetlights

Following trials in Alexandria Park, Circular Quay, George Street, Kings Cross and Martin Place in 2011, Sydney is becoming Australia’s first LED city, with a $7 million project to turn 6,448 of its 23,000 streetlights to LED. The city hopes to save nearly $800,000 a year in electricity bills and maintenance costs. It’s part of the city’s plan to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 70 per cent by 2030. The city also participated in an international trial of LED lighting run by the Climate Group, which also involved London, New York and Hong Kong. Public lighting accounts for around a third of Sydney’s electricity use and carbon emissions. The

new LED lights will reduce these emissions by 2,861 tonnes – the equivalent of taking 940 cars off the road. LEDs also last longer and are brighter than the streetlights they replace, improving visibility and making streets safer at night. In a survey conducted after an 18-month trial of the new LED lights, more than 90 per cent of people said they thought the new lighting was appealing, and three-quarters said it improved visibility.

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |


WORLD Cities around the globe are adopting solid-state technology to upgrade their streetlights, writes Kathrine Anker

LONDON, UK Transport for London is to spend $20.5 million installing a central management system and upgrading 35,000 streetlights to LED by 2016, with a view to saving $3.5 million a year in energy costs. Further upgrades will be made over the next ten years as part of a $7.5 billion investment in the capital’s roads, with the aim of converting most of London’s streetlights to LED by 2023. Harvard Engineering is responsible for installing the control system and CU Phosco is the preferred supplier for posttop luminaires. The programme aims to reduce carbon emissions by around 9,700 tonnes a year.

Ray Molony

LEDs take on the

Los Angeles is retrofitting 210,000 streetlights with LED sources in what the city believes is the largest project of its kind in the world. LA completed the upgrade of 140,000 lanterns in 2013, with 70,000 to follow in the next phase. The new lights have cut energy use by 63.1 per cent compared with the high pressure sodium lamps they replaced, and have reduced carbon emissions by 47,583 tonnes a year. The project cost AU$64 million over four years, but is ultimately expected to save the city around $11 million a year in electricity and other costs.

NEW YORK CITY, USA New York City is set to upgrade all 250,000 of its high pressure sodium streetlights to LED over the next few years. The project is part of the city government’s PlaNYC strategy to cut its carbon footprint by 30 per cent by 2017. The LED lanterns are expected to save around $6.7 million on electricity bills each year, and about 248,000kWh in energy. The work will be carried out in three phases, with the first phase expected to be completed by December 2015. Completion of the final phase is pencilled in for 2017. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA Street and park lights across Buenos Aires are currently being upgraded to LED in a three-year programme involving 70 per cent of the city’s streetlighting. More than 90,000 poles will be retrofitted with Philips Greenway lanterns, with the aim of halving electricity costs. Ten thousand luminaires have been converted so far. Philips is also installing its CityTouch lighting management system, allowing for automated maintenance and centralised control over dimming levels. The system enables units to be monitored individually, helping to ensure each luminaire is operating at its best.


Big Stock



The streetlighting in Svetlanovsky Prospekt, a central thoroughfare in St Petersburg, has been upgraded to LED in a scheme intended to cut energy consumption by 30 per cent. The project, delivered under the Russian Federal Law on Saving Energy and Increasing Energy Efficiency, is the largest public highway LED lighting project in the city and the first of its kind in Russia. JSC Svetlana Optoelectronics, a member of the Inter RAO Group, adapted its iStreet\XXL streetlight to meet the requirements of a challenging climate, and a diverse environment that includes industrial sites and high-rise buildings.

MOGADISHU, SOMALIA Solar-powered LED lighting is helping to reduce crime and improve the quality of life in Mogadishu, the violent capital of Somalia. In 2012 city officials began working with the Nordic International Support Foundation (NIS) and Chinese contractors to install 54 60W solarpowered LED lamps along the main thoroughfare, Makka al-Mukarama Road. By 2013, with $450,000 of investment, 200 solarpowered luminaires had been installed across eight streets covering 15 kilometres. Traffic accidents have been greatly reduced, and it has been reported that people feel much safer at night, with shops, restaurants and schools encouraged to stay open as late as midnight.


BANGALORE, INDIA The Malleshwaram district of Bangalore, India, was developed after a plague in 1898 that drove many residents out of the city centre. Since then it has grown to become an important cultural hub with many notable buildings, educational institutions and temples. When local politician Dr Ashwath Narayan decided to upgrade the public lighting, heritage considerations were as important as energy saving. Narayan chose equipment from Carbon Reduction Technology – a company that manufactures in India, and a UK-based design team. After the successful installation of 83 heritage lighting units on 15th Cross, the next area to be upgraded will be Mysore Lamps Road. The upgrades have cut energy use by 84 per cent.

Sydney has become the first city in Australia to install LED streetlights. In 2012 it began a three-year, $7 million project to replace almost 6,500 conventional lights. The roll-out followed an 18-month trial in which more than 90 per cent of people said the new lighting was appealing and three-quarters thought it improved visibility. The LED lighting is expected to save up to ÂŁ800,000 a year in energy and maintenance costs, and reduce carbon dioxide emissions from streetlighting by at least 40 per cent. The New South Wales government is encouraging other local authorities and regions to follow suit.

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |

Getty Images


46 PROJECT Waterfront Place, BrIsBane

Prime location,

LOW EnERgy COsTs Kathrine Anker finds out how Brisbane’s prestigious Waterfront Place is using LEDs to improve its energy efficiency


ith its sweeping views of the river, Waterfront Place is one of Brisbane’s most desirable business addresses. Over the past four years the management team has spent nearly $14 million making the building more efficient. Two companies were brought on board to improve the lighting in the 40-floor building: Thorn replaced office luminaires while energy consultancy GetGreen replaced lights in the common areas. The high-profile offices in the 60,000m2 building used to be lit with 600x600mm T5 fittings provided by Thorn in 2006. The property management team invited Thorn back to replace the T5 fittings with LEDs. As well as providing a one-for-one replacement of the existing fittings, the LED luminaires had to incorporate slots for air conditioning, meaning a smaller illuminated area. One of the most important objectives for Waterfront Place was to achieve a lighting energy efficiency rating of ‘excellent’ in order to obtain a Building Energy Efficiency Certificate (BEEC). Rod Martin, senior building manager at the Waterfront Place, said: ‘We have a website where the tenants can look at the energy consumption in the building over time. When we had T8 fittings, the operating cost was $28,000 per year. With T5 this came down to $15,000 and with LED the cost has come down to $9,000. So there is a significant improvement and that means we’ve got an excellent product which we can sell to | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

potential tenants. They pay for their own electricity, so they get the benefit of that as well. It’s a win-win situation.’ Controls help maintain constant illuminance on task areas, and save energy by balancing daylight with artificial light, as well as turning lights off when spaces are empty. Light levels have increased from 320 to 372 lx, and at the same time, energy consumption has been cut by more than a third from around 8.7W/m2 to 5.7W/m2. The upgrade is expected to pay for itself in two and a half years, and save tens of thousands of dollars over


Controls make sure the right level of light is provided at all times

its lifetime. GetGreen retrofitted dimmable circular LED tiles into the common areas, which use about half the energy of the CFL fittings they replaced. The lights can not only be dimmed but also colour-adjusted from cool to warm.‘The lighting level is far enhanced and more welcoming’, said Martin. ‘It gives a feeling of security, which is particularly important in bicycle storage area in the basement, and the car park.’ The improvements have not only enabled Waterfront Place to achieve the BEEC certificate that the management wanted, but also helped tenants save money. With less air conditioning heat load, it also means the building’s National Australian Built Environment Rating System (Nabers) rating stays at 4.5 stars.




enerGY savinG



annual carbon emission reduction

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |



SUN On the far side of the world, LED lights are brightening up the remote Norwegian island of Svalbard during the long winter months. Robert Bain reports


he Norwegian archipelago of Svalbard is one of the world’s most barren and beautiful places. But life for Svalbard’s 2,600 inhabitants is tough. Lying in the Arctic Ocean, about halfway between Norway and the North Pole, Svalbard is remote, inhospitable and very, very cold. It was once a centre for whaling, but today it relies on mining and tourism, and there is also an arctic research centre and the global seed vault. In the summer months, the temperature nudges 7°C, but most of the time it stays firmly below zero. Stray too far from the island settlements (in your snowmobile, of course – there aren’t any roads) and you’ll be taking your chances with polar bears.

Energy worries There are few places in the world where lighting is more important than here – the residents of Svalbard spend part of the year in 24-hour sunshine and part of it in perpetual darkness. The aurora borealis may be | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2





White LED lights have replaced Longyearbyen’s old SON scheme

beautiful, but you can’t rely on it to light your way home. On top of all this, Svalbard’s only power station is getting old and has recently been hit by blackouts and, last year, a fire. Anything that reduces energy consumption is good news. To keep the streets better lit during the months of darkness, and minimise energy consumption, officials in Svalbard’s capital of Longyearbyen decided last year to replace the existing high-pressure sodium (SON) streetlights with LED fittings.


2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |

50 PROJECT svalbard, norway


LEDs work well in the cold, and the white light reflects well from the snow, providing clear illumination”

Last year Longyearbyen installed 450 Cree LEDway Road streetlights. The columns are eight metres high and separated by 30 to 50 metres.

White as snow Cree’s modular LED luminaire has been used for roads and car parks all over the world, with different lumen packages and optical setups available. But LED lighting is particularly well suited to life in | 2014 volume 1 Issue 2

Svalbard. LEDs work well in the cold, and the lack of maintenance is reassuring in such a remote place. The white light from the new streetlights reflects well from the snow, providing clear illumination. Because the cost of energy here is high, the new LED fixtures are expected to pay for themselves fast. The local government expects annual savings of 70 per cent compared with the old lights; the equivalent of about 193 tonnes of coal a year.


The northern lights may be beautiful, but you can’t rely on them to light your way home


Because the cost of energy in Svalbard is high, the new lights provide significant savings” 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |


Let’s work

TOGETHER Jan Kemeling, chief sales and marketing officer of Ledzworld, on how the company is addressing the industry’s number one problem: compatibility


he story behind the development of LED – only the fourth major lighting technology in human history – is remarkable. The potential for LED lighting to deliver real and measurable advantages – to save energy, last years longer and significantly lower bottom-line costs – is limitless. But for it to be the next great defining feature of the lighting landscape, LED lighting needs to work. Yes, work. That’s precisely the question LED end users, specifiers, designers, utilities and regulatory agencies ask themselves before adopting LED options for their stores, offices and homes. Will these alternative lighting offerings achieve what they promise? And the simple, scary truth facing the LED industry today is that often, there’s no guarantee they will. Today, legacy infrastructure – the transformers, fixtures and control devices already incorporated into built environments – creates unique and challenging compatibility interferences with widespread LED adoption. What we’ve seen to date in our current, ongoing preliminary phase of LED adoption is ‘plug and play’ applications – a customer simply installs an LED bulb into an existing fixture. Sometimes that fixture works with the LED bulb’s mechanical, electric, and thermal requirements. Sometimes it doesn’t, and sometimes there are mixed results. The effect? Consumer uncertainty. Any new technology only has a small window to prove its value. Second chances with first impressions | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

do not exist – which is why in any market it’s essential to capitalise on the moment of market introduction. It’s an opportunity – and a test – to gain the trust of the consumer on the first try. The LED industry, peers, partners and competitors, must work together to ensure full compatibility with the millions of lamps, dimmers, transformers and fixtures on the market. When looking at the compatibility problem, there are three separate issues to address: electrical compatibility, mechanical compatibility and thermal compatibility.

Electrical compatibility Common voltages in lighting systems are significantly higher than what LEDs require. As a result, the transformer and dimmers often don’t operate consistently, or properly. Frequently this causes the LED to flicker and dim erratically, one lamp powering off before another, or the LED not even powering on at all.

Mechanical compatibility Problems arise when LEDs do not match the size and dimensions of traditional lamps. It’s simply a matter of fitting a square into a round hole – the LED does not match the legacy fixture’s width or height.

Thermal compatibility Traditional light sources and LEDs operate at dramatically different temperatures. While some halogen lamps operate at 200°C, LED lamps must operate between a specific thermal temperature to ensure long life


and safety standards. In much of the legacy fixture infrastructure, there’s no means to dissipate heat in the bulb design. Let me be clear. Compatibility is the number one compelling problem facing the entire LED industry today. No end user, designer or specifier will – or should – care what promises and potential LED technology holds in the future if it doesn’t meet their needs in the present. So while others keep the issue in the dark, Ledzworld works to guarantee its technology fits legacy lighting infrastructure. How? By proofing every one of our LED solutions against hundreds of the most commonly used dimmer, transformer and fixture applications. It’s painstaking work, but it’s this behind-the-scenes effort that gives our customers the peace of mind they need, and deserve. We’re also creating innovative LED drivers that guarantee our lamps are hassle-free and work seamlessly on a wide range of magnetic and electric transformers and in combination with commonplace dimmers. Recently, the company launched a breakthrough MR16 LED lamp with our patented Chameleon driver. The Chameleon driver self adjusts to its environment by first detecting the transformer type, then analysing its waveform, and finally adjusting itself to make a perfect electrical fit with that particular transformer. This innovative driver makes the company’s MR16 LED retrofit lamps truly ‘plug and play’ devices that can be used in a wide variety of transformer and dimmer combinations. Anywhere, every time. What’s more, the CTR functionality implemented in Ledzworld’s Chameleon driver design also provides an intelligent temperature control monitoring system.

The temperature control system acts as a watchdog by continuously measuring the ambient temperature inside the driver compartment by using a built-in thermal sensor embedded into the Chameleon driver chipset. The bottom line is, our lamps work on the spectrum of magnetic transformers, in combination with most commonly used leading edge dimmers, and with a large variety of electronic transformers paired with commonly used trailing edge dimmers. Ledzworld set out to revolutionise the lighting industry with one unshakable commitment: to develop, design, and manufacture LED lighting that meets – and exceeds – all LED technology expectations. But that starts with ensuring that our technologically progressive, best-in-class lamps work as well with older infrastructure as they do with the new. So that an irresponsible few don’t spoil the reputation of LED, it’s time for the entire industry to tackle compatibility, together.

Jan Kemeling co-founded Ledzworld in December 2008. He has lived and worked in Asia since 1990, founding and managing several companies in China, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Indonesia. He has in-depth knowledge of the design, large scale manufacturing and worldwide distribution of products for the consumer electronics industry. In 2006 Jan was awarded with the prestigious China Trader’s Award by the Dutch ambassador in China. Jan holds a bachelor’s degree in marketing management.

Ledzworld’s LEDs make products sparkle in displays at this jewellery store

● Find out more about Ledzworld’s custom LED solutions at 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |

54 retail lighting

All about the


Retail lighting isn’t just about meeting standards and keeping costs down – it’s about reinforcing your brand image, as Pennie Varvarides discovers


etail is one area where you can’t afford to get lighting wrong. Done well, it can boost sales, set the right tone and even save the retailer some cash. Done badly, it can waste money, scare away customers and create an uncomfortable environment. Shop owners must consider the top line when it comes to installing a new lighting system, not just the bottom. But it’s easier said than done. Retail lighting designers have a lot to think about. It’s pretty well established that investing in a new interior design will impact sales. So how can lighting help? At the most basic level, it’s about ensuring merchandise is lit. ‘When you step up your lighting | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

design, you create points of interest within the retail space,’ says James Bedell of Stan Deutsche Associates in New York. You want your features to pop against the background.’ This is done through contrast and good colour rendering. Contrast is a powerful tool in a retail setting. It draws attention to where you want it, be it along a certain path or toward a certain product; it sets a mood or ambience when combined with colour temperature. One retailer that really rolls with this idea is Abercrombie & Fitch. The store uses high contrast to link back to its young and sexy branding. All A&F stores are lit in the same way, keeping the branding consistent.

Retail lighting 55


Your gut instinct would say no to to Hollister’s approach. But it does work” Mel Stears, Candra Lighting Mel Stears, director at Candra Lighting, says ‘your gut instinct would say no’ to that approach, ‘but it does work’. She says it ‘gives the brand that look and that feel. It’s not just about how much light is on a product. It’s who your customer is.’

Light and brands When it comes to branding, the fixtures, the levels and the contrast all work towards the brand image. If you want to be seen as a classy boutique, but you’ve got cheap lighting, you’ll be sending the wrong signal; and if you’re going for the cheap and cheerful look, you don’t want lighting to scream excess. Good branding will gain the confidence and loyalty of a strong customer base. It allows shoppers to feel as though they know a brand or retailer, to be able to identify one over the other. A consistent brand image communicates messages to the customer about values and quality.

How not to do it Bad changing Rooms One downlight in the middle of the ceiling is all you sometimes get, and it doesn’t tend to be very flattering. Think carefully about vertical illuminance and colour rendering. WRong colouR tempeRatuRe This is a particular problem with LEDs, which can sometimes be bluish in colour, especially if they’re cheap. The wrong colour temperature can wreck the atmosphere in a shop. mish-mash of colouRs The only thing worse than picking the wrong colour temperature is picking a bunch of different ones, or a mix of lamps with a pink or green tinge. A common mistake. pooR unifoRmity Lighting your star products brightly is all well and good, but what about those dark spots to either side, or below the shelves? Don’t forget uniformity. dodgy colouR RendeRing Not only will poor colour rendering not do justice to your produce, if you’re in the fashion business your customers may find their new clothes aren’t the colour they thought.

Above: The Harris Scarfe flagship store in Adelaide uses fittings from Aglo Systems. Left: The Denim Studio in Selfridges, London, with lighting by PJC Light Studio

‘Lighting becomes a critical asset as its role becomes strategic,’ explains Xicato’s Steve Landau. ‘Lighting draws attention and can signal the importance of an area or display. It can establish an emotional perspective. With good design and the right light, retailers can shape and drive a shopper’s path through a store.’ ‘Lighting is an incredibly powerful influence on human behaviour,’ agrees Nualight’s vice-president of retail lighting, Siobhan O’Dwyer. ‘We are quite literally programmed to respond to light,’ she says. In the Middle East, hypermarket chain Nesto is upgrading its lighting to change the customer experience. Ovais Hashmi, Nesto senior project architect, says: ‘The most important thing is lighting’s impact on the space it’s used in.’ Nesto saw huge improvements visually and in terms of cost when it introduced LED high bays. Hashimi says: ‘Light has a tremendous effect, not only in sales but in overall store growth and on the people working within. It determines the way a customer thinks and interprets the space around them and the way they move forward and explore products.’ Lighting lets retailers direct customers towards certain products, or along paticular paths. Good lighting puts you in control of the shopping experience, and maximises your success rate. Hashmi reckons lighting ‘entices shoppers to consider items that they would not necessarily have purchased’. Former retail fashion buyer Yvonne van den Broek says she is all ‘too aware of how many factors influence customer buying decisions.’ Broek, now of Amsterdam-based View On Light, says: ‘To bring lighting to the forefront of retailers’ minds we need to design concepts targeting increased sales and

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |

56 Retail lighting

multiple opportunities for new ways of attracting and guiding shoppers. As the technology is very new it remains to be seen where the real value will be, but early signals are that dynamic lighting can be very effective in window displays and for specific promotions.’ But getting it right isn’t as easy as picking out a bunch of dynamic LED luminaires and filling the ceiling. You really need to think about what works best in the space, for the products and the brand. ‘The most common mistake I see in retail lighting is choosing LED fixtures whose colour temperature isn’t complimentary to the merchandise or the space,’ says James Bedell. ‘The second is choosing a low quality LED with poor colour rendering. This dulls the colours of your merchandise.’ Poor LEDs can also shift in colour over time, making the space unappealing to shoppers. Xicato’s Landau says: ‘One of the most common examples of a retailer getting lighting wrong is what we call the “rainbow sherbet” effect. This is often seen in accent lighting and wall wash applications where the colour temperature of the light is clearly different, usually occurring as a result of colour shift, and the result is a range of colours on the wall when the desire is a consistent white light.’

Changing times

Above: Divers, Portugal and Goldsmiths Jewellery, UK, with LED luminaires from Projection, and the Paspaley boutique at Melbourne’s Crown Casino, with lighting designed by Mindseye

better brand emersion. Lighting as a design tool can enhance brand perception.’ Van den Broek says retailers must put everything through a ‘brand filter’: illumination levels, contrast, colour rendition and placement all must be thought out carefully, in line with the brand and the messages retailers want to get across. With advances in technology such as LED – and maybe even OLED to some degree – a whole new world has opened up to retailers. The small form factor of these new sources let retailers put light in places it couldn’t be put before and to blend with the interior design in ways it couldn’t. The directional nature of LEDs means dramatic contrasts can be created with ease. Nualight’s O’Dwyer says: ‘The advent of dynamic LED technology is creating | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

One place a lot of retailers really miss a trick is changing rooms. This tiny room can make or break a sale. If the customer looks great, they go straight to the checkout; if they look awful, they’ll blame the clothes and leave empty handed. Avoiding that solo downlight here would be a good place to start. ‘A lot of people completely forget about the changing rooms,’ says Stears. Because of this, she reckons, ‘stores must lose a horrendous amount of sales’. O’Dwyer adds: ‘We’ve seen again and again that good lighting does indeed drive sales. The best results being in the delicatessen area and in provisions multidecks, where very good colour rendering can quite literally transform the displays. These are impulse purchases and therefore eye appeal is absolutely critical.’ She believes retailers should be demanding a new set of standards for colour quality for any displays where colour is vital. Time’s up for poor uniformity at the display level. We shouldn’t see dark spots in the centre of the shelf, or down in front of the cabinet where the lighting simply isn’t powerful enough to reach. Designs must be fully thought out, every time. ● Pennie Varvarides is on Twitter as @superpennie

58 colour


ou don’t get far in lighting without coming across the concept of colour rendering. Lighting 101 teaches us that some lights show colours better than others – this is measured on a scale from 0-100, giving every lighting product a colour rendering index or CRI. Simple. But if it’s that easy, why does it so often go wrong – especially with LEDs? Why is the world full of washed-out shop displays, alien autopsy cafes and harshly lit hospitals?



rED Colour rendering measurements aren’t always what they seem – especially when it comes to red. Robert Bain finds out why | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

The first reason is that colour rendering tends to be a trade-off with luminous efficacy: you can get more bang for your buck if you’re willing to compromise on colour. Another big part of the problem has to do with the colour red. But why is red in particular a headache? Well, reds are everywhere: there’s a lot of red in the colour of human skin, of meat, fruit and vegetables, clothes, the Lux Review logo… we could go on. Butchers, bakers, surgeons and fashion retailers are among those who want their lights to render red really well. This is gauged using a special measurement called R9, and specifiers will pay a premium for lights with high R9 values, to bring out that red so the steaks look juicy, the loaves look fresh and the clothes look sexy. Incandescent and halogen sources rendered reds effortlessly well. Other light sources – including fluorescent, metal halide, and most recently LEDs – can struggle. LEDs are, after all, blue blooded – most of them make white by combining blue light with a yellow phosphor. Although it may not be obvious to the naked eye, this method of creating white light gives an uneven distribution across the colour spectrum – with strong blues but weak reds.




The result is that LED lights, which everyone knows are taking over the world, typically aren’t great at reds. For a lot of applications, it’s not the end of the world, but it means specifiers must have their wits about them. Using more or better phosphors is one solution, and things are improving, but manufacturers still face a dilemma when choosing between colour quality and light output, which is why cheap or very high output LED products often don’t show reds well.

Colour and clients

REMOTE PHOSPHOR In remote phosphor LED products, the phosphor is kept separate from the LED chip. This means it’s less affected by heat that can degrade it over time, and colour can be tuned precisely for higher, more consistent colour rendering. LED module maker Xicato is one of the leaders in this field, and its latest range of products aims to produce even more vibrant colours by tuning the white to accentuate blues, purples and pinks.

TUNEABLE WHITE US manufacturer LED Engin makes a module with ‘warm dim’ capability, shifting from 3000 to 1900K as it dims, to mimic halogen. It’s done using a grid of tiny chips with different phosphors, all behind one lens, which dim at different rates to alter the colour. Unlike other products that warm in colour as they dim, the colour rendering of LED Engin’s LuxiTune module stays around 90 all the way down, with an R9 of 70. It’s aimed at designers who don’t want to specify halogen, but still want to achieve the effect of halogen. The company also has a module aimed at high-end display applications, with a CRI of 97 with R9 of 98. It also features patented heat management using a thin ceramic layer. Zumtobel, PhotonStar, Cree and Sharp also have tuneable white products.

Xicato is one company that knows colour rendering inside out. Its Artist Series range of modules, which use a phosphor mounted separately from a set of LEDs, rather than directly on top, achieve CRIs in the mid to high 90s, and the R9 value is just as high. Vice-president Roger Sexton says: ‘It’s not that R9 is more important than the other R numbers, but it has come to the fore because it’s so hard to achieve. ‘I believe it’s one reason CFLs never really became mainstream, because they made carpets or curtains look a bit green, or your skin didn’t look healthy. In homes or in hospitality, you should have a high R9.’ Healthcare is another area where lighting designers are particularly keen for R9 to be rendered well, because doctors must be able to assess skin tone and tissue colour to make good decisions and correct diagnoses. ‘LEDs have got better, the industry has got

These LED lights from Brandon Medical accurately show the colour of blood and body tissues

Proponents of GaN-on-GaN (short for gallium nitride-ongallium nitride) are calling it ‘LED 2.0’. Instead of placing gallium nitride LED chips on to a substrate of sapphire or silicon carbide, they’ve found a way to place them on to a substrate of the same material. According to advocates of the technology (such as Soraa’s Shuji Nakamura, pictured above at LuxLive in London last year), not only does GaNon-GaN open doors to higher efficiency and longer life, it also changes the colour of the light emitted from blue to violet, opening up new possibilities for colour. Soraa and Verbatim both claim high CRI and R9 values for their GaNon-GaN products.

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |

60 colour

better,’ says Sexton. ‘But it’s always a trade-off – that’s just physics.’ He remains confident that Xicato’s technology, with its remote phosphors to avoid colour shift and improvements in efficacy, will keep giving it a competitive advantage. Mats Nordin, Verbatim’s LED sales manager for EMEA, says colour rendering is often not even considered by clients, because they just assume they’ll get the same quality from LEDs as they did from halogen or incandescent. But people are learning. ‘I can see change in the market,’ says Nordin. ‘They’re getting more discerning. We’re getting more questions on it.’ Not surprisingly, there are also a lot of LED manufacturers that would rather you didn’t pay too much attention to R9. And, conveniently for them, the standard method of measuring colour rendering turns a bit of a blind eye to reds. The colour rendering index is getting on a bit – it’s nearly half a century old, having been developed in the 1960s in response to the rise of fluorescent and other gas discharge sources as alternatives to incandescent. And unfortunately, the standard palette of eight colours (known as R1 to R8) used to measure CRI doesn’t include red – the closest is a light fuchsia and what you might call a baby pink (see page 92 for more detail on the science). Other colours – including saturated red, yellow, green and blue – are optional

5 Five Famous red things

extras, numbered R9 to R14, rather than forming part of standard CRI calculations. But if a product renders some colours well, it probably renders others well too, right? Not necessarily. Because a CRI measurement is an average of the colours R1 to R8, a seemingly good CRI figure might just mean that a light source renders certain colours really well – while ruining others. And with an LED product, it’s likely to be red that loses out. A CRI of 80 has become an industry benchmark for many applications, but that headline figure doesn’t tell you what variation lies beneath – the R9 value could be painfully low. So even if a specifier has looked beyond the headline lumen output figure and found out the CRI, that’s only part of the story. What’s the R9?






mail boxes


Since mail boxes are generally lit by the sun, we don’t have to worry too much about the colour rendering.

Medical applications demand high R9 values in order to see the colour of blood, body tissues and skin tones clearly. R9 could mean the difference between a quick diagnosis and... well, you get the picture.

the bad halF oF snow white’s apple

embarrassed people

dorothy’s slippers

How will you know when you’ve put your foot in it if you can’t see if someone’s blushing?

If the Emerald City had been lit by bad quality LEDs, Dorothy might never have found her way home. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

We wouldn’t want to be responsible for lighting in a restaurant where a guest ate the poisoned half of an apple because they didn’t see which side of it was red.

Representative Office in UK: ACJ HAY LTD


Manufacturers tend not to quote the figure unless it happens to be particularly flattering. For these reasons among others, many in the lighting industry feel that CRI is a bit of a blunt instrument. Verbatim’s latest lamps are designed to cover a wider part of the spectrum than is measured by CRI, and Mats Nordin says, ‘It’s difficult for us to explain that the quality of this light is much better than the CRI suggests.’ Xicato’s Sexton says CRI still ‘makes sense’ as a metric, but it must be used and understood properly – with attention paid also to the saturated colours not included in the CRI average. There are alternatives to CRI: a new method that included red was proposed in the 1990s, but the lamp industry said there wasn’t enough evidence to tinker with the existing system. More recently the Colour Quality Scale, developed by researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the US, has emerged as a competitor to CRI, and has gained many supporters, but you’re unlikely to find a CQS figure on a product datasheet – it’s still a long way from being a standard metric.






PAR16 35 25° 5W


Don’t take it as red It would be wrong to suggest that the rise of LEDs is bad news for colour quality. Far from it. New technologies create the potential for high R9 values and all sorts of other exciting colour qualities that weren’t possible before. And as technology improves, the problems of LEDs that don’t do red justice should be alleviated. But for now, if you want to know how your red shoes are going to look under your new lights, keep your eyes peeled for that R9 figure in the product data – and if it’s not there (which it often isn’t), ask. Otherwise, you may be left feeling blue.




VIVID GU10 2300K 25°


98 Thanks to the UK’s Lighting Industry Association Labs for testing the TCP, One-Light, Osram and halogen lamps for us. | +44 1952 290907 | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2


Look, no

Peter Sobolev

WIRES Robert Bain asks whether wireless is the future of lighting controls


hen was it exactly that mobile phones stopped being a novelty and became just another part of life? And when did using the internet from a laptop with no cable stop feeling futuristic? Today, you can barely get an internet connection without a wireless router, and a growing number of homes barely use their landlines. Wireless has gone from the exception to the norm. Are lighting controls set to go the same way?

Big potential Controls is one of the hottest areas in lighting right now. The management consultancy McKinsey predicts the market will grow at a whopping 18 per cent a year for the next six years, and wireless technologies such as radio and infrared hold massive potential to overcome some of the obstacles to investment in controls: they’re easier to install, easier to retrofit and easier to use. The increasingly widespread Dali lighting control protocol is supposed to make users’ lives easier, but installing and commissioning a Dali system can be laborious, with complicated wiring, and every fitting has to be individually identified after installation. Many wireless systems, by contrast, can be installed easily into new and existing buildings without any rewiring and, if they’re well designed, | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

they’re simple to commission and use. One of the companies taking advantage of the retrofit opportunity is UK-based LiteIP. Managing director David Lippold says previous technologies haven’t risen to the challenge. Although a Dali system in the hands of an expert is great, ‘it’s almost never in the hands of an expert,’ he says, so in practice ‘it falls over after a while and no one can fix it’. LiteIP’s system uses a simple graphical interface, and identifying luminaires for commissioning is straightforward – the system simply uses the strength of the wireless signal to spot the one closest to you. ‘I don’t see a future for Dali,’ Lippold told Lux Review. ‘Other than for very specific applications, it’s tried and failed. I see a cycle with Dali installations: you’re told it can do everything, the manufacturer supplies fittings with Dali ballasts, the contractors install the wires, but when you come to commissioning it, you find it’s not doing quite what you thought it was going to do. And in six months or a year when you start having real problems, you can’t find the guy to fix it, and the whole thing stops being used. I can think of four big projects we’ve done recently where sites were replacing Dali systems that were less than two years old. Others aren’t so sure that Dali’s days are numbered. Sam Woodward, who heads Havells-Sylvania’s controls division, says: ‘There are some really good implementations of Dali which are really easy, and some really bad implementations of wireless which are really difficult. The interesting thing isn’t so much how the data gets from A to B as what you can do

wireless controls 65

within the constraints of the project. It’s about the application rather than the technology.’

Nothing new It’s worth remembering that wireless lighting controls have been around for quite a while, says Woodward (he used to work in the film industry and recalls cobbling together a wireless lighting controller on the set of Tomb Raider more than a decade ago). Nevertheless, it feels like ‘now is the time for the rise of the wireless world’. Woodward is particularly excited about a new infrared-based system from Australia called Organic Response, which relies on luminaires communicating with those around them. Because it’s infrared, signals don’t go through walls, and luminaires adapt automatically to the layout of the building around them. To make the most of innovative systems like this, ‘we’re going to need to see some new skills in the industry’, Woodward says. Andy Davies of Harvard Engineering, which distributes in Australia through Oak Electronics, agrees that wireless will become a ‘much more significant’ part of the controls market. Harvard is targeting the retrofit market for wireless controls with its Lux Award-winning EyeNut system, based on the Zigbee building automation protocol. The Yorkshire-based firm has already had big success with its LeafNut system for controlling streetlights, and with EyeNut it is using the same approach to target sectors including offices and education. As well as being retrofit-friendly, EyeNut is designed to be easier to use than Dali systems. Davies told Lux Review: ‘There are sophisticated systems on the market, but some of them are not as accessible for a user. I was in an office recently that had had Dali installed a few years ago. It was working fine, but the settings weren’t optimised because the way the building was occupied was different from what had been envisaged. They wanted to make a simple change, to move some settings from switch A to switch B, essentially, but to do that they had to call out a specialist engineer who had a rate of £1,000 ($1,800) a day. They had to get the finance director to sign it off.’ But wireless has its drawbacks too, among them reliability. Sam Woodward says that, just like wireless internet connections, wireless lighting controls are ‘brilliant when they work’, but there are a lot of ways they can go wrong. ‘You’ve got to build a wireless system in a very robust way to get the same reliability as a wired system,’ he says. Another concern is interference from other systems such as Wi-Fi networks. Woodward says interference from other networks ‘needs to be borne in mind’, but that clever protocols should be able to deal with it. LiteIP’s technology gets around this by

Putting your lights online Philips is among the companies creating ways of connecting lights wirelessly to the internet – including its popular Hue lamp. But if all our lights are connected to the web, what does that mean for security? Last year a researcher claimed that it was possible for hackers to remotely take control of Hue. But Philips pointed out that an intruder would only be able to do this if they had already hacked into your home network, in which case you should probably be more worried about your bank account than your lights.

communicating at 868MHz, a frequency used for stage mics, garage door openers and not much else. As for Harvard’s EyeNut, Davies says the Zigbee protocol it uses ‘has been designed to coexist in large corporate environments where you’d expect to have quite a lot of wireless systems’, and there haven’t yet been any interference problems. Other manufacturers see potential in the ‘internet of things’; the ability to connect everyday devices such as luminaires to the web to make them smarter and more responsive. Philips is set to unveil a wireless system at this year’s Light + Building show, using IP-addressable luminaires. The idea is that luminaires can be fitted with sensors to monitor and control all kinds of building systems – not just the lights. But with new functionality come new security concerns (see box, above). Sam Woodward says it’s important to make sure any wireless system is secure – although in reality, reputable suppliers have got this covered. ‘The insecurity tends to come through unlocked wireless access points, which are to do with a building’s IT, not the lighting control system,’ he says. Andy Davies of Harvard says the protocol used by EyeNut ‘lends itself to very high levels of security’, with password encryption at every juncture. And just to be sure Harvard employs a team to seek out weaknesses in the system and ‘stay ahead of the curve’. If the proponents of wireless controls are right that it not only offers great new opportunities, but is also safe and reliable, then it’s hard to see what can stop the world of lighting embracing wireless in the same way as the worlds of phones and computing.

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |



and sensibility Lance Stewart explains how to use presence and daylight sensors sensibly | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2


ensors are everywhere these days. Marketing executives now realise that their businesses must be seen to be green, and the ever-rising price of electricity offers the backroom bean-counters energy savings – not to mention the reduced maintenance costs that flow from lower duty cycles – to salivate over. The profusion of sensors for lighting is a result of this pressure to save energy and be green. In my own premises, we are a net energy producer. That’s right – we get paid by the electricity company. How? We created a high-quality lit environment with highly efficient Dali intelligent luminaires (fluorescents, compact fluorescents and LEDs), our own smart controls, plenty of skylights, a small solar power system, energy monitoring and, yep, sensors. So why bother with sensors? Because, at the most basic level, lazy bastards in commercial tenancies

lighting controls 67

can’t be bothered turning off their lights when they leave. Or if it’s not that, it’s kids running down your hall in three seconds, blissfully ignorant of the fact the hall lights are left on all day. And you can forget about educating teenagers about the nexus between them leaving the loo lights on, the power bill and climate change. Whatever. Sensors come in a variety of types. The two main flavours are presence and daylight. Presence detection is the easiest to implement, with plenty of energy savings to be made. Passive infrared (PIR) checks your body heat against the background to know you’re there. Microwaves check for movement. Most sensors have PIR and some have microwave or something more exotic. So what should the sensors do? Simple: nothing. The lighting control system should decide what to do, as you’ll realise when a sensor kills the lights as you’re happily reading War and Peace on the loo. So, here are seven rules of thumb for using sensors: 1. Use accurate detection patterns They should be scaled for the mounting height, as a layer on your CAD lighting plans to, dare I say it, sensibly locate the sensors. Lighting control systems manufacturers (like ourselves) offer this service as part of the controls system engineering package. 2. Place sensors away from lights and daylight Observe the recommended distances to ensure sensors are not swamped by infrared. 3. Use sensors with a smart control system This way, absence can initiate actions that minimise energy use without annoying the occupants. For example, the action might be to initiate two timers – one with a slow fade to a warning level to give you time to turn the page or get out of the building and the other to time out to off if there’s still no presence detected at the warning level. Above: This office in Sydney uses a control system from Philips Dynalite Right: Sensors from Danlers and Organic Response

This PIR sensor from Helvar is designed for use with high bay fittings

4. Make sure your installer knows what they’re doing Mention daylight harvesting to a systems integrator and there’s a good chance they will roll their eyes or wince with horror. Light sensors in our premises work brilliantly – they are powered by the Dali line over which they tell us what they have detected and our system decides what the lights should be doing. We use simple intuitive push button plates for room control that can also let the occupant adjust the ‘setpoint’ (the light level to be maintained). If a big cloud rolls over, the lights fade up quickly to compensate and, when it floats away, the lights dim down so slowly that you can’t see it (but the energy monitor sure can). 5. Choose your location Remember that the optimal location for a presence detector may not be the best place for a light sensor. 6. Consider occupant overrides In my office, I have a simple wireless remote that lets me change scenes, dim lights, and tell the system that, even if the sensor can’t see me, I still want the lights on while I’m lying stiller than a ninja, reading the latest Lux Review on my couch. Soon I will also have our smartphone and tablet app, so I can do what I like with the lighting over our Wi-Fi. Which brings me to the final and most important point to make about sensors in particular and lighting control systems in general... 7. Make sure you take into account complex, real-world requirements The bible for lighting control is a functionality statement that spells out in plain English how the lighting system – including the sensors – will work. It is a project-specific document that is reviewed by specifier and client alike until everyone is on the same page. Every good system has one. A good lighting control system has intuitive controls and, like most well-executed engineering, nobody notices it. Apart from the marketing and accounting departments of course. They should be sensibly impressed.

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |

68 interview UlrIch SchUmacher, ceO Of the ZUmtObel grOUp

The way

FOrwArD Ulrich Schumacher has taken the reins of the Zumtobel Group, owner of Thorn, following a boardroom bust-up over the company’s future. What next for Thorn and Zumtobel, asks Robert Bain


t’s either the worst possible time to take the reins of a major company, or the best, depending on your outlook. The Zumtobel Group had seen sales slipping, its control gear business Tridonic was behind the curve on LED, and its boardroom was so divided over the future of the company and its UKbased subsidiary Thorn that former chief executive Harald Sommerer walked out. Enter new CEO Ulrich Schumacher, former head of Siemens’ semiconductor business, who has wasted no time in putting his mark on the $1.8bn lighting group. In an exclusive interview, Lux Review met Schumacher at Zumtobel’s Austrian headquarters to hear about his plans. Lux Review: What direction are you taking Zumtobel in? Ulrich Schumacher: In the old setup, the Zumtobel world was fighting against the Thorn world, and not fighting together in the real world. There are sales guys out there who have a Zumtobel catalogue under their arm and consider Thorn their enemy, and vice versa. All this energy was lost in internal struggling, so we didn’t have the time or brain power or money left to do the right things. I have many situations where important customers call up my sales organisation and they get the answer, ‘We don’t have that.’ Sometimes they were wrong because we did have it, but it was in the other basket. The attitude must be that whatever the customer wants, they get – that is a significant change in mindset. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2


So the first step was just to do a fundamental restructuring. The major target has been to find as many synergies as possible while keeping the identity of the brands very sharp. That resulted in business divisions that own the product portfolio and do the product development and marketing for a particular brand, but are all running on the common platform of a manufacturing entity and a common sales organisation. There are huge synergies in the manufacturing area – we had 11 manufacturing locations and two different sales organisations fighting against each other in the market, which didn’t make a lot of sense. That was the heritage of an acquisition ten or eleven years ago which had not been fully implemented. With Tridonic, we’re starting to try to cover most of the lighting brands’ needs with one modular LED module concept, where, with a limited amount of R&D, you can cover 70-75 per cent of all demand.

There are sales guys out there with a Zumtobel catalogue under their arm who consider Thorn their enemy – and vice versa”

So Thorn’s future is with the Zumtobel Group? Besides the little fact that Thorn is an approximately $600 million revenue business, it has an outdoor capability, which the company needs, it has market access in the Nordics, the UK and France which Zumtobel products also didn’t have, it’s already pretty much a global

interview 69

organisation in Asia which Zumtobel didn’t have. There are many ingredients which the Zumtobel Group needs, and we just have to open these capabilities to the rest of the company. It’s wrong to believe that if you ask seven billion people around the world, everybody says Zumtobel is better than Thorn. In Australia and New Zealand, Thorn is a high-end brand, and a lot of people don’t even know who Zumtobel is yet. The brand has value, you just need to position it in the right way and bring that value to the table. I think the old management’s idea to just dump something which you paid $900 million for and has all this tremendous value, was not the brightest idea on earth. How will the restructuring affect jobs in the Zumtobel Group? In manufacturing, we have 11 fabs and 10 of them are half-loaded. Would you try to limit the impact on the workforce? Of course, but it depends where we expand and where we start to reduce. There definitely will be a significant cost reduction but it’s too early to tell you what will happen where. Generally we’ll have a buildup of expertise, but because of these structural changes, there will be a temporary impact in some regions. How hard has it been convincing people that this is the way forward? I’d say we’re on the way to really get a strong buy-in from the employees. Another part of the company I have to get buy-in from is the supervisory board because they are the people who have to approve your plans. When you have all these stakeholders in the camp, then the investors start liking it. These are the three groups of people I need to convince that this is not just talk but it works. You’ve come to lighting from the world of semiconductors. How do you see LEDs changing the lighting business? We’ve seen in many other industries how semiconductors haven’t just changed things slightly, they’ve created a whole different ballpark. If you take the traditional way of storing music, for example, and then the invention of the iPod, it was not just a different medium, it was opening a whole different world. I think something similar is happening in the lighting industry. Do you feel it’s important that you’ve come to Zumtobel from outside the lighting industry? I believe that is a benefit. Over the last five years I’ve been engaged in what you might call transformational management. And for transformational situations, the experience of the past is a negative rather than a plus. If you come


with a clean sheet, you’re much more willing to turn the world upside down. Doesn’t that give your smaller, younger competitors an advantage? That’s why they exist – because the old, established companies were not smart enough, not fast enough. Take LED – if this technology had been adopted by the established players in time, hundreds of these little companies wouldn’t even exist. But it was the other way around – the old guys stuck with their old successful model, and the new guys took the chance to invent something new. We are going to learn from them and find the ingredients that we can apply to our own business.

The old management’s idea to dump the Thorn business was not the brightest idea on earth”

What areas of the business do you want to grow? We are strong in the regions of the world which are not growing very fast and slightly weaker in the regions that are growing fast. But that’s also an opportunity because in a fast-growing market it’s easier to expand market share than in an established one. From a product portfolio point of view, we only have a little bit of exposure to the wholesale channel, so that can be expanded for sure. In outdoor, even though we have the expertise in Thorn, it has not really been pushed aggressively, and most of our competitors have their biggest growth in outdoor, so we’ll cover the entire outdoor market. We’ll also start growing controls and services, from a very low level. Where do you see Zumtobel in a few years’ time? In the months ahead of us, we’re still fixing the operational things. We have to show that we can be a profitable business, and then, beyond that, start to manage above-average growth. I’m very confident that by the middle of 2014, at the latest in the third quarter, we’ll start going for a new strategy approach. I’m a strong believer that there will be an element of consolidation in the industry by acquisition. Most of the acquisitions you see today are, in my view, destroying a big part of the value of the company you’ve bought. I hope we’re able to find a different model that will allow us efficient paths to participate in consolidation in the industry – as a consolidator rather than as a consolidatee. It’s too early to talk about that, but I’m pretty much sure that if things go as I think they’re going to, by the end of the year we’ll start having ideas about these things. Having said that, this is a company that bought another one 11 years ago and so far hasn’t done the integration right, so let’s prove that we can run these two brands successfully, and if we can, we also should be able to run more.

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |


Light + Building: 10 things

NOT TO MISS Lux Review’s guide to making the most of your trip to Frankfurt


very two years the global lighting industry gathers in Frankfurt for the Light + Building exhibition – a massive celebration of lighting, with a dozen halls of exhibitors and 200,000 visitors expected this year in the week of 30 March to 4 April. Even for hardened lighting geeks, it can be bewildering – not to mention sore on the feet – so Lux Review has checked out what’s in store and brought together our pick of the 10 things not to miss.



Tridonic has been working hard on OLEDs since the last Light + Building, and this year it’s ready to unveil a bendable panel. Lux Review is excited to see this (we’ve only ever seen one bendable OLED – and it wasn’t switched on). Tridonic says its new panel can follow the contours of luminaires, walls, ceilings or room dividers, promising great flexibility (literally) in luminaire design. Tridonic has also produced an edgeless OLED module, designed for pendant and designer luminaires, or even for integrating into room dividers and walls. Find Tridonic in Hall 2.0


DW Windsor’s impressive new road lantern, Kirium, is one of the next-generation streetlights on show at this year’s Light + Building. Its design features a thermal barrier (a hole, to you and me). DW Windsor is in Hall 5.0, stand C37




Philips reckons its latest module innovation solves a perennial lighting problem: warm light sources used in display applications to make colours look vivid, can also make whites look a bit yellow and dirty. The Fortimo CrispWhite spotlight module is designed to offer the best of both worlds: intense colours and crisp whites. Philips says this is the first retail LED solution that achieves this. You be the judge. Philips can be found in the Messe Forum | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

4 SMARTER OFFICE LIGHT FROM ZUMTOBEL Zumtobel’s new Sequence luminaire is built on a modular system that allows lighting to be personalised and controlled. It’s flexible enough to deal with workplaces that have different lighting requirements at different times. Sequence incorporates direct light from LEDs, plus others behind an opal diffuser. Each linear luminaire contains either 8 or 14 modular sections with optics selected to put the light where it’s needed. The modules are divided into groups with separate Dali addresses, allowing different parts of the luminaire to be dimmed up and down independently of each other. Visit Zumtobel and Tridonic in Hall 2.0





iGuzzini is one to watch out for at this year’s Light + Building – the Italian manufacturer’s stand at the last show was one of the most spectacular, including an enormous LED floor. This year it will be unveiling additions to the Laser Blade family, plus some more products that are still under wraps... Find iGuzzini in Hall 3.1, stand E31



The profound impact of light on our health and wellbeing is increasingly important to the industry. This year’s Light+Building will see the launch of Lighting for People, a new European Commissionbacked online information portal, providing the latest scientific findings and groundbreaking research on human-centric lighting, for everyone from end users to architects. Lighting for People will also encourage open innovation and green business development. It aims to connect people, lighting, and business in order to help users make the best lighting decisions in sectors from healthcare to education and beyond.

The Lighting for People launch takes place on the morning of Tuesday 1 April in the ZVEI lounge


UK-based manufacturer Projection unveils a new generation of intelligent LED products in Frankfurt this year, which can feed information to building management systems. Working with Lumenpulse’s Lumentalk control system, the new AlphaiLED range will offer sensing, diagnostics and more. The products, including the Apto luminaire (pictured), will also be super-efficient, reaching more than 100 lumens per watt. Intelligent lighting adds another string to Projection’s bow. Its luminaires use high-end Xicato LED modules, which provide excellent colour rendering and consistency, allowing Projection to guarantee light output and colour consistency for five years. Visit Projection at Hall 4.1, stand F70

EXPERIENCE LUMINALE The Luminale festival takes place in the evenings, all over Frankfurt. This year it includes projects along the river Main, such as this piece by Werkbund Jung. Find out more at



MEET THE LUX REVIEW TEAM You’ll find the Lux Review stand in Hall 3.1. We’ll be interviewing top movers and shakers from the lighting industry live at the stand – and handing out our very special Light + Building survival kits. Find Lux Review in Hall 3.1, stand A40


Verbatim’s latest LED replacement for incandescent has a warm appearance and excellent colour rendering. It’s just one of loads of nextgeneration lamps you’ll see at Light + Building, including Osram’s new products, which feature an optical design to resemble filament lamps, are dimmable, and expected to last 25,000 hours. Verbatim is at Hall 4.2, stand F30

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |


Ever dropped your keys in a multi-storey car park? These three approaches to lighting might make it easier to find them…






Multi-storey car parks


ar parks are so often the Cinderella of lighting design, but they are often the first point of contact when visiting a shopping centre or cinema complex. A dark and dull car park can put visitors in the wrong mood before they enter your premises. A cost-saving technique when refurbishing is to use the existing electrical positions and this Design Clinic is unusual in that each option uses the same number of luminaires in the same locations. First, the car park must be safe. There can be a confusing mix of distracted shoppers with trolleys, young children and drivers working out which way to go. From a lighting perspective, you don’t want any dark shadows. Good uniformity not only makes driving safer, but helps people getting in and out of their cars. Have you ever dropped your keys in a shadowy car park? There is guidance for lighting car parks in national standards and lighting codes. They set out figures for average lux levels and uniformity. These values may differ from one area to another. For example, higher light levels are often required for ramps. There is often CCTV. If possible, find out where the cameras are so you don’t block or dazzle their line of sight. Dimming is a useful energy-saving option but take care when using passive infrared detectors; remember, no-one wants to enter a dark car park, even if it does light up once you are fully inside. There are pros and cons for all the light sources used. You need to think which best suits your application.

Next month: we visit open walkways and paths | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

One big advantage of high-pressure sodium (HPS) over most light sources (other than LED) is that it starts at low temperature. Many multi-storey car parks are unheated and open to the elements. Sub-zero temperatures are common in winter. HPS will start at temperatures of -10 to -20°C without any problem. One disadvantage of low wattage HPS is that it is comparatively inefficient. An off-the-shelf enclosed 70W low bay might give less than 50 delivered lumens per circuit watt. However, using a prismed cover lens you can get wide spacings with high vertical illumination, although they can be a bit glaring. Unfortunately, no matter who makes them or how good the build quality, the finished installation never looks terribly good.

TECH SPEC Luminaires Generic 70W SON enclosed ‘box’, IP55 Optical control Hammered aluminium reflector with prismed lens Arrangement 4 x 5m spacing, as shown Average horizontal illuminance 70 lx and 54% min/ave Ev 30 lx Electrical load 1.5W/m2 Typical cost per m2 of floor plate $4.50 Pros Good vertical illumination Cons Orange light, looks a bit downmarket




Despite having a slightly lower electrical consumption than the first option, this Trilux Oleveon twin 35W T5 system gives 40 per cent higher illumination at deck level and better uniformity without sacrificing anything on the vertical surfaces. Of course, the white light of the T5 tubes gives a much better appearance and colour rendering. It would also be much easier to identify your car and read signage. This option makes for a bright and airy space. It’s also highly efficient. The latest T5 lamps have a 30,000-hour life with hardly any lumen depreciation over this period. The only real disadvantage is that T5 lamps don’t like running at low temperatures – their output drops significantly. But for a car park not exposed to the elements, this is ideal.

TECH SPEC Luminaires Oleveon twin 35W T5 IP66 Optical control Polycarbonate diffuser with internal prisms, smooth outside Arrangement As shown Average horizontal illuminance 100 lx and 58% min/ave Ev 30 lx Electrical load 1.4W/m2 Typical cost per m2 of floor plate $1.60 Pros A well-lit, bright and airy space Cons Not so good for lowtemperature operation



The output of Trilux’s Nextrema 2 LED unit has been upgraded to 6,000 lm, giving over 100 lm/W. This is excellent performance from a luminaire with a CRI greater than 80 at 4000K. I have seen similar, inferior, industrial units that had much lower CRI and a positively chilly 6500K colour temperature. Being LED and IP66 it can start at temperatures as low as -25°C and you don’t have to worry about damp. You achieve 70 per cent more light on the roadway compared with the HPS option, and the white light source creates a more pleasant appearance. There is one disadvantage to all this performance and that is that most of the light is concentrated downwards. I have spaced the luminaires fairly well apart so the uniformity is lower than the other two options, albeit comfortably above the minimum level recommended in BS 5489. The ceiling height in this scheme is just 3m. Higher ceilinged installations would benefit from the narrow beam distribution.

TECH SPEC Luminaires Nextrema 6,000 lm IP66 Optical control Prismed polycarbonate lens Arrangement As shown Average horizontal illuminance 125 lx and 45% min/ave Ev 15 lx Electrical load 1.1W/m2 Typical cost per m2 of floor plate $6.10 Pros Lowest electrical load and highest horizontal illuminance Cons Low vertical illuminance compared with other options

Want to see your company’s products and branding featured in Lux’s Design Clinic? Contact Lucy Wykes to discuss sponsorship opportunities on +44 (0)20 3283 4387 or

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |



Street Caption


Photo: Bluesky


As the trend to use LED sources for streetlighting gathers pace, Dave Tilley asks whether LED streetlighting can deliver all the benefits it promises – and weighs up some of the alternatives


loomy streets and city centres. Orange streetlights and bland environments. Then white light and beautification projects. There was a time before LEDs when intelligent control gear and light sources with a colour-rendering index greater than 70 per cent ensured energy efficiency and a pleasantly illuminated space. Today, however, as the trend towards LED sources for streetlighting gathers pace, will LED streetlighting deliver the benefits its proponents claim?

The usual arguments

While the usual arguments rage about energy saving and maintenance efficiency, there are other factors that have a significant impact on the economics and appearance of Australia’s streets and town centres. ● The current trend towards turning streetlighting off in low-use or low-risk areas, however defined. ● The maintenance regime that supports luminaires that are sold on the basis that they have operating lives of five years or more. ● The management of the transition from traditional light sources to LEDs. Turning off streetlighting is a topic that triggers passionate

debate among residents and lighting professionals. Local authorities will argue that the policy increases efficiency and reduces light pollution, but residents and lighting professionals will highlight safety and the visual impact. A key benefit of LED technology is its ability to be dimmed easily, so it is a balanced, efficient solution for local authorities that does not isolate local communities. However, the areas that local authorities target for ‘switch-offs’ are generally areas that are at the bottom of a list for streetlight upgrades. Maintaining streetlighting in rural areas is more expensive than it is in town centres and for main roads, in the main because of transport costs and the smaller number of streetlights that can be serviced in a particular period. Perhaps it is time to promote a more holistic approach to streetlighting. The maintenance regime is an interesting aspect of LED streetlighting. Driving around, I have noticed a number of LED schemes in which one or two lanterns are either on all the time or have failed. To date I have not seen any repairs to these schemes and I suspect I will not in future. Changing an LED lantern is not the same as changing a lamp, and ironically, the local council will

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |



LEDs are a great light source for streetlighting – but not the only one

Although there is a financial benefit associated with energy efficiency, most of the savings are the result of reduced maintenance”

probably have removed the scheme from any traditional lighting maintenance regime. The transition to LEDs is often done scheme by scheme. However, the benefits and challenges of LED streetlighting are broader than the simple energy-saving calculations would suggest. The table below shows a few examples in which traditional light sources in residential roads and pedestrian areas have been replaced by LED (the information was provided by Thorn Lighting).

traditional sourcEs rEplacEd by lEd oLD LAmp typE

nEW LAmp typE







Based on 4,000 annual operating hours, an electricity cost of $0.27 per kilowatt-hour and gear losses, the savings can be calculated.

stack up for intelligent controls? Or will the low wattages, reduced operating costs and ability to introduce simple sensors obviate the need for more sophisticated control? An LED lantern has individual optics that make specific and managed distribution of light possible. New lighting schemes will ensure local authorities get the full benefits of efficiency and good optical design; but point-for-point replacement schemes will have to rely on energy and maintenance efficiency. If local authorities accept the arguments of efficiency and beautification of the environment, are LEDs the only light sources that will deliver? The simple answer is no. Induction lighting is a clear alternative to LEDs, particularly in the commercial and industrial sectors. It has an estimated life of 65,000 hours, L70, with a failure rate of less than five per cent. Cost comparison are quite complex because numerous LED street lanterns are being promoted by a broad range of manufacturers. This continues to be a major problem in the lighting industry. Even those manufacturers that would generally be trusted to provide genuine and accurate information have been found wanting. Having examined a range of LED and induction street lantern prices, I would have to conclude there is little difference. The key, as always, is application and lighting design.

EnErgy and cost savings from going lEd SAving (kWh)

coSt SAving







Although there is a financial benefit associated with energy efficiency, most of the savings are the result of reduced maintenance. Clearly the financial savings attributed to lower energy consumption will not provide a sensible return on investment (ROI). Bearing in mind the potential overall efficiencies that follow the installation of LED streetlights, what will be the future for lighting controls? If the ROI justifies the installation of LEDs, will the figures | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

THE LIGHTING ECONOMIST’S VERDICT LEDs are an excellent light source for streetlighting applications; but not the only one. There will be applications where induction lighting is an acceptable alternative. It is important that local councils and other agencies remember that any light source can fail, so maintenance is still necessary to ensure failed lanterns are managed. The relatively high investment, based on performance and quality, must be supported by a managed warranty process that supports replacement without compromising lighting quality. The traditional approach to streetlighting management, the focus on main roads and town centres, intelligent controls and visual impact, must be reviewed to ensure budgets are being invested effectively. You can contact Dave Tilley at

E7: Amazing performance in large spaces

With E7 ETAP expands its LED range for lighting large volume spaces. This series’ major assets are: • LED+LENS™: a combination of high-power LEDs with individual lenses guarantees high specific luminous flux (up to 100 lm/W). • VERSATILITY: various lengths and light distributions, available surface-mounted or suspended, individually or in-line. • EASE OF MAINTENANCE: The long service life of the LEDs makes lamp replacement redundant so that you won’t have to worry about maintenance.



CLASS OF 2014 ➤

LED LIGHT FROM (ALMOST) EVERY ANGLE Integral LED says it has ‘overcome the limits of current LED lamp design’ with its Omni-Lamp range, which have wide beam angles. The GLS and the candle versions look, feel and weigh the same as conventional bulbs – gone are the heatsinks and ‘futuristic’ shapes. The GLS emits 470 lumens at over 100 lm/W. Light is distributed over 330 degrees – comparable to a filament bulb. The candle emits 250 lumens at 2.9W with a 300-degree light distribution.

Lux Review takes a look at the latest

TAKING THE BULBOUS OUT OF BULBS Who wants a bloated, bulbous lamp when you could have a sleek, flat one? Well, Philips has the answer in the svelte form of its SlimStyle A19 LED bulb, which it describes as ‘a beautifully innovative way to enhance your home’. Available in the US, it is the same size as a conventional A19 but a SlimStyle rated at 10.5W is equivalent to a 60W incandescent. The lamp contains no mercury, saves energy and Philips reckons it’ll last for 20,000 hours of operation.

‘MY HOUSE HAS SPACE STATION LIGHTING’ Now you can now bask in the same LED light enjoyed by astronauts on the International Space Station thanks to Lighting Science, which has made the bulbs it developed for the ISS available to the public. The Good Night bulb emits less blue light than typical LED sources to ensure soundness of sleep for astronauts as they hurtle around the world at 7.6km per second eluding a Gravity-style catastrophe. Light from the Awake & Alert bulb is blue-enriched to achieve the exact opposite. Each will set you back about $75 .

TOSHIBA SHRINKS ITS DIMMABLE LED RETROFITS Toshiba Lighting’s E-Core LED Lamp 13W is designed for the hospitality and retail sectors. The lamp is smaller than its predecessors with a new shape that improves light distribution. The updated shape also dissipates heat more effectively. The lamp can also be dimmed – now a standard option throughout the Toshiba GLS range.

NOSTALGIC STYLE Panasonic launched its range of LED lamps for the consumer market last year. Not only do they provide energy savings, they also look like an incandescent, with a filament-style optic at the centre. Alexis Fernandez of Panasonic’s lighting busines, says: ‘People expect the same light quality as that from traditional incandescent bulbs.’ | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

products 79

batch of weird and wonderful LED light bulbs

smart lamps for the whole home PhotonStar has unveiled its Halcyon smart lamp. Like Philips’ Hue product, it is wirelessly controllable and can change colour, but it’s also designed to be used by multiple people and used throughout the home. The company is promoting the products on its circadian lighting capabilities – changing in colour and intensity through the day to match the body’s natural rhythms – using the company’s ChromaWhite colour-tuning technology. Halcyon can be used in existing fittings, and controlled over wireless networks. Lamps can be controlled by sensors, arranged into scenes or controlled individually. Halcyon was developed with the help of a UK government grant awarded to PhotonStar last year.

the latest from ukled UKLED’s Eco GLS lamp is a high specification LED lamp replacement for filament and compact fluorescent. It’s available in 5W and 7W versions at a range of colour temperatures, and expected to last 50,000 hours to L70. UKLED also makes a range of LED candle lamps with warm colour temperatures and the appearance of a filament lamp.

the cree bulb Cree is pushing LED lamps hard, especially in its native United States. It recently expanded its range with a 13.5W 1,100 lm bulb designed to replace a 75W incandescent. Cree is making a selling point of the bulb’s ‘non-weird shape’ and ‘nonweird light’. Its cosy 2700K colour temperature, omnidirectional soft white light and the ability to dim, should make this a sound replacement for a traditional lamp. And not only that, Cree says it can save you $190 over its 25,000-hour life.

gls replacements for home and office Looking at direct replacements for GLS lamps? Osram recommends its slim design Parathom Classic A Advanced and LED Superstar Classic A60 Advanced. Both are dimmable and have 20,000-hour lives. They are available in frosted and clear finishes and the photometric performance makes them suitable for commercial and high-quality domestic lighting. Osram reckons that a Parathom Classic A60 Advanced lamp that replaces a conventional incandescent lamp can pay for itself in four months. The company makes the lamps at its factory in Treviso, Italy.

megaman’s latest Megaman’s latest contender in the LED lamp wars produces 810lm from 10.5W, and is expected to last 50,000 hours to L70. It’s dimmable, with a warm colour temperature of 2800K. The opal diffuser means it distributes soft light in all directions.

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |

80 REviEws small downlights


Small downlightS Ditching those ageing halogen downlights? Looks like an LED upgrade is in order. Alan Tulla assesses the products available


hat have you got to replace a 50W halogen downlight?’ was Lux Review’s question to suppliers. The only constraints we gave were that the downlights should be 3000K and physically similar in size and appearance to an MR16. The responses were wide ranging and we received downlights that cost from $35 to almost $175. Wattages range from 6 to 20W. However, the bezel diameter (the visible part you see on the ceiling) of almost all of them was between 75 and 90mm. The height above the ceiling and void depth required varied a lot – partly because of fire resistance and insulation requirements. What to look out for There were some issues raised that you may not have thought of. For example, two manufacturers automatically sent me fire-resistant downlights because most of their sales are in the domestic sector. It is worth remembering that most kitchens are on the ground floor and have a fire-resistant ceiling. As such, the recessed downlight must also be fire-resistant. Another issue is that just because your LED downlight is a much lower wattage than the halogen it replaces, you can’t lay the ceiling insulation straight on top of it. To their credit, all the manufacturers explain this clearly in their installation sheets. However, just about every sales rep I spoke to said installers who ignored this advice were the most common reason for failure. It is not always clear from the manufacturers’ datasheets whether the wattage includes driver losses, nor whether the light output is from the LED module or complete luminaire. As such, the delivered lumens per watt value is approximate. The prices shown are indicative for a quantity of 50 and for the particular unit tested. Most of the downlights come in a range of sizes and configurations. Make sure you know what you are ordering. | 2014 Volume 1 issue 2

Zumtobel is very proud of the clarity of the bubbles in the glass of sparkling water lit by its luminaire (top right) compared to the one lit by a cheaper wholesale downlight (top left)

REviEws 81

ACDC Mini PRo Evolution AUSTRALIA Lux Review Australia | Volume 1 | Issue 1 | 2013









PowER 10w outPut 597 lm EffiCACy 60 lm/w CRi 85 QuotED lifE to l70 50,000 HouRs PRiCE PoA

Lux Review Australia | Volume 1 | Issue 2 | 2014

This looks great, with one of the nicest paint finishes we’ve seen. The matt white bezel coupled with the black, internal antiglare snoot gives it a quality appearance. The downlight has a fairly shallow depth of about 75mm and it can be tilted 20 degrees either side of vertical. It’s a nice-looking unit. Less attractive is the beam, which has ‘woolly’ edges and is slightly uneven. This is most probably because of the nine individual LED chips inside. If you can accept a slightly larger diameter bezel, it is worth considering the Hurricane 35, which gives greater light output at lower cost.

Volume 1 | Issue 1 | 2013 |

The Australian LED revolution

Volume 1 | Issue 2 | 2014 |


LED lighting hits the streets








lots going for it, but a slightly uneven beam


CollingwooD H2 PRo This is one of the most efficient units we tested and it pushes out a lot of light, especially in the 60-degree beam version. Although it is fire rated, it is also remarkably compact, measuring just 70mm high. You will need an extra 50mm clearance if there is any insulation material above it. The bezel is noticeably wider than similar downlights, making this unit 90mm overall. This is another great value IP65 firerated unit with an exceptionally long life. To see its performance compared with halogen, go to and take a look at Collingwood’s video.


PowER 8.5w outPut 530 lm EffiCACy 62 lm/w CRi 80 QuotED lifE to l70 70,000 HouRs PRiCE $60


Lux Review Australia is the new, dedicated Australian edition of Lux Review, bringing the best of case studies, expert knowledge and incisive comment from Australia and beyond. For advertising opportunities, contact Doug Galvin: +61 (0)417 417 005 |

Efficiency at a good price

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |

82 REviEws small downlights

Reviewed: small downlights illuxtRon linEa 75

Kosnic PowERlED

Illuxtron is a Dutch company. The frosted cover over the LEDs sets the appearance apart from the other downlights. The Linea 75 is also quite wide with an inward curving bezel. Like more and more LED downlights, it uses a mains-voltage chip. This means there is no remote driver and the body of the downlight is comparatively small. Illuxtron says it is compatible with most dimmers, and there’s a list of suitable units in the company’s catalogue. The unit is well finished and has solid, matt black heatsink fins. Its appearance belies its modest price.

This is a comparatively lowpowered and low-output unit, although the efficacy isn’t too bad. It has clearly been designed to sell on price. On the sample we received, the mains connection block twice fell away from its mounting clip. There was no danger, but it did rather highlight the build quality. It is fire rated but only IP40. The beam is fairly wide and uniform with soft edges but, coupled with the low output, should be compared to a 35W halogen downlight.

PowER 11w outPut 600 lm Efficacy 55 lm/w cRi 82 QuotED lifE to l70 49,000 houRs PRicE $65


compact and well made

laP lED Downlight

ZumtobEl Diamo

This is a budget downlight from a major electrical chain. For $35, you get a compact-looking unit with remote driver. The reflector is quite attractive, but nothing like an MR16, and gives a nice uniform beam. In fact, the beam was better than some of the other units we tested. What’s missing is any technical information. There is no mention of CRI, and the appearance is described as ‘warm white’ (which is what it looks like), but the CCT is not quoted. One thing I didn’t like was the mains connector block, where the L and N text on the terminals is almost invisible.

Zumtobel has a reputation for quality luminaires and this is no exception. It has by far the best quality beam of those we tested. It is uniform, fades softly from the centre and the edges are clean. It gives an excellent quality of light, as illustrated when lighting a glass of sparkling water (see previous page). True enough, the bubbles look livelier and sharper than under other downlights – think diamonds rather than cubic zirconia. The quality of the light is aided by the CRI of 90. We reviewed the narrow beam version – wider beam versions are available, which achieve higher efficacy. | 2014 Volume 1 issue 2

PowER 6w outPut 350 lm Efficacy 58 lm/w cRi not QuotED QuotED lifE to l70 uP to 25 yEaRs PRicE $35 (inc sales tax)


could be a lot worse for the price, but the data’s sketchy

PowER 7.5w outPut 420 lm Efficacy 56 lm/w cRi 80 QuotED lifE to l70 35,000 houRs PRicE $45


a budget option

bEst bEam

PowER 21w outPut 950 lm Efficacy 45 lm/w cRi 90 QuotED lifE to l70 50,000 houRs PRicE $180


champagne lighting quality ...for a champagne price

LED Innovation for sustainable offices Dramatic improvements to the working environment and elimination of the routine maintenance for the next 10 years have been achieved at the iconic Ark building in London through the use of GE’s innovative LED lighting solutions.

84 REviEwEd Wall Washers


WALL WASHERS Wall washers are the key to banishing the gloomy office spaces of the past. Alan Tulla tested half a dozen of the latest models – what came out in the wash?


all washers are making a comeback. People are realising that dark walls make for poor visual environments. Continually adjusting from a bright task or computer screen to looking at a dark wall leads to eye strain. Moreover, the brightness (luminance) of the wall is the main factor in determining how light an office space appears. One of the worst aspects of the old luminaires for use with computer displays that became ubiquitous in offices was that, unless the lighting scheme was iGuzzini’s Laser Blade is great for textured surfaces | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

properly designed, offices appeared dark even though there may have been over 500 lx on the desktop. This was a result of the sharp cut-off (typically 65 degrees) from the luminaire, which led to scalloping and left the upper quarter of the wall in comparative darkness. Up the wall It is unfortunate that some standards only require 50 lx on the walls. In my opinion, this is too low to achieve a satisfactory visual environment in most applications. A much better minimum recommendation is about 75 lx. All the wall washers we tested gave over 100 lx average. Wall washers are also useful for highlighting noticeboards, signs and corporate artwork. For these applications you may want much higher levels of illumination. A wall used to highlight products or artwork might need in excess of 500 lx. One of the critical aspects to achieve uniform lighting on the wall is the relationship between the offset distance and the height of the wall. Typically, this is 1:3 – that is, the luminaire must be 1m away to light a 3m-high wall. Related to this, if you are using standalone luminaires (not a continuous run), you must consider the lateral spacing. If the luminaires are too far apart you will get dark patches, especially at the mid-point near the ceiling. The values for uniformity are as accurate as I can make them. There are always variations because of the size of the calculation grid and the number of points. It is apparent from our testing that there are two sorts of wall washer: those with dedicated optics with the sole function of lighting the wall as evenly as possible; and those that have been adapted from a standard range of downlights. These ‘kick’ the light towards the wall but don’t tend to perform quite as well on the upper sections of the wall closest to the ceiling. There are still lots of other differences between these products though – you must consider factors such as cost, illumination level, visual appearance and colour rendering as you set your priorities. The prices shown are indicative for a quantity of 50 for the particular unit tested.

REviEwEd 85


This luminaire has been designed to illuminate display walls in retail applications – places where you want high levels of illumination. Although it is 600mm long and 102mm wide, it has a shallow recess depth, which is useful if the retailer wants to maximise the height of the display wall. Although this is a recessed unit, there is a 14mm ‘drop down’ lip to the reflector giving good illumination near the ceiling. The matt white bezel blends well with most ceilings.

It performs well, but the 4000K version has a CRI of 75, so you might want to go for the 3000K version which has a CRI of 80. pOwER 24w OffsET 1.2m LATERAL spACiNg 2.4m EAvE LUx 220 UNifORmiTy (miN/AvE) 34% pRiCE $240


ideal for retail

THORN CRUZ 240 This is one of a range of high performance downlights. This particular model has a 32W compact fluorescent lamp. The wall wash distribution is achieved by tilting the lamp away from the vertical, directing the light sideways and towards the wall. As such, it is a downlight that directs light towards the wall rather than being a dedicated wall washer. One advantage of using a compact fluorescent lamp is that you can achieve wide spacings. It is also extremely easy and inexpensive to change the lamp. Apart from the 250mm closest to the ceiling, you get a good, even spread of light from

top to bottom. The performance is particularly good given the wide lateral spacing. pOwER 32w OffsET 1m LATERAL spACiNg 2.4m EAvE LUx 113 UNifORmiTy (miN/AvE) 22% pRiCE $185


Excellent value

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |

86 REviEwEd Wall Washers

Reviewed: wall washers TRiLUX aThEnikL


This recessed LED wall washer, like some others reviewed, forms part of a much larger family of downlights, with the attractive square shape used across the range. It is solidly constructed and, unusually, has an IP54 rating. Combined with the L80 lumen depreciation, this should mean that, if calculated properly, it has a higher maintenance factor than its IP20 competitors. Of course, it also means that it is better suited to dustier, moister or more industrial applications. The lateral uniformity is good but, like other non-dedicated wall washers, the topmost section of the wall is darker

This is a new product from Stanley, a company that has earned a good reputation for its optics. It’s a modular unit designed for continuous mounting in a ceiling slot. There are 10 1W LEDs per 300mm module, with the driver mounted remotely. What makes it really interesting is that it is designed to go just 210mm from the wall; much closer than any of the others we looked at. The peak intensity is emitted just a few degrees away from straight down, so the light grazes the wall. You could surface mount it too, but you’d get a shadow close to the ceiling, so it works best recessed. Some details, including mounting brackets, are

when compared with some of the others. PowER 30w offSET 1m LaTERaL SPaCing 1.8m EavE LUX 112 UnifoRmiTY (min/avE) 24% PRiCE $230


a well-made, attractive unit


igUZZini LaSER BLadE mQ71

Elliptipar, now renamed The Lighting Quotient, makes a wide range of wall washers. The company made its name with its compound, asymmetric reflectors that combined elliptical and parabolic shapes. It has now introduced new optical technology based on refraction (prisms to you and I) and called it Fraqtir. It lets you combine close offset distances and wide lateral spacing. Although it’s a surfacemount unit – meaning the reflector can be tilted – it’s one of the smallest we tested. But you’ll have to be convinced

This recessed luminaire is simply brilliant. At less than 45mm wide with a slim bezel, it’s almost invisible in the ceiling. It’s part of a family of downlights, but it’s clear that a lot of thought has gone into designing optics for wall washing. For even lighting from top to bottom and side to side, simply space the Laser Blades 1m apart and 1m from the wall. To all but the keenest eyes, it’s totally uniform. A common failing with wall washers is a lack of light near the ceiling – but this | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

by the performance to pay the high price. PowER 18w offSET 800mm LaTERaL SPaCing 1.6m EavE LUX 106 UnifoRmiTY (min/avE) 44% PRiCE $740


a good pedigree

yet to be finalised, but you can trust this product to perform well. PowER 39w per linear metre offSET 210mm LaTERaL SPaCing n/a EavE LUX 184 UnifoRmiTY (min/avE) 25% PRiCE $280 per linear metre (plus driver)


Performs well in ceiling slots


one lights right to the top. Other options might give more lux per pound, but if you want beautifully even illumination from an almost invisible source, this is the business. PowER 21w offSET 1m LaTERaL SPaCing 1m EavE LUX 107 UnifoRmiTY (min/avE) 60% PRiCE $260

***** Simply the best

M a n t a : L E D Power Spot

w w w. h a c e l . c o. u k

Download our comprehensive catalogue showcasing the full product range


PRODUCT SHOWCASE A DRIVER THAT’S READY FOR WIRELESS Harvard’s CLH single-channel high power switchable driver delivers up to 150W of power with the option of analogue 1-10V, Dali and switched dim control. The driver comes with WiMAC compatibility as standard, making it perfect for use alongside Harvard’s LeafNut wireless monitoring and control system for streetlighting. The driver also showcases NTC temperature control, the ability to reduce output power progressively to a minimum of 10 per cent, resistive programming, non-Selv output voltage, and reinforced insulation between primary and secondary control when using Dali or 1-10V dimming.

LED HIGH BAY FROM AGLO SYSTEMS Upgrade your premises and improve illumination with the Galaxy LED high bay from Aglo Systems. Save energy and money, and forget your maintenance worries – you’ll never have to change a light globe again. The product is suitable for warehousing, plant or retail, in indoor or outdoor industrial applications. Light output is up to 40,000lm, with a CRI above 70.

LED GROUP MAKES RETROFIT EASY WITH MAGNETS Vulcan retrofit LED 1 x 40W and 2 x 40W plates are ideal for corrosion-proof installations where replacement of the complete fitting is difficult or has a wiring structure that doesn’t lend itself easily to retrofitting. The magnet-fix system makes retrofit fast and easy in existing fittings, using the existing trayfixing mechanism and a set of magnetic adapter-fixing brackets. The system is compatible with many manufacturers’ IP65 fittings.

COLOURFUL EFFECTS FROM ANOLIS ARCPIX ArcPix is a multi-purpose, high-intensity RGBW LED node for generating a wide variety of effects without the limitations associated with a solid fixture unit. The flexibility of ArcPix allows the user to create patterns and video on almost any surface, either interior or exterior. Its compact size and sleek design allows a greater range of installation applications, efficient driver technology and plug and play set up means dramatic results are easily achievable. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2



To appear on these pages please contact

NEW SKYMOD LED FLAT PANEL BY HACEL SkyMod is a LED flat panel by Hacel – part of its architectural LED range. Available in three wattages (24, 34 and 46W) and three colour variations (3000, 4000 and 5000K), the SkyMod has been engineered for uniform light distribution with an impressive LOR of 0.89. With efficacies in excess of 86 lm/W, SkyMod LED is available with a choice of control gear including 1-10V, Dali and emergency. SkyMod LED not only maintains a flush ceiling appearance but showcases a Tb(p)-compliant opal polycarbonate diffuser with a wipe clean surface. Recessed and slim surface versions (with built-in gear) are available.

LUCECO’S LED BULKHEADS Many issues have long been associated with TC-DD (2D) fluorescent bulkheads including slow time to reach full output, poor lamp life because of frequent switching and difficulty in striking the lamp in emergency use conditions. Now there is a viable alternative. Luceco has launched a range of LED bulkheads, rated at just 15W, that provide superior light output to the problematic 28W TC-DD bulkheads. The range has been specifically conceived for LED use and not for a converted existing 2D bulkhead, that would not provide the optimum operating conditions to maximise LED chip life. Instant light output means there is no delay in providing light, and the LEDs can be switched without detrimental effect. Emergency and microwave sensorequipped versions are available.


CONTROLS INNOVATION OF THE YEAR EyeNut is the ingenious and award-winning wireless control and monitoring system which is set to revolutionise the indoor lighting market. From Harvard Engineering, the company behind the LeafNut system for streetlighting, EyeNut gives users the ability to cleverly control and monitor lighting installations in order to save energy, reduce carbon emissions, and tailor lighting to their needs. Addressing the problems often seen by early generation indoor lighting controls, EyeNut provides a completely flexible solution which eliminates commissioning issues and the need for expensive and complicated re-wiring. EyeNut was named Controls Innovation of the Year at the Lux Awards 2013.

LAMP’S FLATTEST EVER FLOODLIGHT Flut, the new Lamp floodlight family, has been designed for lighting façades and vaulted ceilings and its main characteristic is its flat dimension. Flut is a floodlight luminaire for façades, vaulted ceilings, walls, monuments, walkways and pedestrian ways . Its ball joint allows swivelling of the light between 90 and -30 degrees. It also incorporates an anti-condensation valve. Models are available with symmetric, asymmetric and street optics, for luminous flux of 5,000, 8,000 and 12,000 lm with warm and neutral white LED. There is a RGBW model available with luminous flux of 4,800 lm. This family features a wide range of accessories suitable for lighting walkways including poles and truncated cones.

2014 2014 Volume Volume 3 1Issue Issue1 2| | | 89



Show your true New lighting technology has forced the industry to reconsider the methods


How is the quality of light measured and what is meant by colour-rendering index? The quality of the light from a light source, or colour quality, is subjective because it is inextricably linked to the task that the light source has to perform. However, the industry needs a precise metric to make it possible to specify a light source of an appropriate quality. This is a key area where the science of lighting comes into contact with the infinite variability of people: their perceptions, likes and dislikes, the performance of their eyes and what the light is being used to illuminate. In the words of Jim Morrison, ‘people are strange’. We all have subjective tastes as well and our eyes perform differently, creating a complex web of detail that a single metric will never fully satisfy. Interpretation of this complex web is the world of the lighting designer, and why their particular skills are so important. Having said that, this complex problem can be tackled using simple means to make it possible to control, specify and quantify light source colour quality. The colour quality of a light source is currently specified by a single number called the CIE general colour-rendering index (CRI), Ra. This index has a long history and was devised to assess the colour rendering of fluorescent lamps by comparison with a reference illuminant. However, other metrics or quality scales are now being discussed as possibly ‘better’ than the CRI model, which we will discuss later in this article. But before we embark on more detailed discussion, let’s review some of the more fundamental aspects of lighting colour quality. There are three key elements that determine the quality of light: ● the spectrum of the light source, ● the characteristics of the object or scene that is being illuminated, and ● the visual effect that is desired.

A light source consists of a combination of light wavelengths (colours) that combine to form a spectrum of light, usually white. Many light sources contain wavelengths in the spectrum that are outside the visible range, but colour quality is concerned only with light that is visible to the eye. A typical set of spectra for light sources – acquired using a spectroradiometer – reveals big differences between white light sources in everyday use and we expect the quality of the light to be equally varied.

The characteristics of the scene When objects are illuminated by a light source, it is the light that is visible after it has bounced off the object that is viewed by the eye. Objects appear coloured because they preferentially reflect light of certain wavelengths, while the remaining light from the light source is absorbed by the object and wasted. For example, white light illuminating a red apple will be transformed from white to red because of the reflectance properties of the red apple. It mainly absorbs light in wavelengths other than red and therefore reflects mostly red light. Thus, the object’s optical properties have a huge impact on the light that the eye sees. Also, a given object, such as a red apple, will appear completely different when viewed under light from different light sources. A light source that does not contain red light, when used to illuminate a red apple will result in a low-quality grey appearance with poor colour-rendering – the appearance of the apple will be different from its appearance in daylight, which is not usually desirable. Thus, depending on the light source, a set of objects can appear more or less natural, colourful, vivid or attractive. This effect can be seen in the image opposite.

The spectrum Visible light consists of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 390 (blue) and 700nm (red) – roughly the limits of detection of the human eye (see diagram, right). Visible light is quite a small part of the total electromagnetic spectrum and is bounded on either side by the longer wavelength (red side) infrared light and on the shorter wavelength (blue side) ultraviolet light. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

The visible spectrum as part of the electromagnetic spectrum


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colours it uses to establish the quality of a light source

The appearance of coloured objects varies under different light sources

The visual effect There are differences in the meaning of the quality of light and the quality of lighting. A light source that has mostly red in its spectrum may be perfectly suitable for lighting a red object if that is its only task (and indeed it would the most energy efficient use of the light source). It would, however, be useless for illuminating a general scene with lots of colours. Thus, the best quality of light depends on the task. The visual requirements for retail lighting may require objects to be vividly highlighted. In hospitality lighting a more blended effect might be needed. For example, a light source with very strong red elements might be very useful for illuminating fruit or red meat but would accentuate skin blemishes on a person’s face which may not be suitable for a restaurant light source .

Colour-rendering index The colour-rendering index, or CRI, is a measure of a light source’s ability to show object colours ‘realistically’ or ‘naturally’ compared with a familiar reference source, daylight, for example. It comprises a set of ratios that provides a quantitative measure of the capability of a light source to reproduce the colours of various objects faithfully compared to daylight. A set of 14 reference colours are used to determine CRI – TCS01TCS14 (see diagram, right) – along with a reference light source, either daylight or a tungsten lamp. To assess the colour rendition of the light source, the spectrum of the light source must first be acquired using a spectroradiometer. The colour-rendering indices are then calculated by simulating the illumination properties of the reference colours when illuminated by a reference illuminant (daylight or tungsten) and the light source.

After accounting for some correction factors, the difference in colour appearance under the light source and under reference illumination is computed in colour space for each reference colour. The individual colour-rendering indices (R1-R14) can then be calculated. The average colour-rendering index, Ra is the main industry term for colour quality and the average of the first eight (R1-R8). It can be seen from the colour references that the first eight colours (TCS01-TCS08) are not vivid colours, whereas TCS09-TCS12 are. With the advent of LED lighting, a particular set of problems have been encountered that mean the industry is trying to define a new metric for assessing the quality of light from a range of light sources. One of the problems encountered is that Ra does not take into account the vivid red colour defined by R9 and this is also a particular problem with some colder colour temperature LEDs (see page 60 for more on this). Thus, many specifiers are now asking for the colour-rendering index to be reported using the average of R1-R14 (including the vivid colours) or to report Ra plus R9 – highlighting whether the light source is able to render reds well.

Other schemes There is much debate about the use of the CRI scheme for new light sources such as LEDs. New schemes such as the colour quality scales (CQS), colour gamut and colour harmony are being explored. LED lighting allows for the design of uniquely tailored and alterable light spectra. We are entering the era of high definition spectrally tuneable lighting where anything is Possible. Today’s colour metrics will have a tough time keeping up with the pace of development in LED lighting. ● Read more about light and colour at and TCS01














The 14 reference colours used to determine CRI

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |


How light affects We all know how a light left on can keep us awake, and how it feels to step off a plane into dazzling sunshine when it feels like night-time. But it’s only recently that we’ve understood just how big an influence light has on our bodies and minds – and why

In terms of human evolution, artificial light was invented about five minutes ago. We evolved by the light of the sun, and as a result, the body doesn’t only rely on light to help us see, it also uses it to tell the time. Light – whether it’s natural or artificial – regulates our daily circadian rhythms, and it’s all thanks to special cells in the eye. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

Illustrations: Razvan Anghelache |

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The retina at the back of the eye detects light and sends signals to the brain. The main purpose of this is to allow us to see, which is the job of the rod and cone cells. But in the early 1990s scientists discovered that rods and cones aren’t the only photoreceptive cells in the retina. The ganglion cells also play a role – using light to tell what time of day it is and keep our circadian rhythms in check. They respond particularly to light that contains a lot of blue, and that comes from a high angle – just like the sun. The retinal ganglion cells send signals to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the brain’s circadian clock. The SCN then sends messages to the pineal gland, which controls melatonin, the hormone that regulates our sleep. When light is detected, melatonin is suppressed, keeping us awake and alert. When there’s little or no light, more melatonin flows, making us ready for sleep.

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |

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There are a lot of confusing technical terms in the lighting world. Here’s what some of them mean...


Colour temperature Colour temperature describes whether a light source appears ‘warm’ or ‘cool’ – indicated by the correlated colour temperature (CCT). Lamps with a warm appearance have a CCT of 2700-3000K, and are considered appropriate for domestic settings; cooler lamps might be 4000K, and are used more often in offices and shops. The higher the colour temperature, the ‘cooler’ the appearance.


Short for colour-rendering index, CRI is the ability of a light source to show the colours of objects accurately. The higher the CRI, on a 0-100 scale, the more accurately the lamp will render colours. Lamps with poor colour rendering will distort some colours, so you may end up with brown socks when you wanted green ones.

LEED Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design – LEED – is a programme from the US Green Building Council to score buildings for efficiency and sustainability. LEED scores are not restricted to the States, with countries such as Australia and the UAE also using the system, and are flexible enough to apply to any project.

SoN High-pressure sodium lamps (commonly called SON lamps) are gas discharge lamps that use sodium vapour in an excited state to produce light. They are often used for streetlighting. SONs produce a yellow light and have poor colour rendering. But they are efficient, often reaching efficacies of about 100 lm/W. Higher-powered 600W versions can reach an efficacy of 150 lm/W.

The lighting industry is online. | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

Dali The Digital Addressable Lighting Interface is a protocol for lighting controls and dimming agreed by major manufacturers. It is set out in the technical standard IEC 62386. A Dali working group, set up by manufacturers and institutions, promotes Dali technology and applications.

Circuit watts Circuit watts (Wcct) means the number of watts used to power an entire circuit, including the control gear or driver rather than just a light source or luminaire.

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PIR Short for passive infrared. PIR sensors are electronic sensors that measure infrared light radiating from objects in their field of view. PIR sensors are one of the main technologies used for presence and absence detection, turning lights on and off when people are or aren’t there.

LOR Light output ratio – the percentage of light emitted from the light source that makes it out of the luminaire. An LOR of 70 means 30 per cent of the light from the lamp is lost inside the reflector and light fitting. But there’s some debate about how to apply LOR to LED luminaires because of the directional nature of light emitted by LEDs.

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The kilowatt-hour is a unit of energy equal to 1,000 watt-hours. That’s what a 1,000W device uses in one hour – or what a 1W device uses in 1,000 hours. It’s the ‘unit’ that shows up on your electricity bill.

Lux is the international unit of illuminance – a measure of how much luminous flux (in lumens) is spread over a given area (in square metres). In other words, it tells you how much light is hitting a surface. 1 lm/m2 equals 1 lx. Multiply an illuminance figure in lux by an amount of time in hours and you have a measure of exposure in lux hours – useful if you’re looking after delicate objects or surfaces that can’t be exposed to too much light.

IP RatIng


An IP (index of protection) rating tells you the amount of protection a luminaire or other piece of equipment has against things getting in – including dust, dirt and water as well as hands and fingers. For example, a fitting rated IP22 will prevent the insertion of fingers and will not be damaged if exposed to dripping water.

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Zhaga is an industry-wide co-operation to standardise specifications for the interfaces of LED light engines. The aim is for light sources from different manufacturers to be interchangeable, so that luminaire makers and end users aren’t tying themselves to any one supplier. But critics say Zhaga doesn’t help buyers, and discourages innovation. recreates Lux Review magazine in a format designed especially for the web. Embedded videos and links make it the most interactive online lighting and energy efficiency publication there is.

Call roberta bontempo on +44 (020) 3283 4387 or email roberta.bontempo@luxreview.Com to find out more about advertising opportunities

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |

2014 19-20 November 2014 | ExCeL London





Get the date in your diary now







FRANKFURT, GERMANY It’s time once again for the world’s biggest lighting trade fair, where you can see what all the big players are doing with LEDs. Everyone’s going to be there, including the Lux Review team, who you’ll find at the centre of the action in Hall 3.1. Stop by to say ‘guten Tag’ and pick up your Light + Building survival kit.

Visit us in Hall 3.1, Stand A40

18 MARCH LED STREETLIGHTING SEMINAR SYDNEY Top streetlighting experts from the US are to speak at this event sponsored by the SSROC Street Lighting Program, the City of Sydney, the Commonwealth Department of Industry and Lighting Council Australia. 6-9 APRIL HONG KONG INTERNATIONAL LIGHTING FAIR – SPRING EDITION HONG KONG Organised by the Hong Kong Trade Development Council (HKTDC), the Hong Kong International Lighting Fair (Spring Edition) features a wide range of products. 10- 12 APRIL CHINA ELECTRONIC FAIR (CEF) SHENZHEN, CHINA Special VIP visitor opportunities – free only for all Lux Review readers. Email the organisers for further information.


BUILD 4 ASIA 2014 7 - 9 MAY HONG KONG, CHINA The sustainable architecture, building services and electrical engineering show for Asia Pacific. 9 - 12 JUNE GUANGZHOU INTERNATIONAL LIGHTING EXHIBITION GUANGZHOU, CHINA China’s major international lighting exhibition.

Hong Kong International Lighting Fair

AUSTRALIAN SMART LIGHTING SUMMIT 2014 18-19 AUGUST MELBOURNE CONVENTION & EXHIBITION CENTRE After a hugely successful inaugural event in 2013, where over 250 lighting professionals convened to discuss hot topics and network, the Australian Smart Lighting Summit 2014 is set to be even bigger and better.

To see your event included in this section contact Lux Review’s events editor Miriam Hier at

2014 Volume 1 Issue 2 |


Lux Review’s latest


Lux Review’s YouTube videos have racked up nearly 30,000 views – here’s this month’s top 10…


Technology and the need to save energy are transforming the world of lighting. Lux Review takes a look at the projects that made us fall in love with light all over again.



Top CEOs, experts and observers give their take on the rapidly-changing Chinese market. What are the drivers and major trends?



Shuji Nakamura, founder of Soraa, talks exclusively to Ray Molony of Lux Review at LuxLive 2013. He describes his invention of the blue LED and the revolution in lighting it has ignited.

Visitors to LuxLive explain why the show is the must-attend event for specifiers and users of energy-efficient lighting. Join them in London on 19-20 November.


▲ | 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

Lux Review reports from Paris on the first bottom main red phase of a project to equipgradient the Metro and PMS 1815C PMS 1795C suburban rail stations with LED lighting, C13 M96 Y81 K54 C0 M96 Y90 K2 and interviews the team responsible for the upgrade. white


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In this video from our Retail Lighting and Energy conference, the people in charge of lighting at Sainsbury’s, Morrisons, Co-op and Pets Corner reveal the challenges they face. backgrounds on dark background


Lighting managers at Lloyds Bank, Canary Wharf and Land Securities speak about the challenges facing commercial lighting, at our forum in association with Fagerhult. 9. TOP RETAIL LIGHTING BOSSES SPEAK TO LUX



We take a look at how a new LED lighting scheme in Durham, England, has improved the appearance of the city’s castle and cathedral – and slashed energy consumption. 7. TOP COMMERCIAL LIGHTING BOSSES SPEAK TO LUX

6. LUXLIVE 2014

Ulrich Schumacher, the new CEO of the Zumtobel Group, speaks exclusively to Lux Review about his plans for the company, and how he sees the LED lighting market evolving.

Lux Review visits the Light Middle East exhibition in Dubai and quizzes experts from the region about the future of lighting. Pennie Varvarides reports.

on light standard


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Lux Review Australia & NZ - Issue 2  

The Australian journal of energy-efficient lighting and design

Lux Review Australia & NZ - Issue 2  

The Australian journal of energy-efficient lighting and design