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Journal of Research in Ecology

Journal of Research in Ecology

An International Scientific Research Journal

Original Research

Autoecological Characteristics of Cyclamen mirabile Hildebr. (Primulaceae) - an Endemic Species of Turkey Authors: Ramazan Mammadov, Olcay Dusen and Cennet Ozay

ABSTRACT:

Institution: Pamukkale University, Faculty of Science and Literature, Deparment of Biology, Denizli, Turkey.

The aim of this study was to determine the autecological characteristics of Cyclamen mirabile Hildebr. (Primulaceae) distributed in the South-West of Anatolia. C. mirabile is an endemic species recorded in the Flora of Turkey. The soil and plant samples were collected from Mugla, Isparta and AydÄąn regions during the vegetative and generative growth periods between 2006-2010. The physical and chemical properties of the soil were analyzed. The relationship among potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen contents of the soils, aerial and under ground parts of the plants in vegetative and generative periods were statistically examined. The results of this study shall be used in the future for the cultivation of C. mirabile as an ornamental plant.

Corresponding author: Cennet Ozay

Keywords: Cyclamen mirabile, endemic, Primulaceae, plant characters, soil characters

Email Id:

Article Citation: Ramazan Mammadov, Olcay Dusen and Cennet Ozay. Autoecological Characteristics of Cyclamen mirabile Hildebr. (Primulaceae) – an Endemic Species of Turkey Journal of Research in Ecology 2016 4(1) : 001-009 Dates: Received: 13 October 2015 Accepted: 28 October 2015 Published: 09 January 2016

Web Address: http://eologyresearch.info/ documents/EC0035.pdf.

Journal of Research in Ecology An International Scientific Research Journal

This article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/4.0), which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-commercial, distribution and reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

001-009 | JRE | 2016 | Vol 4 | No 1

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Mammadov et al., 2016 INTRODUCTION

Table 1. List of localities from where soil and plant samples were collected

The genus Cyclamen L. (Primulaceae) is

are Isparta 1 predominately distributed in Southern Europe, Northern 2 Africa, Western Asia, and around the Mediterranean. In Mugla Turkey, this genus is represented with 12 taxa, 5 of 3 represented

with

about

21

species,

which

which are endemic (Davis, 1978; Ekim, 2000; Güner et 4 al., 2012). Cyclamen tubers have toxic saponins in plenty amounts. Even the tubers have posinous saponin, wild

5

boars look for to collect and eat them without any post 6 effect (Zeybek and Zeybek, 1994). There are some 7 studies about the chemical composition of several 8 9 Cyclamen species which contain some triterpene 10 saponins and glycosides (Altunkeyik et al., 2012; Mihci11 Gaidi et al., 2010). Also, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, Aydın antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some 12 Cyclamen species such as Cyclamen repandum, C. mirabile and Cyclamen graecum have been previously

13

10 km to Barla, 850 m. 5 km to Senirkent, 800 m. Yilanli mountain, around the Orman Isletmesi Fidanligi, 670 m. Yilanli mountain Orman Isletmesi Fidanligi, Denizli road, 600 m. North of the Yerkesik village, openings in Olea europaea, 600 m. Yerkesik village, openings in Olea europaea, 620 m. North of Yatagan, 505 m. Yatagan, around Turgutlar village, 550 m Marmaris, North of Icmeler, 42 m. Marmaris, around Emecik village, 95 m. Bodrum, around Guvercinlik village, 40 m. Söke, around Gossypium herbaceum field, 50 m. from Aydın to Çine, 500 m.

reported (Speroni et al., 2007; Calis et al., 1997; Metin et

(PAMUH) and Muğla University Herbarium (MUH).

al., 2013).

The identification of the specimens was done according

C. mirabile is one of the endemic species among

to the The Flora of Turkey (Davis, 1978).

5 endemic species in Turkey and classified as

Soil and plant samples were collected from the

“Endangered (EN)” according to the “Red Data Book of

study areas in vegetative and generative growth periods.

Turkish Plants” (Ekim et al. 2000). C. mirabile grows

The soil samples were collected from the localities given

naturally in the south-western part of Turkey, especially

in Table 1. The litter on the surface of the soil was

in Muğla, Aydın and Isparta (Davis, 1978).

removed, and the soil samples were collected from a

The aim of this study was to investigate C.

depth of 15-20 cm. About 1 kg of each sample was

mirabile as phenological and ecological. Therefore, we

placed in polyethylene bags and brought to the

determined the element concentrations of aerial and

laboratory. Soil and plant samples were dried in the

under ground parts of C. mirabile at different growth

shadow for physical and chemical analyses. Bouyoucus

stages and the soil-plant relations of this species.

hydrometer method, Walkey-Black method, Scheibler Calcimeter and Beckman pH meter were used for the

MATERIALS AND METHODS

determination of texture, organic material, CaCO3 and

Specimens of C. mirabile were collected from 13

pH of the soils, respectively. The amount of elements (N,

different localities of South-West Anatolia in vegetative

K, P, Ca, Na, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn) were detected

and generative growth periods between 2006-2010

(Allen et al., 1976; Bayraklı, 1987) as in Muğla

(Table 1, Fig. 1). C. mirabile specimens were dried

Provincial Directorate of Agriculture. Aerial and under

according to the standard herbarium techniques and

ground parts of the plants were collected at the flowering

preserved in the Pamukkale University Herbarium

stages and cleaned up subsequently. All parts of the

002

Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1):001-009


Mammadov et al., 2016 plant samples were dried for 48 hours at 70o C in an oven and then chopped up with a blender for preparing the analysis. The analysis of soil and plant samples were done+ according to Kaçar (1984). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Phenological Observations Phenological observations of this study are as follows; the leaf development of C. mirabile is in middle of September, the leaf maturation of this species occurs Figure 1. The map of the collection sites of C. mirabile in South-West Anatolia

at the end of May, flowering time is SeptemberNovember depending on the altitude, fruiting time is in the middle of November, the seed maturation of this species occurs in the middle of June and the aerial parts of plant dries in July. Morphological Observations Morphological observations of this study are as follows; tuber height 2.74-4.16 cm (3.26 cm), tuber diameter 2.86-5.34 cm (3.83 cm), tuber weight 31.8588.65 g, (50.86 g), height of the plant 9.25-19 cm (12.71 cm), number of flowers 3-6 (5), number of capsules 2-6 (4), number of seeds in a capsule 12-24 (14.64), weight of 1000 seeds 6.81-15.92 g (11.81 g) (Table 2).

Figure 2. Regression analysis graph of soil manganese and plant nitrogen of above-ground parts in generative period

Physical analysis of the soils The results of physical analysis from the soil samples collected from the distrubution area of C. mirabile are presented in Table 3. According to physical analysis results, the species generally grows on clay, loam and clayey-loam soils. It has already been reported by various researchers that geophyte plants such as Cyclamen alpinum (Düşen et al., 2013), Crocus ancyrensis, C. sieheanus, C. chrysanthus, C. flavus subsp. flavus and C. flavus subsp. dissectus (Şik and Candan, 2009), Iris histrioides (Kandemir and Engin, 2000), Iris pseudacorus (Engin et al., 1998), and Asphodelus aestivus (Pirdal, 1989) generally prefer clayish, loamy, clayish-loamy soils, like C. mirabile.

Figure 3. Regression analysis graph of soil manganese and plant nitrogen of above-ground parts in generative period Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1):001-009

The pH of the soil samples.

003


004

6.81 15.92 11.81 0.7216

Loca lities

Saline (µg/cm3)

Calcareous (%)

4.80 4.54 7.46 7.14 7.35 6.71 7.43 7.91 7.70 6.80 7.50 7.13 7.36 4.54 7.91

255.00 203.00 334.00 261.00 601.00 520.00 231.00 310.00 0.018 0.12 0.042 0.096 0.063 0.042 601.00

6.91

208.87

8.20

1.05

204.09

5.45

Loam Loam Clay Clay Clay Clay Clayey-Loam Clayey-Loam Clay Clay Clay Clay Clay

C. mirabile preferred moderately alkaline, slightly 2013). The concentration of CaCO3 ranged from 1.24 % Min.: Minimum, Max.: Maximum, S.D.: Standard eviation

11.00

12.41

11.14 12.34

8.12

6.81

11.10 8.26 6.39 5.21 11.71 7.43 8.16 7.61 19.60 16.20 2.18 1.24 1.56 1.24 19.60

Texture

13.00 10.17

11.14

11.64 15.92 12.00

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Min. Max. Mea n S.D.

pH

alkaline and neutral soils, like C. alpinum (Düşen et al.,

13.00

14.64 0.7216 24 17

19

19

24

14

12

17

14

17

13

19

18

12 7

12.71 3.2043 5 1.0377 4 1.1151 19 6 6 10.50 13.16 12.83 9.25 4 6 4 3 3 6 3 2 8.14 6 4 11.34 5 5 9.25 5 5

Table 3. Physical analysis of the soils of C. mirabile

ranged from 4.54 to 7.91. Soil analysis data showed that

Height of plant (cm) Number of flowers Number of capsules Number of seeds in a capsule Weight of 1000 seeds (g)

12.42 5 5

13.00 6 4

16.24 4 4

17.34 6 4

9.60 4 2

12.43 19 3 6 3 5

31.85 34.66 Tuber weight (g)

45.06

56.43

75.82

88.65 32.46

36.48 52.46

71.24

35.62 44.17 56.37 31.85 88.65 50.86 8.2806

0.4422 0.7216 3.26 3.83 2.83 4.43 3.78 3.62 3.52 4.56 2.74 2.86 Tuber height (cm) Tuber diameter (cm)

2.87 3.41

2.92 3.92

3.22 5.34

3.62 4.31

2.86 2.97

3.52 2.91

3.46 4.16 4.10 3.78

2.98 3.70

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 Locality / Plant parts

1

2

3

4

5

Table 2. Morphological parameters of C. mirabile

13

2.74 2.86

4.16 5.34

Min. Max.

Mea n

S.D.

Mammadov et al., 2016

to 19.60 %, however the species was collected from the soil containing poor, medium or rich concentration of CaCO3. Similar results were also reported earlier (Şik and Candan, 2009; Düşen et al., 2013). Soil salinity values between 0.042-601.0 µg/cm3. We concluded that C. mirabile grows in all kinds of soils according to the salinity range. Chemical analysis of the soils Chemical analysis of soil samples are given in Table 4. The organic matter content of the soil samples varied from 2.24% to 9.4 % (very rich to poor). It has been observed that C.alpinum (Düşen et al., 2013), prefers soils moderately rich in organic matter. The nitrogen content of soils in vegetative and generative periods varied between 0.139%-0.913% and 0.017%0.902% respectively. These results point out that, C. mirabile tends to live in rich nitrogenous soils. There have been several studies on the plants which prefer rich nitrogenous soils, such as C. alpinum (Düşen et al., Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1):001-009


Mammadov et al., 2016

Figure 4. Regression analysis graph of soil saline and Figure 7. Regression analysis graph of soil saline and plant potassium of above-ground parts in generative plant nitrogen of below-ground parts in vegetative period period

Figure 5. Regression analysis graph of soil sodium and Figure 8. Regression analysis graph of soil pH and plant nitrogen of below-ground parts in vegetative plant nitrogen of above-ground parts in generative period period 2013) and I. histroides (Kandemir and Engin, 2000). As given in the Table 4, C.mirabile grows in a variety of soils with regard to phosphorus availability in both vegetative and generative time intervals. As given in Table 4, the potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen constitutents of the soil at the vegetative period were found to be higher than in the generative period. This situation was expected and obtained. Since, in generative period, this species uptake these elements from the soil and finishes its development. Figure 6. Regression analysis graph of soil manganese and plant nitrogen of below-ground parts in vegetative period Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1):001-009

Chemical Analysis of the Above and Below Ground Parts of the Plants 005


006

Organic Mat. (%)

2.78

2.93

8.70

7.43

7.68

6.83

3.52

2.93

6.16

4.21

9.47

7.83

2.24

2.24

9.47

5.59

2.65

Localities

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

Min.

Max.

Mean

S.D.

6.18

4.73

16.17

0.02

0.36

16.17

13.29

14.19

9.46

2.34

3.87

0.63

0.85

0.15

0.02

0.09

0.13

111.40

291.48

428.00

62.17

276.14

62.17

148.19

375.75

294.00

254.00

206.00

318.00

226.00

403.00

428.00

382.00

416.00

P (ppm) K (ppm)

0.275

0.371

0.902

0.017

0.863

0.513

0.424

0.902

0.524

0.233

0.114

0.114

0.321

0.332

0.343

0.126

0.017

N (%)

5.85

4.39

15.24

0.01

0.22

15.24

12.16

13.43

9.16

2.17

3.46

0.38

0.62

0.13

0.01

0.07

0.04

93.41

247.70

372.00

54.56

242.52

54.56

114.06

326.00

214.00

212.00

196.00

285.00

216.00

312.00

334.00

372.00

342.00

4.101

11.175

18.04

6.34

8.16

9.24

8.15

7.25

9.16

8.27

6.34

10.28

12.08

14.17

18.04

16.24

17.90

Na (ppm) P (ppm) K (ppm)

Generative Period

Min.: Minimum, Max.: Maximum, S.D.: Standard Deviation

0.256

0.452

0.913

0.139

0.912

0.611

0.564

0.913

0.617

0.241

0.176

0.283

0.384

0.344

0.435

0.261

0.139

N (%)

Vegetative Period

2.223

8.403

12000

5220

6431

8000

6316

7461

8428

7635

5220

11018

12000

10316

12000

7415

7000

Ca (ppm)

47.79

192.38

302.00

146.00

183.00

146.00

154.00

174.00

219.00

146.00

196.00

204.00

163.00

186.00

157.00

302.00

271.00

0.794

7.534

8.98

6.34

7.14

8.24

7.54

6.83

8.35

6.24

7.62

7.63

8.98

8.19

7.62

6.34

7.22

Mg Fe (ppm) (ppm)

0.15

1.34

1.65

1.16

1.16

1.30

1.37

1.26

1.54

1.18

1.34

1.25

1.39

1.53

1.65

1.16

1.37

Cu (ppm)

0.27

0.61

0.94

0.19

0.83

0.61

0.74

0.94

0.61

0.93

0.87

0.57

0.30

0.19

0.87

0.27

0.32

Zn (ppm)

Amount of Useful Elements

Table 4. Chemical analysis of the soils of C. mirabile

5.688

12.835

24.20

4.42

12.16

8.26

11.24

14.32

8.00

6.27

4.42

20.19

17.34

16.18

24.20

14.27

10.00

Mn (ppm)

Mammadov et al., 2016

Chemical analysis of different parts of the plants

Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1):001-009


1.624

1.502

1.824

1.383

1.291

1.724

1.513

1.436

2.041

1.213

1.112

1.237

1.469

1.112

2.041

1.49

0.26

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

Min.

Max.

Mean

S.D.

N%

1

Locality

Journal of Research in Ecology (2016) 4(1):001-009 0.06

0.29

0.405

0.072

0.234

0.193

0.305

0.236

0.295

0.314

0.216

0.345

0.371

0.263

0.072

0.316

0.405

P%

Vegetative Period

0.50

2.63

3.487

1.823

2.643

3.012

1.965

2.346

2.834

3.487

2.931

2.862

3.164

2.116

2.812

1.823

2.201

K%

0.15

1.27

1.524

1.092

1.316

1.092

1.216

1.124

1.241

1.193

1.187

1.524

1.123

1.145

1.364

1.441

1.516

N%

0.10

0.27

0.543

0.024

0.198

0.543

0.243

0.165

0.212

0.255

0.185

0.302

0.316

0.185

0.024

0.235

0.386

P%

K%

0.56

2.34

3.363

1.746

1.874

1.854

2.619

1.746

2.163

3.142

2.763

2.152

3.363

1.974

2.962

1.831

1.963

Generative Period

Aerial parts of C. mirabile

0.36

0.99

1.623

0.541

0.835

1.623

0.875

1.423

1.516

0.865

1.372

0.734

0.815

0.912

0.541

0.716

0.683

N%

0.11

0.20

0.382

0.053

0.314

0.146

0.186

0.198

0.355

0.138

0.089

0.286

0.094

0.382

0.053

0.083

0.241

P%

Vegetative Period

0.56

1.28

2.513

0.763

1.546

2.118

0.813

0.916

1.231

0.89

2.513

0.901

0.763

0.924

1.286

1.293

1.701

K%

0.39

1.25

2.014

0.719

0.968

1.519

1.065

1.735

2.014

1.141

1.676

0.851

1.422

1.213

0.921

1.215

0.719

N%

0.37

0.39

1.415

0.096

1.234

0.246

0.243

0.216

0.463

0.204

0.113

0.319

0.147

0.765

0.096

1.415

0.261

P%

K%

0.49

1.43

2.863

0.943

1.624

1.386

1.421

1.241

1.364

1.116

2.863

1.244

0.943

1.216

1.361

1.821

0.983

Generative Period

Under ground parts of C. mirabile

Table 5. Chemical analysis of the aerial and under ground parts of C. mirabile

Mammadov et al., 2016

007


Mammadov et al., 2016 viz: aerial and underground revealed 1.112-2.041% and

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Speroni E, Cervellati R, Costa S, Dall'Acqua S, Guerra MC, Panizzolo C, Utan A and Innocenti G. (2007). Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activity of Cyclamen repandum S. Et S. Phytotherapy Research, 21

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Autoecological Characteristics of Cyclamen mirabile Hildebr. (Primulaceae) - an Endemic Species  

The aim of this study was to determine the autecological characteristics of Cyclamen mirabile Hildebr. (Primulaceae) distributed in the Sout...

Autoecological Characteristics of Cyclamen mirabile Hildebr. (Primulaceae) - an Endemic Species  

The aim of this study was to determine the autecological characteristics of Cyclamen mirabile Hildebr. (Primulaceae) distributed in the Sout...

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