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VOL. 9, NO. 2, SPRING 2017






Alumna Profile: A Q&A with Hana Joohyun Kim ’97


Royal Georgian Papers Released

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FEATURES New Language Program Opens Doors A Student Takes the Lead in Increasing Diversity in Study Abroad


New Center for Government Professionals Promotes Inter-agency Thinking


Beckles Discusses Reparatory Justice in Annual George Tayloe Ross Address



Established in 1989, the Reves Center for International Studies is today one of the premier centers of its kind in U.S. higher education. Its mission is to support and promote the internationalization of learning, teaching, research and community involvement at William & Mary through programs for education abroad, international students and scholars, and global engagement across the university. William & Mary is the number two public university for undergraduate study abroad participation, with over 50 percent of the university’s undergraduates studying outside the U.S. before graduation. This year, more than 1,000 international students, scholars and their families from nearly 70 countries have come to William & Mary. And the Reves Center encourages and assists numerous international strategic initiatives across the university, including the William & Mary Confucius Institute, which offers Chinese language and cultural activities to the campus and community, and the Institute for the Theory & Practice of International Relations, co-sponsored by the Faculty of Arts & Sciences, which supports faculty and student collaborations to find solutions to pressing global problems.

Reves Center Advisory Board - Spring 2017 Kira C. Allmann ’10

Michael S. Holtzman ’92

Luis H. Navas ’82

Our hominid ancestors made and used tools. We’ll show you a few.

Michael R. Blakey ’98

James D. Hunter ’85

John E. Osborn ’79


William & Mary Student Voices Heard on the Global Development Stage

Lee Welton Croll, Ph.D. ’95 United Kingdom

G. Hartwell Hylton ’72

Sharon K. Philpott ’85


Cate-Arries’ class opens the world to the Spanish Civil War

Timothy P. Dunn ’83, Chair

R. Marc Johnson ’04

Janet A. Sanderson ’77

Scott R. Ebner ’96

Mohammad Koochekzadeh

Frank Shatz HON ’15

Harriet M. Fulbright, DPS ’08

Richard C. Kraemer, Jr. ’94

Corey D. Shull ’06

Richard W. Gates ’94

David C. Larson ’75

Barbara Glacel ’70, Vice Chair

Leslie McCormack Gathy ’88

Elizabeth M. Weithman, Ph.D. ’87

Gregory J. Golden

Katherine W. Meighan ’92

John F. Greenwood ’98

Judy P. Nance ’69


23 25 26 27


Giving Voice: Theatre professor explores struggles of Pakistani transgender communities in play Maj. Gregory Tomlin ’01 on the Enduring Power of Public Diplomacy


United Kingdom Singapore

The Plains, VA Boston, MA

Washington, DC Richmond, VA Oak Hill, VA

Falls Church, VA New York, NY


Williamsburg, VA Hong Kong Darien, CT

Charlottesville, VA Chesapeake, VA

Washington, DC Fort Myers, FL

United Kingdom Arlington, VA Jupiter, FL

Miami, FL

Seattle, WA

White Salmon, WA Arlington, VA

Williamsburg, VA Baltimore, MD

Vienna, VA

Maria Zammit

Virginia Beach, VA



or those of us who study global organization; and that nationalist affairs in long-term historical ideologies will replace globalism as the perspective, unexpected and driving force of our times. And higher rapid shifts in international education cannot help but be caught relations are nothing new. If anything, up in the crossfire of the increasingly eras of relative geopolitical calm and polarized debates about these existenpredictability have been the exception tial issues. in human affairs. In retrospect, the first In such troubled times, the enduring quarter-century of the post-Cold War era greatness of our centuries-old global – a timeframe that happens to overlap university can be a source of genuine substantially with the first 25 years of the inspiration. As President Reveley has Reves Center for International Studies – reminded us, William & Mary was from now appears to have been one of those the beginning an international camanomalous periods in which the basic pus, founded by a Dutch King and an “rules of the global order” were well-esEnglish Queen, with its initial faculty Stephen E. Hanson tablished and largely unchallenged. trained overseas. We have survived Vice Provost for International Affairs Global elites in every world region felt periods of revolution, war, and social Director, Reves Center for International Studies reasonably confident that the general turbulence in the past, only to reemerge direction of human development would with even greater world renown. The be toward increasing economic interconnection, greater articles in this issue of World Minded document the truly democracy, and a cosmopolitan culture in which “globalizatransformative impact of the myriad global programs taking tion” would mostly be perceived as a positive force. Buoyed place across W&M, through innovative study abroad, the by these trends, the internationalization of higher education integration of diverse international students and scholars progressed at an impressive pace. into our academic community, and the fostering of research With the rise of powerful anti-globalization movements partnerships to provide realistic solutions to global chalacross the world, including in the U.K. and the U.S., all of lenges. Now more than ever, we at the Reves Center will these assumptions have been cast into serious question. work resolutely to advance our mission of internationalizaAnalysts now ponder the possibilities that economic glotion – precisely in order to give our students, faculty, staff, balization based on the free flow of people, goods, services alumni and friends the tools they will need to chart a safe and capital will be sharply reversed; that authoritarianism course forward in the turbulent seas ahead. will replace democracy as the dominant mode of political

World Minded Staff

On the Cover

Editor: Kate Hoving, Public Relations Manager, Reves Center for International Studies

Two students in the Advanced Level Intensive English Language Program work on academic essays in class. Photo by Rachel Sims

Contributing Writers: Jim Ducibella, Cortney Langley, Joseph McClain, Marisa Spyker, and Justin Thomas, University News & Media; Rachel Sims, Reves Center for International Studies; Morgan Goad and Katie Koontz ’19, ITPIR; Heather Baier, The Flat Hat; Cody Brandon J.D. ‘19 Graphic Designer: Rachel Follis, University Web & Design





Where were you born? What do you consider your home town? I was born in Seoul, Korea. I immigrated to the US, particularly, Northern Virginia, when I was 10 years old. Then, after William & Mary, I moved on to law school in California and then ultimately back to Seoul in 2002. So, considering this background, my hometown choice is really split between Seoul and NOVA. But I think now, I feel much more grounded and comfortable in Seoul. Why did you choose to attend William & Mary? Thinking back, my choice was really down to W&M and UVA. Having 2 great institutions at in-state tuition cost was a great blessing. I knew my parents wanted me to go to UVA, so I had to tell a “white lie” to them and told them that I only got into W&M. After campus visits, I think I just felt more at home at W&M campus. What was your major? My major was Chemistry. Did you have a favorite course and/or professor while you were at W&M? Despite my being a Chemistry major with pre-med credentials to fulfill, I took a sociology class, thinking it would boost my GPA. But I remember how I ended up really enjoying the class and I think perhaps this was 2

the beginning of the realization that my heart may not be in the hard sciences, but more in how people interact in social environments and other social and political issues. Did you study abroad during college? I took Japanese during college. During my summer vacation between 3rd and 4th year, I was selected to participate in an internship program with Canon Corporation in Tokyo, Japan. This experience really opened my eyes, and I began to open up to the idea of working abroad. Why did you decide to pursue a law degree? Well, with my Chemistry background, I had initially prepared myself to go to dental school. But after volunteering and working at a dental office, I quickly learned that it was not the career aspiration I wanted to pursue. I realized that I enjoyed working in business and negotiating and wanted to travel the world. But having focused fully on the sciences in college, I started to investigate what would be the best option for me to change career direction and not feel like I’d wasted my college years. Then, my research revealed a special area of law called Intellectual Property (IP). IP Law covers patents, trademarks, copyrights and other areas where someone’s creation can WORLD MINDED

be perceived as actual property. In order to become a patent lawyer, one must have a science or engineering background. I thought this was an area of law that was perfect for me, so I began preparing for law school and sought out the best school with a patent law specialty. Where did you attend Law School? I went to Santa Clara University School of Law. It is situated in the heart of Silicon Valley and has a wonderful IP and patent program. Also, having grown up in the east coast all those years, I thought getting some California sun would be exciting. How did you end up working for the Walt Disney Company? After law school, I began my patent lawyer career, covering both patent execution and litigation, then slowly built my career as an IP specialist – covering trademarks, copyrights, unfair competition, IT, media, etc. I found my career and became comfortable as an IP Lawyer in a major Korean law firm. Then, one day, a headhunter called me about a position. I wasn’t looking for a change of job and I told him that I wasn’t really interested. But then he told me that the company was Disney. That changed everything. I had always been a HUGE Disney fan and knowing how the company was built on its IP creations and

protections, I could not let go of the opportunity. As they say, the rest is history. Have you worked for Disney in other locations besides Korea? No, but as a global company, we have ample opportunities to travel to other offices in other cities. After joining Disney Korea, I went to a week-long training at Hong Kong. I’ve been to various training sessions and meetings in the Shanghai and Tokyo offices. While traveling to the US, I had the wonderful opportunity to make office visits to Lucasfilm in the San Francisco area and of course, visit our headquarters in Burbank California. What is your favorite part of your job? Park perks! I get super excited to claim that I’ve been to ALL the Disney parks – Orlando, Florida, Paris, Hong Kong, Japan and the most recent – Shanghai! But of course these park visits are not a “job” per se. These were just fun moments. About the job itself, the best part is working for a company that you’ve always loved, and when you go out and pass out your business card and the recipient puts a big smile on his/ her face after seeing our Mickey Mouse, there really is something special about that experience. I’m really proud of what the Disney brand stands for and what Disney does as a company for its employees and fans. Is there anything that has surprised you in your career? I had the exciting experience of participating in the actual movie production of Avengers: Age of Ultron, when a portion of the movie was filmed in Seoul, Korea. It was not “legal” work, but had a lot to do with government communications, managing a large group of people, etc. It was a very difficult, but very rewarding, experience.

(Left) Kim with life-size R2D2 in the offices of Disney Korea. (Right) Dressed up as Chewbacca for the opening party of Star Wars Episode VII in Korea in 2015. Photos courtesy Hana Joohyun Kim

If you watch the movie credits to the very end, you might find my name! Do you think international experience as a student is helpful in future life and career? YES YES YES! The pond is HUGE and there are just so many opportunities out there in the world, waiting to be discovered. Learning and getting to know other cultures, learning how to have open-mindedness, having different perspectives, respecting differences and overcoming your fears by getting out of your comfort zone and surrounding yourself in a completely new environment… all these are experiences I’d highly recommend to any students. Do you have any advice for current students? What I stated above. Plus, enjoy your stay at W&M. Many of my mentors told me that “you’ll miss your days at W&M once you’re gone, and you need SPRING 2017

to appreciate the beautiful campus because it will forever be embedded in your mind.” I remember thinking “yeah, sure” back then, but now, looking back, I can only repeat those valuable words, because they are so true! Is there any advice you wish you’d received? Hmm… maybe… instead of “study more or study harder,” I wish someone would have told me “study smarter.” Getting good grades does not exactly measure your knowledge, and spending hours and hours studying does not guarantee good grades. There is an art to getting good grades. But then, even if you master this and have a high GPA, it does not reflect how street smart you are and how compassionate you are.





by Jim Ducibella and Cortney Langley


of researchers who he first want to view priphase mary documents in of the archives and special Georgian collections worldPapers Programme wide, explained – roughly 33,000 Karin Wulf, W&M digitized documents, history professor including some and director of penned by King the Omohundro George III regardInstitute. ing the American Researchers Revolution – were begin by finding publicly released and the relevant docuaccessible at no cost ments they’d like to on Saturday, Jan. 28. view listed in the The program online catalog for represents a partnerthe archives or the ship between, on the special collection. American side, the They register at Omohundro Institute Royal Librarian Oliver Urquhart Irvine shows Queen Elizabeth II items from the George III the archive, placing of Early American Collection at the launch of the Georgian Papers Programme at Windsor Castle’s Royal Library. Karin Wulf, director of the Omohundro Institute of Early American History & Culture and William their personal beHistory & Culture & Mary history professor, and Steve Hanson, W&M vice provost for international affairs and longings in lockers and William & Mary, director of the Reves Center for International Studies, are in the background. PA Images before entering a with leading British supervised reading room. Because partners the Royal Archives, Royal commemoration of the founding of of security concerns, researchers are Library and King’s College London. Jamestown. often allowed only to bring in a laptop In America, the Georgian Pa“Her Majesty fully supports the computer and cell phone to photopers website is georgianpapers-us. work currently underway to make graph documents., which also features more the historic treasures of the Royal “So that’s what it’s like to work in a information about the project, related Archives widely accessible to the typical reader-access-oriented special research, news, events and fellowship world through digital technology,” collection or archival library. Now, opportunities. said Royal Librarian Oliver Urquhart Windsor Castle and the Royal Archives The goal is to digitize and release Irvine. “Having the Omohundro are nothing like that,” Wulf said. by 2020 the more than 350,000 Institute and William & Mary as our “The original goal was to preserve documents related to Kings George primary U.S. partners as the program the material of the royal family,” I, II, III, IV, William IV and other develops is essential in bringing she explained. “Their goal was a members of the royal family, along academic rigor, depth and context to little like whatever you do with your with politicians, courtiers and others. the interpretation of key papers that grandmother’s letters – except their Only 15 percent of the papers, spanwill shed new light on the emergence grandmother and great-grandfather ning 1714 to 1837, have been previously of the United States of America itself.” just happen to be monarchs. It’s published, mostly in editions. really this private archive, just of the The project was launched in April MYSTERY IN THE ROUND TOWER royal family.” 2015 by Queen Elizabeth II, who has To recognize the significance of the As such, the materials have not twice visited W&M – once in 1957 Georgian Papers Programme, it’s helpbeen fully cataloged, so over the years and again 50 years later for the 400th ful to understand the choreography researchers and authors made educated guesses at what was in the Round Opposite page, from top: Tower and then wrote to the queen’s Draft of King George III’s essay on despotism. Royal Archives private secretary for permission to “The number of troops to be employed in North America will probably exceed 38,000 men,” noted King George III in this memorandum on the requirements for war in America. Royal Archives view materials. Logistically, the Round SPRING 2017


AROUND THE WORLD Queen Elizabeth II greets Baroness Blackstone, chair of the British Library, while attending the launch of the Georgian Papers Programme at Windsor Castle’s Royal Library. Steve Hanson, William & Mary vice provost for international affairs and director of the Reves Center for International Studies, is on the far right. PA Images

From top:

A view of Windsor Castle, where the iconic Round Tower houses the more than 350,000 documents that are being digitized and provided to the public freely through the Georgian Papers Programme. Tami Back William & Mary Libraries staff and faculty visit Windsor Castle in 2016, meeting with the royal librarian and Georgian Papers project manager. From left: Kim Sims, W&M university archivist; Debbie Cornell, W&M Libraries head of digital services; Oliver Urquhart Irvine, royal librarian; Carrie Cooper, W&M dean of university libraries; Tami Back, W&M Libraries director of communications and strategic planning; Nick Popper, W&M associate professor of history; and Oliver Walton, Georgian Papers Programme project manager and curator. Courtesy W&M Libraries


Tower is not set up for reader services. “All of this means that there were a very limited number of people they really could accommodate,” Wulf said. Now, the digitization part of the Georgian Papers Programme will have each document scanned and photographed to create a high-resolution image, transcribed and tagged with descriptions and metadata allowing researchers to not only search the archive but to study and recombine it in new ways – “the kind of new digital humanities work that you can’t do with a paper edition,” Wulf said. Historians have some expectations about what is included in the collection based on known correspondence, global affairs and what has already been published. And Wulf noted there are certain documents that could only be housed in the Round Tower. “Scholars are really salivating as


this has come to light and more and more people have learned that there are treasure troves of documents to go through,” said Stephen Hanson, W&M vice provost for international affairs and director of the Reves Center for International Studies. Indeed, the project and some of its findings are the subject of a BBC Two documentary, “George III: The Genius of the Mad King,” released this month. The program promises to deepen historians’ understanding about Britain’s role in the world, including its relationships with Colonial America, the fledgling United States and other European countries. Scholars also expect insights into British politics, the Enlightenment, science, food, artistic patronage, life at court, the education of royal children and more. The Royal Library is also augmenting the Georgian Papers with another 100,000

pages of its own manuscript material. “We’re gratified that King’s College said that the Omohundro Institute are the people to work with and pleased that the Georgian Papers Programme recognized OI’s leadership in early American scholarship,” Wulf said. ROYAL ARCHIVE AND COLONIAL COLLEGE

The roles of W&M and the Omohundro Institute are multi-pronged. For the digitization project, the papers are being physically scanned in England, not exported overseas. But once a digital image is ready, students funded through W&M Libraries are working on transcribing the documents and tagging them with searchable and descriptive metadata. W&M Libraries staff members are also providing consultation for the project, working closely with the Omohundro Institute and the British partners on archival, technical and communications aspects of the project. “This project provides a unique opportunity to work on an international digital project, setting standards for cataloging and digitization that will contribute to the ever-evolving role of libraries in the digital age,” said Carrie Cooper, W&M’s dean of university libraries. “The lessons we learn from this project will inform our work as we embark on digitizing, transcribing and making discoverable unique items in our own collections like the James Monroe Papers, diaries from the Civil War and the

Robert Gates Papers. Digitizing our original collections and making them accessible to scholars worldwide is crucial to advancing scholarship.” The Omohundro Institute, recognized globally as the leader in early American historical studies, is deeply embedded in the program. With funding through its Lapidus Initiative, it has committed to support up to eight research fellowships annually. The first were funded in 2015, along with additional fellowship paid for through King’s College London. As the research fellows rotate through Windsor Castle’s Round Tower, they help to illuminate what’s in the archive for historians coming behind them. They will also document their findings on the American and British Georgian Papers portals in detailed blog posts. In 2015, Omohundro Institute-sponsored fellows researched authors of African descent at the Georgian Court and the imperial politics of Scottish emigration to revolutionary America. Last year, they delved into the early years of the Revolutionary War, the political and colonial schemes of Lord Bute (King George III’s closest adviser), the patron-client relationship between first minister Lord North and King George III, and European geopolitics and British foreign policy in pre-Revolutionary America. “Included in the essays written by King George III are subjects like architecture, military tactics,

constitution, all topics,” said Nick Popper, associate professor of history at W&M and member of the Omohundro Institute’s Council. “There will be something like 300 essays as part of the initial release, partly because they are among the most appealing sources [of future dissertations and books] that are going to emerge from this.” In addition to the digitization and fellowships, the project also includes annual conferences, symposia and other events on both sides of the Atlantic. Already the project has promoted a fair bit of intercontinental travel, with faculty and staff from the Omohundro Institute and W&M’s Reves Center and Libraries visiting London and Windsor and personnel from the Royal Archives and King’s College London visiting W&M and Washington, D.C. The Reves Center is funding a research trip, led by Popper, taking a number of W&M history students to London and the Round Tower this spring. Other history professors are also integrating the Georgian Papers material into their classes at W&M this spring. When the project initially launched, in 2015, it did so with a special event at Windsor Castle that had Queen Elizabeth II viewing documents from the archive. Both Hanson and Wulf were in attendance. At the launch, Wulf told the queen that, as an 18th-century scholar, she was ecstatic to be part of a project presenting the Round Tower’s holdings to the world. “Having an opportunity to see the Georgian materials in the Round Tower was an extraordinary experience. I told her I levitated with excitement and that they had to drag me out,” Wulf said. “She laughed and asked if the Omohundro Institute is on the actual W&M campus. “I said, ‘Of course it is.’”

From left: Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, at the Wren Building in 1957. They were the first reigning monarchs to visit the university. Courtesy Swem Archives Local children greet Queen Elizabeth II at William & Mary in 2007. File photo



New English Language Program Opens Doors for Talented Students and Professionals from Around the World by Rachel Sims

English Language Program faculty Susannah Livingston (left), Kay Gude (right), and Wendy Waldeck (not pictured).



n August of 2016 William & Mary’s English Language Program (ELP) began a bright new era. As the new flagship program of the ELP, the Intensive English Program (IEP) provides an educational opportunity for post-secondary students seeking to improve their English for academic, professional, and personal purposes. Seven students from seven different countries embarked on the IEP’s initial session, and through their diverse interests and backgrounds, helped set a precedent for future ELP students to follow. Stemming from its beginnings as English support classes for Arts & Sciences graduate students, the IEP WORLD MINDED

was initially envisioned in 2012 by the Vice Provost for International Affairs. Steve Hanson brought an expansive idea of internationalization to the university, and asked Steve Sechrist to form the English as a Second Language (ESL) Working Group to explore English Language support at W&M. The committee included colleagues such as Sharon Zuber, Director of the Writing Resource Center; Katherine Kulick, director of the TESOL Minor; Leslie Bohon, PhD candidate in the School of Education with an extensive background in ESL; as well as other representatives from graduate and undergraduate programs across the university. A key objective of the new

initiative was to centralize and build upon efforts across the university, as well as support related programs like the Writing Resource Center, tribe Tutor Zone, the TESOL Minor, and ESL Dual Certification Program. “It was a time when the international population at the school began to see real growth and the issue of support was becoming more relevant,” Sechrist, Director of the English Language Program and International Students, Scholars, and Programs at the Reves Center says. “We conducted a campus wide assessment of English language needs among our international students and scholars, confirming the need to move forward with the development of a program.” In 2014 the Reves Center launched successful pilots of its first summer programs: the International Freshman Advantage Program and Global Business English program. As the programs developed, two key objectives solidified: 1) expanding support for members of the international community at W&M, and 2) making W&M accessible to a whole new population. In 2015 Steve Sechrist and Leslie Bohon applied for a Creative Adaptation Fund Grant. Their proposal was accepted. The funding, coupled with support from Arts & Sciences and revenue from the summer preparatory programs, provided critical seed money for the development of the English Language Program in the 2015-2016 academic year. Much of the effort was focused on the building of the Intensive English Program. “We now have the largest international student and scholar enrollment in William & Mary history, and it is imperative that we support their success at the university. Strong English language skills are key,” Sechrist explains. “William & Mary is a great place to study – unparalleled in many respects. The ELP creates an opportunity for students and professionals from around the world to experience W&M in a new kind of program. This helps the university expand our global profile. It also helps us engage our international partners in new ways.” IEP Sessions last seven weeks and

occur year-round, providing students with 20 hours per week of intensive English language instruction. Students join the appropriate course level based on their placement tests, with classes focusing on core language skills, academic skills, cross-cultural communication skills, and standardized test preparation. The faculty – Kay Gude, Susannah Livingston and Wendy Waldeck – bring not only their expertise but also a dedication to student success and learning. The instructors use a variety of methods to keep their classes interactive and interesting. Journal writing, current event news clips, and excursions to local areas of interest are some of the ways students develop their English skills in the program. They construct special electives for the students, reflective of their specific interests and needs. Students may select a range of electives, including US National Parks, Public Speaking and the Civil Rights Movement. Each is supported by excursion trips to relevant locations during the session. “We like to use real materials – authentic materials – from the world, from radio, TV and the Internet. The students just respond better to it,” Livingston says. “In the past we’ve created electives like US movie and film, a book study on the Holocaust with a trip to the Holocaust museum, and one on American culture. Right now I’m teaching an elective on study skills for success in graduate school, as many of our current students are planning to attend grad school after the program,” Gude explains. Students also learn from consistent practice. “Because I teach listening and speaking, I want to give them a lot of opportunities to talk and not just listen to me,” Livingston explains. “So I put them in pairs and have them talk to each other about certain topics. At the upper levels I’ll usually give them a specific topic to talk to each other about, and then I’ll have them share with the class their partner’s story, so they’ll have to have really listened.” Livingston has been impressed with the caliber of the students she teaches at W&M. “I think our students SPRING 2017




2. Ibtihal (Saudi

Arabia) wrote about her experience in Swem Library, winning the Spring 1 Level 400 class contest. Ibtihal Alwakeel

3. Intensive English

students conversing at Aromas in CW. Kaye Gude

1. Diyar (Turkey) documents his journey through

Colonial Williamsburg. Diyar Karahan

– without exception – bring a lot of sophistication to our classes. One has a doctoral degree already, and a couple have master’s degrees. The range of things we can talk about is huge because they are bringing so much.” Many of the students are professionals with experience in a variety of fields. One student from South Korea is a visiting scholar in the Law School. Another student from Cyprus is preparing for a Master of Fine Arts program in the United States. Their goals vary: some seek professional 10

development; some want to travel; and many are interested in taking the TOEFL exam and attending graduate school in the US. This diversity of age, culture, and experience makes it more interesting for everyone in the classroom. Livingston taught that fall class with the students from seven different countries. “No one was able to talk with each other in their native language, so they had to speak their common language of English. There was also a range of ages, which adds unique WORLD MINDED

experiences and expertise to the classroom that everyone can benefit from,” Livingston explains. “It was a beautiful situation.” In addition to their practice during class, IEP students are also involved in the Reves Center for International Studies’ Conversation Partner Program (CPP), a special opportunity for native and non-native English speakers to meet informally and discuss topics of mutual interest. For non-native English speakers, CPP is an opportunity to meet Americans, learn more


4. Gude and students from Fall 2016 Session 1 pose for a photo during an outing to the Governor’s Palace in Colonial Williamsburg. KiSu Kim

5. Sofia (Cyprus) submitted an essay and photo from her visit to Jamestown. Sofia Kyriakou

6. Tao (China) wrote about her

experience visiting Colonial Williamsburg with her English conversation partner. She won the Spring 1 Level 300 contest with her photo and essay. Tao Leng



about American culture, and practice every-day spoken English. The students feel both challenged and supported by their fellow students and the IEP staff. Surveys show students most enjoy the creativity and skill of their teachers, the safety of Williamsburg, and the warm welcome by the college and local community members. Yinghui Gao, a student from China, studied law in college, and is attending the Intensive English Program in preparation for the TOEFL and

GMAT to apply to MBA programs in the U.S. Originally drawn to W&M because of its rich history, Gao joined the program in the summer of 2016. “I love Williamsburg and William & Mary very much … The people are very kind. When I came here, I went to the elementary school to talk with my son’s teacher and I couldn’t understand her, but now I can see my progress.” The Conversation Partner Program is just one of the many ways W&M students and those in the community have embraced ELP students. Additionally, SPRING 2017

Sechrist says, the support across campus has been tremendous. “Launching the ELP is a huge endeavor and without the support of our colleagues, it would not have been possible. Our program enrollment has grown slowly but steadily and we are seeing real progress in our students. That is the most rewarding part of it all – knowing that we created something that is helping students advance their academic and professional goals.”


(L-R) Nasha Lewis , Molly DeStafney and Arielle Hankerson at the Global Education Office’s Peer Advising Desk at the Reves Center. Photo by Rachel Sims

A Student Takes the Lead in Increasing Diversity in Study Abroad by Kate Hoving


tudy abroad is a transformational experience that can and should be accessible to everyone, and yet students of ethnic and racial minority backgrounds, first-generation college students, students from lower socio-economic backgrounds and students in STEM programs have traditionally made up only a small percentage of students taking advantage of global opportunities. The obstacles can seem unsurmountable: • “No one in my family has ever traveled outside the United States. How could I?” • “I could never afford it.” • “I’m a science major. Studying abroad will keep me from filling my requirements and graduating on time.” • “It’s too complicated to find the right program, much less make it through the application process.” These assumptions are some of the biggest challenges for a Global Education Office (GEO) trying to increase


the number and diversity of students studying abroad. Nasha Lewis, Assistant Director for Global Education, has spearheaded study abroad outreach since she was hired in 2015. Lewis has not only the professional and educational background for the job, but also – and perhaps even more importantly – firsthand experience with the challenges that can prevent a student from pursuing a study abroad experience. “I feel as if I can relate to students and some of their concerns and issues.” Lewis wanted to study abroad the summer after graduation, “but I got terrible and wrong advice” from a teacher, who said if she went abroad she’d have to delay graduation. It wasn’t true, but Lewis didn’t know that until it was too late. Lewis didn’t give up an international experience; she joined the Peace Corps and served in Mali. Still, it taught her the importance of reaching out personally and individually to students, giving them access to good information, and information from their peers who can WORLD MINDED

speak from actual experience. Lewis worries about reaching as many students as possible. “I don’t want to fail the STEM students or the low-income students who may have average grades and assume they’re not ‘noteworthy’ enough to be able to get funding.” And so she visits classrooms, hosts events and reaches out in print, electronically and personally to engage and encourage traditionally underrepresented students. This past year, she had some extra help from a dynamic and extraordinary young woman, Arielle Hankerson ’17, who also faced obstacles but persisted and resolved to share her experiences to help other students have a successful study abroad experience. AN EARLY START

Hankerson, who grew up in Virginia Beach, is the middle child of seven children and the first in her family to study abroad. She attended Tallwood High School Global Studies and World

Languages Academy, a public school that aims to provide opportunities to develop the skills needed to make global connections across disciplines. Geography is integrated into every course, and the curriculum follows three major themes: global issues, global systems and global cultures. Students must study two languages, and Hankerson studied three – Spanish, Latin and Arabic. She also participated in two exchanges, to Indonesia (14 days) and Denmark (10 days). Even with Hankerson’s global experience, curiosity and enthusiasm, she knew that in college she would face some hurdles. However, Hankerson also knew where to go for guidance: “William & Mary has such a strong Global Education Office.” ONE-ON-ONE HELP TO FIND THE BEST FIT

Finances were an important consideration. Hankerson met with Molly DeStafney, Associate Director of Global Programs, and learned that W&M study abroad programs would accept her financial aid. First hurdle cleared. The next task was to choose a program. Hankerson had designed her own major – Inner City Development, with a minor in Public Health – and was mindful of fulfilling her requirements. “I knew I wanted to study abroad when I entered William & Mary,” Hankerson remembers, “But I didn’t want to miss a whole semester.” Her solution? Find a shorter-term program, preferably over the summer. Another hurdle cleared. Hankerson went to GEO’s Study Abroad Summer Open House where there are representatives and veterans of the various programs as well as peer advisors, trained by GEO staff to explain the options and processes. At third grade summer camp she learned about Australia, and ever since had wanted to go there. When she learned about the W&M program in Adelaide, she figured it was fate, especially since it was being offered for the first time in a number of years. Even better, the program was led by Psychology Professor Chris Ball and included a psychology class that

would contribute toward her minor. Hankerson went to Adelaide in 2015, the summer between her sophomore and junior years. In addition to examining national stereotypes in the media she participated in some community engagement projects that led to a volunteer position with the Wilderness Society, planning the Students of Sustainability Conference and helping with social media. As Hankerson cleared hurdles on her own behalf, she realized that she had the experience to help other students facing their own challenges. If there were students talking themselves and their friends out of studying abroad, then couldn’t students talk other students into it? SHARING EXPERIENCES AND LESSONS LEARNED

Hankerson applied to be a Diversity Abroad Campus Fellow, which she learned about in a blast email from the Reves Center. Founded in 2006 and based in Berkeley, California, Diversity Abroad is the leading international organization working to ensure that students from diverse economic, educational, ethnic and social backgrounds have equal access and take advantage of the benefits and opportunities afforded through global education exchanges. Sylvia Mitterndorfer, Director of Global Education, has made increasing diversity a priority at GEO. She

initiated membership in the Diversity Network to support the organization and to learn about best practices. DeStafney represented W&M at the organization’s first national conference in 2013. “It was one of the best conferences that I’ve been to professionally,” DeStafney recalls. “Everyone there was committed to the mission of diversifying international education, and it was a time to collect ideas that worked at other schools and have a dialogue about the challenges in attempting to create access across the board.” The Diversity Abroad Campus Fellows Program is a 9-month program open only to students enrolled at Diversity Network member institutions. It gives study abroad alumni the opportunity to motivate their peers on campus. Responsibilities include representing Diversity Abroad on campus and campuses in the community; connecting students with resources and collecting information for follow-up; and identifying and creating partnership opportunities on campus. The qualities they look for include: being personable and actively involved on campus; being able to relate to diverse groups of various backgrounds; being passionate about making an impact on campus with international opportunities; and having an entrepreneurial spirit. Hankerson submitted her application and was

Hankerson (far left) with classmates in Adelaide, Australia. Photo by Chris Ball



Nasha Lewis speaks to parents and students at the Financing Study Abroad table at GEO’s annual Study Abroad Fair. Photo by Kate Hoving

overseas when she was contacted. “I got the initial email [from Diversity Abroad] while in Ghana as a field representative for an organization called Saha Global. We worked to provide clean water through women’s entrepreneurship and community engagement,” recalls Hankerson. “They graciously postponed the interview until I was back in the states.” Trixie Cordova, Associate Director at Diversity Abroad, oversees the Campus Fellows Program, and worked closely with Hankerson as her mentor. “More than 50 students submitted applications for the 2016-17 Campus Fellows program, and ultimately six students were selected across the country,” says Cordova. “We had never had a Campus Fellow based at William & Mary, so Arielle was the first one!” Cordova has one-on-one calls with the Fellows twice a month. “There are definitely a lot of conversations to problem solve when outreach isn’t working successfully, or to brainstorm other creative solutions to get the word out about Diversity Abroad.” “My role is to help students on my campus know that they can study abroad regardless of income, gender, or anything else,” says Hankerson about her mission as Campus Fellow at W&M. “Study abroad is no longer an option [for today’s student to be successful]; it’s a requirement.” COMBINING FORCES WITH GEO

Hankerson had already reached out to Nasha Lewis even before Diversity Abroad notified Lewis in August 2016 14

that Hankerson had been selected. Hankerson’s key partner would be GEO, and Lewis saw the Campus Fellow role as different from that of a student worker or GEO Peer Advisor. “It was Arielle’s inspiration to apply, and she had her own ideas,” explains Lewis. “We came up with a timeline together, but her ideas were driven by her, and we were careful not to duplicate efforts.” Lewis began by giving an overview of Reves and GEO and the climate on campus. “William & Mary is different from other universities and has a unique advantage,” Lewis explained. “The push for internationalization is embraced all across campus and motivated by the administration, faculty, staff and students.” W&M also has a quality that is both an advantage and disadvantage: Students take academics seriously and are very motivated, but that means they have limited free time. “It’s best to get things early in the semester when students are still gungho, because after midterms, students are focused on studying and it’s hard to find time and interest,” Lewis cautions. One of Hankerson’s events on campus was a panel discussion – Diversity in International Experiences – that ended up occurring unavoidably in November, late in the semester. Although the conversation among faculty and students was informative, there wasn’t a large turnout, which was a disappointment. “I would have liked to have hosted more events, but it’s challenging,” Hankerson observes. “How do you WORLD MINDED

engage with an audience that doesn’t want to be engaged?” For Lewis, that’s an important lesson. “There is no magic bullet, and it’s great that she’s learned that now,” Lewis notes. “It really takes a year to understand the role of increasing outreach & diversity and getting a vision for a new position.” To that end, Hankerson wishes in some ways she could continue as a Fellow, to apply the knowledge she’s acquired. She would like to work more with the Center for Student Diversity, and has ideas about addressing the challenges of the new COLL 300 curriculum, as more students will consider studying abroad to fulfill the cross-cultural experience requirement. When asked about her successes as a Fellow, Hankerson lights up talking about a friend from the International Relations Club who is currently on W&M’s Seville program. They first met when she came as a prospective student and stayed in Hankerson’s dorm. Hankerson remembers: “She wanted to study abroad for a semester but wasn’t sure she could afford it. I sent her to Nasha, and she had appointments with GEO staff and peer advisors to find funding. She ended up receiving scholarship money. Having someone to help figure out things is essential.” Although Hankerson focuses on the work that still needs to be done, Diversity Abroad has no doubts about her impact: “Arielle is a very thoughtful leader.,” exclaims Cordova. “No matter what she does next or where she goes, she’ll be incredible.”


What year and major are you? I am a senior, Class of 2017 Neuroscience major and Community studies minor. Why did you study abroad? Did you come to W&M knowing you would or was it something or someone here that inspired you? My mom studied abroad during her undergraduate career. I knew that it was something that I wanted to do, but I did not think it was feasible as a STEM major with a strong interest in research. It was not until I had lunch with my friend Alpha Mansaray (Class of 2016) that I learned about the WM Summer Study Abroad Programs and learned that study abroad as a STEM major was not only feasible but also affordable with help from the Reves Center Global Education Office and outside scholarships. Where and when did you study abroad? I studied abroad in Cape Town, South Africa during the W&M 2016 Summer Study Abroad Trip. What made you select the program you did? There were several reasons: (1) I took Professor Glenn’s (faculty member who led the trip) Modern Dance I course and wanted to brush up on my modern dance technique, (2) I wanted to learn more about the history of South Africa, post-Apartheid from a South African professor, (3) I wanted to go to a non-traditional country, (4) I was most excited about the opportunity to explore my Community studies minor abroad and work with students

Merci Best sharing a moment of sheer joy in South Africa. Photo courtesy Merci Best

from a local township in the role of a tutor. I also had two unfulfilled goals: (1) to spread my business STEAMtrix, LLC (a STEM education program that incorporates the arts for underrepresented minorities in STEM fields) and (2) to learn Afrikaans. Did you apply for any scholarships or aid? I applied and received the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship from the U.S. government along with the Global Opportunity Scholarship from the William & Mary Global Education Office. What do you think are the factors/concerns that may keep students from pursuing study abroad? Lack of knowledge about the


opportunities that exist to study abroad and fund the experience. Do you have any ideas that you think would make it more attractive or easier? Students need to hear from other students with whom they identify, whether on the basis of race, gender or economic class, that study abroad can be for all students regardless of perceived barriers that lead to the disparities in who traditionally studies abroad and who does not. Anything else you’d like to share? I am extremely thankful for the funding that helped make my study abroad a reality and I am excited for any opportunities that I can get to pay it forward and help others in their process. 


New center for government professionals promotes interagency thinking by Marisa Spyker

illiam & Mary has a history of producing top leaders in federal, state and military agencies – Bob Gates ’65, L.H.D. ’98 and Ellen Stofan ’83, to name a couple – and a new track within the Master of Public Policy Program aims to build upon that legacy. Beginning in the fall of 2017, the Whole of Government Center of Excellence (a track within the Master of Public Policy Program) will provide mid-career civilian and military professionals with an interdisciplinary curriculum designed to train them to think holistically when addressing interagency challenges facing national security. “‘Whole of government’ is a term that basically focuses on the idea that problems of national and international importance – such as cyber security, terrorism, climate change, refugees and homelessness – are typically not taken care of by just one particular segment of government,” said Sarah Stafford, professor of economics and director of the W&M Public Policy Program. “They’re often going to cross different agencies within the government as well as different levels of government. So the idea is to train people who are going to be working on policy issues to understand how different agencies operate and how they can work together

to provide better solutions.” The idea for the center came to fruition when Virginia Gov. Terry McAuliffe and Secretary of Veterans and Defense Affairs John Harvey approached the university with a proposal suggesting W&M would be the ideal location for such a program serving civilian and military professionals. “William & Mary has a well-earned reputation as a military-friendly university, with deep experience in partnering with military facilities in our region and beyond,” said Steve Hanson, vice provost for international affairs and director of the Reves Center for International Studies. “In a way, we’ve been training global leaders since our founding in 1693 … And our location, so close to key installations from every branch of the military, and not far from Washington D.C., is ideally suited to build a Center of Excellence of this type.” In 2016, W&M received a state-funded grant to carry out a feasibility study around the center under the leadership of Kathryn Floyd ’05, adjunct faculty in government and project director for the study. Floyd, Hanson and Kevin Felix of the Roosevelt Group, a government relations consulting agency, conducted approximately 100 interviews with military and civilian professionals, as well as university leaders such as Gates and Center of attention: Tyler Hall, which houses the public policy, government, economics and international relations departments, will also be the home base for the new Whole of Government Center of Excellence. Photo by Stephen Salpukas



President Taylor Reveley. “The results were incredibly encouraging,” Floyd said. “Everyone was in sync in their response – they all felt there was a need for a program like this and that William & Mary was the right home for it.” In addition to W&M’s proximity to multiple military bases, the university was especially suited to the Whole of Government Center because of its size – a sweet spot, Stafford said, between a university that’s small enough that it’s easy to work interdepartmentally but large enough to have a long roster of talented and well-respected faculty. This gives the Master of Public Policy (MPP) Program the resources to move forward with the Whole of Government Center of Excellence at an accelerated rate – with the first cohort of fellows arriving on campus in the fall. “The MPP program has joint degrees with all of the other schools – Arts & Sciences, law, business, and education – so we know how to cut across barriers really well,” said Stafford. Existing courses within the public policy, government, law, business and international relations programs will provide the foundation for the curriculum, with new tabletop or simulation exercises introduced later on. These exercises will provide professionals from diverse areas of government with practice collaborating with one another to provide solutions to real-world challenges. In addition to coursework, fellows will be encouraged to participate in internship and research projects that support “whole of government” thinking. “We need to train a new generation of future leaders who have hands-on, practical experience working across the different organizational cultures that must be harmonized in order to facilitate true interagency collaboration – long before finding themselves forced to deal with such issues during a foreign deployment or national emergency,” said Hanson.

Beckles discusses reparatory justice in annual George Tayloe Ross Address

by Heather Baier ’20

nown as a leader in the global effort to seek reparations from European slave-trading nations, Hilary Beckles delivered the 2016 George Tayloe Ross Address on International Peace on January 24. The George Tayloe Ross Address is an annual lecture hosted by the Reves Center for International Studies. “It’s designed to promote peace by exploring and investigating topics of current interest affecting relations among nations,” Vice Provost for International Affairs and Reves Center Steve Hanson said. Beckles is the Vice Chancellor of the University of the West Indies and Vice President of the International Task Force for the UNESCO Slave Route Project. In 2014, he was appointed to the United Nations Secretary-General’s advisory board on sustainable development by the Secretary General of the U.N., Ban Ki-Moon. “He is indeed a prolific scholar – a committed activist for social justice and among the most distinguished public intellectuals in the Caribbean,” Hanson said. The audience was filled with members of the Williamsburg community as well as students from William & Mary. “I think it’s important to learn about the historical roots of contemporary social problems,” audience member Rachel Smith ’17 said. “I think this will be an interesting take on the type of issues in our country.” Beckles began the lecture by describing the differences between social and economic growth. “We have a polarization of two fundamental concepts,” Beckles said. “There are those who argue that economic growth is arguably the most important objective of politics, and then there are those who say it is social growth.” According to Beckles, social growth is about citizenship and promoting inner values to improve humanity as a whole. Beckles continued his speech by

describing the system of slavery on a global economic scale. He then spoke about the origins of slavery and the timeline of its demise during the 19th century. Beckles said that he lamented the duration of time it has taken to abolish slavery and establish civil rights for descendants of slaves. For the remainder of his lecture, he focused on the global discussion regarding reparatory justice for the crime of slavery. As the Vice President of the University of the West Indies, Beckles was working on a project to build a new medical faculty complex on the university’s campus in Jamaica. Each of its three physical campuses are built on lands that were home to slave plantations 150 years ago. “We then have to interpret what history is saying to us,” Beckles said. “You can bury us, you can forget us, but we will not let you forget us. So, the history came up from the ground and confronted us.” Beckles went on to discuss the major impact slavery has had on the distribution of knowledge and creativity across the world and described the term “reparations” and what it means to his movement. “It is not about black people standing around our street corners asking for handouts,” Beckles said. “Nobody’s going to give me a handout. It’s about asking those who have created massive institutional impoverishment of people … to give those people a chance.” He also said that reparations should be paid to medical researchers in order to develop medications which will help the African American community fight illnesses like hypertension. He cited research that found that Nigerians, Ghanaians and West Africans had the same responses to hypertension drugs that white people did, but Africans of the diaspora had significantly weaker responses the drugs. “My medical faculty, we have all the SPRING 2017

Hilary Beckles. Photo by Rachel Sims

science … We know what to do to adjust these drugs to black people’s circumstances,” Beckles said. “Do we have the millions of dollars to invest in laboratories to do the work? No, we don’t.” Beckles went on to discuss his latest actions working with governments to procure formal apologies and reparations. He said that most governments he has contacted have thus far been unwilling to issue a formal apology or offer any money. Many countries, including Britain, France, Germany, Russia and the United States, have issued statements of regret. He also said that other countries, such as Nigeria, have been reluctant to join in asking for reparations because they once participated in the slave trade. “Communities all across Africa are now saying, ‘There has to be reparatory justice,’” Beckles said. “We now have reparations commissions in the Caribbean. We have a reparations commission in this country … and in all the countries where there was slavery we have now established communities and networks for dealing with reparatory justice. This is a global situation. It is an international situation.” Originally appeared in The Flat Hat 17


Pre-human artifacts: William & Mary archaeologist Neil Norman discusses a set of remarkably ancient stone tools that he brought back from a site on the Horn of Africa. Photo by Stephen Salpukas

Our hominid ancestors made and used tools. We’ll show you a few. NEIL NORMAN FOUND THE






easonal rains would flood the usually dry stream, drowning animals and washing them downstream, creating what Norman calls “a buffet of rancid carrion.” Scavengers converged on the wadi, butchering the drowned animals with stone tools they constructed on the spot. Norman found two of those tools on that one short walk, likely near where they were dropped by their makers as long as two and a half million years ago. The individuals who made and used those tools were hominids, primate ancestors of modern humans. Back in his lab at William & Mary, Norman holds up one of the artifacts he brought back from Africa. “This is what is known as an Oldowan chopper. You can see that WORLD MINDED

it is very crude,” he explained. “The toolmaker selected a river-rounded cobble and hit it with another rock around 14 times to make a cutting tool. Feel the sharpness of the edge!” The edge is keen enough to make you handle it carefully. The worked piece of stone is astoundingly businesslike, considering how long the chopper was lying around what now is the nation of Djibouti, on the horn of Africa. THEY’RE OLD... BUT HOW OLD?

And there is some question about exactly how old the tools actually are. Norman identifies the two oldest pieces, both choppers, as Oldowan – up to 2.5 million years old. Larson doesn’t challenge Norman’s identification. In fact, he says he hopes the choppers could be proved to be Oldowan,

but he waits for further research to bear out Norman’s interpretation. Norman and Larson were working on a U.S. military institution in Djibouti. Norman is an associate professor of anthropology at W&M. Larson, a 2003 M.A. graduate of the department, is an anthropologist working with the U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command. Larson explained that his job is to make sure that construction at military installations doesn’t destroy any material that might be important to a nation’s culture, history and people. “Whenever the Navy does any kind of work on shore installations, stateside or outside the continental United States, I have been charged with making sure that we take into account historic resources, both above and below ground,” he said. Larson had been working the installation for 12 years. As the base was formulating plans for expansion, he went out to do a pedestrian survey of the expansion site. REVES CENTER SUPPORT

His pedestrian survey prompted Larson to invite Norman and two Ph.D. students in anthropology, Maddy Gunter and Hayden Bassett, to Djibouti to do more extensive work in the area slated for expansion. A faculty fellowship from W&M’s Reves Center for International Studies allowed Norman and the grad students to make the trip and to bring home some of the oldest tools in the world. The context of the discovery makes dating these artifacts challenging. Carbon dating doesn’t work on rock, so stone artifacts are dated by the age of items found in the same matrix. “If I found these with hominid fossils, they would be in The New York Times the next day,” Norman said. He added that very few museums have such tools in their collections. If Norman’s choppers are indeed Oldowan, they’re among the oldest manufactured items known. “There are no stone tools that we know of that are older than Oldowan tools,” Norman said. “There is some speculation that wood might have been used before that, or bone. But

those things don’t survive in the archaeological record.” Archaeologists use the term “provenience” to describe the circumstances of an artifact’s location and situation at discovery. Norman’s finds had plusses and minuses in the provenience category. On the plus side, the choppers were found in a region rich in prehuman discoveries – just 700 miles from where the australopithecine Lucy was found. But, Norman picked the choppers up right from the surface of the ground. The site was savannah long ago, but now is a rocky desert. The archaeologists found the area littered with artifacts representing the entire time span of humanity and pre-humanity. “Immediately we started finding artifacts that dated from a million years ago, all the way up to the present,” Norman said. “There were Neolithic stone structures. There are pharaonic materials; this area had a trading relationship with Egypt. There are amphorae from the Mediterranean. This really was the crossroads of the world for quite some time.” Norman returned to W&M with a number of stone tools representing various ages. In addition to the choppers, he found two Achulean hand axes, which were made 100,000 to a million years ago. He also brought back an awl and a scraper, each 500,000 to a million years old. In the absence of dateable matrix, archaeologists rely on the style of manufacture to assign a tentative age to each piece, much as an appraiser does with an unprovenanced attic find on the Antiques Road Show. “If you pull a pair of jeans from a drawer, and they have bell bottoms and a high waist, you start thinking about the Seventies,” Norman explained. Norman explained that the tools were made on the spot, as needed. Over the millennia, tools show advancements in quality. Tool manufacture is a learned skill and archaeologists believe these choppers and hand axes are tangible evidence of the first glimmerings of culture. The toolmakers were not thinking about culture. Norman says the tools SPRING 2017

gave our remote ancestors distinct advantages over their non-primate competitors in the nasty, brutish and short existence that was daily life eons ago. He picked up one of the choppers again to demonstrate. “One of the parts of the animal that we can exploit – and that most others couldn’t – is the marrow, what’s inside the long bones,” he said. “It’s difficult, even for lions.” Norman is holding the tools in trust for the government of Djibouti. The artifacts will be returned to Djibouti, but first Norman will run some tests, notably microscopic examination of the wear pattern on the edges. The tests can provide insights on what the tools were used on, but are of little use in identifying the species of prehuman that used them. Not all hominids used tools. For instance, Norman notes that Lucy was probably not a tool user; her species, Australopithecus afarensis, predates the Oldowan-era hominids. “Once you get into the Homo line, you are talking about people – well, individuals, let’s say – who are physically and genetically much closer to us than are australopithecenes,” he said. Norman added that the appearance of Homo habilis – the hominid who knew how to make tools – is widely regarded as one of the real watershed moments in human evolution as well as stone tool use. “Quite possibly, those are the individuals who made these tools,” he said. “There’s some debate about that.” The site of the dig was popular real estate for a long time, as made evident by the timeline of artifacts found on the scene. Norman says they found the remains of a stone-age workshop that probably dates to 30- to 40,000 years ago, in the early days of behavioral modernity among modern humans. “Someone had sat cross-legged near a hearth and made a stone tool,” he said. “And all the flakes from that tool were right there. It is really humbling to be surrounded by the residue of intelligent life, material that vastly predates the oldest artifacts in North America.”



William & Mary Student Voices Heard on the Global Development Stage By Layla Abi-Falah ’17


ayla Abi-Falah ’17 and six other William & Mary students found themselves in the middle of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Morss Hall, surrounded by some of the world’s greatest students, entrepreneurs, innovators, development experts and field practitioners. Since 2013, the Higher Education Solutions Network (HESN) – a partnership between USAID and seven universities channeling the ingenuity of students, researchers, and professors toward global development – has held an annual Technical Convening (TechCon), uniting development enthusiasts to share and improve solutions for critical challenges. This was TechCon 2016 and seven W&M students and ten faculty and staff members were there to experience it all. They met a student from Pretoria who created a brick made of paper, designed to aid the fight against poverty and homelessness in Sub-Saharan Africa. They met a woman from Kampala who developed a foot-operated water tap as a no touch, cost-effective solution to save water and reduce the spread of diseases. Abi-Falah was especially moved by Betty Ikalany, a social entrepreneur. In Uganda, her home, she saw the lives of women and children threatened by toxic fumes from firewood and other fuels. Ikalany wanted the women of Uganda’s Soroti District to ‘stop crying’: so, she founded the Appropriate Energy Saving Technologies (AEST Ltd.), an organization that sells cooking stoves and charcoal briquettes made from recycled agricultural waste as a safer and more efficient alternative. Students, including Abi-Falah, competed in TechCon’s Innovation 20

Marketplace. Abi-Falah was one of four W&M student teams seeking USAID’s funding for an innovative insight or solution to a development issue. Abi-Falah works as a research assistant for Professor Phil Roessler and the Center for African Development in search of an explanation to the observable phenomenon of sub-national spatial inequality – extreme subnational variation in levels of development – that plagues Sub-Saharan Africa. Abi-Falah brought to Morss Hall their new study that uses an innovative, first-of-its kind dataset of the economic footprint of colonialism to analyze the effect of armed conflict on primary commodity production, illustrating how post-colonial civil wars have largely erased the localized path-dependent effects of colonial extraction. They found that uneven development is rooted in the organization of colonial states and the specialization in a few primary commodities, which has had a path-dependent effect on current day development. Cash crop production spurred the need for cultivation, extraction and processing, provision of electricity and other public services, infrastructure for export of crops and minerals, and public administration in limited areas, but left most of the state marginalized and underdeveloped. After independence, colonialism’s legacy led some countries to experience large-scale political violence. This project, much like the work of Aili Espigh and Caleb Ebert, Leigh Seitz and Graeme Cranston-Cuebas, grew out of the work of various WORLD MINDED

From top: Layla Abi-Falah at the Innovation Marketplace standing before her research trifold. The AidData contingency standing before the MIT Dome before returning home. Photos by John Custer

Institute for the Theory & Practice of International Relations (ITPIR) projects. ITPIR is a perfect example of the bridge between academia and the policy world, and that bridge was what TechCon’s Innovation Marketplace was all about. It should come as no surprise that winners of ITPIR’s Shark Tank research competition, Aili Espigh and Caleb Ebert, were finalists at TechCon 2016 for their work on open source aid tracking during humanitarian crises. In the heart of MIT’s campus, W&M students, faculty, and staff made their voices heard on the global development stage. They contributed to a range of important issues from the use of mobile phones as development tools, to the importance of making data-driven decisions when facing pressing development problems – seventeen out of hundreds of participants from all over the world to share their successes, findings and questions.

Cate-Arries interviews Manuel Fernández Roldán for her research. Photo by Devin Buck


ne by one, family members attending a commemorative ceremony in the cemetery of Puerto Real in the province of Cádiz, Spain, approached her. They confided horrifying tales of how their loved ones, who opposed fascism, were systematically slaughtered during the

early days of the Spanish Civil War that resulted in the 40-year dictatorship of Gen. Francisco Franco. Those stories began in 1936, when his forces launched a coup against the democratically elected Spanish Republic. They expressed anger and despair – but also hope – that the remains of their relatives would be exhumed SPRING 2017

from the mass grave beside where they and Cate-Arries gathered. A long-time professor of Hispanic studies at William & Mary, Cate-Arries is intimately familiar with their stories, thanks to research she and her students have conducted in Spain the past three years. Much of it has been funded by a Weingartner Research Fellowship and an Alumni Fund for Hispanic studies faculty and students. At the end of her most recent trip to the country, she asked a local historian and screenwriter, Santiago Moreno, for a copy of a then-unreleased documentary, “Three Days in July.” The documentary includes interviews with people who experienced the upheaval first-hand or whose loved ones did. If he would send it, she vowed, “My students will do something with it,” meaning a translation into English subtitles. They’ve kept their promise, finishing a fall 2016 project that maintains an important aspect of W&M’s study abroad program at the University of Cádiz. Since the program was established, W&M students have enjoyed a productive collaboration with institutional partners in Cádiz, as well as in Sevilla [Univ. Pablo de Olavide]. W&M students have subtitled three documentaries, and almost half of the student translators have previously studied in Cádiz or Sevilla. On Nov. 7, in conjunction with the 80th anniversary of the insurgency, Cate-Arries hand-delivered “Three Days in July,” to the provincial government of Cádiz, which funded this project and several other initiatives aimed at recovering what she called “lost history.” “It’s a lovely moment for me as a professor of William & Mary students to take this documentary to the local government that made the film possible, as well as to university affiliates who also worked with William & Mary summer school students over there,” she said. “I’m extremely proud – and grateful – of the work they’ve put in.” 21

FACULT Y & STUDENT RESEARCH At the same time, she will be in Spain to present research based on family testimonies. “I’ve been studying their oral testimonies as a form of ‘symbolic resistance,’ because all of those stories include anecdotes of bereaved family members’ small actions of resistance against the powers that destroyed their families, sven though those families were terribly repressed,” she said. “[Franco’s troops] killed family members, took all of their possessions, took their livestock. But the women would shut the door and the grandmothers and aunts and daughters would keep the memory of what really happened alive.” At the University of Cádiz on November 7, a major announcement was made regarding publication of a new series of books on memory studies, produced by the university press – and which she is the editor. “Many people in the university publishing house have been involved in memory projects,” she said. “‘Three Days in July’ is just one example.” Translating and creating subtitles for “Three Days in July” was far from easy. From the outset, Cate-Arries’ translation class of 15 students has worked in teams of two. They each estimated they averaged about 40 hours outside of the classroom painstakingly preparing the film in just 30 days. “Going into it I didn’t necessarily

think it was going to be easier than it was, but I don’t think I was ready for the start ... stop … start … stop … start … stop,” said Kyle McQuillan ’17. “It was a very tedious process, especially the original transcription, where you have to listen to the same sentence over and over, and transcribing two minutes can take three hours because you’re trying to separate what sounds like one word but is actually four because they dropped every consonant.” Emily Kate Earls ’18 added that even slowing down the film didn’t help. “One man’s voice was unintelligible at regular speed and Darth Vader-like when slowed,” she said. Other obstacles included coming to an understanding of the history of the times, peoples’ extensive use of unfamiliar military jargon, accents found in southern Spain far different from the standard and recognizing street names and locations in obscure areas. In addition, students faced a moral as well as structural imperative that many never anticipated. “These people are talking about the most awful thing that happened in their family’s life, the most traumatic events, and we had to both maintain that heaviness, while also making it succinct in making it a subtitle so someone could read it and move on,” Molly Bertolacini ’17 said. “It was incredibly cool and incredibly difficult at the same time.”

Subtitling the film in English, Cate-Arries said, will give it worldwide exposure it wouldn’t otherwise receive. “Spanish limits the audience,” she explained. “Two research assistants here at William & Mary – Robert Bohnke ’17 and Michael Le ’15 – did subtitles on a [previous] documentary, and, subsequently, filmmaker Juan León Moriche was able to enter it in a New York human rights film festival. It didn’t win, but organizers liked it enough to include it in a Civil War film festival this fall. That meant the world to the director because he never could have shown his film in the United States.” For one student, Allison Esquen-Roca ’17, the stories told offered an eerie and disturbing familiarity. “The reason my family is in the U.S. in the first place is because of the terrorism that took place in Peru,” she said. “Just like some people in this film, [Peruvians] were killed or hurt because of their political ties. That happened in my family. My uncle was a mayor and he got shot on his way to work. Our family was harassed for a long time. “So it was nice to look at this film, see these stories, and know that we were part of that process where these stories could actually be presented in front of an English-speaking audience that had no knowledge of this before.” Shoe-leather research: Cate-Arries and students Megan Bentley ‘13 and Kate Wessman ´13 interview local historian Joaquín Ramón Gómez in Benamahoma, province of Cádiz, in early research into the deadly early days of the Spanish Civil War. Photo by Mike Blum




Cast of “Teesri Dhun.” Photo by Imran Sajid






hat is precisely the reason Pamment created “Teesri Dhun (The Third Tune)”, a documentary theatre production which celebrates the lives, struggles and culture of contemporary Pakistani transgender – or trans* – individuals, also known as hijras or khwajasaras. The play, which is the culmination of Pamment’s years of research on the subject and was co-directed with Iram Sana, founder of Pakistan’s Olomopolo Media, was devised with hijra and trans* actors, many of whom contributed personal narratives to the production. Pamment delivered a presentation and discussion of the performance as part of the Global Film Festival on February 24 in Swem Library’s Reeder Media Center. “Research papers often take months to publish and then often don’t reach the people who need to hear the information most,” said

Pamment. “Performance reaches a larger public community. For marginalized Pakistani trans* individuals who struggle against a rigid gender binary, performance is a formidable site of resistance, enabling them to express their ‘female souls’, and speak back to a regimented gender binary.” PATH TO PAKISTAN

Pamment, whose international upbringing brought her from England to Fiji, first landed in Pakistan in 2003 through a one-week program that aimed to connect Muslim and non-Muslim individuals in theatre and encourage future collaborations. She was eager for a new understanding of performance that challenged the representations of South Asian theatre she had experienced on the British stage. “I had just finished my master’s degree and was working with South Asian theatre communities in London SPRING 2017

Prof. Claire Pamment

at a time when multiculturalism was sort of embraced, but I felt we were producing rather stilted stereotypical representations of South Asian Muslim communities and playing to a primarily white middle class audience,” said Pamment. In Pakistan, Pamment discovered rich repertoires of theatre and performance, from a range of marginalized groups, including the male comic duos known as bhands in the Punjab wielding their slapsticks against forces of class oppression and political chaos, to hijra communities with a longstanding tradition of performance that bristled against the gender binary and sexual norms, she said. Widely 23

FACULT Y & STUDENT RESEARCH discriminated against both socially and politically, these communities became a focus of Pamment’s work in Pakistan, ultimately leading to the creation of a documentary theatre production called Teesri Dhun (The Third Tune). A STORIED HISTORY

Told through song, dance and narrative, “Teesri Dhun” explores the contemporary challenges of hijra and trans* individuals in a 90-minute dramatic enactment. The play debuted in Lahore, Pakistan, in 2015, has been shown in the U.S. at Yale University and the University of Texas at Austin and was revived in Lahore in December 2016. “A repeated narrative I heard while interviewing members of the hijra community is that their struggles really begin the first time they’re caught dressing up in their mother’s clothes or the first time they’re caught dancing,” said Pamment. “The antagonism is usually from the father or the brother, but those forces usually put the mother in this compromising role. That’s often the point of departure from the house for a hijra individual.” In a heartfelt moment of the play, one of the performers tells the real-life story of the first time her mother allowed her to use her closet to dress as a woman, under the condition that she would dress as a male to a family wedding. As the actress finishes getting ready, she realizes that her mother is no longer there. “She screams out to the audience ‘Ama, where are you?’” said Pamment. “But any of us could be her mother … she’s putting the responsibility back to us. She could be any of our children.” Trans* children often leave their paternal families and join hijra communities, where elder hijra gurus take on the roles of mothers and teachers, said Pamment. Often denied formal education, hijras typically earn wages through begging, prostitution or performance. “The hijra community occupies a hypervisible presence through badhai, which are the blessings at births, weddings and other occasions for


“[Theatre] has the power to open up people’s hearts, minds, and bodies to new ways of thinking, feeling, and being in the world,” said Claire Pamment, assistant professor of world theatre and codirector of the play. Photo courtesy of Khalifa Tayyab Saqib

celebration,” said Pamment. “These are ritualistic performances involving a group of hijras going to somebody’s house, sometimes with a group of musicians, clapping, dancing, joking and singing devotional Islamic poetry. Their performances, while marginalized, exemplify modes of social and religious acceptance.” These performances participate in long genealogies of gender fluidity in South Asian Muslim culture, said Pamment. Khwajasaras once staffed not just harems at court but also key political roles. Devotional Sufi poetry often depicts the male devotee in feminine terms seeking re-union with her lover, God. It wasn’t until the mid-1800s – when India came under British colonial rule – that hijras became viewed as abnormal and targeted as criminals. THE ROAD AHEAD

Though the stigma is still a force to contend with, hijras experienced a minor victory in 2009 when the Pakistani Supreme Court officially recognized the group as a third gender. Thanks mostly to NGOs, more opportunities are now available to


hijra individuals – though Pamment notes there’s still a long way to go. “In what has been described as the ‘transgender tipping point’ and much foreign policy hanging on issues of Muslim sexualities, there has been an exponential increase in foreign funded NGO initiatives concerning these communities. While this is bringing hijras into the purview of the elite and opening a dialogue transnationally, it is also important to recognize those pockets of acceptance that have kept hijra culture alive over the centuries and to grow from there,” said Pamment. “I hope “Teesri Dhun” contributes to this struggle by importantly celebrating the power of performance to negotiate spaces beyond the gender binary.” Pamment’s research with the hijra/ trans* community is ongoing. In the fall, Indian hijra/trans* activist/ author/performer Laxmi Narayan Tripathi will come to W&M as part of the COLL 300 IN/EXclusion theme to share her experiences of battling for hijra rights, from legislation to recognize a third gender identity in India’s Supreme Court to performances and street activism with hijra sex workers.

Photos by Evelyn Tewksbury ’18

Maj. Gregory Tomlin ’01 on the Enduring Power of Public Diplomacy by Morgan Goad and Katie Koontz ‘19

n January 26th, the Institute for the Theory & Practice of International Relations (ITPIR) and the History Department sponsored Major Gregory Tomlin’s return to campus to discuss the importance of public diplomacy to past and present America. In his book Murrow’s Cold War: Public Diplomacy for the Kennedy Administration, Major Tomlin examines journalist Edward Murrow’s role as the head of the U.S. Information Agency. His Army career has taken him around the world and to the Pentagon, where he currently serves as the Chief of Targeting Doctrine and Policy, Directorate for Intelligence, the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Major Tomlin drew from his book and his life to argue public diplomacy remains as potent a tool now as it was in the Kennedy administration. One anecdote detailed Murrow’s reaction to the infamous Bay of Pigs Invasion, illustrating the link between diplomacy and policy: “Dammit, if they want me in on the crash landing, I damn well better be in on the take off.”

The history lessons became almost painfully relevant: he pointed to disinformation from Russian state media as a contemporary challenge perhaps best met by the now-defunct U.S. Information Agency. Public diplomacy – built on listening, advocacy, and cultural diplomacy – is the antithesis of “alternative facts.” In his conclusion, Major Tomlin addressed the future of public diplomacy: “For the students here tonight pondering the theory and practice of international relations, I encourage you to join the conversation. We need innovative thinkers in the government who will not only grapple with the issues, but fight to convince Congress and the American public about the need to invest in public diplomacy programs. The current need to counter violent extremism, dispel misinformation directed by state actors, and build and strengthen our alliances remain just as critical in 2017 as they did when Edward R. Murrow heeded President Kennedy’s call to direct the U.S. Information Agency.”










Recently Published by W&M Faculty T

ARAB IMAGO: A SOCIAL HISTORY OF PORTRAIT PHOTOGRAPHY 1860-1910 By Stephen Sheehi, Sultan Qaboos bin Said Chair of Middle East Studies, Professor of Arabic Studies in Modern Languages and Literature, Director of the Asian and Middle East Studies Program

he birth of photography coincided with the expansion of European imperialism in the Middle East, and some of the medium’s earliest images are Orientalist pictures taken by Europeans – photographs that have long shaped and distorted the Western visual imagination of the region. Yet, the Middle East had many of its own photographers, collectors, and patrons. In this book, Stephen Sheehi presents a groundbreaking new account of early photography in the Arab world. The Arab Imago concentrates primarily on studio portraits by Arab and Armenian photographers in the late Ottoman Empire. The book examines previously known studios such as Abdullah Frères, Pascal Sébah, Garabed Krikorian and Khalil Raad, and also provides the first account of many other pioneers – as well as the first detailed look at early photographs of the annual pilgrimage to Mecca. In addition, the book explores indigenous photography manuals and albums, newspapers, scientific journals, and fiction. Featuring previously unpublished images, The Arab Imago shows how native photography played an essential role in the creation of modern Arab societies in Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Lebanon before the First World War. Simultaneously, the book overturns Eurocentric and Orientalist understandings of indigenous photography and challenges previous histories of the medium. Published by Princeton University Press, 2016



his book models the trade-off that rulers of weak, ethnically-divided states face between coups and civil war. Moving between in-depth case studies of Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo based on years of field work and statistical analyses of powersharing, coups and civil war across sub-Saharan Africa, the book offers a novel theory of state failure and serves as an exemplar of the benefits of mixed methods research for theory-building and testing in comparative politics. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2016



WHY COMRADES GO TO WAR: LIBERATION POLITICS AND THE OUTBREAK OF AFRICA’S DEADLIEST CONFLICT Co-authored by Philip Roessler, Assistant Professor of Government, and Harry Verhoeven of Georgetown University


rawing on hundreds of interviews with protagonists from Congo, Rwanda, Angola, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia and Eritrea, Why Comrades Go to War tells the story of how a group of Congolese revolutionaries and their regional allies came together in 1996-1997 to overthrow Congo’s long-serving dictator, Mobutu Sese Seko, but within 15 months ended up turning on each other, triggering the deadliest conflict since World War II. In revisiting the dynamics leading to this devastating conflict, the book makes a broader contribution to political science by advancing our understanding of the nexus between regional polarization, revolution and the externalization of civil war.

Published by Oxford University Press/ Hurst Publishers, 2016








The research question of this project is under what conditions leaders and diplomats are able to cultivate personal chemistry that can translate into better understanding and cooperation with one another. The goal is to write a leading book on the topic that integrates psychology, neuroscience, and political science on the theory side with studies of cases that have yet to be systematically examined, notably US and Russian official interpersonal interactions in the lead-up to the Iran Nuclear Deal, which is the focus of this Fellowship.



The proposed research will be an interdisciplinary and collaborative project to document Mi’kmaw presence on the north shore of the Minas Basin in Nova Scotia, thus making visible a long-term indigenous history that has often been rendered invisible (or ignored) by the settler population. Research that explains the centrality of ancestral landscapes to processes of indigenous cultural survival and uplift has the potential to shift conceptions of protests like those occurring at Standing Rock - from false dichotomies of “us” vs. “them” to understandings of the mutual benefit that can derive from responsibly managing resources for all.




“ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS ALONG THE EAST AFRICAN COAST” The fellowship will support a three-week excavation season on Zanzibar and three-week excavation season in Djibouti. The Zanzibar sites contain tobacco remains and represent early Portuguese colonial efforts, and are ideally situated for comparisons with similar British efforts at Jamestown, North Carolina, and the Caribbean. The organizing questions relate to 1) how widespread was tobacco cultivation across the island 2) how the organization of Portuguese fortified tobacco fields might relate to English ones and 3) how did local Swahili people relate socially, politically, and economically to Portuguese colonists/ farmers. Project members will also partner with the House of Wonders Museum (National Museum of Zanzibar) and director of antiquities to realize local exhibits and engagement.


The fellowship will be used to study the long-term ice dynamics in the European seas in collaboration with scholars in Germany. The main research topic is to understand the inter-annual variability of the ice extent in the North Sea and Baltic Sea, as a first step toward predicting their future conditions in a warming climate. SCHISM (Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model), is an innovative modeling system designed for the simulation of 3D baroclinic circulation across creek-to-ocean scales. SCHISM does not have an ice component, however, which limits its application to long-term studies of high-latitude oceans such as European seas. The funding will support the implementation of a new ice model inside the SCHISM modeling system.




Reves Hosts Traditional Japanese Tea Ceremony at School of Education ON OCTOBER 27, 2016, THE






t is thanks to Larry Wilkerson, Distinguished Visiting Adjunct Professor of International Relations, that the Dogwood Room at the School of Education was transformed for an afternoon into a Japanese Tea Room. Wilkerson met Takashi Ohde, Instructor at Gakushuin Women’s College, when Ohde lived in McLean, Virginia, from 2003-2014. Ohde contacted Wilkerson with an offer to host an authentic Tea Ceremony at William & Mary, and Wilkerson in turn reached out to Steve Hanson and the Reves Center to make it happen. Gakushuin has long been respected as the institution where members of the Imperial family including the present Emperor and Crown Prince pursued their studies. To put the ceremony in the appropriate context of Japanese history and

culture, the ceremony was preceded by a talk by Gakushuin Professor Akira Amagasaki on Visible and invisible: Aesthetics in Japanese Art. Tea Master Soju Nakazawa led the Tea Ceremony. Born in 1970, in Tokyo, Nakazawa grew up with Japanese traditional cultures, especially on the tea culture, under the strong influence of his grandmother and mother who were tea masters, as well as of his relatives, such as the Kabuki star, Gonjuro Kawarazaki III, and Tokuho Azuma, a grand master of Japanese classical dance. Takehiro Watanabe, a visiting legal scholar from Japan at William & Mary Law School, attended the lecture and demonstration, he said, because it’s actually uncommon now to experience a traditional tea ceremony in Japan. He noted there was some irony in the fact that he had to come all the way to Williamsburg to see one.

Tea master Soju Nakazawa and students. Photos by Stephen Salpukas







Professor Lederer Participates in International Symposium Hosted by Supreme Court of Korea by Cody Brandon J.D. ‘19

William & Mary is one of the country’s top producers of Peace Corps volunteers Each year, the Peace Corps ranks top volunteer-producing colleges and universities according to the size of their student bodies. With 36 alumni currently volunteering, W&M is ranked fourth among medium schools (5,000-15,000 undergraduates) in the 2017 Top Volunteer-Producing Colleges and Universities list. Last year, the university was 10th on the list with 24 alumni serving as volunteers. Since the Peace Corps began in 1961, 645 alumni from W&M have volunteered with the organization, including Casey Douma ’16, a community heath volunteer currently working in Cameroon. “William & Mary prepared me for the Peace Corps by teaching me how to work hard and be creative,” said Douma, who earned a degree in kinesiology and public health. “Barriers in the Peace Corps can come in many different shapes and sizes, and nothing is going to happen the way you imagine it, but you have to put in the hard work, meet challenges in new and interesting ways and work with your community to be able to succeed.” 30


rofessor Fredric Lederer, Chancellor Professor of Law and director of the Center for Legal and Court Technology (CLCT), a joint project of William & Mary Law School and the National Center for State Courts, recently attended the fall 2016 International Judicial Symposium in Korea held by the Supreme Court of Korea. Lederer was invited to speak at the event, which focused on the “Fourth Industrial Revolution” and its impact on the future of society and the legal field. The symposium featured presentations on topics such as the coming impact of artificial intelligence on legal systems, the Netherlands’s new electronic filing system, and a new Netherlands system, adopted in the UK and part of Canada, that facilitates online divorce proceedings. Lederer spoke on “Future Adjudication in the Age of Courtroom Technology,” emphasizing the latest advances in courtroom technology being pioneered by CLCT in the Law School’s McGlothlin Courtroom. Lederer said the learning experience was not limited to the presentations at the symposium. During his stay in Seoul, he and other delegates were able to tour the technology headquarters for the Korean courts. Later, he attended hearings in one of the country’s high-tech courtrooms. Lederer was “quite fascinated” by the headquarters, which he described as “mission control” for the country’s entire legal system. He was pleased to be told by one judge that the McGlothlin Courtroom was viewed WORLD MINDED

Prof. Fredric Lederer

as “the benchmark” for high-tech courtrooms. The symposium comes during an overhaul of the McGlothlin Courtroom and in a time of increasing adoption of technological innovations in legal systems across the globe. Lederer shared that CLCT is in the midst of a massive infrastructure upgrade that will replace almost all of the control systems in order to improve video resolution and be more compatible with police body cameras and aerial surveillance. Lederer’s favorite part of the symposium was his interactions with other speakers and hosts. “The hospitality was extraordinary, and the ability to talk to other speakers was wonderful,” he said. “They were great experts in their fields, and we hope that a number of them will be coming here over the next couple of years.” In fact, a plan is already in place for the president of Bloomberg Law, David Perla, to visit CLCT. Perla will likely be one of many future guests to the Center as it continues its mission of advancing the efficient use of technology in the administration of justice.


‘Buffalo Soldier’ exhibit highlights role of black service members in PhilippineAmerican War by Justin K. Thomas





he exhibit is a collaboration between the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, Norfolk State University, the Filipino American National Historical Society – Hampton Roads Chapter and W&M to promote the actions of African-American service members – or Buffalo Soldiers – participating in combat operations in the Philippines between 1899 and 1902. Research, writing and fabrication for the exhibit was conducted by members of the Filipino American Historical Society – Hampton Roads Chapter led by Dr. April T. Manalang of Norfolk State University. The lead historian for the project was Jeffrey Acosta an adjunct instructor of U.S. History at Tidewater Community College and vice president of FANHS-HR chapter. “We are thrilled to welcome this exhibit into the library,” said Carrie Cooper, dean of university libraries. “It is especially timely as the university is preparing to mark the 50th anniversary of African-American residential students.”


Following its defeat in the Spanish-American War of 1898, Spain relinquished the control of its colonies located in the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico to the United States at the Treaty of Paris on Dec. 10, 1898. In the following year, Filipino

Published Material: Photos and articles hanging in Swem Library’s Botetourt Gallery convey information about the African-American soldiers serving in the Philippine-American War. Photo by Justin K. Thomas

nationalists under the leadership of Emilio Aguinaldo sought independence from their colonial rulers, according to Francis Tanglao-Aguas, professor of theatre and Asian and Pacific Islander American studies. On February 4, 1899, the U.S. government ordered the U.S. military to conduct combat operations against the Filipino soldiers. According to the U.S. Department of State, the war lasted three years and resulted in the death of over 4,200 American and over 20,000 Filipino combatants with as many as 200,000 Filipino civilians dying SPRING 2017

from violence, disease and famine. According to official records of the Presidio of San Francisco, the military garrison charged with housing companies from black infantry units before deployment to the island nation, many black leaders and black-owned newspapers like the Indianapolis Freeman supported the inclusion of African-American soldiers in the war. However, the records also state that many prominent African-American political activists of that time like Ida B. Wells-Bartlett condemned America’s government as hypocritical 31

NEWS BRIEFS Group photo: Officers and men also called “Buffalo Soldiers” of the U.S. Army’s all-black 9th Calvary Regiment take a group photo prior to deploying from San Francisco to participate in combat operations in the Philippine-American War. Photo courtesy of U.S. Army Center of Military History

for using black soldiers as tools to enlarge its territory. “Negroes should oppose expansion until the government was able to protect the Negro at home,” Wells-Bartlett said in an account to the Cleveland Gazette in January 1899. But according to Acosta, as the war raged on the island, the U.S. Army had to shift its military strategy to face counter-insurgency tactics conducted by Filipino soldiers. The Filipinos fighters used methods like blending in with the civilian populace and directed quick attack skirmishes against patrolling U.S. Army infantry units. Filipino revolutionaries noted the black soldiers’ ability to adapt to the new mission parameters, and therefore the Filipinos had a different opinion of their American adversaries with darker skin, said Acosta. “Filipinos had a mixed view toward African American soldiers based on researched history provided by the accounts of Filipino soldiers and civilians,” he said. “African Americans did not share the racial prejudice of their white counterparts towards Filipinos in that war. But, Filipino soldiers did notice that the black soldiers fighting were at times relentless in their pursuit of Emilio Aguinaldo’s army of the 1st Philippine Republic.” TURNING POINT

Although African-Americans have served in the U.S. military since the Revolutionary War in some form, Acosta noted that 32

the Philippine-American War was quite possibly the critical turning point for future military service of African-Americans. The U.S. Army began to commission black officers from the ranks of the enlisted who had distinguished records. Acosta said that the level of success and aggressiveness of African-American soldiers in the Philippines was dependent on the quality of their leaders. Of those leaders to be commissioned, one later became the U.S. military’s first African-American general officer, said Acosta. “Benjamin O. Davis Sr. was one of these men,” he said. “Davis Sr. was the first African-American promoted to the rank of major general in the history of the United States Army. His son, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. went on to become an officer in the U.S. Army Air Corps and helped to establish the Tuskegee Airmen who flew and fought with distinction during World War II. Davis Jr. retired at the rank of lieutenant general in the U.S. Air Force in 1965, but was advanced to full general by former President Bill Clinton in 1998.” However, if it had not been for influential black journalists and African-American newspapers such as The Richmond Planet, the world may have never known more about the Buffalo Soldiers’ sacrifices and contributions to U.S. and Filipino history, according to Acosta. “The hardest part of our research was identifying African-American WORLD MINDED

soldiers from Virginia who fought in this war,” he said. “But if it had not been for John Mitchell, Jr., the publisher of the Planet who published letters written to his newspaper by black soldiers serving in the U.S. Army during the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars, we may have never known what truly went on. The hunt for and locating of primary and secondary source materials concerning Americans and Filipinos who participated in the Philippine-American War was the most rewarding aspect of this project.” Acosta stated that all soldiers of the six all-black regiments serving in the Philippines came from every state in the union, but he pointed out that Captain William A. Hankins, Private Rienzi Lemus, and chief musician Walter H. Loving came from Virginia and helped set the bar for future black soldiers to achieve. “Lemus became a prominent African American labor leader as the president of the Brotherhood of Dining-Car Employees and co-leader of Dining Car Cooks and Waiters Association after he left the army,” he said. “Hankins went on to become the co-founder of the all-African American Mechanics Savings Bank of Richmond, Virginia in 1901. And Loving helped organized the Philippine Constabulary Band that went on to tour the world.” Tanglao-Aguas believes that the exhibit will help bring light to the experience of African-Americans during the war, which is often overlooked in the American narrative. “Seeing that Buffalo Soldiers were used in helping to grow the very same nation that did not even treat them with equal protection under the law is worth examining, particularly at this current moment when we see the leveraging or weighing of American citizenship based on religion, race or nationality,” “This analysis is at the forefront of what we explore with our students in Asian & Pacific Islander American studies, as well as Africana studies.”

The world awaits.. STUDY ABROAD PROGRAMS offered by the GLOBAL EDUCATION OFFICE (GEO) Summer Faculty-Led Programs:

W&M-Sponsored Semester Programs:

Australia: Adelaide Antigua

Argentina: La Plata

Czech Republic: Prague (Area Studies & Performing Arts)

France: Montpellier

China: Beijing

England: Cambridge France: Montpellier Germany: Potsdam

England: Oxford Spain: Seville

Undergraduate Exchange Programs:

Greece: Athens/Nafplio India: Bengaluru/Goa

Singapore & Hong Kong* Scotland: Glasgow & Edinburgh** Ireland: Dublin* Ireland: Galway Italy: Florence Italy: Rome/Pompeii Russia: St. Petersburg South Africa: Cape Town Spain: Cádiz Spain: Santiago de Compostela * Program in collaboration with the Raymond A. Mason School of Business ** Program in collaboration with the School of Education

Australia: University of Adelaide

Austria: Vienna University of Economics & Business Canada: McGill University

China: Tsinghua University

England: University of Exeter

England: Manchester Business School England: University of Nottingham

France: L’institut d’Études Politiques de Lille

France: Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier III Japan: Akita International University Japan: Kanazawa University Japan: Keio University

Netherlands: Leiden University

Scotland: University of St Andrews

Singapore: National University of Singapore South Korea: Yonsei University Wales: Cardiff University





200 South Boundar y Street Williamsburg, VA, 23185 Telephone: 757-221-3590 Fax: 757-221-3597


Global Business English Program W W W. W M . E D U / R E V E S / P R E M B A


The 4-week Intensive Global Business English Program at William & Mary offers a unique opportunity to prepare you for success in your US MBA Program. PROGRAM DETAILS

July 5, 2017 - August 4, 2017 Mason School of Business William & Mary Williamsburg, VA USA CONTACT 01 757 221 1279


• Business English: Advanced English for the business environment • Lectures on business topics by W&M Mason School of Business faculty • Conversation partner program with US students • Focused workshops: US business etiquette, career management, and personal branding


$4500 includes: • Tuition • Materials • Business Site Visits • Cultural Trips REGISTER

Deadline: June 1, 2017 Register online:

• Experiential Fridays: Site visits to regional firms and companies

World Minded Spring 2017  

Publication of the Reves Center for International Studies at William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia,