Journal of Research in Ecology
Journal of Research in Ecology
An International Scientific Research Journal
Does distribution of Acridomorpha is influenced by parasitoid attack? A model with Scelio aegyptiacus (Priesner, 1951) in the experimental farm Authors: ElSayed WM Abu ElEla SA and Eesa NM
Institution: Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza-12613-Egypt.
ABSTRACT: In a survey of the Acridomorpha assemblage in two different sampling localities I and II at an experimental farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University-ten different species had been recorded. These species were belonging to two subfamilies and representing ten tribes. Family Acrididae was found to exhibit the highest number of tribes (8 tribes and 8 species) whereas, family Pyrgomorphinae was represented by only two tribes harboring two species. The current research provides an attempt to point out the significance of Scelio aegyptiacus (Priesner, 1951) potential parasitoidism on natural acridomorphine populations through examining the eggpods. It was clear that only three acridomorphine species; Aiolopus thalassinus (Fabricius, 1798), Acrotylus patruelis (Herrich-SchĂ¤ffer, 1838) and Pyrgomorpha conica (Olivier, 1791), were virtually attacked by the hymenopterous S. aegyptiacus (Priesner, 1951).
Keywords: Parasitoidism, Acridomorpha, Scelio aegyptiacus, Stenophagous, presenceabsence.
Corresponding author: El-Sayed WM
Article Citation: ElSayed WM,Abu ElEla SA and Eesa NM Does distribution of Acridomorpha is influenced by parasitoid attack? A model with Scelio aegyptiacus (Priesner, 1951) in the experimental farm Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1): 030-037 Dates: Received: 08 March 2016
Web Address: http://ecologyresearch.info/ documents/EC0040.pdf
Journal of Research in Ecology An International Scientific Research Journal
Accepted: 18 March 2016
Published: 13 April 2016
This article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/2.0), which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-commercial, distribution and reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
030-036 | JRE | 2016| Vol 4 | No 1
ElSayed et al., 2016 It was noted that only a single wasp develops within a
INTRODUCTION Grasshoppers and locusts are known worldwide
grasshopper egg and the Scelio adults live only a very
for the enormous damage they cause to agricultural crops
short time, usually no more than three weeks under the
and pastures, imposing untold burdens on the economy
best conditions. The sex ratio varies among species, but
of many nations. These insects can be found in various
there are usually more females than males by a
habitats, as well as the more diverse and familiar species
considerable margin (Lakin, 1994; Dysart, 1995; Baker
could be found in grasslands and forests (Peveling et al.,
et al., 1996; Dangerfield et al., 2001; Ghahari et al.,
1999; Shahpa, 2003; Abu ElEla et al., 2012). Different
Acridopmorpha species are common and abundant in
In the present study only one factor, the
Egypt and most of them complete their metamorphosis
parasitoidism of S. aegyptiacus (Priesner, 1951), was
by the end of August without diapause (Shahpa, 2003).
taken into consideration on the probable effect on the egg
A good number of Orthoptera species are well
-pods of Acridomorpha species inhabiting two localities
documented in Egypt (Shahpa, 2003). Many studies have
in the experimental farm of the faculty of Agriculture,
been performed on Orthoptera, and in particular
Giza Governorate, Egypt.
The effects of parasitoidism were studied in
Physiology and pest control. However, from the
terms of number of egg-pods of different acridomorphine
available literature, little is known concerning Scelio
species attacked, degree, and synchronization of the
aegyptiacus (Priesner, 1951) potential parasitoidism on
parasitoid with the general habitats of the hosts as an
the egg-pods of the Egyptian acridomorphine species.
attempt to establish a corner stone for future importance
The first described member of Scelio was carried out by Walker (1839) from the specimens of Australia.
of S. aegyptiacus (Priesner, 1951) parasitoidism in regulating natural Acridomorpha populations in Egypt.
Dangerfield et al. (2001) have pointed out that Scelio is one of the largest genera of Scelionids with more than
MATERIALS AND METHODS
225 described species. They are considered as obligate
endoparasitoids of eggs of different grasshoppers and
Regular weekly field excursions were performed
locusts (Riffat et al., 2013). It also demonstrated a
during the summer season for sampling and collecting
definite resistance to parasite survival on the part of
different acridomorphine egg-pods from two main
some host species and considerable immunity on the part
localities (I and II) located in the experimental farm at
of others, either as to attack by the parasite, or as to the
the Faculty of Agriculture, Giza, Egypt (30°.0246´ N,
establishment in the host.
31°.1925´ E) (Fig. 1). The two localities (I and II) were
Members of Family Scelionidae are considered
part of the general plane of Giza Governorate and were
as the only true parasitoids of grasshopper eggs (Ghahari
not a part of national park or protected area. The northern
et al., 2009). The North American species of Scelionidae
border of the study site was surrounded by Safet El
that develop as parasites in the eggs of grasshoppers
belong to two genera: the genus Scelio, which contains
surrounding other borders. The general topography of the
about 19 species, and the genus Synoditella, represented
experimental farm is a flat area devoid of any elevations.
by two species (Muesebeck, 1972).
Collection of egg-pods
Scelio species occur throughout the world
Locating the egg-pods in the soil is, most often, a
wherever grasshoppers are found (Ghahari et al., 2009).
lengthy and difficult task since finding pods in the soil
Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1): 030-037
ElSayed et al., 2016
Figure. 1. Map of the Study area: (a) Map of Egypt showing Giza Governorate; (b) aerial photograph showing the study area (dotted circle); and (c) the two main sampling localities (I and II). iss so unpredictable, and it is easy to miss egg-pods
ElSayed (2006); Riffat and Wagan (2009). Pods were
(Kaltenbach, 1965; Flook and Rowell, 1998; Ghahari et
lifted using small stainless steel scoop and these pods
al., 2009). Accordingly, the egg-pods were collected
were deposited singly in labeled empty glass jam jars
from the most favored ovipositional sites of adult female
(250 ml, 6 cm Ă˜ and 11 cm deep). The openings of these
acridomorphine species where pods would be expected
jars were covered with cotton muslin by means of
from pits appeared in the ground surface that could
ordinary rubber bands before transportation to the
contain pods (Waloff, 1950; Khalifa, 1956; Chapman and
laboratory. Care was taken to keep the jars moist for
Robertson, 1958; Chapman, 1961; Shah et al., 1998;
further analysis. The pods and the eggs were carefully
Shahpa, 2003; ElShazly and ElSayed, 2006; Abu ElEla et
examined for the presence of parasitoidism. Fifty egg-
al., 2012). Thus, searches were thoroughly took place
pods, from each of the collected Acridomorpha species,
along the edges of the cultivated fields, along the lines of
were examined for the presence of parasitoids. Collected
the irrigating trenches, on yards of wild vegetations,
parasitoids were collected using fine forceps and
lower branches of shrubs and bushes. Excavations were
immediately preserved in a solution of 70% ethyl alcohol
performed using bare hands and short handle-machetes
and glycerol in an attempt to keep the collected
where soil litters were removed. These searches were
specimens in good conditions for further examination.
extended to a radius of ca. 3 meter from the main trunk
Scrutinized examinations of the collected parasitoids
of these bushes or shrubs.
were performed using binocular stereo-microscope at
The soil was scraped carefully with short-handle
magnification of 40X.
hoe in order to expose any egg-pod which might have been presented at a depth of 20-120 mm as suggested by Zafari and Qazi (1989); Shah et al. (1998); ElShazly and Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1): 030-037
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Our present investigation yielded 500 egg-pods 032
ElSayed et al., 2016
Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University. These species were represented by two families and 10 tribes (table 1). number of tribes (8 tribes and 8 species) whereas family
Family Acrididae was found to exhibit the highest Pyrgomorphinae was represented by only two tribes harboring
pods in the two localities (I and II) as indicated in table
acridomorphine species were found to deposit their egg-
Locality of Egg-pods Cultivated area Grassland and wild with its vicinity vegetations (II) (I) ++ +-
two localities (I and II) in the experimental farm of the
(1). The egg-pods of four acridomorphine species; A. pellucida (Klug, 1830), O. gracilis (Krauss, 1902), S. carinatus (Saussure, 1888) and T. nasuta (Linnaeus, 1758),
vegetations (locality II) reflecting their preference for 11
No. of Scelio aegyptiacus/ 50 egg-pods
locality II as preferred ovipositional sites (table 1). It has
least number of collected egg-pods. The egg-pods of P. conica (Olivier, 1791) was found to be abundant in locality I and completely absent in locality II as indicated in table (1). A rapid glance on table (1) is ample to show that the egg-pods of only three acridomorphine species; A. patruelis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838), C. comprissicornis (Latreille, 1804) and H. littoralis (Rambur, 1838), were - = Absent, +- = Occasional, + = Present, ++ = Abundant
Acrida pellucid (Klug, 1830) Aiolopus thalassinus (Fabricius, 1781) Calephorus comprissicornis (Latreille, 1804) Heteracris littoralis (Rambur, 1838) Ochrilidia gracilis (Krauss, 1902) Sphingoderus carinatus (Saussure, 1888) Truxalis nasuta (Linnaeus, 1758) Chrotogonus hamalodemus (Blanchard, 1836) Pyrgomorpha conica (Olivier, 1791) Acridini Epacromiini Calephorini Euprepocnemidini Ochrilidini Sphingotini Truxalini Chrotogonini Pyrgomorphini
Acrotylus patruelis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838) Acrotylini
to be mentioned that these four species represented the
Table 1. Parasitoidism by Scelio aegyptiacus (Priesner, 1951) on different Acridomorpha species inhabiting two localities (I and II) at the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University.
belonging to 10 different Acridomorpha species in the
occasionally collected from locality II and being absent in locality I. During
belonging to one species of the parasitoid; Scelio aegyptiacus
Scelionidae), were recorded to attack the virtual eggpods of certain Acridomorpha species. The female scelionid,
stenophagous and observed to oviposit in the egg-pods predominantly those of A. thalassinus (Fabricius, 1781) (16 egg-pods were parasitoized out of 50 pods) and A. patruelis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838) (11 egg-pods were parasitoized out of 50 pods) (table 1). However, the eggpods of C. hamalodemus (Blanchard, 1836) were
Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1): 030-037
ElSayed et al., 2016 occasionally attacked by S. aegyptiacus (Priesner, 1951)
pods of Hieroglyphus perpolita (Uvarov, 1033), H.
where only two egg-pods were parasitoized out of 50
oryzivorus (Carl, 1916) and H. nigrorepletus (I. Bolivar,
pods (table 1).
1912) from localities in Pakistan. Moreover, in Australia,
As shown in table (1), the egg-pods of A.
parasitism by Scelio species at certain sites has been
thallassinus (Fabricius, 1781) was found to be the most
recorded in up to 90% of the egg-pods (Maïga et al.,
dominant acridomorphine species (table 1) being
abundant in both localities (I and II). This was preceded
In accordance with our results, Prior and
by A. patruelis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838) and C.
Greathead (1989) estimated that scelionid egg parasites
comprissicornis (Latreille, 1804).
(Scelio spp.) were the predominant cause of egg
Indeed, the egg-pods of three Acridomorpha
mortality in solitary locust populations in Africa.
species, A. pellucida (Klug, 1830), T. nasuta (Linnaeus,
However, scelionids were rather ineffective mortality
1758) and O. gracilis (Krauss, 1902), were completely
factors in the egg pods of gregarious species, such as the
devoid of S. aegyptiacus (Priesner, 1951) as indicated in
desert locust. In the study areas of Dysart (1995) in
table (1). Moreover, the egg-pods of S. carinatus
Montana and North Dakota, Scelio parasitism never
(Saussure, 1888) did not, apparently, show any sign of S.
reached such high levels. Dysart (1995) found that a
aegyptiacus (Priesner, 1951) as shown in table (1).
complex of four species of Scelio parasitized about 11
In general, the eggs and egg-pods of different
percent of the egg-pods.
Acridomorpa species inhabiting the experimental farm of
From prospective view, the authors offer four
the Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University showed that
main points; first of all is that S. aegyptiacus (Priesner,
the rate of the parasitoidism was rather low; out of 500
1951) is non-selective in finding its host since it could
specimens examined, only three species were found to
parasitoize more than on species of Acridomorpha in the
harbour the parasitic S. aegyptiacus (Priesner, 1951),
study site (table 1). The second point is that S.
showing the overall value of 5.8% parasidoidism. The
aegyptiacus (Priesner, 1951) was found to depend, to a
highest parasitoidism was confined to A. thalassinus
great extent, on the abundance of the host and in turn the
(Fabricius, 1781) (value of 32% parasitoidism).This
abundance of the hosts’ egg-pods. Thirdly, the scelonid
acridomorphine species proved to be more readily
wasp was found to avoid, completely, the graminivorous
parasitoized since it has greater ecological plasticity
species and S. carinatus (Saussure, 1888) (species
(Zafari and Qazi, 1989; Shahpa, 2003; ElShazly and
inhabiting locality I) since these species live, feed and
ElSayed, 2006). The second highest parasitoidism was
oviposit beside graminous or, presumably, spiny plant
observed in A. patruelis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838) with a
species that persist in comparatively harsh, relatively dry
value of 22% parasitoidism while the least value of
and with different microclimatic conditions that could
parasitoidism (4%) was recorded for the chrotogonid
affect the potential reproduction and/or the progeny S.
acridid C. hamalodemus (Blanchard, 1836). This could
indicate that S. aegyptiacus (Priesner, 1951) has
hymenopterous stenophagous parasitoid may hold the
relatively narrow host range in the selected localities (I
difficulties in search and find an egg-pod as a host of
and II) in the experimental farm of the Faculty of
acridomorphine species inhabiting dense vegetation as in
Agriculture, Cairo University. This finding is in contrary
the case of H. littoralis (Rambur, 1838) from which the
with that of Riffat and Wagan (2009) since they collected
egg-pods of this species were collected from locality I.
a large number of this parasitoid species from the eggJournal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1): 030-037
In the present study, the consideration of 034
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among different sampling sites within Satoyama area,
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Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1): 030-037
Published on Apr 13, 2016
In a survey of the Acridomorpha assemblage in two different sampling localities I and II at an experimental farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ca...