Page 1

Journal of Research in Ecology

Journal of Research in Ecology

An International Scientific Research Journal

Original Research

Impact of environmental factors on citral concentration in the lemongrass oil distilled from Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Authors: ABSTRACT: Sangeeth Thekkan1, Citral, a terpene aldehyde in the lemongrass oil distilled from Cymbopogon Tamilselvi SS2, 1 citratus determines the market value of the oil, based on its concentration. The Venkatachalapathy A and 1 quantity of citral present in the oil depends on the environmental factors of the Paulsamy S habitats where the grass is growing. To diagnose the factors responsible for higher content of citral, lemongrass oil samples collected from 17 sites of different Institution: 1. Department of Botany, environmental conditions in Kerala and Tamil Nadu states of India viz., Kongunadu Arts and Science Mananthavady, Pulpally, Meppadi, Ambalavayal, Kolamala, Malayalapuzha, College, Coimbatore-641 Pazhakulam, Vadasserikara, Konni, Marayoor, Kandalloor, Kodanthur, Mavadappu, 029, Tamil Nadu, India. Kulipatti, Kurumalai, Aattumalai and Poochikotambarai in different months in an year were analyzed. The study revealed that alkaline soil favours more concentration of 2. R and D, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641 citral in the oil of C. citratus. However, regression analysis exhibited that soil alkalinity in combination with maximum and minimum temperatures, relative humidity, rainfall 046, Tamil Nadu, India. and altitude exerts synergistic effect over the concentration of citral in the lemongrass oil. Based on this fact, it was identified that the sites in Anaimalais of Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu viz., Kulipatti and Kurumalai are having favourable environment for citral concentration in the oil of C. citratus.

Keywords: Cymbopogon citratus, citral, essential oil, lower Western Ghats, India.

Corresponding author: Paulsamy S

Article Citation: Sangeeth Thekkan SS, Tamilselvi A, Venkatachalapathy A and Paulsamy S. Impact of environmental factors on citral concentration in the lemongrass oil distilled from Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Journal of Research in Ecology 2016 4(1): 010-018

Email Id:

Dates: Received: 20 November 2015 Accepted: 10 December 2015 Published: 12 January 2016

Web Address: http://eologyresearch.info/ documents/EC0036.pdf.

Journal of Research in Ecology An International Scientific Research Journal

This article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/4.0), which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-commercial, distribution and reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

010-018| JRE | 2016 | Vol 4 | No 1

www.ecologyresearch.info


Thekkan et al., 2016 Kolamala (site-V- 48m above msl), Malayalapuzha (site-

INTRODUCTION Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.

VI-136m above msl), Pazhakulam (site-VII-146m above

of Poaceae is an important essential oil yielding plant

msl), Vadasserikara (site-VIII-150m above msl) and

grown in many parts of tropical and subtropical South

Konni (site-IX-152m above msl) are the study areas

East Asia and Africa (Rangari Vinod, 2009) and the oil is

located in Pathanamthitta district and Marayoor (site-X-

having diverse medicinal uses (Gupta and Sharma,

990m above msl) and Kandalloor (site-XI-1524m above

2009). In addition to several chemical compounds, citral,

msl) are the study areas located in Idukki district of

the terpene aldehyde is the chief constituent harbouring

Kerala state. The remaining study areas viz., Kodanthur

many medicinal uses, and valued in aromapathy and

(site-XII-520m above msl), Mavadappu (site-XIII-690m

cosmetic industries (Ghosh, 2005). Owing to its insect

above msl), Kulipatti (site-XIV-700m above msl),

repellent property, in recent decades lemongrass oil is a

Kurumalai (site-XV-740m above msl), Aattumalai (site-

most

XVI-620m above msl) and Poochikotambarai (site-XVII-

essential

requirement

for

insecticidal

drug

manufacturing pharma industries (Ranitha et al., 2014).

490m above msl) are located in the Anaimalai hills of

The per cent availability of this constituent in the

Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu state. The data on soil

lemongrass oil extracted from the grass C.citratus varied

pH and climatic factors for the study period of one year

according to climatic and soil conditions of the habitats

(June, 2014–May, 2015) are presented in Table 1 and

(Paulsamy, 2004; Peter, 2012).In the low hills of

Fig. 2a–2crespectively. These data were obtained from

southern Western Ghats (400–800 m above msl) at

the respective talukhead quarters for the sites of I–XI and

several places of Tamil Nadu and Kerala states, this

for the sites of XII–XVII. They were collected from

grass is cultivated for oil extraction (Paulsamy et al.,

Kadambarai and Navamalai hydroelectric power stations

2000). As the commercial value of the oil is decided

and Akkamalai Tea Factory.

mainly by the content of citral, analysis of the effect of

Local People of Lemongrass Cultivation and Oil

environmental variables on the proportion of citralis

Extraction

most essential to select the suitable habitat for the

In all study areas, local people of 5 to 20 persons

cultivation of C. citratus and for quality oil production.

were involved in lemongrass cultivation and oil

Thus, in the present study, some habitats of C. citratus

extraction as agriculture based engagement. The grass

located in the lower Western Ghats were selected to

was cultivated in small tracts at hilly slopes where no

determine the influence of certain environmental

plant communities were established well. Lemongrass

variables on the content of citral.

harvest was made at two months interval and distilled for oil after 2-3 days of shade drying.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Areas Seventeen study areas situated at different places of southern Western Ghats (11 in Kerala and 6 in Tamil

Soil pH It was determined for ‘A’ horizon of soil (0–10 cm) of all the study areas using digital pH meter. Estimation of Major Oil Constituents

Nadu) were selected for the present study (Fig. 1).

Each time after distillation, 250 ml of lemongrass

Mananthavady (site-I-760m above msl), Pulpally (site-II-

oil samples were procured in every study area for

907m above msl), Meppadi (site-III-874m above msl)

estimating the major constituent, citral.

and Ambalavayal (site-IV-938m above msl) are the study

Citral estimation

areas located in the Western Ghats of Wayanad district, 011

Oil samples were analyzed for citral content by Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1):010-018


Thekkan et al., 2016 Table 1. Soil pH of the lemongrass communities in the study sites during the study period. Year and month 2014 Jun Aug Oct Dec 2015 Feb Apr Mean

Sites* I

ΙΙ

ΙΙΙ

ΙV

V

VΙΙ

VΙΙΙ

ΙΧ

Χ

ΧΙ

ΧΙΙ

ΧΙΙΙ

ΧΙV

ΧV

ΧVΙ

ΧVΙΙ

6.8

6.5

6.9

6.3

6.6

6.6

6.9

6.9

6.5

6.5

6.5

6.9

7.1

7.5

7.8

6.9

6.9

6.7

6.5

6.9

6.2

6.7

6.7

6.8

6.9

6.5

6.5

6.4

7.2

6.9

7.3

7.3

7.1

6.9

6.6 6.7 6.8

6.5 6.4 6.6

6.9 6.8 6.8

6.4 6.3 6.4

6.5 6.5 6.5

6.7 6.7 6.6

6.6 6.6 6.7

6.8 6.9 6.8

6.6 6.5 6.6

6.4 6.6 6.5

6.5 6.6 6.6

7.1 6.9 7.1

7.2 7.1 7.1

7.3 7.5 7.3

7.3 7.5 7.6

7.3 7.1 7.1

7.1 7.2 7.1

6.7 6.7

6.7 6.5

6.8 6.8

6.5 6.3

6.6 6.5

6.5 6.6

6.8 6.7

6.8 6.8

6.6 6.5

6.5 6.5

6.6 6.5

7.2 7.1

7.1 7.1

7.1 7.3

7.6 7.5

7.2 7.1

7.2 7.1

*

Site1-Mananthavady, Site ΙΙ - Pulpally, Site ΙΙΙ - Meppadi, Site ΙV - Ambalavayal, Site V - Kolamala, Site VΙ Malayalapuzha, Site VΙΙ - Pazhakulam, Site VΙΙΙ - Vadasserikara, Site ΙΧ - Konni, Site Χ - Marayoor, Site ΧΙ – Kandalloor, Site ΧΙΙ – Kodanthur, Site ΧΙΙΙ – Mavudappu, Site ΧΙV –Kulipatti, Site ΧV – Kurumalai, Site ΧVΙ – Attumalai and Site ΧVΙΙ- Poochikotambarai. following sodium bisulphate method (Guenther, 1972).

of biomass during summer harvest, (Feb. and April,

Ten milli litres of oil were taken in a beaker to which

2015) was greater (76-88 %) than that of the other

30g sodium bisulphite and 100 ml distilled water were

months.

added. This mixture was boiled and shaken well for 10

temperature with low rainfall favours more yield of oil

min. After the formation of a white precipitation, the

with rich amount of constituents in lemongrass. This

beaker was dipped in water bath for 45 min to dissolve

result possibly occurred because of the high temperature

the precipitation completely. Then the beaker was cooled

and low soil moisture that generally influence plant

under tap water. The non-citral portion of the oil

physiology by causing the plants to defend against

separates as an oily layer which has been measured

adverse external condition by producing more secondary

conveniently in the neck of a Cassia flask and there by

metabolites like essential oil (Evans, 1996).

determined the citral content of the oil.

Generally

the

environment

of

higher

The range of monthly minimum and maximum temperatures(16oC and 31oC and 20oC and 40oC

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION itral, the terpene aldehyde is the most important

respectively) and annual rainfall (604 - 1816mm) recorded across the study sites during the study period

constituent of lemongrass oil, which determines the

indicated the existence of favourable climate for

market value of the oil owing to its aromatic and

growth of lemongrass and also the synthesis of essential

medicinal properties (Singh, 2012). Its concentration

oil and its constituent, citral (Anonymous, 2009) in the

showed much variation among the lemongrass oils

lower Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu and Kerala (Fig. 2).

collected from the study sites (Table 2). Generally the

However, the moderate annual rainfall (604–917mm)

lemongrass oil of the study sites at Anaimalais (sites-XI-

recorded for the study sites of Anaimalais, viz.,

XVII) contained more concentration of citral (78.1%-

Kodanthur (site-XII), Mavudappu (site-XIII), Kuliapatti

81.3%) than that of the remaining sites (75.3%-76.8%).It

(site-XIV), Kurumalai (site-ΧV), Attumalai (site-ΧVΙ)

indicates that the sites in Anaimalais (sites-ΧΙΙ–ΧVΙΙ) in

and Poochikotambarai (site-ΧVΙΙ) were reported to be

general have more favourable climatic and soil factors

more condusive for the growth of lemongrass and the

for citral content in lemongrass oil. Further it has been

content of citral in its oil than the June–August (south–

estimated that in all sites the citral percentage in the oil

west monsoon period) and October–November (north–

Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1):010-018

the

012


*

Sites1-Mananthavady, Site ΙΙ - Pulpally, Site ΙΙΙ - Meppadi, Site ΙV - Ambalavayal, Site V - Kolamala, Site VΙ -Malayalapuzha, Site VΙΙ - Pazhakulam, Site VΙΙΙ Vadasserikara, Site ΙΧ - Konni, Site Χ - Marayoor, Site ΧΙ – Kandalloor, Site ΧΙΙ – Kodanthur, Site ΧΙΙΙ – Mavudappu, Site ΧΙV – Kulipatti, Site ΧV – Kurumalai, Site ΧVΙ – Attumalai and Site ΧVΙΙ- Poochikotambarai.

79.1 78.1 78.7 81.3 79.3 79.0 76.6 76.8 75.8 77.0 75.3 76.3 76.3 76.6 77.1 75.8 76.3 Mean

86 81 85 88 87 85 79 81 79 79 77 78 80 79 78 77 78

74 77 78 82 73 76 76 82 78 75 77 81 79 78 78 85 76 75 79 81 75 78 76 82 76 75 77 78 75 74 78 79 73 75 77 77 75 77 78 78 75 73 74 76 77 78 75 76 76 77 74 76 73 75 77 78 77 78 75 76 74 77 75 76 77 77 75 76

78 77 76 80 78 78 75 74 74 75 77 74 75 78 79 76 75

2014 Jun Aug Oct Dec 2015 Feb Apr

ΧVΙ ΧV ΧΙV ΙΙΙ ΧΙΙ ΧΙ Χ ΙΧ I

ΙΙ

ΙΙΙ

ΙV

V

VΙΙ

VΙΙΙ

Sites*

Year and month

Table 2. Variation in citral percentage in the lemongrass oil extracted from Cymbopogon citratus in different study sites.

ΧVΙΙ

Thekkan et al., 2016

013

remaining 11 sites where the annual rainfall was above1100mm. The relative humidity ranged between 60.5 to 76.4% and the soil pH existed between 6.4 and 7.5 during the study period across the sites studied for lemongrass oil analysis. Among the17 study sites, the six sites Anaimalaisviz., Kodanthur, Mavudappu, Kulipatti, Kurumalai, Attumalai and Poochikotambarai (sites-XII, XIII, XIV, XVI and XVII respectively) were determined to have suitable environment for citral content in the lemongrass oil; It is explained that if more alkaline is present in the soil, the higher is in the citral content of the oil, provided the other factors are to be favourable (Anonymous, 2009). Qadry (2009) investigated that alkaline pH in soil triggers the synthesis of more citral in the lemongrass oil as defence mechanism to resist the alkaline stress. As the crop and oil yields and the quality of the lemongrass oilare better in the habitats of elevation upto 900m above msl (Srivastava et al., 2013), it is understood that except the study sites at Kandalloor (site ΧΙ) and Marayoor (site- Χ with the altitude 990mm above msl), all the remaining study sites had better environment for lemongrass growth. The range of soil pH and climatic factors were considerably varied among the study areas. The soil pH ranged between 6.2 in Ambalavayal and 7.8 in Kurumalai. The pH indicates that the soils of study areas of Anaimalais (sites-ΧΙΙ–XVII) are alkaline and the soils of sites in Kerala state (sites-I-XI) are acidic. The monthly maximum temperature was ranging from 20°C at Kandalloor (site-XI) and Kurumalai (site-XV) to 40°C at Attumalai (site-XVI). The minimum temperature existed between 16°C in Poochikotamparai (site-XVII) and 31°C in the areas, Kodanthur (site-XII), Kulipatti (site-XIV) and Attumalai (site-XVI). The relative humidity also varied much across the study areas (53% - 86%). The monthly rainfall occurred in the study areas ranged from 0 mm (generally during the months of January and Febraury, 2015 in all study areas) to 403 mm (in Ambalavayal during June, 2014). Rainfall was most effective during Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1):010-018


Thekkan et al., 2016 Table 3. Correlation coefficient (r) between citral (%) in the lemongrass oil extracted from Cymbopogon citratus and certain environmental variables of the study sites. Lemon grass Max. temp Min. temp Relative humidity Rainfall attribute (Mat) (Mit) (RH) (Rf)

Soil pH (pH)

Altitude (alt)

-0.695*

0.835**

0.133

Citral

0.340

0.014

-0.411

**Correlation is significant at 0.01 level. *Correlation is significant at 0.05 level. east monsoon period).

oil (r = -0.695, p < 0.05) in the present study. It is

An analysis of data elucidated from the several

explained that rainfall, the most influencing factor for the

functional relations among the lemongrass variable, citral

growth of plants, generally not favours the synthesis of

and certain climatic, soil and altitudinal factors are given

many secondary metabolites including the essential oil

in Table 3. The soil pH has significant positive

and its constituents (Lohani et al., 2015). This fact was

correlation with the constituent, citral (r = 0.835,

well shown in the study sites of Anaimalai hills (sites-

P<0.01). Results of several studies reported that alkaline

ΧΙΙ–ΧVΙΙ) where the rainfall was generally lower with

pH generally enhanced the citral content of lemongrass

higher citral percentage in the lemongrass oil than the

oil (Jayasinha et al., 1999; Castelo et al., 2012). It is

other sites.

evidenced from the present study that the citral content

In

Pearson’s

correlation,

no

significant

determined was notably higher in Kulipatti of Anaimalai

correlation was found between citral percent in the oil

hills (site-ΧΙV) (81.35%) where the pH of the soil was

and the combination of environmental variables viz.,

alkaline at all times of sampling during the study period

maximum temperature, minimum temperature and

than the other sites studied (Table 1). Plants growing in

relative

well drained soil at places like hilly slopes were highly

humidity and rainfall, maximum temperature, rainfall

adapted to alkalinity and more sensitive to changes in the

and soil pH, maximum temperature, soil pH and altitude,

soil pH by producing certain secondary metabolites like

minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall,

essential oils (Evans, 1996). This is practically true for

minimum temperature, rainfall and soil pH, minimum

lemongrass which is known to grow better in alkaline

temperature, soil pH and altitude, relative humidity,

soils Qadry (2009) and is producing high citral content in

rainfall and soil pH, relative humidity, soil pH and

its vegetal parts. The amount of rainfall also had

altitude and rainfall, soil pH and altitude. A number of

significant negative correlation with citral percentage of

synergetic effects of climatic, soil and altitudinal factors

humidity, maximum temperature, relative

Table 4. Best multiple regression obtained between citral per cent in lemongrass oil and the environmental variables viz., maximum and minimum temperatures (Mat and Mit respectively), rainfall (Rf), relative humidity (RH), soil pH and altitude (alt). Lemon grass attribute Citral

Equation

r

p

Y= 59.806 – 0.046 Mat + 0.319Mit– 0.134 RH – 0.004 Rf + 2.944 pH + 0.002 alt Y= 59.280+0.288Mit– 0.125 RH – 0.004Rf + 2.846 pH + 0.002 alt

R=0.693

0.05

R=0.692

0.05

Y= 67.088 + 0.099 Mat – 0.135RH – 0.005 Rf+ 2.400 pH + 0.002 alt Y= 47.479+ 0.039 Mat + 0.320Mit– 0.007Rf+ 3.134 pH + 0.002 alt Y= 62.403 – 0.124 Mat + 0.365 Mit – 0.188 RH + 3.203 pH + 0.002 alt Y= 59.667– 0.050 Mat + 0.296Mit– 0.104 RH – 0.004Rf + 2.937 pH Y= 70.908 – 0.163 RH – 0.004 Rf + 2.540 pH + 0.002 alt

R=0.661 R=0.666 R=0.683 R=0.654 R=0.654

0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05

Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1):010-018

014


Thekkan et al., 2016

Figure 1. Location of study areas.

Figure 2a. Monthly maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and relative humidity of the study sites during May, 2014- April, 2015. Sites: Ι - Mananthavady, ΙΙ -Pulpally, ΙΙΙ -Meppadi,ΙVAmbalavayal,V – Kolamala and VΙ - Malayalapuzha. 015

Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1):010-018


Thekkan et al., 2016

Figure 2b. Monthly maximum and minimum temper- Figure 2c. Monthly maximum and minimum temperaatures, rainfall and relative humidity of the study sites tures, rainfall and relative humidity of the study sites during May, 2014- April, 2015. during May, 2014- April, 2015. Sites: VΙΙ - Pazhakulam, VΙΙ - Vadasserikara, ΙΧ - Konni, Sites: ΧΙΙΙ -Mavadappu, ΧΙV - Kulipatti, ΧV - KurumaΧ - Marayoor, ΧΙ – Kandalloor and ΧΙΙ - Kodanthur. lai, ΧVΙ - Aattumalai and ΧVΙΙ - Poochikotambarai. Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1):010-018

016


Thekkan et al., 2016 on citral percentage in lemongrass were detected, but for composition of essential oils from two Brazilian native the sake of brevity, only the best equations for citral arbusive species. Journal of Applied Sciences, 12(8):753percentage in oil were presented (Table 4). The 760. combinations of maximum and minimum temperatures, relative humidity, rainfall, soil pH and altitude, minimum temperature, relative humidity, soil pH and altitude,

Evans WC. (1996). Treasure and Evans Pharmacognosy. 14th ed, WB. Saunders Co. Ltd., London. 248.

maximum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, soil Ghosh ML. (2005). Scientific growing and sociopH and altitude, maximum and minimum temperatures, economic value of citral – rich lemongrass for the welfare rainfall, soil pH and altitude, maximum and minimum of rural people. III WOCMAP Congress on Medicinal and temperatures, relative humidity, soil pH and altitude, Aromatic Plants, 2:81-87. maximum and minimum temperatures, relative humidity, rainfall and soil pH, and relative humidity, rainfall, soil pH and altitude exerted pivotal role in citral production in

the

lemongrass

oil

(r=0.654–0.693,

Guenther E. (1972). The essential oils. 1st, 2nd ed. Robert E. Krieger Inc., Florida. 286.

P<0.05). Gupta MK and Sharma PK. (2009). A Text book of

Therefore, despite the dominant role played by the soil pharmacognosy, Pragatiprakashan, 1sted. 463. pH for higher citral content, the multiple regression analysis showed relationships involving almost all climatic, soil and altitudinal variables studied. The present study suggests that the citral percentage in the oil of C. citratus the function of the

Jayasinha P, Warnaswriya D and Dissanayake H. (1999). Medicinal and aromatic plantseries. No. 9. Lemongrass

Survey

Information

Service

Centre,

Industrial technology Institute, Colombo, Srilanka.

factor, soil pH but its intensity of influence vary Lohani H, Bhandari U, Gwari G, Zafer Haider S, according to other climatic variables like maximum and Sunil Sah and Nirpendra Chauhan K. (2015). minimum temperatures, relative humidity, rainfall and Intraspecific chemical variability in essential oil of altitude. In addition, the environmental factors that exist Cymbopogan distans (Nees ex Steud.) W. Watson from in the Anaimalai, sited particularly at Kulipatti and Uttarakhand Himalaya (India). Indian Journal of Natural Kurumalai are more favourable for the citral content in Products and Resources, 6(2):122-126. the lemongrass oil. Therefore, areas similar to these two sites in any other landscapes of lower Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu and Kerala states are suitable for lemongrass oil extraction with good quality.

Paulsamy S. (2004). Lemon grass oil and tribal welfare in Anaimalai hills, Western Ghats. SAJOSPS, 111- 113. Paulsamy S, Rangarajan TN, Arumugasamy K, Manian S, Udaiyan K, Sivakumar R and Senthilkumar

REFERENCES

D. (2000). Effect of habitat varation on the structure,

Anonymous. (2009). Lemongrass production. Essential herbage production and oil yield of Cymbopogan oil crop – Production Guidelines for Lemongrass. flexuosus Stapf. Dominated grassland in Anamalais, the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Western Ghats. Journal of Environmental Biology, 12 Republic of South Africa. 1- 20.

(2):85-94.

Castelo AVM, Del Menezzi CHS and Resck IS. (2012). Peter KV. (2012). Handbook of Herbs and Spices.1st Ed. Seasonal variation in the yield and the chemical Wood herb publishing (Elsevier) store, Cambridge. 640. 017

Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1):010-018


Thekkan et al., 2016 Qadry JS. (2009). Pharmacognosy. BS Shah prakashan, 14th ed. 121. Rangari

Vinod

D.

(2009).

Pharmacognosy

and

phytochemistry, Carrier publication, 1(2nd ed):380- 381. Ranitha M, Abdurahman Nour H, Ziad Sulaiman A, Azhari Nour H and Thana Raj S. (2014). A Comparative study of Lemon Grass (Cymbopogan citrates) Essential oil extracted by Microwave – Assisted Hydrodistillation

(MAHD)

and

Conventional

Hydrodistillation (HD) method. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications, 5(2):104–108. Singh KM. (2012). Use of chemical fertilizer for lemongrass cultivation in Bihar. Indian Council of Agricultural

Research.

http//.dx.doi.Org/10.2139/

ssrn.2168651. \

Srivastava V, Dubey S and Mishra A. (2013). A review on

lemongrass:

agriculture

and

medicinal

aspect.

International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 4(8):42-44.

Submit your articles online at ecologyresearch.info Advantages

     

Easy online submission Complete Peer review Affordable Charges Quick processing Extensive indexing You retain your copyright

submit@ecologyresearch.info www.ecologyresearch.info/Submit.php.

Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1):010-018

018

Impact of environmental factors on citral concentration in the lemongrass oil distilled from Cymbopo  

Citral, a terpene aldehyde in the lemongrass oil distilled from Cymbopogon citratus determines the market value of the oil, based on its con...

Impact of environmental factors on citral concentration in the lemongrass oil distilled from Cymbopo  

Citral, a terpene aldehyde in the lemongrass oil distilled from Cymbopogon citratus determines the market value of the oil, based on its con...

Advertisement